We need each element present.
The atomic weight of the element has been determined by analysis.
It added an element of surprise to everyone's run.
Katie was in her element now.
If the pressure alters as the water tank empties, a discontinuity occurs in the trace when the tank is refilled, and a fictitious element may be introduced into the diurnal variation.
There was evidence of her reluctance to discuss some element of the accident.
He concluded there was a major element he was missing.
The roles of electronic warfare is an essential element of fire support.
Jowett's theological work was transitional, and yet has an element of permanence.
Veracity is the strongest element of her character.
Why was the revival of literacy such a key element in Alfred's reforms?
And so the conception of the action of a man subject solely to the law of inevitability without any element of freedom is just as impossible as the conception of a man's completely free action.
There is also to a limited extent a European element present.
They propose, that is, to find a simple and indecomposable point, or absolute element, which gives to the world and thought their order and systematization.
They propose, that is, to find a simple and indecomposable point, or absolute element, which gives to the world and thought their order and systematization.
The infusion of a considerable Scottish element into the population necessitated the formation of a congenial church.
As an offset to this, Arbogast allied himself with the pagan element in Rome, while Valentinian was strictly orthodox.
A large element of the population is of German descent or German birth, and two newspapers are published in German, besides three dailies, three weeklies and a semi-weekly in English.
The conclusion that each element had a definite atomic weight, peculiar to it, was the new idea that made his speculations fruitful, because it allowed of quantitative deduction and verification.
Grasses and herbage in great variety constitute the most valuable element of Australian flora from the commercial point of view.
It is not to be supposed that this antarctic element, to which Professor Tate has applied the name Euronotian, entered a desert barren of all life.
The coal beds are of enormous extent, and constitute an important element in the wealth of the state.
The characteristic by which we recognize the fundamental element in a series is its intuitive or self-evident character; it is given by "the evident conception of a healthy and attentive mind so clear and distinct that no doubt is left."
The instrument consists of two cams, the form of which regulates the components of the curbed signal, one cam being for the dot element and the other for the dash element, which by their sequence give the letter signals; these cams, by means of clutches controlled by the relay, are mechanically rotated by clockwork, the speed of rotation being approximately adjusted to the rate of transmission of a single element, so that the requisite number of consecutive elements is transmitted corresponding to the duration of contact of the relay arm with the side controlling that particular element.
The conceptions of "element," "compound" and "mixture" became more precise than they had been hitherto; in an element all the atoms are alike, in a compound all the molecules are alike, in a mixture there are different kinds of molecules.
latter employed the first letter, or the first two letters, of the name of an element as its symbol.
From England he went to the United States of America: there his reception was equally enthusiastic, if less dignified; an element of charlatanism appeared in his words and acts which soon destroyed his real influence.
(2) The acceleration of the element at the origin is - n 2 sin nt; so that the force which would have to be applied to the parts where the density is D' (instead of D), in order that the waves might pass on undisturbed, is, per unit of volume, (D' - D)n 2 sin nt.
The element of area being 22rr 2 sin 04,, we have f:2 l 2x r2 si n 2 d ?=gam, r so that the energy emitted from T is represented by 87r3 (D, - D) 2 T2 (9) D2 x4' on such a scale that the energy of the primary wave is unity per unit of wave-front area.
If AP =p, the element of volume is dx2xpdp, and the number A of particles to be found in it is deduced by the introduction of the factor n.
Also it requires a long series of years to give thoroughly representative results for any element, and few stations possess more than a year or two's dissipation data.
8), they became the rivals of the Judaean dynasty in the period of its splendour, and a chief element in the disorders which invited Pompey's intervention in Palestine.
The second element of the name is that of the traditional founder Shapur, or Sapor of the Western historians.
problem for intelligence is so to enunciate every element, and so to repeat the connexion that we may finally grasp all the links of the chain in one.
ijXcos, the sun), a gaseous chemical element, the modern discovery of which followed closely on that of argon.
Norman Lockyer, and ascribed by him to a hypothetical element helium.
P. Fallmerayer, Das albanesische Element in Griechenland (Munich, 1864); N.
As compared with Scotland, English Presbyterianism had more of the lay element.
The so-called Celtic type, exemplified by individuals of rather less than average height, brown-haired and brachycephalic, is the fundamental element in the nation and peoples the region between the Seine and the Garonne; in southern France a different type, dolichocephalic, short and with black hair and eyes, predominates.
both because of the Moorish element in the population of Spain, and because he was also sovereign of Naples and Sicily.
5 The second element of the name Abiathar is connected with Jether or Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, and even Ichabod (1 Sam.
This element was introduced via Torres Strait, and spread down the Queensland coast to portions of the New South Wales littoral, and also round the Gulf of Carpentaria, but has never been able to obtain a hold in the more arid interior.
520,713.188,158.223,326 374,097 2,377 essentially a pastoral one, and the products of the flocks and herds constitute the chief element in the wealth of Australia.
The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute quantities as would not repay the cost of working.
Descartes had left untouched, or nearly `so, the difficult problem of the relation between the universal element or thought and the particular desires or inclinations.
YTTRIUM [[[symbol]], Y; atomic weight, 89 o (0= 16)], a metallic chemical element.
The religious element, however, which predominated in Cromwell's foreign policy inclined him to peace, and in April of that year terms were arranged by which England on the whole was decidedly the gainer.
They are brief, yet not wanting in that element of practical edification on which Chrysostom lays special weight as characteristic of the Antiochenes.
in his development of the lyrical element in his plays.
a signal to take more, and at the end of the element less of the total arrival current from the cable than would traverse it if the shunt were non-inductive.
First as regards the transmitting part, one essential element is the antenna, aerial, or air wire, which may take a variety of forms. It may consist of a single plain or stranded copper wire upheld at the top by an insulator from a mast, chimney or building.
CADMIUM (symbol Cd, atomic weight I12.4 (0=16)), a metallic element, showing a close relationship to zinc, with which it is very frequently associated.
This supposition was shown to be incorrect, and the nature of the new element was ascertained.
Cavour, on the other hand, while anxious to deal irously with the Garibaldians, recognized the impossibility of such urse, which would not only have offended the conservative spirit :he Piedmontese military caste, which disliked and despised 101am troops, but would almost certainly have introduced into the y an element of indiscipline and disorder.
The entry of Crispi into the Depretis cabinet as minister of the interior (4th April 1887) introduced into the government an element of vigour which had Cabinet, long been lacking.
More important than all was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff and to maintain the predominance 01 the Italian element and the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
On the other hand, his divine substratum, the impersonal Brahma, the world-spirit, the one and only reality, remains to this day the ultimate element of the religious belief of intelligent India of whatever sect.
If the word " deism " emphasizes a negative element - rejection of church Christianity - " theism " generally emphasizes the positive element - belief in God.
They spoke of " natural realism " and a " natural dualism " of mind and matter (reinstating here the element which Berkeley had struck out).
The element of givenness, dominant in empiricism, and partially surviving through intuitionalism even into Kant, is sublimated in Hegel's thinking.
Matter was a potentially recalcitrant element.
Atoms swerved as they fell endlessly downwards, and thus introduced an indeterminate or irrational element into the processes of the world.
None the less, in the issue, it is the very element which goes beyond an appeal to facts - it is the depth and purity of Butler's moral nature - which fascinates the reader, and wins praise from Matthew Arnold or Goldwin Smith or even Leslie Stephen.
And there was the positive ethical element in Kant's theism.
" We have but faith we cannot know, For knowledge is of things we see; " but the moral element which Mansel despised is dominant in Tennyson.
The element of naturalism stands for science with a leaning towards materialism (" explanation in terms of matter and motion ").
The element of agnosticism tends rather towards pantheism, just as Indian pantheism long ago tended towards agnosticism.
Rosenkranz, who in his work Hegel's Naturphilosophie seeks to develop Hegel's idea of an earthorganism in the light of modern science, recognizing in crystallization the morphological element.
MOLYBDENUM [[[symbol]], Mo; atomic weight, 96 (0=16)] a metallic chemical element.
Of the 131,361 inhabitants in 1897 the Talyshes (35,000) form the aboriginal element, belonging to the Iranian family, and speaking an independently developed language closely related to Persian.
In the northern half of the district the Tatar element predominates (40,000) and there are a number of villages occupied by Russian Raskolniks (Nonconformists).
The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.
During the process the thin walls are stretched and the turns of the spiral become pulled apart without rupturing the wall of the tracheid or vessel, If the pitted type of tracheal element were similarly stretched its continuously thickened walls would resist the stretching and eventually break.
While they are quite capable of taking up nitrates from the soil where and so long as these are present, they can grow and thrive in soil which contains no combined nitrogen at all, deriving their supplies of this element in these cases from the air.
He further found that there was an element which he termed boreal in a more intense degree, which amounted to about a fifteenth of the whole flora.
A detailed examination of mountain floras shows that a large local element is present in each besides the arctic. The one is in tact the result of similar physical conditions to that which has produced the other.
Christ, while admitting an ancient endemic element, such as Cam panula excise in the arctic-alpine flora of Europe, objects that a Scandinavian colonization could not furnish such characteristic plants as the larch and edelweiss.
These were abundant in Tertiary Europe, as they are now in Japan, and represent perhaps a cooler element in the flora than that indicated above.
Florida derives a tropical element from the Antilles.
An Indian element derived from the northeast is most marked on the eastern side: the Himalayan Gloriosa will suffice as an example, and of more tropical types Phoenix and Calamus amongst palms.
Taking, however, the Andean flora as typical, it contains a very marked endemic element; Ball finds that half the genera and four-fifths of the species are limited to it; on the other hand, that half the species of Gamopetalae belong to cosmopolitan genera such as Valeriana, Gentiana, Bartsia and Gnaphalium.
Each country is described with particular regard to its people as well as to its surface, and the prominence given to the human element is of special interest.
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
The chief element of uncertainty as to the largest features of the relief of the earth's crust is due to the unexplored area in the Arctic region and the larger regions of the Antarctic, of which Crustal we know nothing.
As the atomic weight of the element increases, it is found that the solubility of the sulphates in water decreases.
Only in the ostrich this element is almost typically complete, although soon fused at either end with the coracoid.
One of the greatest builders among them was Untas -GAL (the pronunciation of the second element in the name is uncertain).
The great peculiarity and charm of Dr Arnold's nature seemed to lie in the supremacy of the moral and the spiritual element over his whole being.
The Norman, as a visible element in the country, has vanished from England, and he has vanished from Sicily.
The army of Duke William was undoubtedly very far from being wholly made up of Normans, but it was a Norman army; the element which was not Norman, though considerable, was exceptional.
Though crusades had not yet been preached, the strife with the Mussulman at once brought in the crusading element; to the Christian people of the island they were in many cases real deliverers; still, the actual process by which Sicily was won was not so very different from that by which Apulia had been won.
And the circumstances of his conquest were such that the true Normans among his following could not possibly lose themselves among the existing inhabitants of the island, while everything tended to make them lose themselves among their fellow-adventurers of other races, among whom, by the time the conquest was ended, they could hardly have been even a dominant element.
In the end something like a Sicilian nation did arise; but it arose rather by the dying out of several of the elements in the country, the Norman element among them, than by any such fusion as took place in England.
In his day a Latin element finally triumphed; but it was not a Norman or French-speaking element of any kind.
In the north there is a strong Brazilian element and the people are intensely conservative.
The military element, moreover, has frequently conspired to elect a president amenable to its demands.
The portion nearest the log-ship is known as the "stray line"; its length varies from ro to 20 fathoms, but should be sufficient to ensure that the log-ship shall be outside the disturbing element of the ship's wake.
On examination of the metal and its salts it was shown to be identical with the hypothetical element ekasilicon, whose properties had been predicted by D.
The element is of extremely rare occurrence, being met with only in argyrodite and, to a very small extent, in euxenite.
SULPHUR [[[symbol]] S, atomic weight 32.07 (0 = 16)], a non-metallic chemical element, known from very remote times and regarded by the alchemists, on account of its inflammable nature, as the principle of combustion; it is also known as brimstone.
The element occurs widely and abundantly distributed in nature both in the free state and in combination.
In combination the element chiefly occurs as metallic sulphides and sulphates.
The element also occurs in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. It is present in hair and wool, and in albuminous bodies; and is also a constituent of certain vegetable oils, such as the oils of garlic and mustard.
It wanted the element of legality, or at least of formality, which distinguished both these bodies.
The Christian apologist indeed may himself seek, following John Fiske, to philosophize evolution as a restatement of natural theology - " one God, one law, one element and one far-off divine event " - and as at least pointing towards personal immortality.
It is thus a common mineral in all copper mines, and sometimes occurs in large masses, as in Arizona and in South Australia, where it has been worked as an ore of copper, of which element it contains 55%.
So far he is in general agreement with Anaximander, but he differs from him in the solution of the problem, disliking, as a poet and a mystic, the primary matter which satisfied the patient researcher, and demanding a more vivid and picturesque element.
Each province of the empire, except the now disfranchised steppes of Central Asia, 7 returns a certainro ortion of members (fixed in each case by P P (Y law in such a way as to give a preponderance to the Russian element), in addition to those returned by certain of 2 M.
Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and - so far as one order of tribunal was concerned - the election of judges.
As a true daughter of the great Russian reformer, Elizabeth (1741-61) relegated the German element to a subordinate position in the administration and gave her confidence to genuine Russians like Bestuzhev, Vorontsov, Razumovski (her morganatic husband) and the Shuvalovs.
The only element of real strength that the statute acquired during the first twenty years of its history came from the Elkins Act of 1903, which stipulated that the published rate should be the legal rate, and declared any departure from the published rate to be a misdemeanour.
Such statistics are studied mainly with the object of learning the lessons which they may afford as to preventive measures for the future; and from this point of view the most important element is the single item of passengers killed in train accidents (a 1).
With increase of speeds this matter has become important as an element of comfort in passenger traffic. As a first approximation, the centre-line of a railway may be plotted out as a number of portions of circles, with intervening straight tangents connecting them, when the abruptness of the changes of direction will depend on the radii of the circular portions.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
Carbon is the important element in controlling hardness, and the amount present is in general higher in the United States than in Great Britain.
Rivail) forms a prominent element of spiritualistic belief.
Our data are nowhere so full as for India; where they are comparatively abundant they refer either to a civilized or semicivilized people, or to an area, like West Africa, where the influence of Islam has introduced a disturbing element.
it is expressly mentioned by Isidore of Seville as the sixth element in the Eucharistic service, De offic. eccles.
from the considerable progress of the Anglo-Catholic revival in most English-speaking countries that the idea of sacrifice has not yet ceased to be an important element in the general conception of religion.
The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is Scottish - Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos.
Personal religion now became an important element in Hebrew piety and upon this there logically followed the idea of personal responsibility.
Another element in this ideal scheme which comes into prominence is the sharp distinction between holy and profane.
This element of public confession for sin became more prominent in the days when synagogal worship developed, and prayer took the place of the sacrificial offerings which could only be offered in the Jerusalem temple.
The tiles of these roofs are glazed porcelain of the most exquisite deep-blue colour, and add a conspicuous element of splendour to the shrine.
In any case the association of Poseidon, representing the fertilizing element of moisture, with Demeter, who causes the plants and seeds to grow, is quite natural, and seems to have been widespread.
This being the case, we are at liberty to make the assumption that the intrinsic energy of each element (under specified conditions) is zero, without thereby introducing any risk of self-contradiction in thermochemical calculations.
For the prominence of the " southern " element in Judah see E.
Tobiah was cast out, the offending priest expelled, and a general purging followed, in which all the foreign element was removed.
The bitterness aroused by the ardent and to some extent unjust zeal of the reforming element can only be conjectured.
" The wealth they brought into the country, and their fruitful commercial activity, especially in the colonial trade, soon revealed them as an indispensable element of the prosperity of the city.
The Moslem element predominated in the principal towns, of which the population was - Candia, 21,368; Canea, 13,812; Retimo, 9274.
In the easternmost district of Crete, where the aboriginal " Eteocretan " element survived to historic times (Praesus, Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the 5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the indigenous language (Comparetti, Mon.
The remains of several shrines within the building, and the religious element perceptible in the frescoes, show that a considerable part of the Palace of Cnossus was devoted to purposes of cult.
It is abundantly evident that whatever mythic element may have been interwoven with the old traditions of the spot, they have a solid substratum of reality.
It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
The historic tradition which identifies with the Cretans the principal element of the Philistine confederation, and places the tomb of Minos himself in western Sicily, thus receives remarkable confirmation.
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
South Carolina led the extreme radical element in the South and was the first state to secede.
The native white element completely regained possession of the government in the following year, when the Democrats came into office under Governor Zebulon B.
In 1899 he was brought to trial on a charge of misappropriating state funds, and, although he was acquitted, the feeling among the reform element in his own party was so bitter against him that the legislature was deadlocked and his re-election was postponed for two years.
and fauna are essentially Asiatic in their type, while to the south and east the Australian element begins to be distinctly marked, soon to become predominant.
In this tract the rainfall is nowhere sufficient for the purposes of agriculture, which is only possible by help of irrigation; and the fixed population (which contains a non-Turkish element) is comparatively small, and restricted to the towns and the districts near the rivers.
The only element of uncertainty was caused by the retardation of the current, which between Potsdam and Teheran (3000 m.) took 0 8.20 to travel; but it is probable that the final value can be accepted as correct to within os 05.
Uzbegs and Kirghiz have but small affinity with the Mongol element of Asia.
The Turkoman is the purest form of the Turk element, and his language is the purest form of the Turkish tongue, which is represented at Constantinople by a comparatively mongrel, or mixed, dialect.
On the other hand Christianity, though Asiatic in its origin and essential ideas, has to a large extent taken its present form on European soil, and some of its most important manifestations - notably the Roman Church - are European reconstructions in which little of the Asiatic element remains.
From choice or compulsion large numbers settled in Egypt in the time of the Ptolemies, and added an appreciable element to Alexandrine culture, while gradual voluntary emigration established Jewish communities in Syria, Asia Minor, Greece and Italy, who facilitated the first spread of Christianity.
Bathsheba's influence added a new element of danger to the usual jealousies of the harem, and two of David's sons perished in vain attempts to claim the throne, which she appears to have viewed as the rightful inheritance of her own child.
The removal of the court to Jerusalem provided a suitable opportunity, and an element of jealousy even may not have been wanting.
" David "; and (on the romantic element in the narratives) Luther in Ed.
The didactic novel of Xenophon, the Cyropaedia, is a free invention adapted to the purposes of the author, based upon the account of Herodotus and occasionally influenced by Ctesias, without any independent traditional element.
The same element in the Brethren opposed a census, but according to Howard Miller's census of 1880 (Record of the Faithful) the number of Dunkers was 59,749 in that year; by the United States census of 1890 it was then 73,795; the figures for 1904 are given by Henry King Carroll in his.
contain an account of the intrusive Geto-Scythian element before alluded to.
Since that period the population has in the main been Teutonic; and the French conquests of the 17th century, while modifying this element, still left it predominant.
With the Roman Catholic element of the population he was less successful.
would give negative, surd or imaginary values; Diophantus then traces how each element of the equation has arisen, and formulates the auxiliary problem of determining how the assumptions must be corrected so as to lead to an equation (in place of the "impossible" one) which can be solved rationally.
Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
The opportunities which rotation cropping affords for the cleaning of the land from weeds is another distinct element of advantage.
In reasserting and amplifying the empirical conclusions of his predecessors, especially in the sphere of ethics, Mill's chief function was the introduction of the humanist element.
the mystic and ecstatic element is held in abeyance.
The system itself aims in principle at being thoroughly monistic; but, since matter, although created by God out of nothing, was regarded merely as the sphere in which souls are punished and purified, the system is pervaded by a strongly dualistic element.
Of this contribution to science, as of all the rest which have since proceeded from him, may be said in the words he himself has applied (ut supra, p. 271) to the work of another labourer in a not distant field: " This is a model paper for unbiassed observation, and freedom from that pleasant mode of supposing instead of ascertaining what is the true nature of an anatomical element."
In God there is no distinction or difference, whereas in all substances or things there is duality, arising from the element of matter.
- According to a conception of the world frequently found among peoples of the lower cultures, all the affairs of life are supposed to be under the control of spirits, each ruling a certain element or even object, and themselves in subjection to a greater spirit.
Side by side with the conception of the corn spirit as an animal is the anthropomorphic view of it; and this element must have predominated in the evolution of the cereal deities like Demeter; at the same time traces of the association of gods and goddesses of corn with animal embodiments of the corn spirit are found.
The supernatural element that is prominent in the Old Testament is God's providential guidance and guardianship of His people, and His teaching and training of them by His prophets.
It is indeed true that to thousands the hope of acquiring spiritual merit must have been a great motive; it is also true, as the records of crusading sermons show, that there was a strong element of "revivalism" in the Crusades, and that thousands were hurried into taking the cross by a gust of that uncontrollable enthusiasm which is excited by revivalist meetings to-day.
But for Innocent these outbursts of the revivalist element, which always accompanied the Crusades, had their moral: "the very children put us to shame," he wrote; "while we sleep 1 Already under Innocent III.
The Christians are an important element, constituting probably as much as a fifth of the whole population; the majority of them belong to the Orthodox Greek Church, which has two patriarchs in Syria, at Antioch and Jerusalem.
With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
About the beginning of the 10th century, however, the view was promulgated that the spontaneous production of helium from radium may be an instance of the transformation of one element into another.
He is the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the "uncontrolled use of analogy characteristic of early thought," the Baal is the god of the productive element in its widest sense.
His name occurs as an element in Carthaginian proper names (Hannibal, Hasdrubal, &c.), and a tablet found at Marseilles still survives to inform us of the charges made by the priests of the temple of Baal for offering sacrifices.
Worterbuch, who derives the element bel from an old Celtic root meaning shining, &c.) (W.
The other element is the inclination of the plane of the orbit to the fundamental plane, called the inclination simply.
A fifth element is the position of the pericentre, which may be expressed by its angular distance XFN from the ascending node.
Another element is the time of revolution of the body in its orbit, called its period.
RUTHENIUM [[[symbol]] Ru, atomic weight To' 7 (O = 0)1, in chemistry, a metallic element, found associated with platinum, in platinum ore and in osmiridium.
Owing to the counter-reformation the German element was driven out during the 18th century, and its place taken by the actual Slovak population.
In the mining districts of Pennsylvania the organization fell under the control of a lawless element,, 014k (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
Under this act the American element has exercised the controlling power, and this has proved distasteful to certain Porto Rican politicians.
At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.
Sometimes this principle has weight, and sometimes it has not; sometimes it is free fire and sometimes it is fire combined with the earthy element; sometimes it passes through the pores of vessels, sometimes these are impervious to it; it explains both causticity and non-causticity, transparency and opacity, colours and their absence; it is a veritable Proteus changing in form at each instant."
Hassenfratz and Adet, who assigned to each element a symbol, and to each compound a sign which should record the elements present and their relative quantities.
At a later date Berzelius denoted an oxide by dots, equal in number to the number of oxygen atoms present, placed over the element; this notation survived longest in mineralogy.
4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton: which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element.
the amount of an element which can combine with or replace unit weight of hydrogen, came into favour, being adopted by L.
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the temperature.
And from the study of compounds he showed that each element occurred in a definite weight or in some multiple of this weight.
This generalization was of great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the densities of its gasifiable compounds.
From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent weights.
According to this theory, an element in a compound had a definite saturation capacity, an idea very old in itself, being framed in the law of multiple proportions.
For the development of this classification see Element.
The masses of different elements which combine separately with one and the same mass of another element, are either the same as, or simple multiples of, the masses of these different elements which combine with each other.
Its systematic name is formed by replacing the last syllable of the electro-negative element by ide and prefixing the name of the other element.
If more than one compound be formed from the same two elements,, the difference is shown by prefixing such words as mono-, di-, tri-, sesqui-, per-, sub-, &c., to the last part of the name, or the suffixes -ous and -ic may be appended to the name of the first element.
The affixes -ous and sub- refer to the compounds containing more of the positive element, -ic and per- to those containing less.
An acid (q.v.) is a compound of hydrogen, which element can be replaced by metals, the hydrogen being liberated, giving substances named salts.
- Opposite the name of each element in the second column of the above table, the symbol is given which is always employed to represent it.
This symbol, however, not only represents the particular element, but a certain definite quantity of it.
Usually, when the symbols of the elements are written or printed with a figure to the right, it is understood that this indicates a molecule of the element, the symbol alone representing an atom.
In explanation of these facts it is supposed that each element has a certain number of " units of affinity," which may be entirely, or only in part, engaged when it enters into combination with other elements; and in those cases in which the entire number of units of affinity are not engaged by other elements, it is supposed that those which are thus disengaged neutralize each other, as it were.
According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an odd number, and vice versa, - in other words, that the number of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot be at one time an even and at another an odd number.
The number of units of affinity active in the case of any particular element is largely dependent, however, upon the nature of the element or elements with which it is associated.
If this be the case, however, it is evident that there is no real distinction between the reactions which take place when two elements combine together and when an element in a compound is displaced by another.
He extracted a substance to which he assigned the character of an element, naming it uranium (from O'pavos, heaven); but it was afterwards shown by E.
This element was investigated at a later date by Sir Henry Roscoe, and more thoroughly and successfully by C. Zimmermann and Alibegoff.
In the following year, 1795, Klaproth announced the discovery of a third new element, titanium; its isolation' (in a very impure form), as in the case of zirconium, was reserved for Berzelius.
In the following year he announced that silica was the oxide of a hitherto unrecognized element, which he named silicium, considering it to be a metal.
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
Courtois isolated the element iodine from " kelp," the burnt ashes of marine plants.
Stromeyer detected a new metallic element, cadmium, in certain zinc ores; it was rediscovered at subsequent dates by other observers and its chemical resemblance to zinc noticed.
Arfvedson, a pupil of Berzelius, detected a new element, which he named lithium, in various minerals - notably petalite.
Sefstrom definitely proved the existence of a metallic element vanadium, which had been previously detected (in 1801) in certain lead ores by A.
del Rio; subsequent elaborate researches by Sir Henry Roscoe showed many inaccuracies in the conclusions of earlier workers (for instance, the substance considered to be the pure element was in reality an oxide) and provided science with an admirable account of this element and its compounds.
Rose, who regarded niobium oxide as the element.
The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).
The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay Lussac and Davy.
Another element occurring in allotropic forms is sulphur, of which many forms have been described.
The allotropy of arsenic and antimony is also worthy of notice, but in the case of the first element the variation is essentially non-metallic, closely resembling that of phosphorus.
BdXXo, a green bud, on account of a brilliant green line in its spectrum) in the selenious mud of the sulphuric acid manufacture; the chemical affinities of this element, on the one hand approximating to the metals of the alkalis, and on the other hand to lead, were mainly established by C. A.
By such a study in the ultra-violet region of a fraction prepared from crude yttria he detected a new element victorium, and subsequently by elaborate fractionation obtained the element itself.
In 1841 Mosander, having in 1839 discovered a new element lanthanum in the mineral cerite, isolated this element and also a hitherto unrecognized substance, didymia, from crude yttria, and two years later he announced the determination of two fresh constituents of the same earth, naming them erbia and terbia.
In 1878 Marignac, having subjected Mosander's erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examination, announced the presence of a new element, ytterbium; this discovery was confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia.
Instances had already been recorded of cases where a halogen element replaced hydrogen with the production of a closely allied substance: Gay Lussac had prepared cyanogen chloride from hydrocyanic acid; Faraday, hexachlorethane from ethylene dichloride, &c. Here the electronegative halogens exercised a function similar to electro-positive hydrogen.
In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and no matter which one may be substituted by another element or group the same compound will result.
These values, however, require modification in certain cases, for discrepancies occur which can be reconciled in some cases by assuming that the atomic value of a polyvalent element varies according to the distribution of its valencies.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
Since the atomic heat of the same element varies with its state of aggregation, it must be concluded that some factor taking this into account must be introduced; moreover, the variation of specific heat with temperature introduces another factor.
each element retains the same heat capacity when in combination as in the free state.
In the determination of the atomic weight of an element two factors must be considered: (I) its equivalent weight, i.e.
the amount which is equivalent to one part of hydrogen; and (2) a factor which denotes the number of atoms of hydrogen which combines with or is equivalent to one atom of the particular element.
Similarly, by this method of differences, the atomic refraction of any element may be determined.
It is found, however, that the same element has not always the same atomic refraction, the difference being due to the nature of the elements which saturate its valencies.
If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.
S, Se; Te (in tellurides); Cr, Mn, Te (in the acids H 2 RO 4); As, Sb (in the glances MR2) As, Sb, Bi; Te (as an element); P, Vd (in salts); N, P (in organic bases).
In his theories the element of mystical speculation for the first time comes to the front as all-important.
If the Hittites were Aryans, one can hardly suppose a primeval Aryan element in Anatolia.
the "lady of power," if the explanation suggested in BEL for the second element is correct.
A partisan element in writing of French affairs was inevitable in a Burgundian chronicle.
In the anticipations of the future prevalent amongst the early Christians (c. 50-150) it is necessary to distinguish a fixed and a fluctuating element.
But wherever theocratic organizations established themselves slavery in the ordinary sense did not become a vital element in the social system.
Thus, the slave element tended to merge itself in the general popular body.
We have seen that slavery was a fundamental element of the old Roman constitution.
The myriads of the angelic hosts who people this world are divided into ten ranks, answering to the ten Sephiroth, and each one of these numerous angels is set over a different part of the universe, and derives his name from the heavenly body or element which he guards (Zohar, i.
While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.
They differ from the older writers in practically ignoring the physical supernatural - that is, though they regard the miracles of the ancient times (referred to particularly in Wisdom xvi.-xix.) as historical facts, they say nothing of a miraculous element in the life of their own time.
Like the prophetical writings before Ezekiel, the Wisdom books, while they recognize the sacrificial ritual as an existing custom, attach little importance to it as an element of religious life (the fullest mention of it is in Ecclus.
The urban element is larger than in any other southern state, owing to the large population of New Orleans.
This evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) - a similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769.
In 1825 legislative sanction was given to the greater part of a civil code prepared by a commission (including Livingston) appointed in 1821, and the French element became steadily more important.
Mainly owing to the large element of transient foreign whites without families (long characteristic of Cuba), males outnumber females - in 1907 as 21 to 19.
Its seems certain that the African element has been holding its own in the population totals since emancipation.
The religious element has always been a dominating factor in the life of the city.
A non-metallic chemical element, first isolated in 1772 by D.
The alien element is small, consisting chiefly of Austro-Hungarians, gipsies, Italians and Jews.
The mainstay of the Ottoman dynasty is the Asiatic portion of the empire, where the Mahommedan religion is absolutely predominant, and where the naturally vigorous and robust Turki race forms in Asia Minor a compact mass of many millions, far outnumbering any other single ethnical element and probably equalling all taken collectively.
So long as Stambolov, the energetic Bulgarian statesman, was alive he succeeded in keeping the Bulgarian element quiet, and the peace of the country was less liable to disturbance.
They speak a language with an admixture of Tatar words, and some of their stems contain a large Tatar element.
It was originally a collegiate charitable institution, its basis being a fund for the schooling of ministers, and the charity element has remained very large relatively to other colleges.
They form now the chief ethnical element in Bolivia, but are of very mixed blood.
By his casting vote at a critical period during the debate in the Senate on the tariff bill of 1846, he irretrievably lost his influence with the protectionist element of his native state, to whom he had given assurances of his support of the Tyler tariff of 1842.
But when the story passes to Ireland Muirchu's narrative becomes full of the mythical element.
The electrochemical equivalent of any other substance, whether element or compound, may be found by multiplying its chemical equivalent by I 036X Io-5.
If an element be present in a compound otherwise than as an ion, it is not interchangeable, and cannot be recognized by the usual tests.
Most articles made of cut sheet rubber would, however, be of very limited utility were they not hardened or vulcanized by the action of sulphur or some compound of that element.
If an article made of cut sheet be immersed for a few minutes in a bath of melted sulphur, maintained at a temperature of 120 0 C., the rubber absorbs about one-tenth of its weight of that element, and, although somewhat yellowish in colour from the presence of free sulphur, it is still unvulcanized, and unaltered as regards general properties.
In 1861, while conducting a spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862.
Each row as well as each column supplies one and only one element to each member of the determinant.
Consideration of the definition of the determinant shows that the value is unaltered when the suffixes in each element are transposed.
From the value of A we may separate those members which contain a particular element a ik as a factor, and write the portion aik A ik; A k, the cofactor of ar k, is called a minor of order n - i of the determinant.
No member of a determinant can involve more than one element from the first row.
We may therefore differentiate again in regard to any element ars where r>
We may say that, in the resulting determinant, the element in the ith row and k th column is obtained by multiplying the elements in the kth row of the first determinant severally by the elements in the ith row of the second, and has the expression aklb11+ak2b12+ak3b13ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ +aknbin, and we obtain other expressions by transforming either or both determinants so as to read by columns as they formerly did by rows.
The Adjoint or Reciprocal Determinant arises from A = (a11a22a33 ...a nn) by substituting for each element A ik the corresponding minor Aik so as to form D = (A 11 A 22 A 33 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ A nn).
If we form the product A.D by the theorem for the multiplication of determinants we find that the element in the i th row and k th column of the product is akiAtil+ak2A12 +ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ +aknAin, the value of which is zero when k is different from i, whilst it has the value A when k=i.
38) though the difference is apt to be exaggerated by those who forget how much of the element of r7 44c1,4: lies in Paul's conception of 7rioiris.
Lead generally functions as a divalent element of distinctly metallic character, yielding a definite series of salts derived from the oxide PbO.
To this element prob ably belongs the story of the schoolmaster who, when Camillus was attacking Falerii, attempted to betray the town by bringing into his camp the sons of some of the principal inhabitants of the place.
Further, it is increasingly felt that ethical judgments do not depend on reason alone, but involve every element in our character; and that the real problem of practical morality is to establish a harmonious balance between the intelligence and the feelings - to make a man's "I think this is right" correspond with his "I feel that it is so."
The best hypothesis in the writer's opinion is that maintained by Charles Tissot, who sees in the word " Africa " the name of the great Berber tribe, the Aourigha (whose name would have been pronounced Afarika), the modern Aouraghen, now driven back into the Sahara, but in ancient times the principal indigenous element of the African empire of Carthage (Tissot, Geogr.
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
To Aristotle matter is the undifferentiated primal element: it is rather that from which things develop (U7roKE4tEvov, Siuvaµus) than a thing in itself (ivep-yeta).
In 1904 although not actively a candidate for the Democratic nomination (which eventually went to Judge Parker), he was to the very last considered a possible nominee; and he strenuously opposed in the convention the repudiation by the conservative element of the stand taken in the two previous campaigns.
It is popularly used of a relation between persons amounting to more than goodwill or friendship. By ethical writers the word has been used generally of distinct states of feeling, both lasting and spasmodic; some contrast it with "passion" as being free from the distinctively sensual element.
that it does not involve anxiety or excitement, that it is comparatively inert and compatible with the entire absence of the sensuous element - it is generally and usefully distinguished from passion.
As all intellectual phenomena have by experimentalists been reduced to sensation, so all emotion has been and is regarded as reducible to simple mental affection, the element of which all emotional manifestations are ultimately composed.
The nature of this element is a problem which has been provisionally, but not conclusively, solved by many psychologists; the method is necessarily experimental, and all experiments on feeling are peculiarly difficult.
The other element which enters into consideration is the time required for light to pass from the sun to the earth.
The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
The theoretical element is the ratio of the parallactic inequality to the solar parallax.
If the magnet is not uni - form, the magnetization at any point is the ratio of the moment of an element of volume at that point to the volume itself, or I = m.ds/dv.
where ds is the length of the element.
The direction of the magnetization is that of the magnetic axis of the element;'in isotropic substances it coincides with the direction of the magnetic force at the point.
The body (or each element of it) will tend to set itself with its axis of greatest susceptibility parallel to the lines of force, while, if the field is not uniform, each volume-element will also tend to move towards places of greater or smaller force (according as the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic), the tendency being a maximum when the axis of greatest susceptibility is parallel to the field, and a minimum when it is perpendicular to it.
The first column contains the symbols of the various elements which were added to the iron, and the second the percentage proportion in which each element was present; the sample containing 0.03% of carbon was a specimen of the best commercial iron, the values obtained for it being given for comparison.
From his first tutor, Johann Delbriick, he imbibed a love of culture and art, and possibly also the dash of Liberalism which formed an element of his complex habit of mind.
--Diagrams of the meta-sternite st, who showed that with genital operculum op, and the first lamellithe statements of gerous pair of appendages ga, with uniting von Graber were sternal element st of Scorpio (left) and Limulus erroneous, and (right).
- Thelyphonus sp. Ventral view of the anterior portion of the body to show the three prosomatic sternal plates a, b, c, and the rudimentary sternal element of the praegenital somite; opisth 1, first somite of the opisthosoma.
c, Dorsal element of somites bearing third and fourth pairs of appendages.
Sternal plate of prosoma long and narrow, with a distinct prosternal element underlying the mouth.
Sternal plate of prosoma usually short and wide, rarely longer than broad; with a larger or smaller prosternal element underlying the mouth.
Orifice of coxal gland probably situated at base of coxa of 5th appendage; sternal plate of prosoma minute or absent; no prosternal element underlying the mouth.
The personal element is conspicuous in the Brazilian journalism, and for a considerable period of its history libellous attacks on persons, signed by professional sponsors, popularly called testas de ferro (iron heads), were admitted at so much a line in the best newspapers.
Under the leadership of General Deodoro da Fonseca a praetorian system of government, in which the military element was all-powerful, came into existence, and continued till February 1891, when a national congress assembled and formulated the constitution for the United States of Brazil.
This policy received the approval and sympathy of the majority of Brazilians, but naturally met with bitter opposition from the military element.
The settled population is barely a million; but there is a considerable unsettled element in the S.E.which cannot well be estimated.
The commission declared that the chasm between the native and white races had been broadening for years and that the efforts of the administration - especially since the grant of responsible government - to reconcile the Kaffirs to the changed conditions of rule and policy and to convert them into an element of strength had been ineffective.
Anselm's natural element was theology, and the high metaphysical questions which are as it were the obverse of theology.
If they were diverse, he argued, there must exist above them some higher or common element or being, in which case this would be God, nous, or the original matter.
A tolerably evident shortcoming of such a doctrine is that, while declaring the quantitative determination of matter to be the individual element in the individual, it gives no account of how such quantitative determination arises.
A perfectly formless matter (materia prima) was regarded by him as the universal substratum and common element of all finite existences.
The Realists, he considers, have greatly sinned against this maxim in their theory of a real universal or common element in all the individuals of a class.
A characteristic feature of cancer is the carrying of the epithelial cells (which are the essential element of the growth) to the nearest lymphatic glands, and in cancer of the stomach the secondary implication of the glands may cause the formation of large masses between the stomach and the liver, which may press upon the large veins and give rise to dropsy.
A large proportion of the captives of the Magyars had been settled all over the country to teach their conquerors the arts of peace, and close contact with this civilizing element was of itself an of enlightenment.
The ancient county system was gradually absorbed by this new governing element.
The question now was: how far the military would subordinate itself to the civil element of the national government.
Its representative element consisted of loo members elected by the provinces.
Yet it can scarcely be denied that several of the " foreign " novelists have contributed a wholesome, if not quite Magyar, element of form or thought to literary narrative style in Hungary.
His treatise on algebra and arithmetic (the latter part of which is only extant in the form of a Latin translation, discovered in 1857) contains nothing that was unknown to the Greeks and Hindus; it exhibits methods allied to those of both races, with the Greek element predominating.
Yugoslavia's relations with Albania, though simplified by this decision, have been affected by the Albanian counterclaim to Pee, Djakovo and the plain of Kosovo, where since the middle of last century the Albanian element had grown steadily stronger at the expense of the Serbs.
The wave motion due to any element of the surface is called a secondary wave, and in estimating the total effect regard must be paid to the phases as well as the amplitudes of the components.
The,ideal surface of resolution may be there regarded as a flexible lamina; and we know that, if by forces locally applied every element of the lamina be made to move normally to itself exactly as the air at that place does, the external aerial motion is fully determined.
By the principle of superposition the whole effect may be found by integration of the partial effects due to each element of the surface, the other elements remaining at rest.
For the aggregate effect of the secondary waves is the half of that of the first Fresnel zone, and it is the central element only of that zone for which the distance to be travelled is equal to r.
The phase of the resultant is midway between those of the extreme elements, that is to say, a quarter of a period behind that due to the element at the centre of the circle.
The middle element alone contributes without deduction; the effect of every other must be found by introduction of a resolving factor, equal to cos 0, if 0 represent the difference of phase between this element and the resultant.
If the primary wave at 0 be cos kat, the effect of the secondary wave proceeding from the element dS at Q is dS 1 dS - p cos k(at - p+ 4 A) = - -- sin k(at - p).
Although the matter can be fully treated only upon the basis of a dynamical theory, it is proper to point out at once that there is an element of assumption in the application of Huygens's principle to the calculation of the effects produced by opaque screens of limited extent.
The latter element enters only when it is a question of recognizing the duplicity of a double star, or of distinguishing detail upon the surface of a planet.
The directions of the lateral spectra are such that the passage from one element of the grating to the corresponding point of the next implies a retardation of an integral number of wave-lengths.
The lateral (spectral) images occur in such directions that the projection of the element (a+d) of the grating upon them is an exact multiple of X.
We have now to consider the amplitude due to a single element, which we may conveniently regard as composed of a transparent part a bounded by two opaque parts of width id.
6), and the diffracted rays make an angle ¢ (upon the same side), the relative retardation from each element of width (a+d) to the next is (a+d) (sin 9 +sin op); and this is the quantity which is to be equated to mX.
The latter element must eventually be decreased until less than the diameter of the pupil of the eye.
When, in order to apply Huygens's principle, the wave is supposed to be broken up, the phase is the same at every element of the surface of resolution which lies upon a line perpendicular to the plane of reference, and thus the effect of the whole line, or rather infinitesimal strip, is related in a constant manner to that of the element which lies O in the plane of reference, and may be considered to be represented thereby.
(19), 1 abA) ' ' we may write 12= (cos 27rv 2 .dv) 2 + (f sin zirv 2 .dv) 2 (20), or, according to our previous notation, 12 = (2 - C 2 +(z - Sv)2= G2 +H2 Now in the integrals represented by G and H every element diminishes as V increases from zero.
The co-ordinates of J, J' being (- z, - z), I 2 is 2; and the phase is, period in arrear of that of the element at 0.
According to this notation, the three equations of motion are dt2 = b2v2E + (a2 - b2) d.s dt =b2v2rj+(a2 - b2) dy d2 CIF - b2p2+(a2_b2)dz It is to be observed that denotes the dilatation of volume of the element situated at (x, y, z).
" Let E = o,7 7 = o, =f (bt - x) be the displacements corresponding to the incident light; let O l be any point in the plane P (of the wave-front), dS an element of that plane adjacent to 01; and consider the disturbance due to that portion only of the incident disturbance which passes continually across dS.
The conception of the lamina leads immediately to two schemes, according to which a primary wave may be supposed to be broken up. In the first of these the element dS, the effect of which is to be estimated, is supposed to execute its actual motion, while every other element of the plane lamina is maintained at rest.
When the secondary disturbance thus obtained is integrated with respect to dS over the entire plane of the lamina, the result is necessarily the same as would have been obtained had the primary wave been supposed to pass on without resolution, for this is precisely the motion generated when every element of the lamina vibrates with a common motion, equal to that attributed to dS.
If, instead of supposing the motion at dS to be that of the primary wave, and to be zero elsewhere, we suppose the force operative over the element dS of the lamina to be that corresponding to the primary wave, and to vanish elsewhere, we obtain a secondary wave following quite a different law.
If we suppose that the force impressed upon the element of mass D dx dy dz is DZ dx dy dz, being everywhere parallel to the axis of Z, the only change required in our equations (I), (2) is the addition of the term Z to the second member of the third equation (2).
(11), where r is the distance between the element dx dy dz and the point where a l is estimated, and k = n/b = 27r/X (12), X being the wave-length.
(16), secondary disturbance corresponding to the element dS of the plane may be supposed to be that caused by a force of the above magnitude acting over dS and vanishing elsewhere; and it only remains to examine what the result of such a force would be.
The Cimmerians who preceded the Scythians used Iranian proper names, and probably represented this Iranian element in greater purity.
This comes to much the same thing, as the Massagetae seem to have contained an element which had come in from the land of the Issedones.
Again, the Scythic style is interesting as being one element in the art of the barbarians who conquered the Roman Empire and the zoomorphic decoration of the early middle ages.
It is probable that the Iranian element was stronger among the Sarmatae, whose power extended as the ruling clan of the Scyths became extinct; but it is quite likely that they in their turn were officered by some new horde from upper Asia.
URANIUM [[[symbol]] U, atomic weight 238.5 (0=16)], a metallic chemical element.
The British element is chiefly gathered in Johannesburg and other towns on the Rand and in Pretoria.
The natives are found chiefly in Zoutpansberg district, 1 For most purposes this military element is omitted in the census returns.
As his design took shape he expanded the supernatural element and made the narratives autobiographical.
On the other hand, there is an epithet Asir or Ashir ("overseer") applied to several gods and particularly to the deity Asur, a fact which introduced a third element of confusion into the discussion of the name Assur.
stannum, whence the chemical symbol "Sn"; atomic weight =117.6, 0= 16), a metallic chemical element.
Of minerals containing this element mention may be made of cassiterite or tinstone, Sn02, tin pyrites, Cu 4 SnS 4 + (Fe,Zn) 2 SnS 4; the metal also occurs in some epidotes, and in company with columbium, tantalum and other metals.
We know but little of Isaiah's predecessors and models in the prophetic art (it were fanaticism to exclude the element of human preparation); but certainly even the acknowledged prophecies of Isaiah (and much more the disputed ones) could no more have come into existence suddenly and without warning than the masterpieces of Shakespeare.
Accordingly his assertion of the unity of God was at the same time a declaration of the unity of Being, and in virtue of this declaration he is entitled to rank as the founder of Eleaticism, inasmuch as the philosophy of Parmenides was his forerunner's pantheism divested of its theistic element.
Perhaps a closer approximation would be to rate the creole element (whites of European descent) at 10%, as in Colombia, and the mixed races at 70%, the remainder consisting of Africans, Indians and resident foreigners.
The term hypertrophy is used when the individual tissue elements become bigger to meet the demands of greater functional activity; hyperplasia, if there is an increase in the number of these elements; and pseudo-hypertrophy, when the specific tissue element is largely replaced by another tissue.
We have already compared the body to a social community, each constituent element of which - the cell - lives its own life but subordinates its individuality to the good of the whole organism.
As fat is a food element essential to the carrying out of the vital energies of the cell, a certain amount of fatty matter must be present, in a form, however, unrecognizable by our present microchemical and staining methods.
Hence the elementary arc divided by the element of time is the rate of change of velocity of the moving-point, or in other words, the velocity in the hodograph is the acceleration in the orbit.
The real name is accordingly to be sought in En-lil, of which the first element again has the force of "lord" and the second presumably "might," "power," and the like, though this cannot be regarded as certain.
In the first sea-fight, which took place simultaneously with the capture of Plemmyrium, they had been unsuccessful; but in the spring of 413 they actually won a victory over the Athenians in their own element.
The Jewish element appears to have' been important among the students, and possibly among the professors.
On the other hand, inheritance was dismissed, or survived only as a "susceptibility," in the cases of tubercle, leprosy and some other maladies now recognized as infectious; while in others, as in syphilis, it was seen to consist in a translation of the infectious element from parent to offspring.
A few years later further work, with Albert Ladenburg, on the same element yielded silicochloroform and:led to a demonstration of the close analogy existing between the behaviour in combination of silicon and carbon.
But they still hold their ground as the ruling element in the region between the Limpopo and the middle Zambezi, which from them takes the name of Matabeleland.
In the majority of instances, however, the estimates of undeveloped ore contain a large element of uncertainty.
Where the deposit is uncertain and the element of risk is large, we must adopt a high rate of interest on investments of capital in our computations of value - in some cases as high as 10, 15 or even 20%.
SILICON [[[symbol]] Si, atomic weight 28.3 (0=16)], a nonmetallic chemical element.
The element exists in two forms, one amorphous, the other crystalline.
A somewhat impure silicon (containing 90-98% of the element) is made by the Carborundum Company of Niagara Falls (United States Patents 745 122 and 842273, 1908) by heating coke and sand in an electric furnace.
Suppose the ship turns about an axis through F in the water-line area, perpendicular to the plane of the paper; denoting by y the distance of an element dA if the water-line area from the axis of rotation, the change of displacement is EydA tan 8, so that there is no change of displacement if EydA = o, that is, if the axis passes through the C.G.
Irrotational Motion in General.-Liquid originally at rest in a singly-connected space cannot be set in motion by a field of force due to a single-valued potential function; any motion set up in the liquid must be due to a movement of the boundary, and the motion will be irrotational; for any small spherical element of the liquid may be considered a smooth solid sphere for a moment, and the normal pressure of the surrounding liquid cannot impart to it any rotation.
On the other hand, from Withraed's and Alfred's laws downwards, the element of enactment by central authority becomes more and more prominent.
Frankish law becomes a powerful modifying element in English legal history after the Conquest, when it was introduced wholesale in royal and in feudal courts.
Thus the name of the deity, which enters as an element in a large proportion of the proper names,' was almost invariably written with the sign or signs representing this deity, and it is only exceptionally that the name is spelled phonetically.
In many names the divine element is lopped off, but was originally present.
Besides the divine element, proper names as a rule in the Babylonian-Assyrian periods had a verbal form attached and a third element representing an object.
Similarly in the case of the sign MU, which, besides signifying " name " as above pointed out, is also the Sumerian word for " give," and therefore may be read iddin, " he gave," from nadanu, or may be read nadin, " giver "; and when, as actually happens, a name occurs in which the first element is the name of a deity followed by MU-MU, a new element of doubt is introduced through the uncertainty whether the first MU is to be taken as a form of the verb nadanu and the second as the noun shumu, " name," or vice versa.
offspring), and " Bel is the giver of a name," form the model for names with deities as the first element followed by MU-MU, even though the model may not be consistently followed in all cases.
From such names it is only a step to names of one element, a characteristic feature of which is the frequent addition of an ending -turn (feminine), an, a, um, atum, atija, sha, &c., most of these being " hypocoristic affixes," corresponding in a measure to modern pet-names.
They show that whether Boghaz Keui was actually the capital of the Hatti or not, it was a great city of the Hatti, and that the latter were an important element in Cappadocia from very early times.
Winckler has adduced evidence from names of local gods to show that there was an Indo-European racial element in Mitanni; but none for a similar element in the Hatti, whose chief god was Teshub.
Thus the human element is reduced to zero, and the conception of prophecy becomes mechanical.
And as the personal element disappears in the conception of the prophetic calling, so it tends to disappear in the prophetic view of history, and the future comes to be conceived not as the organic result of the present under the divine guidance, but as mechanically determined from the beginning in the counsels of God, and arranged under artificial categories of time.
Throughout the preRevolutionary disturbances in Massachusetts he was the representative of the British ministry, and though he disapproved of some of the ministerial measures he felt impelled to enforce them and necessarily incurred the hostility of the Whig or Patriot element.
The second element in the composition of the island consists of Mesozoic beds, which occur in a broken band along most of the south-western coast.
The chief disadvantage is the loss of nitrogen which it entails, this element being given off into the air in a free gaseous state.
Much influence is ascribed to this heathen element by Lujo Brentano, Karl Hegel, W.
The religious element was more prominent in Orcy's gild at Abbotsbury and in the fraternity at Exeter; their ordinances exhibit much solicitude for the salvation of the brethren's souls.
ZINC, a metallic chemical element; its symbol is Zn, and atomic weight 65.37 (0= 16).
In 1832 he published, jointly with Willer, one of the most famous papers in the history of chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
It can readily be seen that in a government of this kind the essential operative element was the baron.
The population still exhibits a marked Slavonic element.
In southern Arabia the Jews form a large element in the town population.
They wear a distinctive garb and are not allowed to carry arms or live in the same quarter as Moslems. Another foreign element of considerable strength in the coast towns of Muscat, Aden and Jidda, is the British Indian trading class; many families of Indian origin also have settled at Mecca, having originally come as pilgrims.
On his death in 1897 his nephew Abdul-Aziz, son of the murdered amir Matab, succeeded; during his reign a new element has been introduced into Nejd politics by the rising importance of Kuwet (Koweit) and the attempts R t g P () P history.
The fall of Sana made a deep impression t Constantinople, every effort was made to hasten out reinforcements, the veteran Ahmad Feizi Pasha was nominated to the supreme command, and Anatolian troops in place of the unreliable Syrian element were detailed.
While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of Slavic territory east of the Elbe.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
Still later another element was added to the population in the introduction by the Turkish masters of Egypt of a number of Bosnians.
In this instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strengthened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout Austria.
The German element is, of course, the most numerous, but there are also a great number of Hungarians, Czechs and other Slays.
(0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element.
Its discovery as an element was due to William Gregor in 1789 who found in the mineral ilmenite or menachinite a new earth, which was regarded as the oxide of a new metal, menachin.
Independently of him Klaproth in 1793 discovered a new metal in rutile, and called it titanium; he subsequently found that it was identical with Gregor's element.
But, like all the great paradoxes of philosophy, it has its value in directing our attention to a vital, yet much neglected, element of experience.
We cannot avoid solipsism (q.v.) so long as we neglect the element of force or power.
Iberians thus meant sometimes the population of the peninsula in general and sometimes, it would appear, the peoples of some definite race (yEvos) which formed one element in that population.
The Guelph and popular element which constituted the force and prosperity of Florence was hostile to Pisa, and led to its downfall.
Owing to the political and commercial interests binding Florence to the Roman court, the Guelph element naturally prevailed there, while the growth of its trade and commerce necessarily compelled that state to encroach on waters subject to Pisan rule.
These legends seem primarily to belong to Crete; and the Athenian element in them which connected Daedalus with the royal house of Erechtheus is a later fabrication.
On the other hand, the flora of the shat region, of the south-eastern littoral, and of the Kerkena islands opposite Sfax, is thoroughly Saharan, with a dash, as it were, in places of an African element.
The presence of the Romans, and the constant introduction of the Italians, first as slaves, and quite recently as colonists, has also added an Italian element to the north Tunisian population.
In fact, it is thought by some French students of the country that the Arab element will probably be eliminated from Tunisia, as it is the most unsettled.
The Latin element in Africa and the Christian faith almost disappeared in a single generation; 1 the Berbers of the [1 The North African Church was not utterly swept away by the Moslem conquest, though its numbers at that time were very greatly diminished, and thereafter fell gradually to vanishing point, partly by emigration to Europe.
The name Jhvh enters into the composition of many proper names of persons in the Old Testament, either as the initial element, in the form Jehoor Jo- (as in Jehoram, Joram), or as the final element, in the form -jahu or -jah (as in Adonijahu, Adonijah).
von Hiigel's Mystical Element in Religion (1909).
STRONTIUM [[[Symbol]] Sr, atomic weight 87.62 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element belonging to the alkaline earth group. It is found in small quantities very widely distributed in various rocks and soils, and in mineral waters; its chief sources are the minerals strontianite, celestine and barytocelestine.
There was a distinct Roman element in Iconium, arising doubtless from the presence of Roman traders.
The first step in this direction is to arrange scientific method and positive knowledge in order, and this brings us to another cardinal element in the Comtist system, the classification of the sciences.
Is there any one element which communicates the decisive impulse to all the rest, - any predominating agency in the course of social evolution?
The Reason is the superior andre onderant element which settles the direction p p in which all the other faculties shall expand.
Clearly they must work from the strongest element in human nature, and this element is Feeling or the Heart.
The family, which is so important an element of the Comtist scheme of things, exists to carry the influence of woman over man to the highest point of cultivation.
From about 1845 to 1880 most of the immigrants were Irish, but since 1880 the French-Canadians have constituted the chief element.
The Republican machine finds it easy with the support of the millionaire summer colony at Newport and the street railway corporations to corrupt the French-Canadians and a portion of the native element in the rural towns and maintain absolute control of the state government.
element in poetry, and for the earliest developments of national literature.
It appears in various forms in Indian philosophy, and is the characteristically oriental element in syncretic systems like Neoplatonism and Gnosticism.
Pop. (1900) 33,152, including a large Indian element.
More important than either of these types as an element of the Japanese nation is the Malay.
They are descendants of feudal days when the mercantile element, being counted as the dregs of the population, lost its self-respect.
Painting and Engraving.Tn Japanese art the impressionist element is predominant.
These internecine disturbances had been unfavourable to any new departure in art, except in matters appertaining to arms and armour, and the strife between two puppet emperors for a shadow of authority in the 14th century brought another distracting element.
But it is impossible to admit within the circle of high-art productions these wooden figures of everyday men and women, unrelieved by any subjective element, and owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and their anatomical proportions preserved.
But the ware has never found favor in Japanese eyes, an element of unpleasant garishness being imparted to it by the vitreous appearance of the glaze, which is manufactured according to European methods.
In science, the more we know the more extensive" the contact with surrounding nescience."In religion the really vital and constant element is the sense of mystery.
Nevertheless pleasure forms an "inexpugnable element" of the moral aim (§ 16).
Hence the fear with which the political, religious and social controls were regarded came to be associated also with the specifically moral control of lower by higher feelings, and engendered the coercive element in the feeling of obligation.
This principle more or less prevailed until it was overthrown by Lavoisier's doctrine that oxygen was the acid-producing element; Lavoisier being led to this conclusion by the almost general observation that acids were produced when non-metallic elements were burnt.
We must, however, study this element in the most important Babylonian tradition, even if only for its relation to non-Semitic myths and especially to some striking passages in the Bible (Isa.
An important element in this culture would be mythic representations of the origin of things, such as the Babylonian Creation and Deluge-stories in various forms. Indeed, not only Canaan but all the neighbouring regions must have been pervaded by Babylonian views of the universe and its origin.
i., therefore, has not, as it stands, been directly borrowed from Babylonia, and yet the infused Babylonian element is so considerable that the story is, in a purely formal aspect, much more Babylonian than either Israelitish or Canaanitish or N.
Power passed into the hands of John de Witt, who represented the oligarchic element and the special interests of one province, Holland, and was taken from the Orange party which represented the more democratic element and the more general interests of the Seven Provinces.
Their motions in the water are almost as rapid as they are uncertain and awkward when the animals are removed out of their proper element.
The colouring is that of classic mythology, but the spiritual element is as individual as that of any classical poem by Milton, Gray, Keats or Tennyson.
More than Naevius and Plautus he represented the pure native element in that literature, the mind and character of Latium, the plebeian pugnacity, which was one of the great forces in the Roman state.
But command over form is only one element in the making of an orator or poet.
Another new element is the influence of a new race.
The new extraneous element introduced into Roman literature draws into greater prominence the characteristics of the last great representatives of the genuine Roman and Italian spirit - the historian Tacitus and the satirist Juvenal.
(d) Sunnite Moslems are a weak element, strongest in Shuf and Kurah, and composed largely of Druse renegades and "Druse" families, which, like the Shehab, were of Arab extraction and never conformed to the creed of Hamza.
The common calendar and cycle of festivals, observed by all Dorians (of which the Carneia was chief), and the distribution in Greece of the worships of Apollo and Heracles, which attained pre-eminence mainly in or near districts historically " Dorian," suggest that these cults, or an important element in them, were introduced comparatively late, and represent the beliefs of a fresh ethnic superstratum.
But, while the Tsarist regime, unable to denationalize a homogeneous population of a different religion and language, initially conceded a minimum of rights to the Polish nation, in Lithuania proper from the outset an unrelenting system of tyranny was established which was designed to break by force every non-Russian element in the country.
We can take the sum of all the products of the length of each element by the resolved part of the electric force in its direction.
Since the potential of a small charge of electricity dQ at a distance r is equal to dQ/r, and since the potential of all parts of a conductor is the same in those cases in which the distribution of surface density of electrification is uniform or symmetrical with respect to some point or axis in the conductor, we can calculate the potential by simply summing up terms like rdS/r, where dS is an element of surface, o- the surface density of electricity on it, and r the distance from the symmetrical centre.
Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.
Thus if the ellipsoid is one of revolution, and ds is an element of arc which sweeps out the element of surface dS, we have dS = 27ryds = 27rydx/ (Ts) = 27rydx/ (b y) = 2 p2 dx.
Let dS be an element of the surface.
Then the electric force due to the point s' charge q at distance x is q/x, and the resolved part normal to the element of surface dS is q cos0/x 2.
If a is the surface density and dS an element of surface, then fadS is the whole charge, and hence afV adS is the expression for the energy of charge of a conductor.
Place, again, as we have seen, was an essential element even in the conception of the numen, and is therefore all-important in ritual.
GOLD [[[symbol]] Au, atomic weight 1 95.7(11 = I),197 2(O =16)], a metallic chemical element, valued from the earliest ages on account of the permanency of its colour and lustre.
Whichever element is emphasized in preaching, the preacher is one who believes himself to be the ambassador of God, charged with a message which it is his duty to deliver.
The didactic element was no longer in sole possession of the field, for the inrush of multitudes to the Christian faith and the building of large churches necessitated a return to the evangelical or proclamatory type of sermon.
Finally, we have the expulsion of the Jews from Russia as an example of the effort of a community to get rid of an element which has made itself obnoxious to the local sentiment.
The valuable element is the able-bodied immigrant himself as a factor of production.
Pop. (1889), 34, 28 4; (5905), 49,817; there is a considerable German element in the vicinity.
It seems also that the charge would increase with the atomic weight of the element.
to the number of the element in a complete series of the elements arranged in ascending order, but hitherto no atomic property had been discovered which could be definitely represented by this number.
It is now generally accepted that this number, experimentally determined by Moseley for a number of elements, defines the physical and chemical properties of the particular element.
BISMUTH, a metallic chemical element; symbol Bi, atomic weight 208.5 (0 = 16).
Afghan tribes, who had originally dwelt far to the east, were first settled at Herat by Nadir Shah, and from that time they have monopolized the government and formed the dominant element in the population.
In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.
Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, pp. 89 ff.).
It is also probable that the Yue-Chi not only acted as intermediaries for the introduction of Greek and Persian ideas into India, and of Indian ideas into China, but left behind them an important element in the population of N.
In the more congenial grande guerre of Russia and Germany he was in his element, and at Smolensk, Borodino and Leipzig he did brilliant service.
Here, as elsewhere, he revealed his insensibility to the ethical element in human nature.
TELLURIUM [[[Symbol]] Te, atomic weight 127.5 (0=16)], a chemical element, found to a certain extent in nature in the uncombined condition, but chiefly in combination with other metals in the form of tellurides, such, for example, as sylvanite, black tellurium, and tetradymite.
Tellurium was first recognized as a distinct element in 1798 by M.
The crude element is treated with aqua regia and then evaporated with an excess of hydrochloric acid, the solution diluted and the tellurium precipitated by a current of sulphur dioxide.
The precipitated tellurium is then fused with potassium cyanide, the melt extracted with water and the element precipitated by drawing a current of air through the solution and finally distilled in a current of hydrogen.
Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white element of specific gravity 6.27.
The element is insoluble in water, but dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid forming a deep red solution.
The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.
Two oxides of the element are definitely known, viz., the dioxide, Te02, and the trioxide, Te03, whilst a monoxide, TeO, has also been described.
Lincei, 1905 (iv.), 14, pp. I, 23, 104), who, by a determination of the electrochemical equivalent of the element, arrived at the value 127.61 A.
The legendary element crept even into the Latin panegyrics produced by the court poets.
The mythic element is practically lacking in the French legends, but in Germany some part of the Odin myth was associated with Charles's name.
TANTALUM [[[symbol]] Ta, atomic weight 181 o (0=16)], a metallic chemical element, sparingly distributed in nature and then almost invariably associated with columbium.
In 1801 C. Hatchett detected a new element, which he named columbium, in a mineral from Massachusetts, and in 1802 A.
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