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electromotive

electromotive

electromotive Sentence Examples

  • If the current drive an electromagnetic engine, the reaction of the engine will produce an electromotive force opposing the current.

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  • Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.

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  • von Jacobi showed that for a given electromotive force in the battery the horse-power is greatest when the current is reduced to one-half of what it would be if the engine were at rest.

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  • The electromotive force of each cell is i 07 volts and the resistance 3 ohms. The Fuller bichromate battery consists of an outer jar containing a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, in which a plate of hard carbon is immersed; in the jar there is also a porous pot containing dilute sulphuric acid and a small quantity (2 oz.) of mercury, in which stands a stout zinc rod.

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  • The electromotive force of each cell is 2.14 volts, and the resistance 4.

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  • ohms. The Leclanche is of the ordinary type, and each cell has an electromotive force of I 64 volts and a resistance of 3 to 5 ohms (according to the size of the complete cell, of which there are three sizes in use).

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  • The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.

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  • If we consider the lines of magnetic force in the neighbourhood of the receiving antenna wire we shall see that they move across it, and thus create in it an electromotive force which acts upon the coherer or other sensitive device associated with it.

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  • The electric waves coming through space from the sending station strike against the receiving antenna and set up in it high frequency alternating electromotive forces.

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  • This device was converted into an electric wave detector as follows :-The mercury-steel junction was acted upon by the electromotive force of a shunted single cell and a siphon recorder was inserted in series.

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  • The electromotive force of Volta's simple cell falls off rapidly when the cell is used, and this phenomenon was shown to be due to the accumulation at the metal plates of the products of chemical changes in the cell itself.

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  • This reverse electromotive force of polarization is produced in all electrolytes when the passage of the current changes the nature of the electrodes.

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  • In batteries which use acids as the electrolyte, a film of hydrogen tends to be deposited on the copper or platinum electrode; but, to obtain a constant electromotive force, several means were soon devised of preventing the formation of the film.

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  • Since the electric forces are active throughout the whole solution, all the ions must come under its influence and therefore move, but their separation from the electrodes is determined by the electromotive force needed to liberate them.

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  • Thus, as long as every ion of the solution is present in the layer of liquid next the electrode, the one which responds to the least electromotive force will alone be set free.

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  • The conductivity gives us the amount of electricity conveyed per second under a definite electromotive force.

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  • The concentration is known, and the conductivity can be measured experimentally; thus the average velocity with which the ions move past each other under the existent electromotive force can be estimated.

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  • Hence the absolute velocities of the two ions can be determined, and we can calculate the actual speed with which a certain ion moves through a given liquid under the action of a given potential gradient or electromotive force.

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  • In accordance with the principles of energetics, any change which involves a decrease in the total available energy of the system will tend to occur, and thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the production of electromotive force is that the available energy of the system should decrease when the current flows.

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  • In order that the current should be maintained, and the electromotive force of the cell remain constant during action, it is necessary to ensure that the changes in the cell, chemical or other, which produce the current, should neither destroy the difference between the electrodes, nor coat either electrode with a non-conducting layer through which the current cannot pass.

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  • Let an electromotive force exactly equal to that of the cell be applied to it in the reverse direction.

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  • When the applied electromotive force is diminished by an infinitesimal amount, the cell produces a current in the usual direction, and the ordinary chemical changes occur.

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  • If the external electromotive force exceed that of the cell by ever so little, a current flows in the opposite direction, and all the former chemical changes are reversed, copper dissolving from the copper plate, while zinc is deposited on the zinc plate.

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  • The cell, together with this balancing electromotive force, is thus a reversible system in true equilibrium, and the thermodynamical reasoning applicable to such systems can be used to examine its properties.

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  • During a small electric transfer through the cell, the external work done is Ee, where E is the electromotive force.

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  • It will be noticed that when dE/dT is zero, that is, when the electromotive force of the cell does not change with temperature.

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  • the electromotive force is measured by the heat of reaction per unit of electrochemical change.

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  • The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.

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  • units of work, and therefore the electromotive force of the cell should be 1.112 X Io 8 C.G.S.

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  • For cells in which the electromotive force varies with temperature, the full equation given by Gibbs and Helmholtz has also been confirmed experimentally.

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  • As stated above, an electromotive force is set up whenever there is a difference of any kind at two electrodes immersed in electrolytes.

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  • In ordinary cells the difference is secured by using two dissimilar metals, but an electromotive force exists if two plates of the same metal are placed in solutions of different substances, or of the same substance at different concentrations.

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  • An electromotive force is therefore set up in this direction, and, if we can calculate the change in available energy due to the processes of the cell, we can foretell the value of the electromotive force.

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  • Nernst, to whom this theory is due, determined the electromotive force of this cell experimentally, and found the value 0.055 volt.

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  • The logarithmic formulae for these concentration cells indicate that theoretically their electromotive force can be increased to any extent by diminishing without limit the concentration of the more dilute solution, log c i /c 2 then becoming very great.

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  • The result is that a high electromotive force is set up, which has been calculated as o.

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  • It is now evident that the electromotive force of an ordinary chemical cell such as that of Daniell depends on the concentration of the solutions as well as on the nature of the metals.

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  • In ordinary cases possible changes in the concentrations only affect the electromotive force by a few parts in a hundred, but, by means such as those indicated above, it is possible to produce such immense differences in the concentrations that the electromotive force of the cell is not only changed appreciably but even reversed in direction.

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  • Once more we see that it is the total impending change in the available energy of the system which controls the electromotive force.

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  • The effective electromotive force of the common lead accumulator is less than that required to charge it.

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  • This drop in the electromotive force has led to the belief that the cell is not reversible.

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  • If, instead of using a single Daniell's cell, we employ some source of electromotive force which can be varied as we please, and gradually raise its intensity, we shall find that, when it exceeds a certain value, about 1.7 volt, a permanent current of considerable strength flows through the solution, and, after the initial period, shows no signs of decrease.

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  • These phenomena are explained by the existence of a reverse electromotive force at the surface of the platinum plates.

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  • Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.

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  • It seems that this reverse electromotive force of polarization is due to the deposit on the electrodes of minute quantities of the products of chemical decomposition.

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  • Differences between the two electrodes are thus set up, and, as we have seen above, an electromotive force will therefore exist between them.

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  • To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.

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  • The opposing force of polarization is about 1.7 volt, but, when the plates are disconnected and used as a source of current, the electromotive force they give is only about 1.07 volt.

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  • If secondary effects are eliminated, the deposition of metals also is a reversible process; the decomposition voltage is equal to the electromotive force which the metal itself gives when going into solution.

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  • Since zinc goes into solution and copper comes out, the electromotive force of the cell will be the difference between the two effects.

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  • By both these methods the single potential-differences found at the surfaces of the zinc and copper have opposite signs, and the effective electromotive force of a Daniell's cell is the sum of the two effects.

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  • It must be remembered, however, that variations in conditions modify the electromotive force required for any given process.

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  • This solution, being an inferior conductor of electricity, requires a much higher electromotive force to drive the current through it, and is therefore more costly in use.

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  • Magnetic induction, like other fluxes such as electrical, thermal or fluid currents, is defined with reference to an area; it satisfies the same conditions of continuity as the electric current does, and in isotropic media it depends on the magnetic force just as the electric current depends on the electromotive force.

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  • - The so-called " ballistic " method of measuring induction is based upon the fact that a change of the induction through a closed linear conductor sets up in the conductor an electromotive force which is proportional to the rate of change.

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  • If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.

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  • A small coil of fine wire, connected in series with a ballistic galvanometer, is placed in the field, with its windings perpendicular to the lines of force, and then suddenly reversed or withdrawn from the field, the integral electromotive force being twice as great in the first case as in the second.

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  • If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.

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  • The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.

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  • Hall, the positive sign indicating that the electromotive force is in the same direction as the mechanical force acting upon the conductor.

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  • Electro-Thermal Relations.-The Hall electromotive force is only one of several so-called " galvano-magnetic effects " which are observed when a magnetic field acts normally upon a thin plate of metal traversed by an electric current.

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  • He considers that Hall's is the fundamental phenomenon, and that the Nernst effect is essentially identical with it, the primary electromotive force in the case of the latter being that of the Thomson effect in the unequally heated metal, while in the Hall experiment it is derived from an external source.

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  • The electromotive force thus generated is measured by a galvanometer, the scale of which is divided and figured so that the temperature may be-directly read.

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  • When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.

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  • If the alloy were a true chemical compound the counteracting electromotive force should not occur; experiments in this direction are much needed.

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  • P. Laurie has determined the electromotive force of a series of copper-zinc, copper-tin and gold-tin alloys, and as the result of his experiments he points to the existence of definite compounds.

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  • Owing to the confusion introduced by the employment of the term force, Maxwell and other writers sometimes use the words electromotive intensityinstead of electric force.

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  • In the same manner, if an electrified body carries a positive charge Q electrostatic units and is placed in an electric field at a place where the electric force or electromotive intensity has a value E units, it is urged in the direction of the electric force with a mechanical force equal to QE dynes.

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  • This sum, or integral, is called the " line integral of electric force" or the electromotive force (E.M.F.) along this line.

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  • In some cases the value of this electromotive force between two points or conductors is independent of the precise path selected, and it is then called the potential difference (P.D.) of the two points or conductors.

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  • The object of the test is to discover the resistance of the insulator I, that is, to determine how much current flows through this insulator by leakage under a certain electromotive force or voltage which must not be less than that which will be employed in practice when the electric lights supplied through these wires are in operation.

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  • For this purpose the ohmmeter is provided with a small dynamo D, contained in a box, which produces a continuous electromotive force of from 200 to 500 volts when the handle of the instrument is steadily turned.

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  • On setting the dynamo in operation, a current passes through the shunt coil of the ohmmeter proportional to the voltage of the dynamo, and, if there is any sensible leakage through the insulator to earth, at the same time another current passes through the series coil proportional to the conductivity of the insulation of the wiring under the electromotive force used.

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  • battery is applied to the shunted galvanometer, then the current C passing through the galvanometer will be given by the expression SV C - R' (R +S) +RS' where V is the electromotive force of the battery.

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  • Meters intended to measure electric quantity are called coulomb meters and also ampere-hour meters; they are employed for the measurement of public electric supply on the assumption that the electromotive force or pressure is constant.

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  • The current in the shunt coil lags 90 degrees behind the impressed electromotive force of the circuit to be measured; hence if the main current is in step with the potential difference of the terminals of the supply mains, which is the case when the supply is given wholly to electric lamps, then the field due to the main coil differs from that due to the shunt coil by 90 degrees.

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  • POTENTIOMETER, an instrument for the measurement of electromotive force and also of difference of electric potential between two points.

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  • In principle the modern potentiometer consists of an arrangement by means of which any potential difference not exceeding a certain assigned value can be compared with that of a standard cell having a known electromotive force.

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  • The ends of this wire are connected to one or more secondary cells of constant electromotive force, a variable resistance being interposed so as to regulate the current flowing through the fine wire.

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  • Supposing that the scale under this wire is divided into 2000 parts and that we are in possession of a standard Clark cell, the electromotive force being known at various temperatures, and equal, say, to 1.434 volts at 15° C. The first process is to set the potentiometer.

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  • If then we substitute for the standard cell any other source of electromotive force, we can move the slider into another position in which the galvanometer will show no deflection.

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  • The scale reading then indicates directly the electromotive force of this second source of potential.

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  • Thus, for instance, if an experiment were made with a Leclanche cell, and if the balancing-point were found to be at 1500 divisions on the scale, the electromotive force would be determined as I 50o volts.

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  • Instead of adjusting in this manner the electromotive force of any form of cell, if we pass any constant current through a known resistance and bring wires from the extremities of that resistance into connexion with the slider and the galvanometer terminal, we can in the same way determine the fall of potential down the above resistance in terms of the electromotive force of the standard cell and thus measure the current flowing through the standard resistance.

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  • We may employ such a potentiometer to measure large potential difference greater than the electromotive force of the working battery, as follows: The two points between which the potential difference is required are connected by high resistance, say of 100,000 ohms or more, and from the extremities of a known fraction of this resistance, say, 'Roo or I/1000 or I/Io,000 wires are brought to the potentiometer and connected in between the slider and the corresponding galvanometer terminal.

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  • The potentiometer and the divided resistance constitute a sort of electrical scaleyard by means of which any electromotive force or difference of potential can be compared with the electromotive force of a standard cell.

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  • From the potential terminals of the strip, wires are brought to the potentiometer so as to determine their potential difference in terms of the electromotive force of the standard Clark cell.

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  • A necessary adjunct to the potentiometer is some form of standard cell to be used as a standard of electromotive force.

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  • Other voltaic standards of electromotive force are in use, such as the Weston cadmium cell, the Helmholtz calomel cell, and the standard Daniell cell.

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  • The electromotive force of the cell diminishes with rise of temperature, the board of trade value being 1.434 volts at 15° C.'

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  • Wien, the electromotive force of the H form of Clark cell is 1.4322 volts at 15° C.

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  • J and when made as directed below it has at t° C. an electromotive force E t volts, such that E =1.0184-0.0000406 (t - 20)-0.0000-0095 (t-20)2+ 0 0000-0001 (t-20)3.

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  • The cell has the electromotive force above stated if the amalgam of cadmium has from 6 to 13 parts of mercury to I of cadmium.

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  • In cases when great accuracy is not required, a Daniell cell can be used as a standard of electromotive force.

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  • When so made, the cell has an electromotive force of 1.072 volts and no sensible temperature variation.

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  • It is not magnetic. It stands near the positive end of the list of elements arranged in electromotive series, being exceeded only by the alkalis and metals of the alkaline earths; it therefore combines eagerly, under suitable conditions, with oxygen and chlorine.

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  • The electromotive force is practically constant no matter what the velocity of the disks, but according to some observers the internal resistance decreases as the velocity increases.

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  • A current of great electromotive force (intensity or voltage) passed through the coil D, induces, by means of the core and frame, a current of enormous quantity (volume or amperage), but very small electromotive force, in the metal in the trough.

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  • Thus the apparatus is analogous to the common transformers used for inducing from currents of great electromotive force and small quantity, which carry energy through long distances, currents of great quantity and small electromotive force for incandescent lights and for welding.

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  • When the two metal surfaces are connected for a short time with the terminals of some source of electromotive force, such as an electric machine, an induction coil or a voltaic battery, electric energy is stored up in the condenser in the form of electric strain in the glass, and can be recovered again in the form of an electric discharge.

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  • Owing to the variation in the value of the dielectric constant of glass with the temperature and with the frequency of the applied electromotive force, and also owing to electric glow discharge from the edges of the tin foil coatings, the capacity of an ordinary Leyden jar is not an absolutely fixed quantity, but its numerical value varies somewhat with the method by which it is measured, and with the other circumstances above mentioned.

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  • Cavendish meant by the term " velocity " what we now call the current, and by " resistance " the electromotive force which maintains the current.

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  • This result thus obtained by Cavendish in January 1781, that the current varies in direct proportion to the electromotive force, was really an anticipation of the fundamental law of electric flow, discovered independently by G.

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  • The origin of the electromotive force in the pile has been much discussed, and Volta's discoveries gave rise to one of the historic controversies of science.

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  • de la Rive and Faraday were ardent supporters of the chemical theory of the pile, and even at the present time opinions of physicists can hardly be said to be in entire accordance as to the source of the electromotive force in a voltaic couple or pile.2 Improvements in the form of the voltaic pile were almost immediately made by W.

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  • Sir Oliver Lodge reviewed the whole position in a paper in 1885, " On the Seat of the Electromotive Force in a Voltaic Cell," Journ.

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  • Ohm introduced the clear idea of current strength as an effect produced by electromotive force acting as a cause in a circuit having resistance as its quality, and showed that the current was directly proportional to the electromotive force and inversely as the resistance.

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  • Ohm verified his law by the aid of thermo-electric piles as sources of electromotive force, and Davy, C. S.

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  • The whole of Faraday's investigations on this subject can be summed up in the single statement that if a conducting circuit is placed in a magnetic field, and if either by variation of the field or by movement or variation of the form of the circuit the total magnetic flux linked with the circuit is varied, an electromotive force is set up in that circuit which at any instant is measured by the rate at which the total flux linked with the circuit is changing.

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  • He proved by systematic experiments that the electromotive forces set up in conductors by their motions in magnetic fields or by the induction of other currents in the field were due to the secondary conductor cutting lines of magnetic force.

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  • At the time when Maxwell developed his theory the dielectric constants of only a few transparent insulators were known and these were for the most part measured with steady or unidirectional electromotive force.

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  • He followed up the early work of the British Association Committee on electrical units by a fresh determination of the ohm in absolute measure, and in conjunction with other work on the electrochemical equivalent of silver and the absolute electromotive force of the Clark cell may be said to have placed exact electrical measurement on a new basis.

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  • It has long been known that air and other gases at the pressure of the atmosphere were very perfect insulators, but that when they were rarefied and contained in glass tubes with platinum electrodes sealed through the glass, electricity could be passed through them under sufficient electromotive force and produced a luminous appearance known as the electric glow discharge.

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  • Electromotive force is due to a difference in the density of the electronic population in different or identical conducting bodies, and whilst the electrons can move freely through so-called conductors their motion is much more hindered or restricted in non-conductors.

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  • The electrical pressure required to force a current of this intensity through the solution, and to overcome a certain opposing electromotive force arising from the more electro-negative impurities of the anode, depends upon the composition of the bath and of the anodes, the distance between the electrodes, and the temperature, but under the usual working conditions averages o-3 volt for every pair of electrodes in series.

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  • was produced by an electromotive force of o i volt.

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  • The tension of the surface of contact of mercury and dilute sulphuric acid depends on the electromotive force acting between the mercury and the acid.

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  • If the electromotive force is from the acid to the mercury the surface-tension increases; if it is from the mercury to the acid, it diminishes.

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  • Lippmann, who has made a careful investigation of the subject, finds that exceedingly small variations of the electromotive force produce sensible changes in the surfacetension.

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  • He became aspirant repetiteur at the lycee of Rheims in 1853, and after holding several intermediate positions was appointed in 1862 to the professorship of chemistry in Sens lycee, where he prepared the thesis on electromotive force which gained him his doctor's degree at Paris in the following year.

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  • WHEATSTONE'S BRIDGE, an electrical instrument which consists of six conductors, joining four points, of such a character that when an electromotive force is applied in one branch the absence of a current in another branch (called the conjugate branch) establishes a relation between the resistance of the four others by which we can determine the value of the resistance in one of these, that of the others being assumed to be known.

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  • these resistances have values denoted by P, Q, R, and S, then when P: Q :: R: S, the current in the galvanometer circuit will be zero when an electromotive force is applied in the battery circuit.

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  • Let E be the electromotive force in the battery circuit, and let (x+y) be the current through the resistance P, y the current through the resistance Q and z that through B.

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  • - Alessandro Volta (1801) showed that although a separation of the two electricities was produced by the contact of two different metals (Volta Effect), which could be detected by a sensitive electrometer, a continuous current of corresponding magnitude could not be produced in a purely metallic circuit without the interposition of a liquid, because the electromotive force at one junction was exactly balanced by an equal and opposite force at the other.

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  • Seebeck (1822), employing a galvanometer then recently invented, which was more suited for the detection of small electromotive forces, found that a current was produced if the junctions of the two metals were at different temperatures.

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  • He explained this effect by supposing that the Volta contact electromotive force varied with the temperature, so that the exact balance was destroyed by unequal heating.

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  • We conclude by applying Ohm's law that the electromotive force, E, of the thermocouple may be approximately represented for small differences of temperature by the formula E=CR=p(t-t').

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  • Gauss's system of absolute units to electromagnetism, Thomson took up the question, and, applying the principles of energy, calculated the absolute electromotive force of a Daniell cell, and determined the absolute measure of the resistance of a wire from the heat produced in it by a known current.

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  • This contact may be made to close the circuit of a suitable voltmeter, or to charge a condenser in connexion with it, and the reading of the voltmeter will therefore not be the average or effective voltage of the alternator, but the instantaneous value of the electromotive force corresponding to that instant during the phase, determined by the position of the rotating contact slip with reference to the poles of the alternator.

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  • If the contact springs can be moved round the disk so as to vary the instant of contact, we can plot out the value of the observed instantaneous voltage of the machine or circuit in a wavy curve, showing the wave form of the electromotive force of the alternator.

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  • This process, so to speak, samples or tests the varying electromotive force of the alternating current at one particular instant during the phase and measures it on a voltmeter.

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  • The electromotive force so selected is balanced against the steady potential difference produced between a fixed and a sliding contact on a wire traversed by another steady current, and if there is any difference between this last, the potential difference, and the instantaneous potential difference balanced against it, a relay is operated and sets in action a motor which shifts the contact point along the potentiometer wire and so restores the balance.

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  • As the brushes are slowly shifted over on the revolving contact so as to select different phases of the alternating electromotive force, the pen follows and draws a curve delineating the wave form of that electromotive force or current.

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  • A ray of light is reflected from this mirror and from another mirror which is rocked by a small motor driven off the same circuit, so that the ray has two vibratory motions imparted to it at right angles, one a simple harmonic motion and the other a motion imitating the variation of the current or electromotive force under test.

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  • electromotive force that drives current, was named in his honor.

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  • Extending his investigations to the currents produced by batteries, he found that the total voltaic heat generated in any circuit was proportional to the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed in each cell multiplied by the electromotive force of the battery.

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  • Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.

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  • If a battery of electromotive force E maintain a current C in a conductor, and no other electromotive force exist in the circuit, the whole of the work done will be converted into heat, and the amount of work done per second will be EC. If R denote the resistance of the whole circuit, E = CR, and the heat generated per second is C 2 R.

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  • If the current drive an electromagnetic engine, the reaction of the engine will produce an electromotive force opposing the current.

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  • von Jacobi showed that for a given electromotive force in the battery the horse-power is greatest when the current is reduced to one-half of what it would be if the engine were at rest.

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  • The electromotive force of each cell is i 07 volts and the resistance 3 ohms. The Fuller bichromate battery consists of an outer jar containing a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, in which a plate of hard carbon is immersed; in the jar there is also a porous pot containing dilute sulphuric acid and a small quantity (2 oz.) of mercury, in which stands a stout zinc rod.

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  • The electromotive force of each cell is 2.14 volts, and the resistance 4.

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  • ohms. The Leclanche is of the ordinary type, and each cell has an electromotive force of I 64 volts and a resistance of 3 to 5 ohms (according to the size of the complete cell, of which there are three sizes in use).

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  • The electromotive force of the coil is, however, great enough to create in these air gaps displacement currents which are of magnitude sufficient to be equivalent to the conduction current required to actuate a telephone.

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  • The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.

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  • If we consider the lines of magnetic force in the neighbourhood of the receiving antenna wire we shall see that they move across it, and thus create in it an electromotive force which acts upon the coherer or other sensitive device associated with it.

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  • The electric waves coming through space from the sending station strike against the receiving antenna and set up in it high frequency alternating electromotive forces.

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  • This device was converted into an electric wave detector as follows :-The mercury-steel junction was acted upon by the electromotive force of a shunted single cell and a siphon recorder was inserted in series.

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  • On the other hand, the coherer or loose contact detectors are chiefly affected by the initial value of the electromotive force acting on the junction during the train of oscillations, and the magnetic detectors by the initial value of the current and also to a considerable extent by the number of oscillations during the train.

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  • On the other hand, if a closed oscillation circuit is constructed having capacity and considerable inductance, then oscillations can be set up in it by very small periodic electromotive forces provided these have a frequency exactly agreeing with that of the condenser circuit.

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  • The success so far achieved in isolating electric wave telegraphic stations has been based upon the principles of electric resonance and the fact that electric oscillations can be set up in a circuit having capacity and considerable inductance by feeble electromotive impulses, provided they are of exactly the natural frequency of the said circuit.

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  • The electromotive force of Volta's simple cell falls off rapidly when the cell is used, and this phenomenon was shown to be due to the accumulation at the metal plates of the products of chemical changes in the cell itself.

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  • This reverse electromotive force of polarization is produced in all electrolytes when the passage of the current changes the nature of the electrodes.

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  • In batteries which use acids as the electrolyte, a film of hydrogen tends to be deposited on the copper or platinum electrode; but, to obtain a constant electromotive force, several means were soon devised of preventing the formation of the film.

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  • Since the electric forces are active throughout the whole solution, all the ions must come under its influence and therefore move, but their separation from the electrodes is determined by the electromotive force needed to liberate them.

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  • Thus, as long as every ion of the solution is present in the layer of liquid next the electrode, the one which responds to the least electromotive force will alone be set free.

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  • If we eliminate the reverse electromotive forces of polarization at the two electrodes, the conduction of electricity through electrolytes is found to conform to Ohm's law; that is, once the polarization is overcome, the current is proportional to the electromotive force applied to the bulk of the liquid.

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  • The conductivity gives us the amount of electricity conveyed per second under a definite electromotive force.

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  • The concentration is known, and the conductivity can be measured experimentally; thus the average velocity with which the ions move past each other under the existent electromotive force can be estimated.

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  • Hence the absolute velocities of the two ions can be determined, and we can calculate the actual speed with which a certain ion moves through a given liquid under the action of a given potential gradient or electromotive force.

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  • In accordance with the principles of energetics, any change which involves a decrease in the total available energy of the system will tend to occur, and thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the production of electromotive force is that the available energy of the system should decrease when the current flows.

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  • In order that the current should be maintained, and the electromotive force of the cell remain constant during action, it is necessary to ensure that the changes in the cell, chemical or other, which produce the current, should neither destroy the difference between the electrodes, nor coat either electrode with a non-conducting layer through which the current cannot pass.

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  • Let an electromotive force exactly equal to that of the cell be applied to it in the reverse direction.

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  • When the applied electromotive force is diminished by an infinitesimal amount, the cell produces a current in the usual direction, and the ordinary chemical changes occur.

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  • If the external electromotive force exceed that of the cell by ever so little, a current flows in the opposite direction, and all the former chemical changes are reversed, copper dissolving from the copper plate, while zinc is deposited on the zinc plate.

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  • The cell, together with this balancing electromotive force, is thus a reversible system in true equilibrium, and the thermodynamical reasoning applicable to such systems can be used to examine its properties.

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  • During a small electric transfer through the cell, the external work done is Ee, where E is the electromotive force.

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  • It will be noticed that when dE/dT is zero, that is, when the electromotive force of the cell does not change with temperature.

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  • the electromotive force is measured by the heat of reaction per unit of electrochemical change.

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  • The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.

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  • units of work, and therefore the electromotive force of the cell should be 1.112 X Io 8 C.G.S.

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  • For cells in which the electromotive force varies with temperature, the full equation given by Gibbs and Helmholtz has also been confirmed experimentally.

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  • As stated above, an electromotive force is set up whenever there is a difference of any kind at two electrodes immersed in electrolytes.

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  • In ordinary cells the difference is secured by using two dissimilar metals, but an electromotive force exists if two plates of the same metal are placed in solutions of different substances, or of the same substance at different concentrations.

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  • An electromotive force is therefore set up in this direction, and, if we can calculate the change in available energy due to the processes of the cell, we can foretell the value of the electromotive force.

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  • Nernst, to whom this theory is due, determined the electromotive force of this cell experimentally, and found the value 0.055 volt.

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  • The logarithmic formulae for these concentration cells indicate that theoretically their electromotive force can be increased to any extent by diminishing without limit the concentration of the more dilute solution, log c i /c 2 then becoming very great.

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  • The result is that a high electromotive force is set up, which has been calculated as o.

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  • It is now evident that the electromotive force of an ordinary chemical cell such as that of Daniell depends on the concentration of the solutions as well as on the nature of the metals.

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  • In ordinary cases possible changes in the concentrations only affect the electromotive force by a few parts in a hundred, but, by means such as those indicated above, it is possible to produce such immense differences in the concentrations that the electromotive force of the cell is not only changed appreciably but even reversed in direction.

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  • Once more we see that it is the total impending change in the available energy of the system which controls the electromotive force.

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  • The effective electromotive force of the common lead accumulator is less than that required to charge it.

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  • This drop in the electromotive force has led to the belief that the cell is not reversible.

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  • If, instead of using a single Daniell's cell, we employ some source of electromotive force which can be varied as we please, and gradually raise its intensity, we shall find that, when it exceeds a certain value, about 1.7 volt, a permanent current of considerable strength flows through the solution, and, after the initial period, shows no signs of decrease.

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  • These phenomena are explained by the existence of a reverse electromotive force at the surface of the platinum plates.

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  • Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.

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  • It seems that this reverse electromotive force of polarization is due to the deposit on the electrodes of minute quantities of the products of chemical decomposition.

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  • Differences between the two electrodes are thus set up, and, as we have seen above, an electromotive force will therefore exist between them.

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  • To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.

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  • The opposing force of polarization is about 1.7 volt, but, when the plates are disconnected and used as a source of current, the electromotive force they give is only about 1.07 volt.

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  • If secondary effects are eliminated, the deposition of metals also is a reversible process; the decomposition voltage is equal to the electromotive force which the metal itself gives when going into solution.

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  • Since zinc goes into solution and copper comes out, the electromotive force of the cell will be the difference between the two effects.

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  • By both these methods the single potential-differences found at the surfaces of the zinc and copper have opposite signs, and the effective electromotive force of a Daniell's cell is the sum of the two effects.

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  • It must be remembered, however, that variations in conditions modify the electromotive force required for any given process.

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  • This solution, being an inferior conductor of electricity, requires a much higher electromotive force to drive the current through it, and is therefore more costly in use.

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  • Magnetic induction, like other fluxes such as electrical, thermal or fluid currents, is defined with reference to an area; it satisfies the same conditions of continuity as the electric current does, and in isotropic media it depends on the magnetic force just as the electric current depends on the electromotive force.

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  • - The so-called " ballistic " method of measuring induction is based upon the fact that a change of the induction through a closed linear conductor sets up in the conductor an electromotive force which is proportional to the rate of change.

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  • If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.

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  • A small coil of fine wire, connected in series with a ballistic galvanometer, is placed in the field, with its windings perpendicular to the lines of force, and then suddenly reversed or withdrawn from the field, the integral electromotive force being twice as great in the first case as in the second.

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  • If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.

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  • The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.

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  • Hall, the positive sign indicating that the electromotive force is in the same direction as the mechanical force acting upon the conductor.

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  • Electro-Thermal Relations.-The Hall electromotive force is only one of several so-called " galvano-magnetic effects " which are observed when a magnetic field acts normally upon a thin plate of metal traversed by an electric current.

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  • He considers that Hall's is the fundamental phenomenon, and that the Nernst effect is essentially identical with it, the primary electromotive force in the case of the latter being that of the Thomson effect in the unequally heated metal, while in the Hall experiment it is derived from an external source.

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  • When such precautions are adopted it is found that the " electromotive force of magnetization " is, for a given specimen, perfectly definite both in direction and in magnitude; it is independent of the nature of the corrosive solution, and is a function of the field-strength alone, the curves showing the relation of electromotive force 'to field-intensity bearing a rough resemblance to the familiar I-H curves.

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  • The electromotive force thus generated is measured by a galvanometer, the scale of which is divided and figured so that the temperature may be-directly read.

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  • When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.

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  • If the alloy were a true chemical compound the counteracting electromotive force should not occur; experiments in this direction are much needed.

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  • P. Laurie has determined the electromotive force of a series of copper-zinc, copper-tin and gold-tin alloys, and as the result of his experiments he points to the existence of definite compounds.

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  • Owing to the confusion introduced by the employment of the term force, Maxwell and other writers sometimes use the words electromotive intensityinstead of electric force.

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  • In the same manner, if an electrified body carries a positive charge Q electrostatic units and is placed in an electric field at a place where the electric force or electromotive intensity has a value E units, it is urged in the direction of the electric force with a mechanical force equal to QE dynes.

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  • This sum, or integral, is called the " line integral of electric force" or the electromotive force (E.M.F.) along this line.

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  • In some cases the value of this electromotive force between two points or conductors is independent of the precise path selected, and it is then called the potential difference (P.D.) of the two points or conductors.

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  • The object of the test is to discover the resistance of the insulator I, that is, to determine how much current flows through this insulator by leakage under a certain electromotive force or voltage which must not be less than that which will be employed in practice when the electric lights supplied through these wires are in operation.

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  • For this purpose the ohmmeter is provided with a small dynamo D, contained in a box, which produces a continuous electromotive force of from 200 to 500 volts when the handle of the instrument is steadily turned.

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  • On setting the dynamo in operation, a current passes through the shunt coil of the ohmmeter proportional to the voltage of the dynamo, and, if there is any sensible leakage through the insulator to earth, at the same time another current passes through the series coil proportional to the conductivity of the insulation of the wiring under the electromotive force used.

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  • battery is applied to the shunted galvanometer, then the current C passing through the galvanometer will be given by the expression SV C - R' (R +S) +RS' where V is the electromotive force of the battery.

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  • Meters intended to measure electric quantity are called coulomb meters and also ampere-hour meters; they are employed for the measurement of public electric supply on the assumption that the electromotive force or pressure is constant.

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  • The current in the shunt coil lags 90 degrees behind the impressed electromotive force of the circuit to be measured; hence if the main current is in step with the potential difference of the terminals of the supply mains, which is the case when the supply is given wholly to electric lamps, then the field due to the main coil differs from that due to the shunt coil by 90 degrees.

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  • POTENTIOMETER, an instrument for the measurement of electromotive force and also of difference of electric potential between two points.

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  • In principle the modern potentiometer consists of an arrangement by means of which any potential difference not exceeding a certain assigned value can be compared with that of a standard cell having a known electromotive force.

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  • The ends of this wire are connected to one or more secondary cells of constant electromotive force, a variable resistance being interposed so as to regulate the current flowing through the fine wire.

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  • Supposing that the scale under this wire is divided into 2000 parts and that we are in possession of a standard Clark cell, the electromotive force being known at various temperatures, and equal, say, to 1.434 volts at 15° C. The first process is to set the potentiometer.

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  • If then we substitute for the standard cell any other source of electromotive force, we can move the slider into another position in which the galvanometer will show no deflection.

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  • The scale reading then indicates directly the electromotive force of this second source of potential.

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  • Thus, for instance, if an experiment were made with a Leclanche cell, and if the balancing-point were found to be at 1500 divisions on the scale, the electromotive force would be determined as I 50o volts.

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  • Instead of adjusting in this manner the electromotive force of any form of cell, if we pass any constant current through a known resistance and bring wires from the extremities of that resistance into connexion with the slider and the galvanometer terminal, we can in the same way determine the fall of potential down the above resistance in terms of the electromotive force of the standard cell and thus measure the current flowing through the standard resistance.

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  • We may employ such a potentiometer to measure large potential difference greater than the electromotive force of the working battery, as follows: The two points between which the potential difference is required are connected by high resistance, say of 100,000 ohms or more, and from the extremities of a known fraction of this resistance, say, 'Roo or I/1000 or I/Io,000 wires are brought to the potentiometer and connected in between the slider and the corresponding galvanometer terminal.

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  • The potentiometer and the divided resistance constitute a sort of electrical scaleyard by means of which any electromotive force or difference of potential can be compared with the electromotive force of a standard cell.

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  • From the potential terminals of the strip, wires are brought to the potentiometer so as to determine their potential difference in terms of the electromotive force of the standard Clark cell.

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  • A necessary adjunct to the potentiometer is some form of standard cell to be used as a standard of electromotive force.

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  • Other voltaic standards of electromotive force are in use, such as the Weston cadmium cell, the Helmholtz calomel cell, and the standard Daniell cell.

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  • The electromotive force of the cell diminishes with rise of temperature, the board of trade value being 1.434 volts at 15° C.'

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  • Wien, the electromotive force of the H form of Clark cell is 1.4322 volts at 15° C.

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  • J and when made as directed below it has at t° C. an electromotive force E t volts, such that E =1.0184-0.0000406 (t - 20)-0.0000-0095 (t-20)2+ 0 0000-0001 (t-20)3.

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  • The cell has the electromotive force above stated if the amalgam of cadmium has from 6 to 13 parts of mercury to I of cadmium.

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  • In cases when great accuracy is not required, a Daniell cell can be used as a standard of electromotive force.

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  • When so made, the cell has an electromotive force of 1.072 volts and no sensible temperature variation.

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  • It is not magnetic. It stands near the positive end of the list of elements arranged in electromotive series, being exceeded only by the alkalis and metals of the alkaline earths; it therefore combines eagerly, under suitable conditions, with oxygen and chlorine.

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  • The electromotive force is practically constant no matter what the velocity of the disks, but according to some observers the internal resistance decreases as the velocity increases.

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  • A current of great electromotive force (intensity or voltage) passed through the coil D, induces, by means of the core and frame, a current of enormous quantity (volume or amperage), but very small electromotive force, in the metal in the trough.

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  • Thus the apparatus is analogous to the common transformers used for inducing from currents of great electromotive force and small quantity, which carry energy through long distances, currents of great quantity and small electromotive force for incandescent lights and for welding.

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  • When the two metal surfaces are connected for a short time with the terminals of some source of electromotive force, such as an electric machine, an induction coil or a voltaic battery, electric energy is stored up in the condenser in the form of electric strain in the glass, and can be recovered again in the form of an electric discharge.

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  • Owing to the variation in the value of the dielectric constant of glass with the temperature and with the frequency of the applied electromotive force, and also owing to electric glow discharge from the edges of the tin foil coatings, the capacity of an ordinary Leyden jar is not an absolutely fixed quantity, but its numerical value varies somewhat with the method by which it is measured, and with the other circumstances above mentioned.

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  • Cavendish meant by the term " velocity " what we now call the current, and by " resistance " the electromotive force which maintains the current.

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  • This result thus obtained by Cavendish in January 1781, that the current varies in direct proportion to the electromotive force, was really an anticipation of the fundamental law of electric flow, discovered independently by G.

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  • Volta then proved that all metals could be arranged in an electromotive 1 Modern researches have shown that the loss of charge is in fact dependent upon the ionization of the air, and that, provided the atmospheric moisture is prevented from condensing on the insulating supports, water vapour in the air does not per se bestow on it conductance for electricity.

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  • The origin of the electromotive force in the pile has been much discussed, and Volta's discoveries gave rise to one of the historic controversies of science.

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  • de la Rive and Faraday were ardent supporters of the chemical theory of the pile, and even at the present time opinions of physicists can hardly be said to be in entire accordance as to the source of the electromotive force in a voltaic couple or pile.2 Improvements in the form of the voltaic pile were almost immediately made by W.

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  • Sir Oliver Lodge reviewed the whole position in a paper in 1885, " On the Seat of the Electromotive Force in a Voltaic Cell," Journ.

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  • Ohm introduced the clear idea of current strength as an effect produced by electromotive force acting as a cause in a circuit having resistance as its quality, and showed that the current was directly proportional to the electromotive force and inversely as the resistance.

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  • Ohm verified his law by the aid of thermo-electric piles as sources of electromotive force, and Davy, C. S.

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  • The whole of Faraday's investigations on this subject can be summed up in the single statement that if a conducting circuit is placed in a magnetic field, and if either by variation of the field or by movement or variation of the form of the circuit the total magnetic flux linked with the circuit is varied, an electromotive force is set up in that circuit which at any instant is measured by the rate at which the total flux linked with the circuit is changing.

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  • He proved by systematic experiments that the electromotive forces set up in conductors by their motions in magnetic fields or by the induction of other currents in the field were due to the secondary conductor cutting lines of magnetic force.

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  • based upon Faraday's fundamental law of induction, that the rate of change of the total magnetic flux linked with a conductor is a measure of the electromotive force created in it (see Electrokinetics).

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  • At the time when Maxwell developed his theory the dielectric constants of only a few transparent insulators were known and these were for the most part measured with steady or unidirectional electromotive force.

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  • He followed up the early work of the British Association Committee on electrical units by a fresh determination of the ohm in absolute measure, and in conjunction with other work on the electrochemical equivalent of silver and the absolute electromotive force of the Clark cell may be said to have placed exact electrical measurement on a new basis.

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  • It has long been known that air and other gases at the pressure of the atmosphere were very perfect insulators, but that when they were rarefied and contained in glass tubes with platinum electrodes sealed through the glass, electricity could be passed through them under sufficient electromotive force and produced a luminous appearance known as the electric glow discharge.

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  • Electromotive force is due to a difference in the density of the electronic population in different or identical conducting bodies, and whilst the electrons can move freely through so-called conductors their motion is much more hindered or restricted in non-conductors.

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  • The electrical pressure required to force a current of this intensity through the solution, and to overcome a certain opposing electromotive force arising from the more electro-negative impurities of the anode, depends upon the composition of the bath and of the anodes, the distance between the electrodes, and the temperature, but under the usual working conditions averages o-3 volt for every pair of electrodes in series.

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  • was produced by an electromotive force of o i volt.

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  • The tension of the surface of contact of mercury and dilute sulphuric acid depends on the electromotive force acting between the mercury and the acid.

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  • If the electromotive force is from the acid to the mercury the surface-tension increases; if it is from the mercury to the acid, it diminishes.

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  • Lippmann, who has made a careful investigation of the subject, finds that exceedingly small variations of the electromotive force produce sensible changes in the surfacetension.

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  • He became aspirant repetiteur at the lycee of Rheims in 1853, and after holding several intermediate positions was appointed in 1862 to the professorship of chemistry in Sens lycee, where he prepared the thesis on electromotive force which gained him his doctor's degree at Paris in the following year.

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  • WHEATSTONE'S BRIDGE, an electrical instrument which consists of six conductors, joining four points, of such a character that when an electromotive force is applied in one branch the absence of a current in another branch (called the conjugate branch) establishes a relation between the resistance of the four others by which we can determine the value of the resistance in one of these, that of the others being assumed to be known.

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  • these resistances have values denoted by P, Q, R, and S, then when P: Q :: R: S, the current in the galvanometer circuit will be zero when an electromotive force is applied in the battery circuit.

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  • Let E be the electromotive force in the battery circuit, and let (x+y) be the current through the resistance P, y the current through the resistance Q and z that through B.

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  • - Alessandro Volta (1801) showed that although a separation of the two electricities was produced by the contact of two different metals (Volta Effect), which could be detected by a sensitive electrometer, a continuous current of corresponding magnitude could not be produced in a purely metallic circuit without the interposition of a liquid, because the electromotive force at one junction was exactly balanced by an equal and opposite force at the other.

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  • Seebeck (1822), employing a galvanometer then recently invented, which was more suited for the detection of small electromotive forces, found that a current was produced if the junctions of the two metals were at different temperatures.

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  • He explained this effect by supposing that the Volta contact electromotive force varied with the temperature, so that the exact balance was destroyed by unequal heating.

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  • We conclude by applying Ohm's law that the electromotive force, E, of the thermocouple may be approximately represented for small differences of temperature by the formula E=CR=p(t-t').

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  • Gauss's system of absolute units to electromagnetism, Thomson took up the question, and, applying the principles of energy, calculated the absolute electromotive force of a Daniell cell, and determined the absolute measure of the resistance of a wire from the heat produced in it by a known current.

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  • This contact may be made to close the circuit of a suitable voltmeter, or to charge a condenser in connexion with it, and the reading of the voltmeter will therefore not be the average or effective voltage of the alternator, but the instantaneous value of the electromotive force corresponding to that instant during the phase, determined by the position of the rotating contact slip with reference to the poles of the alternator.

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  • If the contact springs can be moved round the disk so as to vary the instant of contact, we can plot out the value of the observed instantaneous voltage of the machine or circuit in a wavy curve, showing the wave form of the electromotive force of the alternator.

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  • This process, so to speak, samples or tests the varying electromotive force of the alternating current at one particular instant during the phase and measures it on a voltmeter.

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  • The electromotive force so selected is balanced against the steady potential difference produced between a fixed and a sliding contact on a wire traversed by another steady current, and if there is any difference between this last, the potential difference, and the instantaneous potential difference balanced against it, a relay is operated and sets in action a motor which shifts the contact point along the potentiometer wire and so restores the balance.

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  • As the brushes are slowly shifted over on the revolving contact so as to select different phases of the alternating electromotive force, the pen follows and draws a curve delineating the wave form of that electromotive force or current.

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  • A ray of light is reflected from this mirror and from another mirror which is rocked by a small motor driven off the same circuit, so that the ray has two vibratory motions imparted to it at right angles, one a simple harmonic motion and the other a motion imitating the variation of the current or electromotive force under test.

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