# Elementary sentence example

elementary

- The elementary education of the convicts' children is compulsory.
- There are words for the elementary numbers, one, two, three; but " four " is usually expressed by " two-two."
- A more difficult question was that of religious education in the public elementary schools.
- She'd known Evelyn since they were in elementary school, and she'd been renting a room from her for the past two years since graduating high school.
- The elementary unit of plant structure, as of animal structure, is the cell.Advertisement
- After the first year or so of elementary work she met her pupil on equal terms, and they read and enjoyed good books together.
- In 1901-1902 only 65% out of the whole number of children between six and nine years of age were registered in the lower standards of the elementary and private schools.
- The children were all elementary age, their dismembered bodies nothing but carnage.
- By signs she made me understand that she wished another story, and I gave her a book containing very short stories, written in the most elementary style.
- The first law affirms that every body, so far as it is altogether unaffected by extraneous causes, always perseveres in the same state of motion or of rest; and the second law that simple or elementary motion is always in a straight line.'Advertisement
- Can any one doubt after reading these questions that the child who was capable of asking them was also capable of understanding at least their elementary answers?
- In the neighbourhood is a model village, with an elementary school, an industrial school for whites, a hospital and a church, maintained by Mr Vanderbilt.
- Examples of such bodies are the Society for Elementary Instruction the Polytechnic Association, the Philotechnic Association and the French Union of the Young at Paris; the Philomathic Society of Bordeaux; the Popular Education Society at Havre; the Rhone Society of Pro-, fessional Instruction at Lyons; the Industrial Society of Amiens and others.
- Both elementary day schools and continuation schools are in many cases provided with gardens in which horticultural teaching is given.
- In the modern doctrine of evolution the cosmic system appears as a natural product of elementary matter and its laws.Advertisement
- The subjects I offered were Elementary and Advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman history, making nine hours in all.
- It has a town hall with handsome rooms, a library, a gymnasium, a lyceum, elementary schools, an arsenal, and eleven churches, the finest of which is St Martin's, of the 15th century, with many excellent paintings and a tower 300 ft.
- His parents removed to Norwich where he attended an elementary school and evening classes.
- Having received his elementary education at the monastery of Monte Cassino, he studied for six years at the university of Naples, leaving it in his-sixteenth year.
- Regimental schools impart elementary education to illiterate soldiers.Advertisement
- The suffrage is extended to all citizens over twenty-one years of age who can read and write and have either attained a certain standard of elementary education or are qualified by paying a rent which varies from 6 in communes of 2500 inhabitants to 16 in communes of 15p,ooo inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, I6s.
- It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.
- His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
- We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
- The subjects I offered were elementary and advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman History.Advertisement
- He was the author of two text-books on them - one an Elementary Treatise on Quaternions (1867), written with the advice of Hamilton, though not published till after his death, and the other an Introduction to Quaternions (1873), in which he was aided by Professor Philip Kelland (1808-1879), who had been one of his teachers at Edinburgh.
- The former category comprises the maintenance of provincial roads, bridges and watercourse embankments;, secondary education, whenever this is n.ot provided for by private, institutions or by the state (elementary education being maintained by the communes), and the maintenance of foundlings and pauper lunatics.
- Thus: Infant Asylums Daily Elementary Schools (Public and Private).
- On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.
- MacTaggart (Studies in Hegelian Dialectic) contends that direct contradiction is confined to the elementary portions of Hegel's Logic: but he does not deny its existence there, though his interpretation, could one accept it, softens the paradox.Advertisement
- Gregory wrote Hints for the Use of Teachers of Elementary Mathematics (1840, new edition 1853), and Mathematics for Practical Men (1825), which was revised and enlarged by Henry Law in 1848, and again by J.
- Cornelia P. Spencer, First Steps in North Carolina History (6th ed., Raleigh, 1893), is a brief elementary book written for use in the public schools.
- Blanford, Elementary Geography of India, Burma, and Ceylon (London, 1890); Guide to the Climate and Weather of India (London, 1889); Lord Dunmore, The Pamirs (London, 1892); A.
- There were also elementary schools, and municipal foundations in which Latin was taught, in the dominions of the Order.
- Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902.Advertisement
- educated in elementary schools to the age of 14.
- Public primary schools include (1) icoles maternellesinfant schools for children from two to six years old; (2) elementary primary schoolsthese are the ordinary schools for children from six to thirteen; (3) higher primary schools (coles primaires suprieures) and supplementary courses; these admit pupils who have gained the certificate of primary elementary studies (cerlificat diludes primaires), offer a more advanced course and prepare for technical instruction; (4) primary technical schools (coles manuelles dapprenlissage, coles primaires suprleures professionnelles) kept by the communes or departments.
- Boveri in fact has put forward the view that the chromosomes are elementary units which maintain an organic continuity and independent existence in the cell.
- George Airy was educated first at elementary schools in Hereford, and afterwards at Colchester Grammar School.
- Bonaparte signalized his tenure of power by no very important developments in the sphere of elementary education.Advertisement
- He was not well grounded in any of the elementary branches, which are essential to university studies and to all success in their prosecution.
- The elementary composition of sugar and alcohol was fixed in 1815 by analyses made by GayLussac, Thenard and de Saussure.
- His first appointment was as elementary mathematical master at the gymnasium and lyceum of Cremona, and he afterwards obtained a similar post at Milan.
- The " moule interieur " of Buffon is the aggregate of elementary parts which constitute the individual, and is thus the equivalent of Bonnet's germ, as defined in the passage cited above.
- Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.Advertisement
- The former of these were designed for the completion of the training of the most promising pupils in the communal elementary schools, and were left to local control or even to management by private individuals.
- A second inconsistency was presented when he was compelled by the researches of Dumas to admit Avogadro's hypothesis; but here he would only accept it for the elementary gases, and denied it for other substances.
- Terminology And Elementary Principles In what follows the C.G.S.
- Beare, Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition (1906); L.
- Dalton believed that the molecules of the elementary gases consisted each of one atom; his diagram for hydrogen gas makes the point clear.Advertisement
- Fleming, An Elementary Manual of Radiotelegraphy and Radio-telephony (1908); H.
- Infant asylums (where the first rudiments of instruction are imparted to children between two and a half and six years of age) and elementary schools have increased in number.
- The elementary parts of existence are the minima, or monads, which are at once material and mental.
- Bonnet affirms that, before fecundation, the hen's egg contains an excessively minute but complete chick; and that fecundation and incubation simply cause this germ to absorb nutritious matters, which are deposited in the interstices of the elementary structures of which the miniature chick, or germ, is made up.
- He wrote an admirable textbook of the Theory of Heat (1871), and a very excellent elementary treatise on Matter and Motion (1876).
- In 1758 he obtained a more congenial congregation at Nantwich, where he opened a school at which the elementary lessons were varied with experiments in natural philosophy.
- The first day I had Elementary Greek and Advanced Latin, and the second day Geometry, Algebra and Advanced Greek.
- Elementary, of two grades, of the lower of which there must legally be at least one for boys and one for girls in each commune; while the upper grade elementary school is required in communes having normal and secondary schools or over 4000 inhabitants.
- 18, 23) and elementary spirits (ii 8, 20).
- The number of scholars in the elementary schools for1901-1902was 59.09 per loon (Calabria 42.27, Tuscany 67 09, Piedmont 118.00); the teachers are 1.34 per woo, a total of 1084 of both sexes (among whom only one priest) (Calabria 1.18, Tuscany I 29, Piedmont 2.
- Phillips, 1896); A Brief Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus (1897); The Nature of Capital and Income (1906); The Rate of Interest 0907); National Vitality (1909); The Purchasing Power of Money (1911); Elementary Principles of Economics (1913); Why is the Dollar Shrinking?
- The law of 1877 rendering education compulsory for children between six and nine years of age has been the principal cause of the spread of elementary education.
- Hinsdale's History and Civil Government of Ohio (Chicago, 1896) is more elementary.
- Education is compulsory, the elementary schools being communal, assisted by state grants.
- Here the young Marsilio received his elementary education in grammar and Latin literature at the high school or studio pubblico.
- Dana of Columbia College the elementary facts of electromagnetism.
- Thus the whole method of measurement in geometry as described in the elementary textbooks and the older treatises is obscure to the last degree.
- The government supports elementary free schools, controlled by a nominated board of education, while committees partly elected exercise local supervision.
- The college has departments for arts, pure and applied science and technology, medicine, public health, music, and for the training of men and women teachers for elementary and secondary schools.
- Dodgson periodically published mathematical works - An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (1867); Euclid, Book V., proved Algebraically (1874); Euclid and his Modern Rivals (1879), the work on which his reputation as a mathematician largely rests; and Curiosa Mathematica (1888).
- From this formula we obtain by elementary algebra 1) !
- We write frequently 0 = alla22a33ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ann = (ana22a33ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ann)ï¿½ If the first two columns of the determinant be transposed the ' The elementary theory is given in the article Determinant.
- +ax n, al, a2, ...an are called the elementary symmetric functions.
- ) j1+j2+j3+..ï¿½ (J1+ j2 +j3+...-1)!/T1)?1(J2)72 (J 3)/3..., j11j2!j3!... ?.1 for the expression of Za n in terms of products of symmetric functions symbolized by separations of (n 1 1n 2 2n 3 3) Let (n) a, (n) x, (n) X denote the sums of the n th powers of quantities whose elementary symmetric functions are a l, a 2, a31ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½; x 1, x2, x31..; X1, X2, X3,...
- The elementary functions are denoted by (1), (12), (13), ...
- The sum of the monomial functions of a given weight is called the homogeneous-product-sum or complete symmetric function of that weight; it is denoted by h.; it is connected with the elementary functions by the formula 1 7r1l7r2!7r3!
- so that f (al, a 3, a3,.ï¿½.an) =f, a rational integral function of the elementary functions, is converted into f(a1 +12, a2+ p a1,...
- by the same law which expresses the power function s, in terms of the elementary functions a 1, a2, a3,...
- The partitions with one bipart correspond to the sums of powers in the single system or unipartite theory; they are readily expressed in terms of the elementary functions.
- in terms of elementary functions can be at once written down.
- which expresses the elementary functions in terms of the single bipart functions.
- When 0=4 it is clear that no form, whose partition contains a part 3, can be reduced; but every form, whose partition is composed of the parts 4 and 2, is by elementary algebra reducible by means of perpetuants of degree 2.
- Terminology and Elementary Principles.
- The second includes definitions of technical terms in common use, together with so much of the elementary theory as is necessary for understanding the experimental work described in subsequent portions of the article; a number of formulae and results are given for purposes of reference, but the mathematical reasoning by which they are obtained is not generally detailed, authorities being cited whenever the demonstrations are not likely to be found in ordinary textbooks.
- A wire or rod in this condition is said to be circularly magnetized; it may be regarded as consisting of an indefinite number of elementary ring-magnets, having their axes coincident with the axis of the wire and their planes at right angles to it.
- A magnet may be regarded as consisting of an infinite number of elementary magnets, each having a pair of poles and a definite magnetic moment.
- For the elementary theory of the magnetic circuit see ELECTxoMAGNETISM.
- Education other than elementary is controlled by the Union government.
- Public schools, and private schools aided by provincial grants provide elementary education for white children.
- The state provides elementary and higher grade schools for Indian children.
- The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.
- In 1809 he proved the elementary character of columbium (niobium) and titanium.
- He was the son of a tailor; and the slight elementary instruction he obtained at the free school of his native town was supplemented by his own private reading.
- The communes or parishes are bound to maintain elementary schools, and they are entitled to levy an additional tax of 5% on the state taxes for their maintenance.
- In 1902 there were in Hungary 18,729 elementary schools with 32,020 teachers, attended by 2,573,377 pupils, figures which compare favourably with those of 1877, when there were 15,486 schools with 20,717 teachers, attended by 1,559,636 pupils.
- The theory of sequences and series is sometimes treated as a part of elementary algebra; but it is more convenient to regard the simpler cases as isolated examples, leading up to the general theory.
- In the present article, therefore, the main portions of elementary algebra are treated in one section, without reference to these ideas, which are considered generally in two separate sections.
- - The equation exists, without being shown as an equation, in all those elementary arithmetical processes which come under the head of inverse operations; i.e.
- It is part of the general theory of quantitative relation, and in its elementary stages is a suitable subject for graphical treatment (ï¿½ 31).
- The elementary use of graphic methods is qualitative rather than quantitative; i.e.
- Elementary Algebra of Positive Numbers.
- These, with (A - a)2= A 2 -2Aa+a 2, are the most important in elementary work.
- The idea is utilized in the elementary consideration :of a differential coefficient; and its importation into the treatment of certain functions as continuous is therefore properly associated with the infinitesimal calculus.
- The elementary idea of a differential coefficient is useful in reference to the logarithmic and exponential series.
- The more simple properties, however, only require the use of elementary methods.
- We imagine a wave-front divided o x Q into elementary rings or zones - often named after Huygens, but better after Fresnelby spheres described round P (the point at which the aggregate effect is to be estimated), the first sphere, touching the plane at 0, with a radius equal to PO, and the succeeding spheres with radii increasing at each step by IX.
- If, however, we assume the theory of a simple rectangular aperture (§ 3); the results of the ruling can be inferred by elementary methods, which are perhaps more instructive.
- For example, when the direction is such that the projection of AB upon it amounts to one wave-length, the elementary components neutralize one another, because their phases are distributed symmetrically, though discontinuously, round the entire period.
- But, without entering upon matters of this kind, we may inquire in what manner a primary wave may be resolved into elementary secondary waves, and in particular as to the law of intensity and polarization in a secondary wave as dependent upon its direction of propagation, and upon the character as regards polarization of the primary wave.
- The control of elementary education was guaranteed to the provincial council for a period of five years from the establishment of the Union.
- Since 1910 education other than elementary is under the control of the Union parliament.
- The provincial council is responsible for elementary education.
- In accordance with the terms of the Education Act of 1907 of the Transvaal colony, state schools are provided for the free instruction of all white children in elementary subjects.
- In 1909 there were 670 government elementary schools, with more than 42,000 scholars.
- This party instituted an elementary form of government, and in 1840 entered into a loose confederation with the Natal Boers, and also with the Boers south of the Vaal, whose headquarters were at Winburg.
- At the various churches such elementary schools as existed were to be found, but they did not profess to teach more than a smattering of the three " R's " and the principles of Christianity.
- Another very characteristic garment suggests an original loin-cloth considerably longer than the elementary article which was noticed above.
- Hence the elementary arc divided by the element of time is the rate of change of velocity of the moving-point, or in other words, the velocity in the hodograph is the acceleration in the orbit.
- In drugs were to be recognized the same elementary qualities - hot, cold, moist, dry, &c. - as in the human body; and, on the principle of curing by contraries, the use of one or other was indicated.
- To meet my the demand for elementary education, increasing as it did education.
- The total number of public elementary schools was 963 in 1905, with 752,487 scholars on the register.
- Other institutions include higher elementary schools for pupils certified to be able to profit by higher instruction; and schools for blind, deaf and defective children.
- County Council on education for1907-1908was £4,281,291 for elementary education, and £742,962 for higher education.
- These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.
- The government maintains elementary andytechnical schools.
- The kinetic energy of the liquid inside a surface S due to the velocity function 4' f i (s given by T=2p + (d) 2+ (t) dxdydz, pff f 75 4 dS (I) by Green's transformation, dv denoting an elementary step along the normal to the exterior of the surface; so that d4ldv = o over the surface makes T = o, and then (d4 2 d4) 2 'x) + (dy) + (= O, dd?
- ,In a fluid, the circulation round an elementary area dxdy is equal to dv du udx + (v+dx) dy- (u+dy) dx-vdy= () dxdy, so that the component spin is dv du (5) 2 dx - dy) in the previous notation of § 24; so also for the other two components and n.
- The most elementary of these groups is the maegth, the association of agnatic and cognatic relations.
- There are 22 public elementary schools for boys and 18 for girls (education being compulsory and gratuitous), with about 20,000 pupils, and 56 private schools with 5700 pupils.
- The principal buildings are the parish church of St Thomas (restored 1874), the church of St David (r866), a Roman Catholic church, and Baptist, Calvinistic, Methodist, Congregational and Wesleyan chapels; the intermediate and technical schools (1895), Davies's endowed (elementary) school (1789), the Gwyn Hall (1888), the town hall, with corn exchange in the basement storey, and the market-house.
- The primary schools are divided into two grades: a free elementary course of two years, and a higher course of three years, in a school called the " scholastic centre," in which learning a trade is included.
- There were 1508 elementary schools and 862 scholastic centres in 1906.
- sulphurous, phosphoric, carbonic, &c., should be regarded as elementary substances.
- Elementary school education (4 years' teaching) is not yet compulsory.
- It can be shown that the resultant electric force normal to the surface at a point just outside a conductor is 1 See Maxwell, Elementary Treatise on Electricity (Oxford, 1881), P. 47.
- Maxwell (Elementary Treatise, &c., p. 15) ingeniously applied this fact to the insulation of conductors.
- 21rry/dx units, and the potential V at a point on the axis at a distance x from the annulus due to this elementary charge is ll2 2?rrc V=2 j o (r2+x2) dx=47rrvj log e (2l+1,/ r2 +412 ') - loge'} If, then, r is small compared with 1, we have V =47rry log e llr.
- In any case, therefore, in which we can sum up the elementary potentials at any point we can calculate the resultant electric force at the same point.
- The student will find it to be a great advantage to read through Faraday's three volumes entitled Experimental Researches on Electricity, as soon as he has mastered some modern elementary book giving in compact form a general account of electrical phenomena.
- Clerk Maxwell, Elementary Treatise on Electricity (Oxford, 1881); J.
- Porter, Elementary Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (London, 1903); S.
- P. Thompson, Elementary Lessons on Electricity and Magnetism (London, 1903).
- When these elementary books have been digested, the advanced student may proceed to study the following: J.
- He was a strenuous advocate of ecclesiastical control in elementary education, and an opponent of the new school of higher biblical criticism, though so far an evolutionist as to believe in growth and development as applied to the history of nations.
- 1901) that Caesarius used the creed continually as a sort of elementary catechism.
- There were, in 1906, 98 elementary day schools, and 33 night schools.
- Its elementary nature was imperfectly understood; and the impure specimens obtained by the early chemists explain, in some measure, its confusion with tin, lead, antimony, zinc and other metals; in 1595 Andreas Libavius confused it with antimony, and in 1675 Nicolas Lemery with zinc. These obscurities began to be finally cleared up with the researches of Johann Heinrich Pott (1692-1777), a pupil of Stahl, published in his Exercitationes chemicae de Wismutho (1769), and of N.
- Of his early life nothing is recorded except that, notwithstanding the early loss of his father, he obtained a good elementary education, first at Hussinecz, and afterwards at the neighbouring town of Prachaticz.
- 1875); Examples of Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions (1858, 3rd ed., 1873); Mechanics (1867), History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability from the Time of Pascal to that of Lagrange (1865); Researches in the Calculus of Variations (1871); History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and Figure of the Earth from Newton to Laplace (1873); Elementary Treatise on Laplace's, Lame's and Bessel's Functions (1875); Natural Philosophy for Beginners (1877).
- It is true that in some modern developments of idealism the ultimate reality is conceived of in an impersonal way, but it is usually added that this ultimate or absolute being is not something lower but higher than self-conscious personality, including it as a more fully developed form may be said to include a more elementary.
- Harris has said that " The history of education since the time of Horace Mann is very largely an account of the successive modifications introduced into elementary schools through the direct or indirect influence of the normal school."
- If corporeal, he must be simple or compound; if a simple and elementary substance, he is incapable of life and thought; if compound, he contains in himself the elements of dissolution.
- Up to a certain point, formulae of practical importance can be obtained by the use of elementary arithmetical or geometrical methods.
- These investigations lead, in turn, to further formulae, which, though not obtainable by elementary methods, are nevertheless simple in themselves and of practical utility.
- If these are included in the description " mensuration," the subject thus consists of two heterogeneous portions - elementary mensuration, comprising methods and results, and advanced mensuration, comprising certain results intended for practical application.
- The first group comprises such subjects as land-surveying; here the measurements in the elementary stages take place in a plane, and the consideration of volumes necessarily constitutes a later stage; and the figures to be measured are mostly not movable, so that triangulation plays an important part.
- As a result of the importance both of the formulae obtained by elementary methods and of those which have involved the previous use of analysis, there is a tendency to dissociate the former, like the latter, from the methods by which they have been obtained, and to regard mensuration as consisting of those mathematical formulae which are concerned with the measurement of geometrical magnitudes (including lengths), or, in a slightly wider sense, as being the art of applying these formulae to specific cases.
- The main object to be aimed at, therefore, in the study of elementary mensuration, is that the student should realize the possibility of the numerical expression of areas and volumes.
- The most elementary stage is arithmetical mensuration, which comprises the measurement of the areas of rectangles and parallelepipeds.
- Elementary trigonometrical.
- The ideas of the centre and of the constancy of the radius do not, however, enter into the elementary conception of the circle as a round figure.
- This elementary conception is of the figure as already existing, rather than of its method of description; the test of circularity being the possibility of rotation within a surrounding figure so as to keep the two boundaries always completely in contact.
- The expression 27ra for the length of the circumference can be deduced by considering the limit of the area cut off from a circle of radius a by a concentric circle of radius a - a, when a becomes indefinitely small; this is an elementary case of differentiation.
- The first moment of a plane figure with regard to a line in its plane may be regarded as obtained by dividing the area into elementary strips by a series of parallel lines indefinitely close together, and concentrating the area of each strip at its centre.
- Similarly the first moment of a solid figure may be regarded as obtained by dividing the figure into elementary prisms by two sets of parallel planes, and concentrating the volume of each prism at its centre.
- This also holds for higher moments, provided that the edges of the elementary strips or prisms are parallel to the line or plane with regard to which the moments are taken.
- - For elementary mensuration the ellipse is to be regarded as obtained by projection of the circle, and the ellipsoid by projection of the sphere.
- In elementary geometry we deal with lines and curves, while in mensuration we deal with areas bounded by these lines or curves.
- Other works on elementary mensuration are G.
- Chivers, Elementary Mensuration (1904); R.
- Edwards, Elementary Plane and Solid Mensuration (1902); William H.
- Jackson, Elementary Solid Geometry (1907); P. A.
- His elder son, Comte Henri Georges Boulay De La Meurthe (1797-1858), was a constant Bonapartist, and after the election of Louis Napoleon to the presidency, was named (January 1849) vice-president of the republic. He zealously promoted popular education, and became in 1842 president of the society for elementary instruction.
- The first school was established by the Dutch at New Amsterdam (now New York City) as early as 1633, and at the close of the Dutch period there was a free elementary school in nearly every settlement.
- This act appropriated £ 20,000 annually for five years for the establishment and maintenance of elementary schools, required each city and town to raise by taxation a sum for the same purpose equal to onehalf of its share from the proceeds of the state fund, and provided for the election of school commissioners in each town and of trustees of each school.
- The commissioner (subject to approval of the regents) appoints three assistant commissioners, for higher, secondary and elementary education respectively.
- The elementary school is administered by a school commissioner in each of the school commissioner's districts into which a county may be divided, by one trustee or three trustees in.
- In a city of the first or second class every boy between fourteen and sixteen years of age who has an employment certificate, but has not completed the course of study prescribed for the elementary public schools or the equivalent, must attend an evening school not less than six hours each week for a period of not less than sixteen weeks each year, or a trade school not less than eight hours a week for sixteen weeks a year.
- By a law of 1908 the board of education of any city is authorized to establish industrial schools for children who have completed the elementary school course or have attained the age of fourteen years, and trade schools for children who are more than sixteen years old and have completed the elementary school course or a course offered by any of the industrial schools.
- For the training of teachers for the elementary schools the state maintains ten normal schools at Oswego (1863), Cortland (1866), Fredonia (1866), Potsdam (1866), Geneseo (1867), Brockport (1867), Buffalo (1867), New Paltz (1885), Oneonta (1887) and Plattsburg (1890); it also appropriates $700 annually for each teachers' training class in about one hundred of the secondary schools.
- Although the Latin in some instances differs from that of the purest models, the work was for a long time a favourite elementary school-book.
- This body very largely determines the course of study in the elementary schools, high schools, normal school and the normal departments of the University and the State College, approves the requirements for entrance to the University and the State College, and prepares the questions for the examination of teachers.
- Elementary Theory of Pipes.
- Elementary Theory of the Transverse Vibration of Musical Strings.
- We cannot investigate the vibrations in an elementary manner.
- Thomson, Sound (5th ed., 1909), contains a descriptive account of the chief phenomena, and an elementary mathematical treatment.
- Education is provided for at the university of Strassburg, in 21 classical and pro-classical schools, in 18 modern schools, and in nearly 4000 elementary schools.
- The control of elementary education was guaranteed to the council for a period of five years following the establishment of the Union.
- Elementary education is administered by the provincial council, assisted by a permanent director of education.
- In December 1836 the emigrants beyond the Orange drew up in general assembly an elementary republican form of government.
- For an elementary account of the theory of arches, hinged or not, reference may be made to a joint by more than one-eighteenth of its depth.
- - The organization of the Austrian elementary schools was based on the principle of compulsory school attendance, free education, and the imparting of public instruction in the child's own language.
- The proportion of children attending private schools to those attending the public elementary schools in 1912 was 144,000 to 4.5 millions, i.e.
- The elementary schools in Hungary were a State concern and a means of Magyarization, whereas in Austria their direction was left by the State to the nationalities.
- The number of elementary schools increased from 19,016 in two to 24,713 in 1913; the number of scholars from 3,49 0, 000 in 1900 to 4,630,000 in 1913.
- Again, it works zealously to bring the elementary schools under the sway of the Church.
- At St Bartholomew's, St George's, the London Hospital, St Thomas's and others, probationers must enter for four years, and at St Bartholomew's they have to pass an entrance examination in elementary anatomy, physiology and other subjects.
- In the years1880-1881Lord Selborne wrote to his son a series of letters on religious subjects, dealing in an elementary way with natural and revealed religion, the inspiration of the Bible and Biblical criticism.
- Mention may also be made of his Elementary Greek Accidence and Lex Rex, a list of cognate words in Greek, Latin and English.
- As in Burma, the Buddhist monasteries scattered throughout the country carry on almost the whole of the elementary education in the rural districts.
- Calcium oxide or lime has been known from a very remote period, and was for a long time considered to be an elementary or undecomposable earth.
- They reformed the judicature, introduced elementary education for the natives, and abolished slavery in Java as from the 1st of January 1860.
- In Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia the standard of education - elementary, higher and technical - is excellent, and there are practically no illiterates - a state of affairs attributable to the interest which the Czech nation (imbued with the traditions of Comenius) had ever taken in education.
- The Czechoslovak Government, between 1918 and 1921, set up some 2,000 additional elementary and some 40 higher schools in Slovakia and Russinia (including 80 new German schools), so that a vast improvement in the educational status of those countries is only a matter of time.
- Since it came into being the republic had by 1921 founded 13 new agricultural schools, and in all there were 180 agricultural and forestry schools (higher and elementary), including the so-called " winter schools," while more than 50 periodicals appeared regularly for the technical instruction of those engaged in agriculture.
- iv., ad fin., 1905); Beare, Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition; G.
- In July 1801, under the consulate, there were two courses, (r) nine to twelve, - elementary knowledge, including elements of Latin; (2) above twelve, - a higher course, with two alternatives, " humanistic " studies for the " civil," and purely practical studies for the " military " section.
- Among classical teachers an increasing number would prefer a longer course extending over six years for Latin, and at least three for Greek, and some of these would assign to the elementary school the first two of the proposed six years of Latin study.
- The Mathesis universalis, a more elementary work, contains copious dissertations on fundamental points of algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and critical remarks.
- The best elementary work on the history of Algeria is that of Cat, Petite histoire de l'Algerie (Algiers, 1889).
- In 1851 Mr Spottiswoode published in the form of a pamphlet an account of some elementary theorems on the subject.
- To this, the first elementary treatise on determinants, much of the rapid development of the subject is due.
- 17-26), they form the oldest legislation of the Hebrews that we possess; they consist principally of civil ordinances, suited to regulate the life of a community living under simple conditions of society, and chiefly occupied in agriculture, but partly also of elementary regulations respecting religious observances (altars, sacrifices, festivals, &c.).
- dicta of the Reformers challenging traditional opinions on the origin and character of the Old Testament; in the 17th century, among certain isolated scholars, elementary critical surveys of the whole field, which exercised, however, no C r extensive influence.
- His father, William George, a Welshman of yeoman stock, had left Pembrokeshire for London at an early age and became a school teacher there, and afterwards in Liverpool and Haverfordwest, and then headmaster of an elementary school at Pwllheli, Carnarvonshire, where he married the daughter of David Lloyd, a neighbouring Baptist minister.
- Soon afterwards William George became headmaster of an elementary school in Manchester, but after the birth of his eldest son David his health failed, and he gave up his post and took a small farm near Haverfordwest.
- They are almost exclusively of German stock and are Roman Catholics, Elementary education is much more advanced here than in any other Alpine province.
- (arithmetic) elementary lessons on the notation of decimal fractions.
- In 1891 elementary education was reorganized, and made compulsory, secular and gratuitous.
- The last work contains an elementary treatment of Sellmeier's theory.
- But many of the directions are much too serious and fundamental to have been given in this form; one can hardly imagine that Paul considered Timothy (or Titus) still in need of elementary advice and warning upon such matters, and especially on personal purity.
- When they are regarded as typical figures of the later episcopi of the Church, the point of this emphasis upon elementary principles and duties is at once clear; they outline graphically the qualifications for the church offices in question.
- See also Denotation; and any text-books on elementary logic, e.g.
- Reference should be made to the article Geometry: Euclidean, for a detailed summary of the Euclidean treatment, and the elementary properties of the circle.
- John Casey, professor of mathematics at the Catholic university of Dublin, has given elementary demonstrations founded on the theory of similitude and coaxal circles which are reproduced in his Sequel to Euclid; an analytical solution by Gergonne is given in Salmon's Conic Sections.
- the housing of the working classes, the improvement of towns, and elementary and secondary education.
- form an "elementary introduction," i.e.
- In connexion with the public elementary schools throughout Canada, where the principles of agriculture are taught to some extent, manual training centres, provided out of funds supplied by the same public-spirited donor, are now maintained by local and provincial public school authorities.
- In all the provinces elementary, and in some cases secondary, education is free, the funds for its support being derived from local taxation and from government grants.
- SIR WILFRID LAURIER (1841-), Canadian statesman, was born on the 10th of November 1841, at St Lin in the province of Quebec. The child of French Roman Catholic parents, he attended the elementary school of his native parish and for eight or nine months was a pupil of the Protestant elementary school at New Glasgow in order to learn English; his association with the Presbyterian family with whom he lived during this period had a permanent influence on his mind.
- Their proposers do not take even elementary precautions to be right.
- The simple bodies which are the matter of the rest are not terrestrial earth, water, air, fire, and a different celestial aether, but whatever elementary bodies natural science, starting anew from mechanics and chemistry, may determine to be the matter of all other bodies whatever.
- Compounds generally show spectra of resolvable bands, and if an elementary body shows a spectrum of the same type we are probably justified in assuming it to be due to a complex molecule.
- He facilitated this awkward transition by adding to Kant's a priori forms of space and time an " a priori form of alternative causality," or, as he also called it, " an intuition of causality involved in the elementary exercise of perception," which is the key to his whole philosophy.
- Such general statements of the theory of motion as that of Lagrange, while releasing us from the rather narrow and strained view of the subject presented by detailed analysis of motion in terms of force, have also suggested a search for other forms which a statement of elementary principles might equally take as the foundation of a logical scheme.
- Now by elementary algebra we know that if the number of independent equations be equal to the number of unknown quantities all the unknown quantities can be determined, and can possess each one value only.
- They are regulated by the Children Act 1908, which repealed the Industrial Schools Act 1866, as amended by Acts of 1872,1891 and 1901, and parallel legislation in the various Elementary Education Acts, besides some few local acts.
- More generally, philosophic rationalism is opposed to empirical theories of knowledge, inasmuch as it regards all true knowledge as deriving deductively from fundamental elementary concepts.
- Deformed and constitutionally feeble, he received his elementary education from a tutor, and left home only when sufficiently advanced to enter upon a course of philosophy at the College de la Marche, and subsequently to study theology at the Sorbonne.
- Besides the regular elementary schools there are the Perth Academy (1807) with which was subsequently amalgamated the Burgh Grammar.
- Thus he distrusted, and probably never fully accepted, Gay-Lussac's conclusions as to the combining volumes of gases; he held peculiar and quite unfounded views about chlorine, even after its elementary character had been settled by Davy; he persisted in using the atomic weights he himself had adopted, even when they had been superseded by the more accurate determinations of other chemists; and he always objected to the chemical notation devised by J.
- Laws were first enacted against private schools, then against elementary schools, and in1906-1907measures were passed which practically closed all mission schools.
- The only geometry known to the Egyptian priests was that of surfaces, together with a sketch of that of solids, a geometry consisting of some simple quadratures and elementary cubatures, which they had obtained empirically.
- He was undoubtedly a clear-sighted and able mathematician, who handled admirably the severe geometrical method, and who in his Method of Tangents approximated to the course of reasoning by which Newton was afterwards led to the doctrine of ultimate ratios; but his substantial contributions to the science are of no great importance, and his lectures upon elementary principles do not throw much light on the difficulties surrounding the border-land between mathematics and philosophy.
- Nature-study, continued in the secondary schools, is an essential part in the curriculum of these schools, and elementary general history, English, French and German are among the optional subjects.
- The isolation of the elementary bodies and the investigation of their properties was one of his favourite pursuits.
- Though all this is elementary to-day, not only was it unknown, indeed unguessed, at the time of the invention of the Bessemer process, but even when, nearly a quarter of a century later, a young English metallurgical chemist, Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850-1885), offered to the British Iron and Steel Institute a paper describing his success in dephosphoriz ing by the Bessemer process with a basic-lined converter and a basic slag, that body rejected it.
- The tufa, sperone and peperino were easy to quarry, and could be employed by those who possessed comparatively elementary tools, while travertine, which came into use later, was an excellent building stone, and the lava (selce) served for paving stones and as material for concrete.
- Elementary instruction is mostly provided by the communal schools.
- 97.) (c) In respect to the third point, the nature, extent and certainty of the elementary propositions of mathematical science, Hume's utterances are far from clear.
- To sum up, it may be said that Hume enunciated the principle that " everything in the world is purchased by labour, and our passions are the only causes of labour "; and further, that, in analysing the complex phenomena of commerce, he is superior sometimes to Adam Smith in that he never forgets that the ultimate causes of economic change are the " customs and manners " of the people, and that the solution of problems is to be sought in the elementary factors of industry.
- It is an elementary introduction to the study of Hebrew, the first of its kind, in which only the most indispensable definitions and rules have a place, the remainder being almost wholly occupied by paradigms. Moses Kimhi was the first who made the verb paqadh a model for conjugation, and the first also who introduced the now usual sequence in the enumeration of stem-forms. His handbook was of great historical importance as in the first half of the 6th century it became the favourite manual for the study of Hebrew among non-Judaic scholars (1st ed., Pesaro, 1508).
- There is a university at Bonn, and elementary education is especially successful.
- A new university was formed at Liege, normal schools for the instruction of teachers were instituted, and numerous elementary schools and schools for higher instruction were established over the country.
- He was even unable, in dealing with the elementary conceptions of geometry, to work out with any consistency the few original thoughts he had, and thus became the easy sport of Wallis.
- Education is general and compulsory throughout the empire, and all the states composing it have, with minor modifications, adopted the Prussian system providing for the establishment of elementary schools Vol ksschulenin every town and village.
- There were also in Germany in the same year 643 private schools, giving instruction similar to that of the elementary schools, with 41,000 pupils.
- She abolished serfdom, granted municipal rights to the cities, established an admirable system of elementary and secondary education, and invited all classes to compete for civil offices; and ample means were provided for the approaching struggle by drastic military reform.
- the control of the church; the universities were remodelled and modernized by the introduction of new faculties, the study of ecclesiastical law being transferred from that of theology to that of jurisprudence, and the elaborate system of elementary and secondary education was established, which survived with slight modification till 1869.
- They demanded, therefore, that all higher schools and universities should remain German, and that so far as possible the elementary schools should be Germanized.
- Beust promised them that there should be a special minister for Galicia, a separate board for Galician education, that Polish should be the language of instruction in all secondary schools, that Polish instead of German should be the official language in the law courts and public offices, Ruthenian being only used in the elementary schools under strict limitations.
- All the schools were under the control of the Church; the bishops could forbid the use of books prejudicial to religion; in elementary schools all teachers were subject to the inspection of the Church, and in higher schools only Roman Catholics could be appointed.
- The law of 1867 required that the education in the elementary schools in the Slav districts should be given in Czech or Slovenian, as the case might be.
- Then not only were a large number of Czech elementary schools founded, but also many middle schools were given to the Czechs, and Czech classes introduced in German schools; and, what affected the Germans most, in 1882 classes in Czech were started in the university of Prague - a desecration, as it seemed, of the oldest German university.
- Upon the completion of unity, elementary schools were founded everywhere; but, though education was free, the indigence of the peasants in some regions prevented them from taking full advantage of the opportunities offered.
- In these latter schools an excellent elementary secular education is given, in addition to the instruction in the Koran, to which half the school hours are devoted.
- (London, 1902), an excellent elementary text-book; D.
- Written records were few at the time when the pantheon was built up, so that the process of construction cannot be followed historically from stage to stage; but it is possible by arguing backwards from the later facts to discern the main tendencies at work, and the principal elementary cults that served as the materials.
- The Academy of Sciences, which had fallen into contempt during his father's reign, he restored, infusing into it vigorous life; and he did more to promote elementary education than any of his predecessors.
- an elementary manual for beginners which should present an outline of the law in a clear and simple form.
- Justinian accordingly directed Tribonian, with two coadjutors, Theophilus, professor of law in the university of Constantinople, and Dorotheus, professor in the great law school at Beyrout, to prepare an elementary textbook on the lines of Gaius.
- As an elementary substance, it is very similar in its physical properties to lead; it resembles lead chemically inasmuch as it forms an almost insoluble chloride and an insoluble iodide.
- After a few years spent at an elementary school, he was apprenticed to a hosier at the age of eleven; He afterwards became successful in business in Nottingham, filled several civic offices, and was known for his philanthropy.
- He rendered valuable service in connexion with the Elementary Education Act of 1870, and the educational code of 1882, which became known as the "Mundella Code," marked a new departure in the regulation of public elementary schools and the conditions of the Government grants.
- 2.3.1 (a) Elementary Schools 2.3.2 (b) Secondary Schools 2.3.3 (c) Universities and Colleges
- Since that date the most important changes effected in the elementary education system were the abolition, in 1886, of individual inspection of the lower standards - afterwards extended to the whole of the standards, the inspectors applying a collective test, the " block-grant " system, to the efficiency of a school - and the abolition of school fees (1889) for the compulsory standards, the loss being made up principally by a parliamentary grant, and partly by a proportion, earmarked for the purpose, of the proceeds of the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act 1890, and the Education and Local Taxation Account (Scotland) Act 1892.
- In 1560 John Knox propounded in his First Book of Discipline a comprehensive scheme of education from elementary to university, but neither this proposal nor an act passed by the privy council in 1616 for the establishment of a school in every parish was carried into effect.
- Budapest possesses an adequate number of elementary and secondary schools, as well as a great number of special and technical schools.
- These powers include direct taxation within the province in order to raise revenue for provincial purposes and the control of municipalities and other local bodies, and of " elementary education " - which embraces all education other than university.
- Having studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg.
- At Woolwich he remained until 1870, and although he was not a great success as an elementary teacher, that period of his life was very rich in mathematical work, which included remarkable advances in the theory of the partition of numbers and further contributions to that of invariants, together with an important research which yielded a proof, hitherto lacking, of Newton's rule for the discovery of imaginary roots for algebraical equations up to and including the fifth degree.
- material culture it had passed through the elementary stages and was a fully established though not, perhaps, a very advanced organism.
- He obtained an elementary education at night school, and worked as a house servant in a family where his ambition for knowledge was encouraged.
- Stephen's Church of England school, Westminster, where he was trained as an elementary schoolmaster; but at the age of 20 he preferred to emigrate to Australia and to make his living as he could until he succeeded in entering political life as a member of the Labour party.
- The form of things is admittedly subjective; the mind endeavours to explain the material of the given in the same terms, an attempt which is not only impossible but involves a denial of the elementary laws of thought.
- Elementary education is improving, but, after Dalmatia, Bukovina still shows the largest number of illiterates in Austria.
- Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be formed, he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to overthrow the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so that they can only combine with a certain limited number of the atoms of other elements.
- His bill for elementary education he regarded as the most important part of the code, but Virginia had no strong middle class, and the planters would not assume the burden of educating the poor.
- Education is confined to most elementary principles in Afghanistan.
- Thus, whereas hitherto the young Greek, having completed his elementary training in the schools of the rypaµµaTcvTi s, the KtOapuTr s, and the 7rat orpi(3ns, was left to prepare himself for his life's work as best he might, by philosophical speculation, by artistic practice, or otherwise, one who passed from the elementary schools to the lecture-room of Protagoras received from him a " higher education."
- Of the two conflicting sentiments, the favour of the young, gaining as years passed away, naturally prevailed; sophistry ceased to be novel, and attendance in the lecture-rooms of the sophists came to be thought not less necessary for the youth than attendance in the elementary schools for the boy.
- That, whereas before the time of Protagoras there was little higher education in the colonies and less in central Greece, after his time attendance in the lecture-rooms of the sophists was the customary sequel to attendance in the elementary schools, is a fact which speaks for itself.
- Now it is true that before 447 B.C., besides the teachers of writing, gymnastics and music, to whom the young Greek resorted for elementary instruction, there were artists and artisans who not only practised their crafts, but also communicated them to apprentices and pupils, and that accordingly the Platonic Protagoras recognizes in the gymnast Iccus, the physician Herodicus, and the musicians Agathocles and Pythoclides, forerunners of the sophists.
- - The establishment of an efficient system of elementary schools has been an important part of the work of the American administration.
- Under Spanish rule the Church established colleges and seminaries for training priests, but the Spanish system of secular schools for elementary instruction, established in 1863, accomplished little; the schools were taught by unqualified native teachers and the supervision of them was very lax.
- Besides the elementary schools there are at Manila the Philippine Normal School, the Philippine School of Arts and Trades, the Philippine School of Commerce and the school for the instruction of the deaf and blind, and in 1908 the Philippine legislature passed an act for the establishment of a university of the Philippines.
- The Method of Mixture consists in imparting the quantity of heat to be measured to a known mass of water, or some other standard substance, contained in a vessel or calorimeter of known thermal capacity, and in observing the rise of temperature produced, from which data the quantity of heat may be found as explained in all elementary text-books.
- According To The Elementary Kinetic Theory Of An Ideal Gas, The Molecules Of Which Are So Small And So Far Apart That Their Mutual Actions May Be Neglected, The Kinetic Energy Of Translation Of The Molecules Is Proportional To The Absolute Temperature, And Is Equal To 3/2 Of Pv, The Product Of The Pressure And The Volume, Per Unit Mass.
- While admitting the possibility that it was an elementary body, after many experiments they finally declared it to be a compound (Mem.
- Davy, on the other hand, could see no reason to suppose it contained oxygen, as they surmised, and ultimately they had to accept his view of its elementary character.
- Meanwhile prison discipline in the elementary stage, as inflicted on lesser offenders, was continually discussed.
- This makes them omit sensory judgments, and count only those which require ideas, and even general ideas expressed in general terms. Sigwart, for example, gives as instances of our most elementary judgments, " This is Socrates," " This is snow "- beliefs in things existing beyond ourselves which require considerable inferences from many previous judgments of sense and memory.
- But the divorce of science of nature from mathematics, the failure of biological inquiry to reach so elementary a conception as that of the nerves, the absence of chemistry from the circle of the sciences, disappointed the promise of the dawn and the relative achievement of the noon-day.
- Perhaps to the student there is no part of elementary mathematics so repulsive as is spherical trigonometry.
- Tait's Elementary Treatise on Quaternions appeared (Cambridge).
- This was followed by an elementary treatise on astronomy entitled Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels (1768, l oth ed.
- The obvious importance, especially to scattered villages or tribes, of systematic joint action in the face of a common danger makes it reasonable to infer that federation in its elementary forms was a widespread device.
- There are numerous elementary schools, at which the teaching is free and compulsory, besides ten colleges for secondary or technical education, and two universities.
- The state of elementary education is comparatively good, rather more than two-thirds of the population being able to read and write, and the ratio of crime is proportionately low.
- The elementary schools are maintained from the proceeds of the state school funds, consisting of interest on the literary fund, a portion of the state poll tax, a property tax not less than one mill nor more than five mills on the dollar, and special appropriations; county funds, consisting principally of a property tax; and district funds, consisting principally of a property tax and a dog tax.
- as is otherwise evident from the elementary theory of uniform circular motion.
- Division 4.Motions of a pair of connected pieces, or of an elementary combination in mechanism.
- Elementary Combinations in Mechanism 33.
- DefinitionsAn elementary combination in mechanism consists of two pieces whose kinds of motion are determined by their connection with the frame, and their comparative motion by their connection with each otherthat connection being effected either by direct contact of the pieces, or by a connecting piece, which is not connected with the frame, and whose motion depends entirely on the motions of the pieces which it connects.
- In the investigation, therefore, of the comparative motion, of the driver and follower, in an elementary combination, it is unnecessary to consider relations of angular direction, which are already fixed by the connection of each piece with the frame; so that the inquiry is confined to the determination of the velocity ratio, and of tbe directional relation, so far only as it expresses the connection between forward and backward movements of the driver and follower.
- Classification of Elementary Combinations in Mechanism.
- The first systematic classification of elementary combinations in mechanism was that founded by Monge, and fully developed by Lanz and Btancourt, which has been generally received, and has been adopted in most treatises on applied mechanics.
- He divides the elementary combinations in mechanism into three classes, of which the characters are as follows: Class A: Directional relation constant; velocity ratio constant.
- In the Reiileaux system of analysis of mechanisms the principle of comparative motion is generalized, and mechanisms apparently very diverse in character are shown to be founded on the same sequence of elementary combinations forming a kinematic chain.
- A pair of convex screws, each rotating about its axis, are used as an elementary combination to transmit motion by the sliding contact of their threads.
- The comparative motion of the first driver and last follower is obtained by combining the proportions expressing by their terms the velocity ratios and by their signs the directional relations of the several elementary combinations of which the train consists.
- Supposing all the wheels to be in outside gearing, then, as each elementary combination reverses the direction of rotation, and as the number of elementary combinations m 1 is one less than the number of axes rn it is evident that if m is odd the direction of rotation is preserved, and if even reversed.
- It was shown by Young that, to do this with the least total number of teeth, the velocity ratio of each elementary combination should approximate as nearly as possible to 3.59., This would in many cases give too many axes; and, as a useful practical rule, it may be laid down that from 3 to 6 ought to be the limit of the velocity ratio of an elementary combination in wheelwork.
- Shouid B/C be greater than 6, the best number of elementary combinations m I will lie between log Blog C nd log Blog C
- So far as the resultant velocity ratio is concerned, the order of the drivers N and of the followers n is immaterial: but to secure equable wear of the teeth, as explained in 44, the wheels ought to be so arranged that, for each elementary combination, the greatest common divisor of N and ii shall be either 1, or as small as possible.
- Let Ti be the tension of the free part of the band at that side towards which it tends to draw the pulley, or from which the pulley tends to draw it; 1, the tension of the free part at the other side; T the tension of the band at any intermediate point of its arc of contact with the pulley; 0 the ratio of the length of that arc to the radius of the pulley; do the ratio of an indefinitely small element of that arc to the radius; F=TiT2 the total friction between the band and the pulley; dF the elementary portion of that friction due to the elementary arc do; f the coefficient of friction between the materials of the band and pulley.
- Then, according to a well-known principle in statics, the normal pressure at the elementary arc do is TdO, T being the mean tension of the band at that elementary arc; consequently the friction on that arc is dF =JTdo.
- Now that friction is also the difference between the tensions of the band at the two ends of the elementary arc, or dT =dF =fTdO; which equation, being integrated throughout the entire arc of contact, gives the following formulae:
- An elementary presentation of the problem from a practical point of view will be found in Steam Turbines, by Dr A.
- The first name is that of Theagenes of Rhegium, contemporary of Cambyses (525 B.C.), who is said to have founded the " new grammar " (the older " grammar " being the art of reading and writing), and to have been the inventor of the allegorical interpretations by which it was sought to reconcile the Homeric mythology with the morality and speculative ideas of the 6th century B.C. The same attitude in the " ancient quarrel of poetry and philosophy " was soon afterwards taken by Anaxagoras; and after him by his pupil Metrodorus of Lampsacus, who explained away all the gods, and even the heroes, as elementary substances and forces (Agamemnon as the upper air, &c.).
- After the usual education of a boy in grammar and elementary classical studies, his father, Piero, sent him to the universities of Ferrara and Padua, where he stayed until the year 1505.
- The precision of his earlier work is evidenced by his Micrometric Measurements of the Elementary Parts of Man and Animals (Leipzig, 1834).
- His education was only elementary and very defective, except in mathematics, in which he was largely self-taught; and although at his death he left a considerable library, he was never an assiduous reader.
- The recognition of even the most elementary rules has been a very slow process, as the course of financial history abundantly proves.
- These experiments furnished the first elementary forms of electric motor, since it was then seen that rotatory motion could be produced in masses of metal by the mutual action of conductors conveying electric current and magnetic fields.
- 64) his " Neue Theorie der Electrodynamik," in which he gave an elementary law differing from that of Ampere but leading to the same results for closed circuits.
- Weber at the same time deduced the mathematical laws of induction from his elementary law of electrical action, and with his improved instruments arrived at accurate verifications of the law of induction which by this time had been developed mathematically by Neumann and himself.
- Staite in 1848 had made incandescent electric lamps of an elementary form, and T.
- Helmholtz says: " If we accept the hypothesis that elementary substances are composed of atoms, we cannot well avoid concluding that electricity also is divided into elementary portions which behave like atoms of electricity."
- A general system of grants in aid of elementary schools was established in 1882.
- There are some 300 connected with the Greek Orthodox Church, and 160 elementary Moslem schools.
- the royal family, and contributors of £50o or more to the funds), of the council of almoners (which administers the endowments), or of certain of the city companies; (2) by competition, on the nomination of a donation governor (for boys only), or from public elementary schools in London, certain city parishes and certain endowed schools elsewhere.
- with Notes (1801); Elementary Treatises on ...
- Schopenhauer took up the subject in earnest, and the result of his reflexions (and a few elementary observations) soon after appeared (Easter 1816) as a monograph, Ober das Sehen and die Farben (ed.
- And above all things the young and the ignorant are to be instructed, the former by a regular gradation or ladder of parish or elementary schools, secondary schools and universities.
- She published in 1897 a biography of the Swedish author, Almqvist; in 5899 she collected her finest essays in the volume called Thought Pictures; in 1900 appeared, under the title Human Beings, studies of the Brownings and of Goethe; but the finest of Ellen Key's books is The Century of Childhood (1901), a philosophical survey of the progress of elementary education in the last hundred years.
- The elementary theory of optical systems leads to the theorem: Rays of light proceeding from any " object point " unite in an " image point "; and therefore an " object space " is reproduced in an " image space."
- With George Richard Crooks (1822-1897), his colleague at Dickinson College and in1880-1897professor of historical theology at Drew Seminary, McClintock edited several elementary textbooks in Latin and Greek (of which some were republished in Spanish), based on the pedagogical principle of "imitation and constant repetition."
- The degree of elementary Greek culture needful for the understanding of Galatians cannot be shown to have been foreign to the inhabitants of north Galatia.
- where a (a+I)y (a+n-I)(y+n-2) =y, (33= (Y+ I)(y+2),..., 132n-1 - (y+2n-3)(7+272-2)' (32= y-a, N4 = 2(y+I-a) ?..., N2 - 71(7-I-a) Y(' y + I) (7+2) (7+3)' (y+2n-2)(y+2nFrom this we may express several of the elementary series as continued fractions; thus taking a= I, 7=2, and putting x for -x, have log (I +x) = x I 2 x I 2 x 2 2 x 2 2 X 3 2 x 32x we +2 + 3 +4+5+ 6-I-7 +.
- John Wallis, discussing this fraction in his Arithmetica finitorum (1656), gives many of the elementary properties of the convergents to the general continued fraction, including the rule for their formation.
- Immediately after the Greek revolution, Prince John Sturdza took an active part in subduing the roving bands of Greek Hetairists in Moldavia; he transformed the Greek elementary schools into Rumanian schools and laid the foundation for that scientific national development which Prince Michael Sturdza continued after 1834.
- In the following year appeared the Elementary Lessons on Logic, which soon became the most widely read elementary textbook on logic in the English language.
- In 1907 there were 75 assisted elementary schools with nearly -8000 scholars.
- After the suppression of the rising (January 1899) confidence in the British administration largely increased among the tribes, owing to the care taken to preserve the authority of the chiefs whilst safeguarding the elementary rights of the people.
- The control of elementary education was also guaranteed to the provincial councils up to 1915, and thereafter until parliament otherwise provides.
- This was a point of importance, inasmuch as, by the Act of Union, elementary education was left (for five years) in the hands of the provinces.
- Elffers, Practische hollandsche Spraakkunst (Cape Town, 1894), and Elementary Grammar of the Dutch Language (Cape Town, 1898).
- The most elementary part of nature is pure ether, which is possessed of divine reason.
- If we suppose a normal v less than E to be drawn from the surface S into the liquid, we may divide the shell into elementary shells whose thickness is dv, in each of which the density and other properties of the liquid will be constant.
- There are also eight Real-gymnasia (or " modern " schools), numerous Real-schulen (commercial schools), public high schools for girls, and commodious and excellently organized elementary schools.
- Beare, Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition (Oxford, 1906).
- In 1881 appeared his Elementary Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism, twice reprinted in 1882 and 16 times in the ensuing 12 years.
- Finally, at the head of all the public elementary and secondary schools of the state is the state superintendent of public instruction, elected for a term of two years; he is ex officio a member and secretary of the state board of education, and a member, with the right to speak but not to vote, of all other boards having control of public instruction in any state institution.
- In it he disproved the idea advanced by Gay Lussac that potassium was a compound of hydrogen, not an element; but on the other hand he cast doubts on the elementary 1 Edmund Davy (1785-1857) became professor of chemistry at Cork Institution in 1813, and at the Royal Dublin Society in 1826.
- His fourth Bakerian lecture, in November 1809, gave further proofs of the elementary nature of potassium, and described the properties of telluretted hydrogen.
- Others were pioneers of elementary education, establishing free day schools long before they were thought of by the state.
- The payments which the county council have to make in substitution for the local grants formerly made out of Imperial funds include payments for or towards the remuneration of the teachers in poorlaw schools and public vaccinators; school fees paid for children sent from a workhouse to a public elementary school; half of the salaries of the medical officer of health and the inspector of nuisances of district councils; the remuneration of registrars for births and deaths; the maintenance of pauper lunatics; half of the cost of the pay and clothing of the police of the county, and of each borough maintaining a separate police force.
- As to higher education the local education authority must consider the educational needs of their area and take such steps as seem to them desirable, after consultation with the Board of Education, to supply or aid the supply of education other than elementary, and to promote the general co-ordination of all forms of education.
- The evaluation of the area of the curve had made Roberval famous in France, but Descartes considered that the value of his investigation had been grossly exaggerated; he declared the problem to be of an elementary nature and submitted a short and simple solution.
- In the House of Commons he was a prominent supporter of Charles Bradlaugh; he was the first to advocate old age pensions, and in 1890 carried a proposal to free elementary education in Scotland.
- Elementary education has proceeded with great rapidity, and there are ninety public elementary shools in the city, twenty-three ecclesiastical gratuitous schools and many evangelical schools at a very small payment.
- He established its elementary character, and his researches were amplified by K.
- Mitscherlich, who, by the elementary analyses of lactates, proved the existence of this acid as a distinct compound.
- The state contributes to the maintenance of elementary schools, for the Vlachs in Macedonia, Bulgaria and Transylvania.
- An equivalent statement of the same conclusion may be put thus: supposing a gaseous nebula is destined to condense into a sun, the elementary matter of which it is composed will develop in the process into our known terrestrial and solar elements, parting with energy as it does so.
- It was in these circumstances that he dictated to his servant, a tailor's apprentice, who was absolutely devoid of mathematical knowledge, his Anleitung zur Algebra (1770), a work which, though purely elementary, displays the mathematical genius of its author, and is still reckoned one of the best works of its class.
- The Elementary Education Bill (see Education) was introduced on the 17th of February 1870.
- The council was also given, for five years following the establishment of the Union, control of elementary education.
- The schools are divided into public undenominational elementary schools; day schools and industrial institutions for the natives; mission schools to which government aid for secular instruction is granted; private farm schools, district boarding schools, training schools for teachers, industrial schools for poor whites, &c. In 1905 2930 primary schools of various classes were open.
- Parker (Elementary Biology) cites a passage from Alexander Ross, who, commenting on Sir Thomas Browne's doubt as to "whether mice may be bred by putrefaction," gives a clear statement of the common opinion on abiogenesis held until about two centuries ago.
- The commercial production of sulphuric acid imperatively requires that the nitrogen oxides (which originally were always introduced in the shape of nitric acid) should be available as long as possible, before being lost mechanically or by reduction to the inactive forms of nitrous oxide or elementary nitrogen.
- the subject may be studied with a view to technical skill in dealing with the arithmetical problems that arise in actual life, or for the sake of its general influence on mental development, or as an elementary stage in mathematical study.
- The logical arrangement of the subject is not the best for elementary study.
- As an illustration, we may take the elementary processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
- The grouping method introduces multiplication into the definition of large numbers; but this, from the teacher's point of view, is not now such a serious objection as it was in the days when children were introduced to millions and billions before they had any idea of elementary arithmetical processes.
- This, in an elementary treatment of the subject, must be regarded as axiomatic; but it is really a simple case of mathematical induction.
- (ii) The symbols 11 and 12 are read as eleven and twelve, not (except in elementary teaching) as ten-one and ten-two.
- In consequence of this limitation of the power of perception of number, it is practically impossible to use a pure denary scale in elementary number-teaching.
- Thus we speak of counting up to a certain number; and similarly mathematicians speak of high and ascending powers, while engineers speak of high pressure, high speed, high power, &c. This tendency is probably aided by the use of bricks or cubes in elementary number-teaching.
- The development from the name-series to the quantitative conception is aided by the numbering of material objects and the performance of elementary processes of comparison, addition, &c., with them.
- The failure to observe the distinction between an identity and an equality often leads to loose reasoning; and in order to prevent this it is important that definite meanings should be attached to all symbols of operation, and especially to those which represent elementary operations.
- They are not suitable for elementary purposes, as the arithmetical relations involved are complicated and difficult to grasp.
- In the first place, an operation then corresponds more closely, at an elementary stage, with the concrete process which it represents.
- For elementary work the multiplicand may come immediately after the multiplier, as in D; the last figure of each partial product then comes immediately under the corre up to the multiplication of decimals and of approximate values of numbers, is to place the first figure of the multiplier under the first figure of the multiplicand, as in E; the first figure of each partial product will then come under the corresponding figure of the multiplier.
- Of the two kinds of division, although the idea of partition is perhaps the more elementary, the process of measuring is the easier to perform, since it is equivalent to a F series of subtractions.
- Cajori, History of Elementary Mathematics (1896); or more detailed information in M.
- On the teaching of arithmetic, and of elementary mathematics generally, see J.
- Young, The Teaching of Mathematics in the Elementary and the Secondary School (1907); D.
- Smith, The Teaching of Elementary Mathematics (1900), also contains an interesting general sketch; W.
- Recent English works have been influenced by the brief Report on the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics, issued by the Mathematical Association (1905); but this is critical rather than constructive.
- In the United States of America the Report of the Committee of Ten on secondary school studies (1893) and the Report of the Committee of Fifteen on elementary education (1893-1894), both issued by the United States Bureau of Education, have attracted a good deal of attention.
- The student who is interested in elementary teaching should consult the annual bibliographies in the Pedagogical Seminary; an article by D.
- The ministry of 1886, which endured till 1892, gave to London a county council; introduced representative government into every English county; and made elementary education free throughout England.
- Similarly as regards cubics, or curves of any other order: a cubic depends on 9 constants, and the elementary problems are to find the number of the cubics (9 p), (8p, 1l), &c., which pass through 9 points, pass through 8 points and touch 1 line, &c.; but it is in the investigation convenient to seek for the characteristics of the systems of cubics (8p), &c., which satisfy 8 instead of 9 conditions.
- The elementary problems in regard to cubics are solved very completely by S.
- he determines in every case the characteristics (µ, v) of the corresponding systems of cubics (4p), (3 p, il), &c. The same problems, or most of them, and also the elementary problems in regard to quartics are solved by Zeuthen, who in the elaborate memoir " Almindelige Egenskaber, &c.," Danish Academy, t.
- In 1830 appeared the first edition of his well-known Elements of Arithmetic, which did much to raise the character of elementary training.
- His first work, An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics (1819), co-operated with those of Peacock and Herschel in reforming the Cambridge method of mathematical teaching; to him in large measure was due the recognition of the moral and natural sciences as an integral part of the Cambridge curriculum (1850).
- Their services to society and the Church include 6 houses for fallen women, 7 orphanages, 9 elementary and high schools and colleges, 5 hospitals, mission work in 13 parishes and visiting in several " married quarters " of barracks.
- Elementary education is compulsory.
- In his fifteenth year, after passing through the usual elementary studies, he entered the Society of Jesus.
- He shows elaborately how the pleasures and pains of " imagination, ambition, self-interest, sympathy, theopathy, and the moral sense " are developed out of the elementary pleasures and pains of sensation; by the coalescence into really complex but apparently single ideas of the " miniatures " or faint feelings which the repetition of sensations contemporaneously or in immediate succession tends to produce in cohering groups.
- In the towns and fishing villages there are a few elementary schools, but often the children are instructed at home; in some places by peripatetic teachers.
- It is an elementary principle of mechanics that this force varies directly as the product of the distance of the moving body from the centre of motion into the square of its angular velocity.
- An elementary treatise on the subject is F.
- Meanwhile, the elementary requirement of making visual acquaintance with the stellar heavens was met, as regards the unknown southern skies, when Johann Bayer published at Nuremberg in 1603 a celestial atlas depicting twelve new constellations Bayer.
- We perceive then that the fundamental problems of sidereal science are closely linked up with the elementary and indispensable procedures of celestial measurement.
- In addition to instruction in the ordinary branches, the teaching in the district schools of the elementary principles of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, stock-feeding, forestry, building country roads and domestic science is required.
- A large proportion of the public officials and judiciary were also disaffected; their removal from their posts was a matter of elementary prudence for a Government engaged in a war of such magnitude.
- The maximum local tax levy is eight-mills for elementary schools and two-mills for high schools.
- In 1900 there were also 19 real-gymnasia, teaching science, art and modern languages, as well as classics and mathematics; 1400 elementary schools; and a few special institutions, such as the naval and military academies of Fiume, ecclesiastical seminaries and commercial colleges.
- The paradox of the arrow (7), says Mr Russell, is a plain statement of a very elementary fact: the arrow is at rest at very moment of its flight: Zeno's only mistake was in inferring (if he did infer) that it was therefore at the same point at one moment as at another.
- The gods of New Zealand, the greater gods at least, may be called " departmental "; each person who is an elementary force is also the god of that force.
- He also wrote a number of elementary educational works, based on the principles of the school of Port Royal.
- The elementary spatial relation Herbart conceives to be "the contiguity (Aneinander) of two points," so that every "pure and independent line" is discrete.
- In his Psychology Herbart rejects altogether the doctrine of mental faculties as one refuted by his metaphysics, and tries to show that all psychical phenomena whatever result from the action and interaction of elementary ideas or presentations (Vorstellungen).
- These simple elementary ideas were eminently capable of development and investigation, and were not only true but the prelude to further truth; while those they superseded defied inquiry by their vagueness and obscurity.
- Consider an elementary couple of two metals A and B for which s has the values s and s" respectively, with junctions at the temperature T and T+dT (absolute), at which the coefficients of the Peltier effect are P and P+dP. Equating the quantity of heat absorbed to the quantity of electrical energy generated, we have by the first law of thermodynamics the relation dE/dT =dP/dT+(s' - s").
- Returning again to the equations already given in § i i for an elementary thermocouple, we have the following equivalent expressions for the E.M.F.
- Elementary education is chiefly in the hands of the various denominations, whose schools are assisted by government grants-in-aid.
- A brief paper entitled "Speculative Ideas on the Constitution of Matter" (1863) possesses special interest in connexion with work done since his death, because in it he expressed the view that the various kinds of matter now recognized as different elementary substances may possess one and the same ultimate or atomic molecule in different conditions of movement.
- Elementary education, the medium of instruction being Arabic, is given in kuttabs or village schools.
- Foals are weaned when five or six months old, often in October, and require to be housed to save the foal-flesh, and liberally but not overfed; but from the time they ate a month old they require to be " gentled " by handling and kindly treatment, and the elementary training of leading from time to time by a halter adjusted permanently to the head.
- The recognition of the importance of hypotheses has led to various attempts at drawing up exact rules for their formation, but logicians are generally agreed that only very elementary principles can be laid down.
- There are a polytechnic, ten high schools, navigation and trade schools, institutes for the blind and the mentally deficient, and numerous elementary schools.
- On his return to his native country in 1687 he completed his elementary education at Perth and Edinburgh, and in 1696 graduated at the university of St Andrews.
- In 1865, at the particular wish of the king, Charles XV., Wennerberg entered official life in the department of elementary education.
- To this struggle was due the greatest of his writings, and the greatest individual contribution to the adoption of the new government, The Federalist, which remains a classic commentary on American constitutional law and the principles of government, and of which Guizot said that " in the application of elementary principles of government to practical administration " it was the greatest work known to him.
- Extreme modesty, almost amounting to diffidence, was combined with the utmost kindliness in Lord Kelvin's bearing to the most elementary student, and nothing seemed to give him so much pleasure as an opportunity to acknowledge the efforts of the humblest scientific worker.
- Under the name of Hyginus two school treatises on mythology are extant: (I) Fabularum Liber, some 300 mythological legends and celestial genealogies, valuable for the use made by the author of the works of Greek tragedians now lost; (2) De Astronomia, usually called Poetica Astronomica, containing an elementary treatise on astronomy and the myths connected with the stars, chiefly based on the Ka-raa-repu s of of Eratosthenes.
- Both are 'abridgments and both are by the same hand; but the style and Latinity and the elementary mistakes (especially in the rendering of the Greek originals) are held to prove that they cannot have been the work of so distinguished a scholar as C. Julius Hyginus.
- The Shepherd of Hermas too is another book which seems to have been used for the purpose of catechesis, for Eusebius says that it "was deemed most necessary for those who have need of elementary instruction" (Eccles.
- Starting from simple elementary propositions, Steiner advances to the solution of problems which analytically require the calculus of variation, but which at the time altogether surpassed the powers of that calculus.
- His grammatical works are: a commentary on the Works and Days of Hesiod (incomplete); some scholia on Homer; an elementary treatise on the epistolary style, IIEpl E7rurroXLµaiov xapaKT17Aos (Characteres epistolici), attributed in some MSS.
- Avoid, at one extreme, explaining very elementary things and, at the other, not explaining very abstruse things.
- In elementary arithmetic the two-dimensional character of the paper is sometimes used.
- The majority of people are not even spiritually awakened, while among those who are awakened many are at quite an elementary stage.
- betray ignorance of the elementary principles of prophetic interpretation.
- Educated at a local elementary school, he left at fourteen be become an errand boy.
- bursts of laughter, even the university students learned from the elementary students.
- civics lessons, students in elementary and secondary schools are taught little about human rights.