How to use Element in a sentence
We need each element present.
The atomic weight of the element has been determined by analysis.
It added an element of surprise to everyone's run.
If the pressure alters as the water tank empties, a discontinuity occurs in the trace when the tank is refilled, and a fictitious element may be introduced into the diurnal variation.
Katie was in her element now.Advertisement
He concluded there was a major element he was missing.
Veracity is the strongest element of her character.
Jowett's theological work was transitional, and yet has an element of permanence.
There was evidence of her reluctance to discuss some element of the accident.
There is also to a limited extent a European element present.Advertisement
And so the conception of the action of a man subject solely to the law of inevitability without any element of freedom is just as impossible as the conception of a man's completely free action.
The infusion of a considerable Scottish element into the population necessitated the formation of a congenial church.
As an offset to this, Arbogast allied himself with the pagan element in Rome, while Valentinian was strictly orthodox.
The so-called Celtic type, exemplified by individuals of rather less than average height, brown-haired and brachycephalic, is the fundamental element in the nation and peoples the region between the Seine and the Garonne; in southern France a different type, dolichocephalic, short and with black hair and eyes, predominates.
The second element of the name is that of the traditional founder Shapur, or Sapor of the Western historians.Advertisement
Norman Lockyer, and ascribed by him to a hypothetical element helium.
As compared with Scotland, English Presbyterianism had more of the lay element.
Descartes had left untouched, or nearly `so, the difficult problem of the relation between the universal element or thought and the particular desires or inclinations.
They are brief, yet not wanting in that element of practical edification on which Chrysostom lays special weight as characteristic of the Antiochenes.
This element was introduced via Torres Strait, and spread down the Queensland coast to portions of the New South Wales littoral, and also round the Gulf of Carpentaria, but has never been able to obtain a hold in the more arid interior.Advertisement
The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute quantities as would not repay the cost of working.
The religious element, however, which predominated in Cromwell's foreign policy inclined him to peace, and in April of that year terms were arranged by which England on the whole was decidedly the gainer.
Matter was a potentially recalcitrant element.
In the north there is a strong Brazilian element and the people are intensely conservative.
The military element, moreover, has frequently conspired to elect a president amenable to its demands.Advertisement
The portion nearest the log-ship is known as the "stray line"; its length varies from ro to 20 fathoms, but should be sufficient to ensure that the log-ship shall be outside the disturbing element of the ship's wake.
The element is of extremely rare occurrence, being met with only in argyrodite and, to a very small extent, in euxenite.
The element occurs widely and abundantly distributed in nature both in the free state and in combination.
In combination the element chiefly occurs as metallic sulphides and sulphates.
It is thus a common mineral in all copper mines, and sometimes occurs in large masses, as in Arizona and in South Australia, where it has been worked as an ore of copper, of which element it contains 55%.
So far he is in general agreement with Anaximander, but he differs from him in the solution of the problem, disliking, as a poet and a mystic, the primary matter which satisfied the patient researcher, and demanding a more vivid and picturesque element.
And as the personal element disappears in the conception of the prophetic calling, so it tends to disappear in the prophetic view of history, and the future comes to be conceived not as the organic result of the present under the divine guidance, but as mechanically determined from the beginning in the counsels of God, and arranged under artificial categories of time.
Two oxides of the element are definitely known, viz., the dioxide, Te02, and the trioxide, Te03, whilst a monoxide, TeO, has also been described.
The mythic element is practically lacking in the French legends, but in Germany some part of the Odin myth was associated with Charles's name.
In 1900 less than 1.3% of the population was coloured; 30.2% were foreign-born (this element having almost continuously risen from 16.49% in 1855), and 62.3% of all inhabitants and 46.5% of those nativeborn had one or both parents of foreign birth.
If AP =p, the element of volume is dx2xpdp, and the number A of particles to be found in it is deduced by the introduction of the factor n.
Also it requires a long series of years to give thoroughly representative results for any element, and few stations possess more than a year or two's dissipation data.
They propose, that is, to find a simple and indecomposable point, or absolute element, which gives to the world and thought their order and systematization.
First as regards the transmitting part, one essential element is the antenna, aerial, or air wire, which may take a variety of forms. It may consist of a single plain or stranded copper wire upheld at the top by an insulator from a mast, chimney or building.
This supposition was shown to be incorrect, and the nature of the new element was ascertained.
The entry of Crispi into the Depretis cabinet as minister of the interior (4th April 1887) introduced into the government an element of vigour which had Cabinet, long been lacking.
More important than all was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff and to maintain the predominance 01 the Italian element and the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
On the other hand, his divine substratum, the impersonal Brahma, the world-spirit, the one and only reality, remains to this day the ultimate element of the religious belief of intelligent India of whatever sect.
If the word " deism " emphasizes a negative element - rejection of church Christianity - " theism " generally emphasizes the positive element - belief in God.
They spoke of " natural realism " and a " natural dualism " of mind and matter (reinstating here the element which Berkeley had struck out).
The element of givenness, dominant in empiricism, and partially surviving through intuitionalism even into Kant, is sublimated in Hegel's thinking.
Atoms swerved as they fell endlessly downwards, and thus introduced an indeterminate or irrational element into the processes of the world.
None the less, in the issue, it is the very element which goes beyond an appeal to facts - it is the depth and purity of Butler's moral nature - which fascinates the reader, and wins praise from Matthew Arnold or Goldwin Smith or even Leslie Stephen.
And there was the positive ethical element in Kant's theism.
The element of agnosticism tends rather towards pantheism, just as Indian pantheism long ago tended towards agnosticism.
Rosenkranz, who in his work Hegel's Naturphilosophie seeks to develop Hegel's idea of an earthorganism in the light of modern science, recognizing in crystallization the morphological element.
Of the 131,361 inhabitants in 1897 the Talyshes (35,000) form the aboriginal element, belonging to the Iranian family, and speaking an independently developed language closely related to Persian.
In the northern half of the district the Tatar element predominates (40,000) and there are a number of villages occupied by Russian Raskolniks (Nonconformists).
The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.
While they are quite capable of taking up nitrates from the soil where and so long as these are present, they can grow and thrive in soil which contains no combined nitrogen at all, deriving their supplies of this element in these cases from the air.
He further found that there was an element which he termed boreal in a more intense degree, which amounted to about a fifteenth of the whole flora.
A detailed examination of mountain floras shows that a large local element is present in each besides the arctic. The one is in tact the result of similar physical conditions to that which has produced the other.
These were abundant in Tertiary Europe, as they are now in Japan, and represent perhaps a cooler element in the flora than that indicated above.
Florida derives a tropical element from the Antilles.
Only in the ostrich this element is almost typically complete, although soon fused at either end with the coracoid.
One of the greatest builders among them was Untas -GAL (the pronunciation of the second element in the name is uncertain).
The great peculiarity and charm of Dr Arnold's nature seemed to lie in the supremacy of the moral and the spiritual element over his whole being.
The army of Duke William was undoubtedly very far from being wholly made up of Normans, but it was a Norman army; the element which was not Norman, though considerable, was exceptional.
Though crusades had not yet been preached, the strife with the Mussulman at once brought in the crusading element; to the Christian people of the island they were in many cases real deliverers; still, the actual process by which Sicily was won was not so very different from that by which Apulia had been won.
And the circumstances of his conquest were such that the true Normans among his following could not possibly lose themselves among the existing inhabitants of the island, while everything tended to make them lose themselves among their fellow-adventurers of other races, among whom, by the time the conquest was ended, they could hardly have been even a dominant element.
In the end something like a Sicilian nation did arise; but it arose rather by the dying out of several of the elements in the country, the Norman element among them, than by any such fusion as took place in England.
In his day a Latin element finally triumphed; but it was not a Norman or French-speaking element of any kind.
The element also occurs in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. It is present in hair and wool, and in albuminous bodies; and is also a constituent of certain vegetable oils, such as the oils of garlic and mustard.
It wanted the element of legality, or at least of formality, which distinguished both these bodies.
The Christian apologist indeed may himself seek, following John Fiske, to philosophize evolution as a restatement of natural theology - " one God, one law, one element and one far-off divine event " - and as at least pointing towards personal immortality.
The only element of real strength that the statute acquired during the first twenty years of its history came from the Elkins Act of 1903, which stipulated that the published rate should be the legal rate, and declared any departure from the published rate to be a misdemeanour.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
Carbon is the important element in controlling hardness, and the amount present is in general higher in the United States than in Great Britain.
Our data are nowhere so full as for India; where they are comparatively abundant they refer either to a civilized or semicivilized people, or to an area, like West Africa, where the influence of Islam has introduced a disturbing element.
The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is Scottish - Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos.
Personal religion now became an important element in Hebrew piety and upon this there logically followed the idea of personal responsibility.
Another element in this ideal scheme which comes into prominence is the sharp distinction between holy and profane.
This element of public confession for sin became more prominent in the days when synagogal worship developed, and prayer took the place of the sacrificial offerings which could only be offered in the Jerusalem temple.
The tiles of these roofs are glazed porcelain of the most exquisite deep-blue colour, and add a conspicuous element of splendour to the shrine.
In any case the association of Poseidon, representing the fertilizing element of moisture, with Demeter, who causes the plants and seeds to grow, is quite natural, and seems to have been widespread.
This being the case, we are at liberty to make the assumption that the intrinsic energy of each element (under specified conditions) is zero, without thereby introducing any risk of self-contradiction in thermochemical calculations.
Tobiah was cast out, the offending priest expelled, and a general purging followed, in which all the foreign element was removed.
The bitterness aroused by the ardent and to some extent unjust zeal of the reforming element can only be conjectured.
The Moslem element predominated in the principal towns, of which the population was - Candia, 21,368; Canea, 13,812; Retimo, 9274.
The remains of several shrines within the building, and the religious element perceptible in the frescoes, show that a considerable part of the Palace of Cnossus was devoted to purposes of cult.
It is abundantly evident that whatever mythic element may have been interwoven with the old traditions of the spot, they have a solid substratum of reality.
It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
With the Roman Catholic element of the population he was less successful.
In reasserting and amplifying the empirical conclusions of his predecessors, especially in the sphere of ethics, Mill's chief function was the introduction of the humanist element.
The supernatural element that is prominent in the Old Testament is God's providential guidance and guardianship of His people, and His teaching and training of them by His prophets.
With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
Another element is the time of revolution of the body in its orbit, called its period.
From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent weights.
Another element occurring in allotropic forms is sulphur, of which many forms have been described.
The allotropy of arsenic and antimony is also worthy of notice, but in the case of the first element the variation is essentially non-metallic, closely resembling that of phosphorus.
They speak a language with an admixture of Tatar words, and some of their stems contain a large Tatar element.
Sternal plate of prosoma long and narrow, with a distinct prosternal element underlying the mouth.
Sternal plate of prosoma usually short and wide, rarely longer than broad; with a larger or smaller prosternal element underlying the mouth.
Suppose the ship turns about an axis through F in the water-line area, perpendicular to the plane of the paper; denoting by y the distance of an element dA if the water-line area from the axis of rotation, the change of displacement is EydA tan 8, so that there is no change of displacement if EydA = o, that is, if the axis passes through the C.G.
They show that whether Boghaz Keui was actually the capital of the Hatti or not, it was a great city of the Hatti, and that the latter were an important element in Cappadocia from very early times.
Another new element is the influence of a new race.
Whichever element is emphasized in preaching, the preacher is one who believes himself to be the ambassador of God, charged with a message which it is his duty to deliver.
The didactic element was no longer in sole possession of the field, for the inrush of multitudes to the Christian faith and the building of large churches necessitated a return to the evangelical or proclamatory type of sermon.
The valuable element is the able-bodied immigrant himself as a factor of production.
Pop. (1889), 34, 28 4; (5905), 49,817; there is a considerable German element in the vicinity.
It seems also that the charge would increase with the atomic weight of the element.
It is now generally accepted that this number, experimentally determined by Moseley for a number of elements, defines the physical and chemical properties of the particular element.
Afghan tribes, who had originally dwelt far to the east, were first settled at Herat by Nadir Shah, and from that time they have monopolized the government and formed the dominant element in the population.
In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.
Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, pp. 89 ff.).
In the more congenial grande guerre of Russia and Germany he was in his element, and at Smolensk, Borodino and Leipzig he did brilliant service.
Here, as elsewhere, he revealed his insensibility to the ethical element in human nature.
The crude element is treated with aqua regia and then evaporated with an excess of hydrochloric acid, the solution diluted and the tellurium precipitated by a current of sulphur dioxide.
The precipitated tellurium is then fused with potassium cyanide, the melt extracted with water and the element precipitated by drawing a current of air through the solution and finally distilled in a current of hydrogen.
Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white element of specific gravity 6.27.
The element is insoluble in water, but dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid forming a deep red solution.
The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.
The legendary element crept even into the Latin panegyrics produced by the court poets.
Ekeberg discovered an element, tantalum, in some Swedish yttrium minerals.
The supernatural element in religion can only be the divine character of the moral law.
In this conclusion we can trace the prominence assigned by Fichte to the practical element, and the tendency to make the requirements of the ego the ground for all judgment on reality.
Owing to the peaceful character of its acquisition and the relative strength of the Romance (French) element, Louisiana continued the use of the Civil Law.
The rural element of the population is large, though it is not increasing as rapidly as the urban; and no other state in the Union is so uniformly settled.
Leibniz, on the other hand, regarded his monad as the ultimate element of everything.
As the haggada is the poetic, so the halakha is the legal element of the Talmud (q.v.), and arose out of the faction between the Sadducees, who disputed the traditions, and the Pharisees, who strove to prove their derivation from scripture.
There was introduced into it a courtly element, clear traces of which, with all its accompaniments, are found in the extant works of the school.
The healing of the schism proved no very difficult matter; but the council hoped not only to restore unity and suppress heresy, but to re-establish general councils as a regular element in the legislation of the Church.
Equally fundamental is the element of synthesis.
As contrasted with the first it stood for the necessity of recognizing a universal or ideal element as a constitutive factor in all experience whether cognitive or volitional; as contrasted with the latter for the ultimate unity of subject and object, knowledge and reality, and therefore for the denial of the existence of any thing-in-itself for ever outside the range of experience.
On the other hand the theory has been attacked in the interest of the subject on the ground that in the statuesque world of ideas into which it introduces us it leaves no room for the element of movement and process which recent psychology and metaphysic alike have taught us underlies all life.
Everywhere the effect reveals an element which is indiscoverable in the cause with the result that the identity we seek for ever eludes us.
If in a well-known passage (Logic § 212) he seems to countenance the Spinoxistic view he immediately corrects it by assigning an " actualizing force " to this illusion and making it a " necessary dynamic element of truth."
It is to be remedied not by giving up the idea of the Infinite but by ceasing to think of the Infinite as of a being endowed with a static perfection which the finite will merely reproduces, and definitely recognizing the forward effort of the finite as an essential element in Its self-expression.
In the last years of Mexican dominion it was the most prominent of the northern settlements in which the Hispano-Californian element predominated over the new American element.
Already by 1660 New England products were an " important element in the commerce and industries of the mother country " (Weeden).
Natives heavily predominated in agriculture and the professions, slightly in trade, and held barely more than half of all governmental positions; but in transportation, personal service, manufactures, labour and domestic service, the predominance of the foreign element warranted the assertion of the state Bureau of Statistics of Labour that " the strong industrial condition of Massachusetts has been secured and is held not by the labour of what is called the 'native stock,' but by that of the immigrants."
The general result has been that centres of population, especially where the foreign element is large, usually vote for licence, while those in which native population predominates, as well as the smaller towns, usually vote for prohibition.
Massachusetts Bay had a large learned element; it is supposed that about 1640 there was an Oxford or Cambridge graduate to every 250 persons in the colony.
The one element in the church which to him was all essential was its visibility.
A large element of the population is of German descent or German birth, and two newspapers are published in German, besides three dailies, three weeklies and a semi-weekly in English.
During the process the thin walls are stretched and the turns of the spiral become pulled apart without rupturing the wall of the tracheid or vessel, If the pitted type of tracheal element were similarly stretched its continuously thickened walls would resist the stretching and eventually break.
Taking, however, the Andean flora as typical, it contains a very marked endemic element; Ball finds that half the genera and four-fifths of the species are limited to it; on the other hand, that half the species of Gamopetalae belong to cosmopolitan genera such as Valeriana, Gentiana, Bartsia and Gnaphalium.
Each country is described with particular regard to its people as well as to its surface, and the prominence given to the human element is of special interest.
The chief element of uncertainty as to the largest features of the relief of the earth's crust is due to the unexplored area in the Arctic region and the larger regions of the Antarctic, of which Crustal we know nothing.
As the atomic weight of the element increases, it is found that the solubility of the sulphates in water decreases.
The Norman, as a visible element in the country, has vanished from England, and he has vanished from Sicily.
Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and - so far as one order of tribunal was concerned - the election of judges.
As a true daughter of the great Russian reformer, Elizabeth (1741-61) relegated the German element to a subordinate position in the administration and gave her confidence to genuine Russians like Bestuzhev, Vorontsov, Razumovski (her morganatic husband) and the Shuvalovs.
Such statistics are studied mainly with the object of learning the lessons which they may afford as to preventive measures for the future; and from this point of view the most important element is the single item of passengers killed in train accidents (a 1).
With increase of speeds this matter has become important as an element of comfort in passenger traffic. As a first approximation, the centre-line of a railway may be plotted out as a number of portions of circles, with intervening straight tangents connecting them, when the abruptness of the changes of direction will depend on the radii of the circular portions.
The historic tradition which identifies with the Cretans the principal element of the Philistine confederation, and places the tomb of Minos himself in western Sicily, thus receives remarkable confirmation.
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
South Carolina led the extreme radical element in the South and was the first state to secede.
In 1899 he was brought to trial on a charge of misappropriating state funds, and, although he was acquitted, the feeling among the reform element in his own party was so bitter against him that the legislature was deadlocked and his re-election was postponed for two years.
In this tract the rainfall is nowhere sufficient for the purposes of agriculture, which is only possible by help of irrigation; and the fixed population (which contains a non-Turkish element) is comparatively small, and restricted to the towns and the districts near the rivers.
The only element of uncertainty was caused by the retardation of the current, which between Potsdam and Teheran (3000 m.) took 0 8.20 to travel; but it is probable that the final value can be accepted as correct to within os 05.
Uzbegs and Kirghiz have but small affinity with the Mongol element of Asia.
The Turkoman is the purest form of the Turk element, and his language is the purest form of the Turkish tongue, which is represented at Constantinople by a comparatively mongrel, or mixed, dialect.
On the other hand Christianity, though Asiatic in its origin and essential ideas, has to a large extent taken its present form on European soil, and some of its most important manifestations - notably the Roman Church - are European reconstructions in which little of the Asiatic element remains.
From choice or compulsion large numbers settled in Egypt in the time of the Ptolemies, and added an appreciable element to Alexandrine culture, while gradual voluntary emigration established Jewish communities in Syria, Asia Minor, Greece and Italy, who facilitated the first spread of Christianity.
Bathsheba's influence added a new element of danger to the usual jealousies of the harem, and two of David's sons perished in vain attempts to claim the throne, which she appears to have viewed as the rightful inheritance of her own child.
The removal of the court to Jerusalem provided a suitable opportunity, and an element of jealousy even may not have been wanting.
The didactic novel of Xenophon, the Cyropaedia, is a free invention adapted to the purposes of the author, based upon the account of Herodotus and occasionally influenced by Ctesias, without any independent traditional element.
The same element in the Brethren opposed a census, but according to Howard Miller's census of 1880 (Record of the Faithful) the number of Dunkers was 59,749 in that year; by the United States census of 1890 it was then 73,795; the figures for 1904 are given by Henry King Carroll in his.
Since that period the population has in the main been Teutonic; and the French conquests of the 17th century, while modifying this element, still left it predominant.
Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
The opportunities which rotation cropping affords for the cleaning of the land from weeds is another distinct element of advantage.
The system itself aims in principle at being thoroughly monistic; but, since matter, although created by God out of nothing, was regarded merely as the sphere in which souls are punished and purified, the system is pervaded by a strongly dualistic element.
In God there is no distinction or difference, whereas in all substances or things there is duality, arising from the element of matter.
Side by side with the conception of the corn spirit as an animal is the anthropomorphic view of it; and this element must have predominated in the evolution of the cereal deities like Demeter; at the same time traces of the association of gods and goddesses of corn with animal embodiments of the corn spirit are found.
It is indeed true that to thousands the hope of acquiring spiritual merit must have been a great motive; it is also true, as the records of crusading sermons show, that there was a strong element of "revivalism" in the Crusades, and that thousands were hurried into taking the cross by a gust of that uncontrollable enthusiasm which is excited by revivalist meetings to-day.
The Christians are an important element, constituting probably as much as a fifth of the whole population; the majority of them belong to the Orthodox Greek Church, which has two patriarchs in Syria, at Antioch and Jerusalem.
About the beginning of the 10th century, however, the view was promulgated that the spontaneous production of helium from radium may be an instance of the transformation of one element into another.
He is the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the "uncontrolled use of analogy characteristic of early thought," the Baal is the god of the productive element in its widest sense.
His name occurs as an element in Carthaginian proper names (Hannibal, Hasdrubal, &c.), and a tablet found at Marseilles still survives to inform us of the charges made by the priests of the temple of Baal for offering sacrifices.
Worterbuch, who derives the element bel from an old Celtic root meaning shining, &c.) (W.
The other element is the inclination of the plane of the orbit to the fundamental plane, called the inclination simply.
Owing to the counter-reformation the German element was driven out during the 18th century, and its place taken by the actual Slovak population.
Under this act the American element has exercised the controlling power, and this has proved distasteful to certain Porto Rican politicians.
At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.
Hassenfratz and Adet, who assigned to each element a symbol, and to each compound a sign which should record the elements present and their relative quantities.
At a later date Berzelius denoted an oxide by dots, equal in number to the number of oxygen atoms present, placed over the element; this notation survived longest in mineralogy.
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the temperature.
And from the study of compounds he showed that each element occurred in a definite weight or in some multiple of this weight.
This generalization was of great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the densities of its gasifiable compounds.
According to this theory, an element in a compound had a definite saturation capacity, an idea very old in itself, being framed in the law of multiple proportions.
For the development of this classification see Element.
The masses of different elements which combine separately with one and the same mass of another element, are either the same as, or simple multiples of, the masses of these different elements which combine with each other.
Its systematic name is formed by replacing the last syllable of the electro-negative element by ide and prefixing the name of the other element.
If more than one compound be formed from the same two elements,, the difference is shown by prefixing such words as mono-, di-, tri-, sesqui-, per-, sub-, &c., to the last part of the name, or the suffixes -ous and -ic may be appended to the name of the first element.
The affixes -ous and sub- refer to the compounds containing more of the positive element, -ic and per- to those containing less.
An acid (q.v.) is a compound of hydrogen, which element can be replaced by metals, the hydrogen being liberated, giving substances named salts.
This symbol, however, not only represents the particular element, but a certain definite quantity of it.
Usually, when the symbols of the elements are written or printed with a figure to the right, it is understood that this indicates a molecule of the element, the symbol alone representing an atom.
In explanation of these facts it is supposed that each element has a certain number of " units of affinity," which may be entirely, or only in part, engaged when it enters into combination with other elements; and in those cases in which the entire number of units of affinity are not engaged by other elements, it is supposed that those which are thus disengaged neutralize each other, as it were.
According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an odd number, and vice versa, - in other words, that the number of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot be at one time an even and at another an odd number.
The number of units of affinity active in the case of any particular element is largely dependent, however, upon the nature of the element or elements with which it is associated.
If this be the case, however, it is evident that there is no real distinction between the reactions which take place when two elements combine together and when an element in a compound is displaced by another.
This element was investigated at a later date by Sir Henry Roscoe, and more thoroughly and successfully by C. Zimmermann and Alibegoff.
In the following year, 1795, Klaproth announced the discovery of a third new element, titanium; its isolation' (in a very impure form), as in the case of zirconium, was reserved for Berzelius.
In the following year he announced that silica was the oxide of a hitherto unrecognized element, which he named silicium, considering it to be a metal.
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
Courtois isolated the element iodine from " kelp," the burnt ashes of marine plants.
Stromeyer detected a new metallic element, cadmium, in certain zinc ores; it was rediscovered at subsequent dates by other observers and its chemical resemblance to zinc noticed.
Arfvedson, a pupil of Berzelius, detected a new element, which he named lithium, in various minerals - notably petalite.
Rose, who regarded niobium oxide as the element.
The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).
The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay Lussac and Davy.
By such a study in the ultra-violet region of a fraction prepared from crude yttria he detected a new element victorium, and subsequently by elaborate fractionation obtained the element itself.
In 1841 Mosander, having in 1839 discovered a new element lanthanum in the mineral cerite, isolated this element and also a hitherto unrecognized substance, didymia, from crude yttria, and two years later he announced the determination of two fresh constituents of the same earth, naming them erbia and terbia.
In 1878 Marignac, having subjected Mosander's erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examination, announced the presence of a new element, ytterbium; this discovery was confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia.
In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and no matter which one may be substituted by another element or group the same compound will result.
These values, however, require modification in certain cases, for discrepancies occur which can be reconciled in some cases by assuming that the atomic value of a polyvalent element varies according to the distribution of its valencies.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
Since the atomic heat of the same element varies with its state of aggregation, it must be concluded that some factor taking this into account must be introduced; moreover, the variation of specific heat with temperature introduces another factor.
It is found, however, that the same element has not always the same atomic refraction, the difference being due to the nature of the elements which saturate its valencies.
If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.
In his theories the element of mystical speculation for the first time comes to the front as all-important.
If the Hittites were Aryans, one can hardly suppose a primeval Aryan element in Anatolia.
A partisan element in writing of French affairs was inevitable in a Burgundian chronicle.
In the anticipations of the future prevalent amongst the early Christians (c. 50-150) it is necessary to distinguish a fixed and a fluctuating element.
But wherever theocratic organizations established themselves slavery in the ordinary sense did not become a vital element in the social system.
Thus, the slave element tended to merge itself in the general popular body.
We have seen that slavery was a fundamental element of the old Roman constitution.
While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.
They differ from the older writers in practically ignoring the physical supernatural - that is, though they regard the miracles of the ancient times (referred to particularly in Wisdom xvi.-xix.) as historical facts, they say nothing of a miraculous element in the life of their own time.
The urban element is larger than in any other southern state, owing to the large population of New Orleans.
This evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) - a similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769.
In 1825 legislative sanction was given to the greater part of a civil code prepared by a commission (including Livingston) appointed in 1821, and the French element became steadily more important.
Mainly owing to the large element of transient foreign whites without families (long characteristic of Cuba), males outnumber females - in 1907 as 21 to 19.
Its seems certain that the African element has been holding its own in the population totals since emancipation.
The religious element has always been a dominating factor in the life of the city.
The alien element is small, consisting chiefly of Austro-Hungarians, gipsies, Italians and Jews.
The mainstay of the Ottoman dynasty is the Asiatic portion of the empire, where the Mahommedan religion is absolutely predominant, and where the naturally vigorous and robust Turki race forms in Asia Minor a compact mass of many millions, far outnumbering any other single ethnical element and probably equalling all taken collectively.
So long as Stambolov, the energetic Bulgarian statesman, was alive he succeeded in keeping the Bulgarian element quiet, and the peace of the country was less liable to disturbance.
It was originally a collegiate charitable institution, its basis being a fund for the schooling of ministers, and the charity element has remained very large relatively to other colleges.
They form now the chief ethnical element in Bolivia, but are of very mixed blood.
By his casting vote at a critical period during the debate in the Senate on the tariff bill of 1846, he irretrievably lost his influence with the protectionist element of his native state, to whom he had given assurances of his support of the Tyler tariff of 1842.
But when the story passes to Ireland Muirchu's narrative becomes full of the mythical element.
The electrochemical equivalent of any other substance, whether element or compound, may be found by multiplying its chemical equivalent by I 036X Io-5.
If an element be present in a compound otherwise than as an ion, it is not interchangeable, and cannot be recognized by the usual tests.
Most articles made of cut sheet rubber would, however, be of very limited utility were they not hardened or vulcanized by the action of sulphur or some compound of that element.
If an article made of cut sheet be immersed for a few minutes in a bath of melted sulphur, maintained at a temperature of 120 0 C., the rubber absorbs about one-tenth of its weight of that element, and, although somewhat yellowish in colour from the presence of free sulphur, it is still unvulcanized, and unaltered as regards general properties.
In 1861, while conducting a spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862.
Each row as well as each column supplies one and only one element to each member of the determinant.
Consideration of the definition of the determinant shows that the value is unaltered when the suffixes in each element are transposed.
From the value of A we may separate those members which contain a particular element a ik as a factor, and write the portion aik A ik; A k, the cofactor of ar k, is called a minor of order n - i of the determinant.
No member of a determinant can involve more than one element from the first row.
Lead generally functions as a divalent element of distinctly metallic character, yielding a definite series of salts derived from the oxide PbO.
To this element prob ably belongs the story of the schoolmaster who, when Camillus was attacking Falerii, attempted to betray the town by bringing into his camp the sons of some of the principal inhabitants of the place.
Further, it is increasingly felt that ethical judgments do not depend on reason alone, but involve every element in our character; and that the real problem of practical morality is to establish a harmonious balance between the intelligence and the feelings - to make a man's "I think this is right" correspond with his "I feel that it is so."
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
In 1904 although not actively a candidate for the Democratic nomination (which eventually went to Judge Parker), he was to the very last considered a possible nominee; and he strenuously opposed in the convention the repudiation by the conservative element of the stand taken in the two previous campaigns.
It is popularly used of a relation between persons amounting to more than goodwill or friendship. By ethical writers the word has been used generally of distinct states of feeling, both lasting and spasmodic; some contrast it with "passion" as being free from the distinctively sensual element.
As all intellectual phenomena have by experimentalists been reduced to sensation, so all emotion has been and is regarded as reducible to simple mental affection, the element of which all emotional manifestations are ultimately composed.
The nature of this element is a problem which has been provisionally, but not conclusively, solved by many psychologists; the method is necessarily experimental, and all experiments on feeling are peculiarly difficult.
The other element which enters into consideration is the time required for light to pass from the sun to the earth.
The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
The theoretical element is the ratio of the parallactic inequality to the solar parallax.
If the magnet is not uni - form, the magnetization at any point is the ratio of the moment of an element of volume at that point to the volume itself, or I = m.ds/dv.
The direction of the magnetization is that of the magnetic axis of the element;'in isotropic substances it coincides with the direction of the magnetic force at the point.
The body (or each element of it) will tend to set itself with its axis of greatest susceptibility parallel to the lines of force, while, if the field is not uniform, each volume-element will also tend to move towards places of greater or smaller force (according as the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic), the tendency being a maximum when the axis of greatest susceptibility is parallel to the field, and a minimum when it is perpendicular to it.
The first column contains the symbols of the various elements which were added to the iron, and the second the percentage proportion in which each element was present; the sample containing 0.03% of carbon was a specimen of the best commercial iron, the values obtained for it being given for comparison.
From his first tutor, Johann Delbriick, he imbibed a love of culture and art, and possibly also the dash of Liberalism which formed an element of his complex habit of mind.
The commission declared that the chasm between the native and white races had been broadening for years and that the efforts of the administration - especially since the grant of responsible government - to reconcile the Kaffirs to the changed conditions of rule and policy and to convert them into an element of strength had been ineffective.
Anselm's natural element was theology, and the high metaphysical questions which are as it were the obverse of theology.
If they were diverse, he argued, there must exist above them some higher or common element or being, in which case this would be God, nous, or the original matter.
A tolerably evident shortcoming of such a doctrine is that, while declaring the quantitative determination of matter to be the individual element in the individual, it gives no account of how such quantitative determination arises.
A perfectly formless matter (materia prima) was regarded by him as the universal substratum and common element of all finite existences.
The Realists, he considers, have greatly sinned against this maxim in their theory of a real universal or common element in all the individuals of a class.
A characteristic feature of cancer is the carrying of the epithelial cells (which are the essential element of the growth) to the nearest lymphatic glands, and in cancer of the stomach the secondary implication of the glands may cause the formation of large masses between the stomach and the liver, which may press upon the large veins and give rise to dropsy.
A large proportion of the captives of the Magyars had been settled all over the country to teach their conquerors the arts of peace, and close contact with this civilizing element was of itself an of enlightenment.
The ancient county system was gradually absorbed by this new governing element.
Its representative element consisted of loo members elected by the provinces.
Yet it can scarcely be denied that several of the " foreign " novelists have contributed a wholesome, if not quite Magyar, element of form or thought to literary narrative style in Hungary.
His treatise on algebra and arithmetic (the latter part of which is only extant in the form of a Latin translation, discovered in 1857) contains nothing that was unknown to the Greeks and Hindus; it exhibits methods allied to those of both races, with the Greek element predominating.
Yugoslavia's relations with Albania, though simplified by this decision, have been affected by the Albanian counterclaim to Pee, Djakovo and the plain of Kosovo, where since the middle of last century the Albanian element had grown steadily stronger at the expense of the Serbs.
The wave motion due to any element of the surface is called a secondary wave, and in estimating the total effect regard must be paid to the phases as well as the amplitudes of the components.
The,ideal surface of resolution may be there regarded as a flexible lamina; and we know that, if by forces locally applied every element of the lamina be made to move normally to itself exactly as the air at that place does, the external aerial motion is fully determined.
By the principle of superposition the whole effect may be found by integration of the partial effects due to each element of the surface, the other elements remaining at rest.
For the aggregate effect of the secondary waves is the half of that of the first Fresnel zone, and it is the central element only of that zone for which the distance to be travelled is equal to r.
The phase of the resultant is midway between those of the extreme elements, that is to say, a quarter of a period behind that due to the element at the centre of the circle.
The middle element alone contributes without deduction; the effect of every other must be found by introduction of a resolving factor, equal to cos 0, if 0 represent the difference of phase between this element and the resultant.
If the primary wave at 0 be cos kat, the effect of the secondary wave proceeding from the element dS at Q is dS 1 dS - p cos k(at - p+ 4 A) = - -- sin k(at - p).
Although the matter can be fully treated only upon the basis of a dynamical theory, it is proper to point out at once that there is an element of assumption in the application of Huygens's principle to the calculation of the effects produced by opaque screens of limited extent.
The latter element enters only when it is a question of recognizing the duplicity of a double star, or of distinguishing detail upon the surface of a planet.
The directions of the lateral spectra are such that the passage from one element of the grating to the corresponding point of the next implies a retardation of an integral number of wave-lengths.
We have now to consider the amplitude due to a single element, which we may conveniently regard as composed of a transparent part a bounded by two opaque parts of width id.
The latter element must eventually be decreased until less than the diameter of the pupil of the eye.
When, in order to apply Huygens's principle, the wave is supposed to be broken up, the phase is the same at every element of the surface of resolution which lies upon a line perpendicular to the plane of reference, and thus the effect of the whole line, or rather infinitesimal strip, is related in a constant manner to that of the element which lies O in the plane of reference, and may be considered to be represented thereby.
The co-ordinates of J, J' being (- z, - z), I 2 is 2; and the phase is, period in arrear of that of the element at 0.
According to this notation, the three equations of motion are dt2 = b2v2E + (a2 - b2) d.s dt =b2v2rj+(a2 - b2) dy d2 CIF - b2p2+(a2_b2)dz It is to be observed that denotes the dilatation of volume of the element situated at (x, y, z).
The conception of the lamina leads immediately to two schemes, according to which a primary wave may be supposed to be broken up. In the first of these the element dS, the effect of which is to be estimated, is supposed to execute its actual motion, while every other element of the plane lamina is maintained at rest.
When the secondary disturbance thus obtained is integrated with respect to dS over the entire plane of the lamina, the result is necessarily the same as would have been obtained had the primary wave been supposed to pass on without resolution, for this is precisely the motion generated when every element of the lamina vibrates with a common motion, equal to that attributed to dS.
If, instead of supposing the motion at dS to be that of the primary wave, and to be zero elsewhere, we suppose the force operative over the element dS of the lamina to be that corresponding to the primary wave, and to vanish elsewhere, we obtain a secondary wave following quite a different law.
If we suppose that the force impressed upon the element of mass D dx dy dz is DZ dx dy dz, being everywhere parallel to the axis of Z, the only change required in our equations (I), (2) is the addition of the term Z to the second member of the third equation (2).
The Cimmerians who preceded the Scythians used Iranian proper names, and probably represented this Iranian element in greater purity.
This comes to much the same thing, as the Massagetae seem to have contained an element which had come in from the land of the Issedones.
Again, the Scythic style is interesting as being one element in the art of the barbarians who conquered the Roman Empire and the zoomorphic decoration of the early middle ages.
It is probable that the Iranian element was stronger among the Sarmatae, whose power extended as the ruling clan of the Scyths became extinct; but it is quite likely that they in their turn were officered by some new horde from upper Asia.
The British element is chiefly gathered in Johannesburg and other towns on the Rand and in Pretoria.
The natives are found chiefly in Zoutpansberg district, 1 For most purposes this military element is omitted in the census returns.
As his design took shape he expanded the supernatural element and made the narratives autobiographical.
On the other hand, there is an epithet Asir or Ashir ("overseer") applied to several gods and particularly to the deity Asur, a fact which introduced a third element of confusion into the discussion of the name Assur.
Of minerals containing this element mention may be made of cassiterite or tinstone, Sn02, tin pyrites, Cu 4 SnS 4 + (Fe,Zn) 2 SnS 4; the metal also occurs in some epidotes, and in company with columbium, tantalum and other metals.
We know but little of Isaiah's predecessors and models in the prophetic art (it were fanaticism to exclude the element of human preparation); but certainly even the acknowledged prophecies of Isaiah (and much more the disputed ones) could no more have come into existence suddenly and without warning than the masterpieces of Shakespeare.
Perhaps a closer approximation would be to rate the creole element (whites of European descent) at 10%, as in Colombia, and the mixed races at 70%, the remainder consisting of Africans, Indians and resident foreigners.
The term hypertrophy is used when the individual tissue elements become bigger to meet the demands of greater functional activity; hyperplasia, if there is an increase in the number of these elements; and pseudo-hypertrophy, when the specific tissue element is largely replaced by another tissue.
We have already compared the body to a social community, each constituent element of which - the cell - lives its own life but subordinates its individuality to the good of the whole organism.
As fat is a food element essential to the carrying out of the vital energies of the cell, a certain amount of fatty matter must be present, in a form, however, unrecognizable by our present microchemical and staining methods.
Hence the elementary arc divided by the element of time is the rate of change of velocity of the moving-point, or in other words, the velocity in the hodograph is the acceleration in the orbit.
The real name is accordingly to be sought in En-lil, of which the first element again has the force of "lord" and the second presumably "might," "power," and the like, though this cannot be regarded as certain.
In the first sea-fight, which took place simultaneously with the capture of Plemmyrium, they had been unsuccessful; but in the spring of 413 they actually won a victory over the Athenians in their own element.
The Jewish element appears to have' been important among the students, and possibly among the professors.
But they still hold their ground as the ruling element in the region between the Limpopo and the middle Zambezi, which from them takes the name of Matabeleland.
Where the deposit is uncertain and the element of risk is large, we must adopt a high rate of interest on investments of capital in our computations of value - in some cases as high as 10, 15 or even 20%.
The element exists in two forms, one amorphous, the other crystalline.
A somewhat impure silicon (containing 90-98% of the element) is made by the Carborundum Company of Niagara Falls (United States Patents 745 122 and 842273, 1908) by heating coke and sand in an electric furnace.
Thus the name of the deity, which enters as an element in a large proportion of the proper names,' was almost invariably written with the sign or signs representing this deity, and it is only exceptionally that the name is spelled phonetically.
In many names the divine element is lopped off, but was originally present.
Besides the divine element, proper names as a rule in the Babylonian-Assyrian periods had a verbal form attached and a third element representing an object.
Throughout the preRevolutionary disturbances in Massachusetts he was the representative of the British ministry, and though he disapproved of some of the ministerial measures he felt impelled to enforce them and necessarily incurred the hostility of the Whig or Patriot element.
The second element in the composition of the island consists of Mesozoic beds, which occur in a broken band along most of the south-western coast.
The fall of Sana made a deep impression t Constantinople, every effort was made to hasten out reinforcements, the veteran Ahmad Feizi Pasha was nominated to the supreme command, and Anatolian troops in place of the unreliable Syrian element were detailed.
While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of Slavic territory east of the Elbe.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
Still later another element was added to the population in the introduction by the Turkish masters of Egypt of a number of Bosnians.
In this instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strengthened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout Austria.