Electrons sentence example

electrons
  • Electric charge consists, therefore, in an excess or deficit of negative electrons in a body.
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  • An electric current consists of a moving stream of electrons.
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  • For example, from the evidence of molar changes due to the obvious parts of bodies, science first comes to believe in molecular changes due to imperceptible particles, and then tries to conceive the ideas of particles, molecules, atoms, electrons.
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  • Lorentz, and leave no manner of doubt that the radiating centres are negative electrons.
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  • The fact that in certain simple cases where a line when looked at equatorially splits into a triplet, the ratio of the charge to the mass is found by Lorentz's theory to be equal to that observed in the carrier of the kathode ray, shows that in these cases the electron moves as an independent body and is not linked in its motion to other electrons.
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  • In every solid body there is a continual atomic dissociation, the result of which is that mixed up with the atoms of chemical matter composing them we have a greater or less percentage of free electrons.
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  • In addition, the RC I provided electrons to soluble electron acceptors (ferredoxin) for use in organic synthesis.
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  • You can see the cathode electrode in the foreground streaming electrons to the grid or slice plate and then onto the aluminum anode plate.
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  • In modulation doping, facing layers of gallium arsenide and aluminum gallium arsenide squeeze electrons into an essentially two-dimensional electron gas, or 2DEG.
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  • The typical helium atom consists of a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons surrounded by two electrons.
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  • At apogee, the craft will be above it, seeing upgoing ions in the bright Aurora and upgoing electrons in the black aurora.
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  • Aliphatic any non-aromatic organic compound Aromatic any organic compound containing de-localised electrons in a ring structure - e.g. benzene, benzoic acid.
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  • Germanium-76 can undergo double beta decay in which two neutrons decay into protons, electrons and antineutrinos.
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  • In the last lesson we saw that atoms can lose or gain electrons to form ionic bonds.
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  • With the new cold cathode carbon nanotube source, the electrons bunches are instantaneously created at the source.
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  • In the Coolidge tube, the bulb could be completely evacuated and electrons were liberated from a heated spiral cathode.
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  • The electrons in cells called chloroplasts are excited by sunlight.
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  • Its molecule contains an extended system of delocalised electrons called a chromophore.
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  • The released electrons move round in the external part of the circuit to produce the negative charge on the cathode electrode.
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  • Sodium in a sodium lamp a stream of electrons is passed between tungsten electrodes in a tube containing sodium vapor.
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  • The hydrogen atoms aren't involved in any way with the delocalised electrons.
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  • It is associated with relativistic electrons or cosmic ray electrons, so named because they travel at speeds comparable with that of light.
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  • Elements from group 3 across to the noble gases all have their outer electrons in p orbitals.
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  • Notice that the 2p electrons are all lumped together whereas the 3p ones are shown in full.
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  • Because the valence electrons in the water molecule spend more time around the oxygen.. .
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  • In this function, vitamin C donates high-energy electrons to neutralize free.. .
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  • Measurements of such order are usually made by diffraction techniques, which detect the ionic cores and the spins of the conduction electrons.
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  • All of these particular cases contain a very electronegative element with an active lone pair of electrons - either oxygen or nitrogen.
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  • Homolytic bond fission means the original pair of (Cl-Cl) bonding electrons is split between the two radicals formed.
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  • The substances that can exist with missing electrons are called free radicals.
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  • This in turn was expected to attract electrons, making the quark glob metallic and opaque.
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  • This light signal is converted to electrons which are subsequently amplified before being used to modulate the intensity of a cathode ray tube display.
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  • Even more complicated integrated atom optics devices and networks, similar to integrated circuits for electrons, can be devised.
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  • Using the equation l p = h. If the momentum of the electrons is zero, then the wavelength they have is infinite.
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  • The center of the anode has become perforated due to bombardment by electrons.
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  • When the electrons strike the phosphor dots they glow to give the colors.
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  • Bombardment with x-ray photons leads to the emission of electrons, these are called photoelectrons.
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  • The conversion of electron energy into X-ray photons is also more efficient with fast rather than slow electrons.
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  • The neutral pions convert directly into photons: Positrons These are identical particles to electrons, having the same characteristics.
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  • Furthermore, polarized electrons have been used to make polarized photons in the dilute magnet materials.
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  • We can consequently treat rationality as a theoretical posit, much like electrons, viruses and the other theoretical posits of science.
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  • For purposes of theoretical discussions relating to moving radiators and reflectors, it is important to remember that the dynamics of all this theory of electrons involves the neglect of terms of the order (v/c) 2, not merely in the value of K but throughout.
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  • By measuring the curvature of the tracks, the energy of the electrons to be estimated.
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  • A beam of X-rays is diffracted by the electrons in a crystalline material, just as visible light is diffracted by larger objects.
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  • Interactive Flash Tutorial Photomultiplier Tubes Discover how photomultipliers work by amplifying the electrons generated by a photocathode exposed to a photon flux.
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  • The process, called inverse electron spin resonance, uses the magnetic field to deflect electrons and to modify their magnetic direction.
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  • Electric current can also be described as the flow of microscopic particles called electrons flowing through wires and electronic components and appliances.
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  • Also describes a chemical reaction in which one or more electrons are added to an atom or molecule.
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  • Free radicals are molecules that steal electrons from other molecules, turning the other molecules into free radicals and destabilizing the molecules in the body's cells.
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  • Coenzyme Q10 is a natural substance produced by the body that transports electrons during cellular respiration, or the process in which cells get their energy from oxygen.
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  • Air ionizers use electricity to discharge electrons into the air which attach themselves to positively-charged particles like dust, pollen and other pollutants.
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  • In metals the electrons can slip from one atom to the next, since a current can pass without chemical action.
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  • According to present ideas, the wave originates in a disturbance of electrons within the molecules.
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  • A collision may be able to throw the electrons from one of these positions to another.
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  • On the other hand, most of the lines show a more complicated structure in the magnetic field, suggesting a system of electrons rather than a single free corpuscle.
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  • Atoms of matter are composed of congeries of electrons and the inertia of matter is probably therefore only the inertia of the electromagnetic medium.'
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  • The Mn cluster donates electrons to P680+ via a redox active tyrosine located at position 161 on the D1 protein (3 ).
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  • Most metals have positive valences i.e. during a reaction, they tend to give away electrons to the substances they react with.
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  • The increased kinetic motion of some receiving molecules should become vigorous enough to dislodge electrons.
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  • In gases the electrons sometimes travel alone, but in liquids they are always attached to matter, and their motion involves the movement of chemical atoms or groups of atoms. An atom with an extra corpuscle is a univalent negative ion, an atom with one corpuscle detached is a univalent positive ion.
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  • These particles, which were termed by their discoverer corpuscles, are more commonly spoken of as electrons,' the particle thus being identified with the charge which it carries.
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  • The latter force is, by Maxwell's hypothesis or by the dynamical theory of an aether pervaded by electrons, the same as that which strair s the aether, and may be called the aethereal force; it thereby produces an aethereal electric displacement, say (f,g,h), according to the relation (f,g,h) = (41 r c 2) - 1(P',Q', RI), in which c is a constant belonging to the aether, which turns out to be the velocity of light.
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  • It has been denied by some that pure thermal motion can ever give rise to line spectra, but that either chemical action or impact of electrons is necessary to excite the regular oscillations which give rise to line spectra.
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  • There is no doubt that the impact of electrons is likely to be effective in this respect, but it must be remembered that all bodies raised to a sufficient temperature are found to eject electrons, so that the presence of the free electrons is itself a consequence of temperature.
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  • In the process, the two electrons in one of the carbon-oxygen bonds are repelled entirely onto the oxygen, leaving it negatively charged.
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  • The repulsion between the 3s electrons obviously is n't enough to outweigh this either.
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  • The crucial point, tho, is that the repulsive interactions between electrons have been left out in the one-electron view.
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  • The scattering of electrons gives us electrical resistance but it also results in a force exerted on the metal ion core.
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  • A sequence of electrons in these superposed states gives you much more subtle information - quantum information.
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  • In a tantalum target, the electrons generate an intense highly directional gamma-ray beam that can be used to carry out photonuclear reactions.
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  • Three groups of electrons around an atom X, always give a trigonal planar arrangement around the central atom X-.
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  • The Mn cluster donates electrons to P680+ via a redox active tyrosine located at position 161 on the D1 protein (3).
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  • The electrons have an orbit of minimum energy from which they cannot fall into the nucleus without violating the uncertainty principle.
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  • The ideal covalent bond where the valence electrons are shared equally is between identical atoms.
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  • The zeolite catalyst has sites which can remove a hydrogen from an alkane together with the two electrons which bound it to the carbon.
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  • Electrons are happy to move back and forth zillions of times without worry.
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  • An atom is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
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  • Using silicon or another form of semi-conductor, solar panels convert light into energy by creating a flow of electrons and a magnetic field.
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  • The flow of electrons inside a solar cell is created when the electrons are jolted by an influx of energy (sunlight), and are knocked loose from the semi-conductor.
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  • These free-flowing electrons are directed by the electric field in the cell so that they all flow in one direction to form a current.
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  • This current must then be guided out of the cell in order to harness the potential energy created when the sun's energy freed the electrons in the silicon semi-conductor.
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  • That release of electrons is what produces electricity.
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  • That solar energy causes the semiconductor material to release electrons.
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  • It is generally thought that they function by giving one of their own electrons to the free radicals, either neutralizing them or releasing them so they can be flushed from the body as waste product.
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  • As individual photons (light) from a dimly lit room or night scene enter the goggles, they strike a photoelectric plate, which uses the "photoelectric effect" to convert those photons into electrons, or electricity.
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  • These "photoelectrons" are accelerated through an electronic device called a photomultiplier that multiplies the number of electrons in that area of the scene.
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  • These electrons get converted back into light when they hit a fluorescent screen, which glows where the electrons strike it.
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  • The photocathode converts the few photons that strike it into a corresponding pattern of electrical energy called electrons.
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  • Once the light pattern is represented as electrons, then the circuitry inside the goggles is able to multiply the intensity of that pattern by using special electrical fields that "accelerate" the electrons.
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  • These electrons, now an "intensified" version of the world, bombard a phosphor screen and cause it to glow like a television set.
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  • The next generation of night vision included advanced electronics that could better amplify the electrons, providing a much brighter image.
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  • Electrons from the photocathode are then amplified and projected onto a screen inside the goggles.
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  • On less expensive goggles, a simpler intensify tube is used to excite electrons coming from the ambient light and to project images, much as tubes in your television work to project images on the screen.
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  • In particular, a technology could micro-channel plates works to amplify electrons from existing ambient light sources, thus providing better visibility at longer distances.
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  • Electric current can be described as the flow of microscopic particles called electrons through wires and electrical appliances.
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  • Contrary to popular belief, atomic timepieces operate by way of the electrons within atoms which emit precision microwave signals rather than harmful radioactivity.
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  • Certain models utilize the electronic ionizing breeze technology that releases high-voltage electrons into the air that produce ions with active oxygen and negative charges that kill viruses, bacteria and other disease-laden particles.
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  • This phenomenon is connected with the fact that incandescent bodies, especially in rarefied gases, throw off or emit electrons or gaseous negative ions.
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  • True electric current arises solely from convection of the atomic charges or electrons; this current is therefore not restricted as to form in any way.
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  • The difficulty that a number of spectroscopic lines seem to involve at least an equal number of electrons may be got over by imagining that the atom may present several positions of equilibrium to the electron, which it may occupy in turn.
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  • The process of electric conduction in metals consists in the movement of detached electrons, and many other phenomena, both electrical and thermal, can be more or less completely explained by their agency.
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  • Electromotive force is due to a difference in the density of the electronic population in different or identical conducting bodies, and whilst the electrons can move freely through so-called conductors their motion is much more hindered or restricted in non-conductors.
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  • The effect of the field upon the speed of the revolving electrons, and therefore upon the moments of the equivalent magnets, is necessarily a very small one.
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  • The operation called an electric current consists in a diffusion or movement of these electrons through matter, and this is controlled by laws of diffusion which are similar to those of the diffusion of liquids or gases.
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  • The electrons responsible for the radiation are probably few and not directly involved in the structure of the atom, which according to the view at present in favour, is itself made up of electrons.
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  • As there is undoubtedly a connexion between thermal motion and radiation, the energy of these electrons within the atom must be supposed to increase with temperature.
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  • Considering the great variety of spectra, which one and the same body may possess, the idea lies near that free electrons may temporarily attach themselves to a molecule or detach 'themselves from it, thereby altering the constitution of the vibrating system.
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  • One or more of the electrons may be detached from the system by a finite force, the number so detachable depending on the valency of the atom; if the atom loses an electron, it becomes positively electrified; if it receives additional electrons, it is negatively electrified.
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  • The usual definition of the component current in any direction, as the net amount of electrons which crosses, towards the positive side, an element of surface fixed in space at right angles to that direction, per unit area per unit time, here gives no definite result.
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  • The fundamental assumption is that the medium contains positively and negatively charged ions or electrons which are acted on by the periodic electric forces which occur in wave propagation on Maxwell's theory.
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  • On the whole it seems probable that the system of moving electrons, which according to a modern theory constitute the atom, is not directly concerned in thermal radiation which would rather be due to a few more loosely connected electrons hanging on to the atom.
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  • No one has yet been able to isolate positive electrons, or to give a complete demonstration that the whole inertia of matter is only electric inertia due to what may be called the inductance of the electrons.
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  • An electrically neutral atom is believed to be constituted in part, or perhaps entirely, of a definite number of electrons in rapid motion within a " sphere of uniform positive electrification " not yet explained.
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  • It has been supposed that certain electrons revolve like satellites in orbits around the atoms with which they are associated, a view which receives strong support from the phenomena of the Zeeman effect, and on this assumption a theory has been worked out by P. Langevin, 2 which accounts for many, of the observed facts of magnetism.
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  • When chemical phenomena occur the molecule may be divided into atoms, and these atoms, in the presence of electrical phenomena, may themselves be further divided into electrons or corpuscles.
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  • Now the electric force (P,Q,R) is the force acting on the electrons of the medium moving with velocity v; consequently by Faraday's electrodynamic law (P,Q,R) = (P',Q' - vc, R'+vb) where (P',Q',R') is the force that would act on electrons at rest, and (a,b,c) is the magnetic induction.
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  • Electric waves are produced wherever electrons are accelerated or retarded, that is, whenever the velocity of an electron is changed or accelerated positively or negatively.
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  • If the structure of the molecule is so perfectly symmetrical that, in the absence of any external field, the resultant magnetic moment of the circulating electrons is zero, then the application of a field, by accelerating the right-handed (negative) revolutions, and retarding those which are left-handed, will induce in the substance a resultant magnetization opposite in direction to the field itself; a body composed of such symmetrical molecules is therefore diamagnetic. If however the structure of the molecule is such that the electrons revolving around its atoms do not exactly cancel one another's effects, the molecule constitutes a little magnet, which under the influence of an external field will tend to set itself with its axis parallel to the field.
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  • Thomson also developed this hypothesis in a profoundly interesting manner, and we may therefore summarize very briefly the views held on the nature of electricity and matter at the beginning of the 10th century by saying that the term electricity had come to be regarded, in part at least, as a collective name for electrons, which in turn must be considered as constituents of the chemical atom, furthermore as centres of certain lines of self-locked and permanent strain existing in the universal aether or electromagnetic medium.
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  • The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.
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  • Rutherford had announced the nuclear theory of atomic structure which required each atom to consist of a minute positively charged nucleus about which negative electrons were distributed.
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