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electrolyte

electrolyte

electrolyte Sentence Examples

  • A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.

  • When the passage of an electric current through a substance is accompanied by definite chemical changes which are independent of the heating effects of the current, the process is known as electrolysis, and the substance is called an electrolyte.

  • Volta's cell consists essentially of two plates of different metals, such as zinc and copper, connected by an electrolyte such as a solution of salt or acid.

  • In batteries which use acids as the electrolyte, a film of hydrogen tends to be deposited on the copper or platinum electrode; but, to obtain a constant electromotive force, several means were soon devised of preventing the formation of the film.

  • We may sum up the chief results of Faraday's work in the statements known as Faraday's laws: The mass of substance liberated from an electrolyte by the passage of a current is proportional (I) to the total quantity of electricity which passes through the electrolyte, and (2) to the chemical equivalent weight of the substance liberated.

  • A study of the products of decomposition does not necessarily lead directly to a knowledge of the ions actually employed in carrying the current through the electrolyte.

  • To explain these facts, Theodor Grotthus (1785-1822) in 1806 put forward an hypothesis which supposed that the opposite chemical constituents of an electrolyte interchanged partners all along the line between the electrodes when a current passed.

  • The opposite parts of an electrolyte, which work their way through the liquid under the action of the electric forces, were named by Faraday the ions - the travellers.

  • If we eliminate the polarization at the electrodes, it can be shown that an electrolyte possesses a definite electric resistance and therefore a definite conductivity.

  • The forces between the ions of a strongly dissociated solution will thus be considerable at a dilution which makes forces between undissociated molecules quite insensible, and at the concentrations necessary to test Ostwald's formula an electrolyte will be far from dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the term, which implies no appreciable intermolecular or interionic forces.

  • When two metallic conductors are placed in an electrolyte, a current will flow through a wire connecting them provided that a difference of any kind exists between the two conductors in the nature either of the metals or of the portions of the electrolyte which surround them.

  • A current can be obtained by the combination of two metals in the same electrolyte, of two metals in different electrolytes, of the same metal in different electrolytes, or of the same metal in solutions of the same electrolyte at different concentrations.

  • The phenomena of polarization are thus seen to be due to the changes of surface produced, and are correlated with the differences of potential which exist at any surface of separation between a metal and an electrolyte.

  • On the other hand, it is commonly thought that the single potentialdifferences at the surface of metals and electrolytes have been determined by methods based on the use of the capillary electrometer and on others depending on what is called a dropping electrode, that is, mercury dropping rapidly into an electrolyte and forming a cell with the mercury at rest in the bottom of the vessel.

  • When a current passes from an electrolyte to a metal, the electron must be detached from the atom it was accompanying and chemical action be manifested at the electrode.

  • Large metallic surfaces (especially external surfaces) are sometimes plated by means of a "doctor," which, in its simplest form, is a brush constantly wetted with the electrolyte, with a wire anode buried amid the hairs or bristles; this brush is painted slowly over the surface of the metal to be coated, which must be connected to the negative terminal of the electrical generator.

  • Sherard Cowper Coles patented a process in which, working with a high current density, a lead anode is used, and powdered zinc is kept suspended in the solution to maintain the proportion of zinc in the electrolyte, and so to guard against the gradual acidification of the bath.

  • If two iron plates, one of which is magnetized, are immersed in an electrolyte, a current will generally be indicated by a galvanometer connected with the plates.

  • de Phys., Paris, 1900, p. 561) that the true effect of magnetization is liable to be disguised by secondary or parasitic phenomena, arising chiefly from polarization of the electrodes and from local variations in the concentration and magnetic condition of the electrolyte; these may be avoided by working with weak solutions, exposing only a small surface in a non-polar region of the metal, and substituting a capillary electrometer for the galvanometer generally used.

  • at 3 or 2.5 volts respectively, the electrolyte containing I.

  • Nahnsen's process, with an electrolyte containing alkali-metal sulphate and zinc sulphate, has been used in Germany, and a process invented by Dieffenbach has also been tried in that country.

  • 30) obtained potassium by the electrolysis of a mixture of potassium and calcium chlorides fused over a lamp. There are here foreshadowed two types of electrolytic furnace-operations: (a) those in which external heating maintains the electrolyte in the fused condition, and (b) those in which a currentdensity is applied sufficiently high to develop the heat necessary to effect this object unaided.

  • On passing a current of electricity, of which the volume and pressure are adjusted to the conditions of the electrolyte and electrodes, the anode slowly dissolves, leaving the insoluble impurities in the form of a sponge, if the proportion be considerable, but otherwise as a mud or slime which becomes detached from the anode surface and must be prevented from coming into contact with the cathode.

  • The relation between the composition of the electrolyte and the various conditions of current-density, temperature and the like has been studied by F.

  • Similarly, the formation of organic halogen products may be effected by electrolytic chlorine, as, for example, in the production of chloral by the gradual introduction of alcohol into an anode cell in which the electrolyte is a strong solution of potassium chloride.

  • In art-work of this nature the principal points to be looked to in depositing are the electrical connexions to the cathode, the shape of the anode (to secure uniformity of deposition), the circulation of the electrolyte, and, in some cases, the means for escape of anode oxygen.

  • The Edison electric meter, like those of Sprague and Lane-Fox, was based upon the principle that when an electric current flows through an electrolyte, such as sulphate of copper or sulphate of zinc, the electrodes being plates of copper or zinc, metal is dissolved off one plate (the anode) and deposited on the other plate (the cathode).

  • To prevent temperature from affecting the shunt ratio, Edison joined in series with the electrolytic cell a copper coil the resistance of which increased with a rise of temperature by the same amount that the electrolyte decreased.

  • The whole current supplied to the house flows through an electrolytic cell consisting of a glass tube containing two platinum electrodes; the electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid covered with a thin layer of oil to prevent evaporation.

  • In this meter the electrolyte is a solution of mercurous nitrate which is completely enclosed in a glass tube of a particular form, having a mercury anode and a platinum or carbon cathode.

  • On electrolysis a layer of metallic calcium is formed at the lower end of this rod on the surface of the electrolyte; the rod is gradually raised, the thickness of the layer increases, and ultimately a rod of metallic calcium, forming, as it were, a continuation of the iron cathode, is obtained.

  • The aqueous solution of ammonia is very basic in its reactions, and since it is a weak electrolyte, one must assume the solution to contain a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, although it is probably chiefly composed of a solution of ammonia in water.

  • Its aqueous solution is not an electrolyte, and consequently does not give the reactions of the mercury and cyanogen ions.

  • Borchers also used an externally heated metal vessel as the cathode; it is provided with a supporting collar or flange a little below the top, so that the upper part of the vessel is exposed to the cooling influence of the air, in order that a crust of solidified salt may there be formed, and so prevent the creeping of the electrolyte over the top. The carbon anode passes through the cover of a porcelain cylinder, open at the bottom, and provided with a side-tube at the top to remove the chlorine formed during electrolysis.

  • The osmotic pressure of an electrolyte consisting of two ions is double that of a non-electrolyte.

  • Hence for a binary electrolyte the diffusion constant is measured by 2RT/F or 2UVRT/(U+V).

  • The function of the electrolyte may be to annul such a natural charge and thus allow the non-electric surface energy to produce coagulation.

  • The process exhibited several disadvantages, the electrolyte had to be kept constant in composition lest either fluorine vapours should be evolved or sodium thrown down, and the raw materials had accordingly to be prepared in a pure state.

  • The current is supplied at a tension of 3 to 5 volts per cell, passing through 10 or 12 in series; and it performs two distinct functions: - (1) it overcomes the chemical affinity of the aluminium oxide, (2) it overcomes the resistance of the electrolyte, heating the liquid at the same time.

  • The bath is heated internally with the current rather than by means of external fuel, because this arrangement permits the vessel itself to be kept comparatively cool; if it were fired from without, it would be hotter than the electrolyte, and no material suitable for the construction of the cell is competent to withstand the attack of nascent aluminium at high temperatures.

  • Aluminium is so light that it is a matter requiring some ingenuity to select a convenient solvent through which it shall sink quickly, for if it does not sink, it short-circuits the electrolyte.

  • This salt is a colourless crystalline substance of composition CH30 C6H4 N2 CN HCN 2H20, and has the properties of a metallic salt; it is very soluble in water and its solution is an electrolyte, whereas the solutions of the synand anticompounds are not electrolytes.

  • p. 631) showed how to calculate the effective number of molecules n" = (1 +ek/ko)n,from the molecular conductivity k of the solution and its value ko at infinite dilution, for an electrolyte giving rise to e +I ions.

  • If, however, pairs of metallic disks, made, say, of zinc and copper, are alternated with disks of cloth wetted with a conductor of the second class, such, for instance, as dilute acid or any electrolyte, then the effect of the feeble potential difference between one pair of copper and zinc disks is added to that of the potential difference between the next pair, and thus by a sufficiently long series of pairs any required difference of potential can be accumulated.

  • In the 7th series (1834) he defines a number of new terms, such as electrolyte, electrolysis, anode and cathode, &c., in connexion with electrolytic phenomena, which were immediately adopted into the vocabulary of science.

  • Furthermore his electrochemical investigations, and particularly his discovery of the important law of electrolysis, that the movement of a certain quantity of electricity through an electrolyte is always accompanied by the transfer of a certain definite quantity of matter from one electrode to another and the liberation at these electrodes of an equivalent weight of the ions, gave foundation for the idea of a definite atomic charge of electricity.

  • A hundred or more jars were coupled in series, the cathodes of one to the anodes of the next, and were so arranged that with the aid of side-pipes with leaden connexions and india-rubber joints the electrolyte could, once daily, be made to circulate through them all from the top of one jar to the bottom of the next.

  • The electrolyte was used until the accumulation of iron in it was too great, but was mixed from time to time with a little water acidulated by sulphuric acid.

  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.

  • The necessity for adjusting the current-density to the composition and treatment of the electrolyte is thus apparent.

  • Henry Wilde, in 1875, in depositing copper on iron printing-rollers, recognized this principle and rotated the rollers during electrolysis, thereby renewing the surfaces of metal and liquid in mutual contact, and imparting sufficient motion to the solution to prevent stratification; as an alternative he imparted motion to the electrolyte by means of propeller blades.

  • Graham has described experiments in this direction, using a jet of electrolyte forced (beneath the surface of the bath) through a hole in the anode upon the surface of the cathode.

  • By means of a very brisk rotation of cathode, combined with a rapid current of electrolyte, J.

  • The methods by which such results are to be obtained cannot, however, as yet be practised economically on a working scale; one great difficulty in applying them to the refining of metals is that the jets of liquid would be liable to carry with them articles of anode mud, and Swan has shown that the presence of solid particles in the electrolyte is one of the most fruitful causes of the well-known nodular growths on electrodeposited copper.

  • The electrolyte, when too impure for further use, is commonly recrystallized, or electrolysed with insoluble anodes to recover the copper.

  • Borchers uses the alloy, granulated, in an anode chamber separated from the cathode cell by a porous partition through which the current, but not electrolyte, can pass freely.

  • The anode residue is collected in the angular bottom of the tank, the electrolyte passes from the anode chamber to a series of tanks in which the more electro-negative constituents (silver, &c.) are chemically separated, and thence to the cathode chamber, where the copper is deposited electrolytically, thence it passes again to the anode chamber and so completes the cycle.

  • On standing, the solution usually gelatinizes, a process accelerated by the addition of an electrolyte.

  • The analogous reversible heat effects which occur at the junction of a metal and an electrolyte were also investigated by Jahn, but he did not succeed in obtaining so complete an agreement with theory in this case.

  • (On this hypothesis, it may be explained by regarding the air as an electrolyte of infinite specific resistance.) It is also profoundly modified by the state of the exposed surfaces, a coating of oxide on the copper greatly increasing the effect, as it would in a voltaic cell.

  • It is probable that the action depends upon the presence of iron, oxygen and water, and some acid which makes the water an electrolyte.

  • abnormalitycal cases fluid therapy is essential to reverse dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities.

  • Fluid and electrolyte disturbance - sodium and water retention, hypertension, potassium loss, hypokalaemic alkalosis, edema.

  • aqueous potassium hydroxide as electrolyte.

  • cerium oxide electrolyte fuel cells.

  • However the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide, which is very conductive, resulting in low internal impedance for the cell.

  • A low residue diet and correction of fluid and electrolyte disturbances will be necessary.

  • electrolyte contained in a hollow lead horn.

  • electrolyte used in the construction.

  • The electrical conducting solution or melt of ions is called the electrolyte.

  • The protons are transported through the proton conducting electrolyte to the cathode.

  • The electrodes need to be in contact with this solid electrolyte.

  • Metal atoms of a metal electrode can also be oxidized to form positive metal ions which pass into the liquid electrolyte.

  • electrolyte imbalances.

  • electrolyte disturbance.

  • electrolyte analyzer.

  • electrolyte abnormalities.

  • Low temperature cells The proton exchange membrane (a.k.a. polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell uses a polymeric electrolyte membrane) fuel cell uses a polymeric electrolyte.

  • electrolyte balance.

  • Low temperature cells The proton exchange membrane (a.k.a. polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell uses a polymeric electrolyte.

  • This forms the basis for improved interpretation of plasma electrolyte status and thereby health and welfare of birds.

  • Anyway, my blood pressure is bang on, but my blood electrolyte levels are up (whatever that means ).

  • She will not see their eroding tooth enamel, or their ulcers, the dehydration or electrolyte imbalance.

  • They use nickel and cadmium as electrodes and aqueous potassium hydroxide as electrolyte.

  • I mean, there should be blood, fluid, electrolyte imbalances.

  • polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and outlines other types of fuel cell.

  • Care was required when doing this, as the liquid electrolyte contained caustic potash which would attack the hands or clothes.

  • C. Signs of dehydration such as poor skin turgor, serum electrolyte imbalance, increased weakness, or fatigue.

  • A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.

  • When the passage of an electric current through a substance is accompanied by definite chemical changes which are independent of the heating effects of the current, the process is known as electrolysis, and the substance is called an electrolyte.

  • Volta's cell consists essentially of two plates of different metals, such as zinc and copper, connected by an electrolyte such as a solution of salt or acid.

  • In batteries which use acids as the electrolyte, a film of hydrogen tends to be deposited on the copper or platinum electrode; but, to obtain a constant electromotive force, several means were soon devised of preventing the formation of the film.

  • We may sum up the chief results of Faraday's work in the statements known as Faraday's laws: The mass of substance liberated from an electrolyte by the passage of a current is proportional (I) to the total quantity of electricity which passes through the electrolyte, and (2) to the chemical equivalent weight of the substance liberated.

  • A study of the products of decomposition does not necessarily lead directly to a knowledge of the ions actually employed in carrying the current through the electrolyte.

  • To explain these facts, Theodor Grotthus (1785-1822) in 1806 put forward an hypothesis which supposed that the opposite chemical constituents of an electrolyte interchanged partners all along the line between the electrodes when a current passed.

  • The opposite parts of an electrolyte, which work their way through the liquid under the action of the electric forces, were named by Faraday the ions - the travellers.

  • If we eliminate the polarization at the electrodes, it can be shown that an electrolyte possesses a definite electric resistance and therefore a definite conductivity.

  • The forces between the ions of a strongly dissociated solution will thus be considerable at a dilution which makes forces between undissociated molecules quite insensible, and at the concentrations necessary to test Ostwald's formula an electrolyte will be far from dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the term, which implies no appreciable intermolecular or interionic forces.

  • When two metallic conductors are placed in an electrolyte, a current will flow through a wire connecting them provided that a difference of any kind exists between the two conductors in the nature either of the metals or of the portions of the electrolyte which surround them.

  • A current can be obtained by the combination of two metals in the same electrolyte, of two metals in different electrolytes, of the same metal in different electrolytes, or of the same metal in solutions of the same electrolyte at different concentrations.

  • The phenomena of polarization are thus seen to be due to the changes of surface produced, and are correlated with the differences of potential which exist at any surface of separation between a metal and an electrolyte.

  • On the other hand, it is commonly thought that the single potentialdifferences at the surface of metals and electrolytes have been determined by methods based on the use of the capillary electrometer and on others depending on what is called a dropping electrode, that is, mercury dropping rapidly into an electrolyte and forming a cell with the mercury at rest in the bottom of the vessel.

  • When a current passes from an electrolyte to a metal, the electron must be detached from the atom it was accompanying and chemical action be manifested at the electrode.

  • Large metallic surfaces (especially external surfaces) are sometimes plated by means of a "doctor," which, in its simplest form, is a brush constantly wetted with the electrolyte, with a wire anode buried amid the hairs or bristles; this brush is painted slowly over the surface of the metal to be coated, which must be connected to the negative terminal of the electrical generator.

  • Sherard Cowper Coles patented a process in which, working with a high current density, a lead anode is used, and powdered zinc is kept suspended in the solution to maintain the proportion of zinc in the electrolyte, and so to guard against the gradual acidification of the bath.

  • If two iron plates, one of which is magnetized, are immersed in an electrolyte, a current will generally be indicated by a galvanometer connected with the plates.

  • de Phys., Paris, 1900, p. 561) that the true effect of magnetization is liable to be disguised by secondary or parasitic phenomena, arising chiefly from polarization of the electrodes and from local variations in the concentration and magnetic condition of the electrolyte; these may be avoided by working with weak solutions, exposing only a small surface in a non-polar region of the metal, and substituting a capillary electrometer for the galvanometer generally used.

  • at 3 or 2.5 volts respectively, the electrolyte containing I.

  • Nahnsen's process, with an electrolyte containing alkali-metal sulphate and zinc sulphate, has been used in Germany, and a process invented by Dieffenbach has also been tried in that country.

  • 30) obtained potassium by the electrolysis of a mixture of potassium and calcium chlorides fused over a lamp. There are here foreshadowed two types of electrolytic furnace-operations: (a) those in which external heating maintains the electrolyte in the fused condition, and (b) those in which a currentdensity is applied sufficiently high to develop the heat necessary to effect this object unaided.

  • On passing a current of electricity, of which the volume and pressure are adjusted to the conditions of the electrolyte and electrodes, the anode slowly dissolves, leaving the insoluble impurities in the form of a sponge, if the proportion be considerable, but otherwise as a mud or slime which becomes detached from the anode surface and must be prevented from coming into contact with the cathode.

  • From these and other considerations it is obvious that (I) the electrolyte must be such as will freely dissolve the metal to be refined; (2) the electrolyte must be able to dissolve the major portion of the anode, otherwise the mass of insoluble matter on the outer layer will prevent access of electrolyte to the core, which will thus escape refining; (3) the electrolyte should, if possible, be incapable of dissolving metals more electro-negative than that to be refined; (4) the proportion of soluble electro-positive impurities must not be excessive, or these substances will accumulate too rapidly in the solution and necessitate its frequent purification; (5) the current density must be so adjusted to the strength of the solution and to other conditions that no relatively electro-positive metal is deposited, and that the cathode deposit is physically suitable for subsequent treatment; (6) the current density should be as high as is consistent with the production of a pure and sound deposit, without undue expense of voltage, so that the operation may be rapid and the "turnover" large; (7) the electrolyte should be as good a conductor of electricity as possible, and should not, ordinarily, be altered chemically by exposure to air; and (8) the use of porous partitions should be avoided, as they increase the resistance and usually require frequent renewal.

  • The relation between the composition of the electrolyte and the various conditions of current-density, temperature and the like has been studied by F.

  • Similarly, the formation of organic halogen products may be effected by electrolytic chlorine, as, for example, in the production of chloral by the gradual introduction of alcohol into an anode cell in which the electrolyte is a strong solution of potassium chloride.

  • The electrolyte is gold chloride (2.5-3 parts of pure gold per loo of solution) mixed with from 2 to 6% of the strongest hydrochloric acid to render the gold anodes readily soluble, which they are not in the neutral chloride solution.

  • The electrolyte commonly contains about a lb of copper sulphate and a lb of strong sulphuric acid per gallon, and is worked with a current density of about ro amperes per sq.

  • In art-work of this nature the principal points to be looked to in depositing are the electrical connexions to the cathode, the shape of the anode (to secure uniformity of deposition), the circulation of the electrolyte, and, in some cases, the means for escape of anode oxygen.

  • The Edison electric meter, like those of Sprague and Lane-Fox, was based upon the principle that when an electric current flows through an electrolyte, such as sulphate of copper or sulphate of zinc, the electrodes being plates of copper or zinc, metal is dissolved off one plate (the anode) and deposited on the other plate (the cathode).

  • To prevent temperature from affecting the shunt ratio, Edison joined in series with the electrolytic cell a copper coil the resistance of which increased with a rise of temperature by the same amount that the electrolyte decreased.

  • The whole current supplied to the house flows through an electrolytic cell consisting of a glass tube containing two platinum electrodes; the electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid covered with a thin layer of oil to prevent evaporation.

  • In this meter the electrolyte is a solution of mercurous nitrate which is completely enclosed in a glass tube of a particular form, having a mercury anode and a platinum or carbon cathode.

  • On electrolysis a layer of metallic calcium is formed at the lower end of this rod on the surface of the electrolyte; the rod is gradually raised, the thickness of the layer increases, and ultimately a rod of metallic calcium, forming, as it were, a continuation of the iron cathode, is obtained.

  • The aqueous solution of ammonia is very basic in its reactions, and since it is a weak electrolyte, one must assume the solution to contain a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, although it is probably chiefly composed of a solution of ammonia in water.

  • Its aqueous solution is not an electrolyte, and consequently does not give the reactions of the mercury and cyanogen ions.

  • Borchers also used an externally heated metal vessel as the cathode; it is provided with a supporting collar or flange a little below the top, so that the upper part of the vessel is exposed to the cooling influence of the air, in order that a crust of solidified salt may there be formed, and so prevent the creeping of the electrolyte over the top. The carbon anode passes through the cover of a porcelain cylinder, open at the bottom, and provided with a side-tube at the top to remove the chlorine formed during electrolysis.

  • The osmotic pressure of an electrolyte consisting of two ions is double that of a non-electrolyte.

  • Hence for a binary electrolyte the diffusion constant is measured by 2RT/F or 2UVRT/(U+V).

  • The function of the electrolyte may be to annul such a natural charge and thus allow the non-electric surface energy to produce coagulation.

  • The process exhibited several disadvantages, the electrolyte had to be kept constant in composition lest either fluorine vapours should be evolved or sodium thrown down, and the raw materials had accordingly to be prepared in a pure state.

  • The current is supplied at a tension of 3 to 5 volts per cell, passing through 10 or 12 in series; and it performs two distinct functions: - (1) it overcomes the chemical affinity of the aluminium oxide, (2) it overcomes the resistance of the electrolyte, heating the liquid at the same time.

  • The bath is heated internally with the current rather than by means of external fuel, because this arrangement permits the vessel itself to be kept comparatively cool; if it were fired from without, it would be hotter than the electrolyte, and no material suitable for the construction of the cell is competent to withstand the attack of nascent aluminium at high temperatures.

  • Aluminium is so light that it is a matter requiring some ingenuity to select a convenient solvent through which it shall sink quickly, for if it does not sink, it short-circuits the electrolyte.

  • This salt is a colourless crystalline substance of composition CH30 C6H4 N2 CN HCN 2H20, and has the properties of a metallic salt; it is very soluble in water and its solution is an electrolyte, whereas the solutions of the synand anticompounds are not electrolytes.

  • p. 631) showed how to calculate the effective number of molecules n" = (1 +ek/ko)n,from the molecular conductivity k of the solution and its value ko at infinite dilution, for an electrolyte giving rise to e +I ions.

  • If, however, pairs of metallic disks, made, say, of zinc and copper, are alternated with disks of cloth wetted with a conductor of the second class, such, for instance, as dilute acid or any electrolyte, then the effect of the feeble potential difference between one pair of copper and zinc disks is added to that of the potential difference between the next pair, and thus by a sufficiently long series of pairs any required difference of potential can be accumulated.

  • In the 7th series (1834) he defines a number of new terms, such as electrolyte, electrolysis, anode and cathode, &c., in connexion with electrolytic phenomena, which were immediately adopted into the vocabulary of science.

  • Furthermore his electrochemical investigations, and particularly his discovery of the important law of electrolysis, that the movement of a certain quantity of electricity through an electrolyte is always accompanied by the transfer of a certain definite quantity of matter from one electrode to another and the liberation at these electrodes of an equivalent weight of the ions, gave foundation for the idea of a definite atomic charge of electricity.

  • A hundred or more jars were coupled in series, the cathodes of one to the anodes of the next, and were so arranged that with the aid of side-pipes with leaden connexions and india-rubber joints the electrolyte could, once daily, be made to circulate through them all from the top of one jar to the bottom of the next.

  • The electrolyte was used until the accumulation of iron in it was too great, but was mixed from time to time with a little water acidulated by sulphuric acid.

  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.

  • The necessity for adjusting the current-density to the composition and treatment of the electrolyte is thus apparent.

  • Henry Wilde, in 1875, in depositing copper on iron printing-rollers, recognized this principle and rotated the rollers during electrolysis, thereby renewing the surfaces of metal and liquid in mutual contact, and imparting sufficient motion to the solution to prevent stratification; as an alternative he imparted motion to the electrolyte by means of propeller blades.

  • C. Graham in England have patented processes by which jets of the electrolyte are caused to impinge with considerable force upon the surface of the cathode, so that the renewal of the liquid at this point takes place very rapidly, and current-densities per sq.

  • Graham has described experiments in this direction, using a jet of electrolyte forced (beneath the surface of the bath) through a hole in the anode upon the surface of the cathode.

  • By means of a very brisk rotation of cathode, combined with a rapid current of electrolyte, J.

  • The methods by which such results are to be obtained cannot, however, as yet be practised economically on a working scale; one great difficulty in applying them to the refining of metals is that the jets of liquid would be liable to carry with them articles of anode mud, and Swan has shown that the presence of solid particles in the electrolyte is one of the most fruitful causes of the well-known nodular growths on electrodeposited copper.

  • The electrolyte, when too impure for further use, is commonly recrystallized, or electrolysed with insoluble anodes to recover the copper.

  • Electrolytic methods, in which a solution of antimony sulphide in sodium sulphide is used as the electrolyte, have been proposed (see German Patent 67973, and also Borcher's Electro-Metallurgie), but do not yet appear to have been used on the large scale.

  • Borchers uses the alloy, granulated, in an anode chamber separated from the cathode cell by a porous partition through which the current, but not electrolyte, can pass freely.

  • The anode residue is collected in the angular bottom of the tank, the electrolyte passes from the anode chamber to a series of tanks in which the more electro-negative constituents (silver, &c.) are chemically separated, and thence to the cathode chamber, where the copper is deposited electrolytically, thence it passes again to the anode chamber and so completes the cycle.

  • On standing, the solution usually gelatinizes, a process accelerated by the addition of an electrolyte.

  • The analogous reversible heat effects which occur at the junction of a metal and an electrolyte were also investigated by Jahn, but he did not succeed in obtaining so complete an agreement with theory in this case.

  • The potential difference, due to the Volta effect in air, has been shown by Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and his pupils to be of the same order of magnitude, if not absolutely the same, as that produced in a dilute electrolyte in which two metallically connected plates (e.g.

  • (On this hypothesis, it may be explained by regarding the air as an electrolyte of infinite specific resistance.) It is also profoundly modified by the state of the exposed surfaces, a coating of oxide on the copper greatly increasing the effect, as it would in a voltaic cell.

  • It is probable that the action depends upon the presence of iron, oxygen and water, and some acid which makes the water an electrolyte.

  • C. Signs of dehydration such as poor skin turgor, serum electrolyte imbalance, increased weakness, or fatigue.

  • Conventional batteries have chambers holding metal plates in an acidic electrolyte solution and require regular maintenance.

  • Short trips mean that the alternator doesn't have much time to recharge the battery while high temperatures can play havoc with the electrolyte solution and components of the battery.

  • Also, because the electrolyte solution can freeze, which could crack the battery case, the battery should be kept in a place that is always above freezing.

  • Mineral water is full of salts that will help replenish your electrolyte balance.

  • In hot weather, a healthy body will lose enough water to cool the body while creating the lowest level of electrolyte imbalance.

  • Chronic use of laxatives may result in fluid and electrolyte imbalances, steatorrhea, osteomalacia, diarrhea, cathartic colon, and liver disease.

  • The most frequent causes of death associated with anorexia are starvation, electrolyte imbalance, heart failure, and suicide.

  • Electrolyte and fluid replacement solutions are available over the counter in food and drug stores.

  • Several balanced electrolyte rehydration solutions are available.

  • Death usually results from heart failure, electrolyte imbalance, or low body temperature.

  • Fluids such as water, breast milk or formula (if applicable), electrolyte replacement drinks, diluted juice, or clear broths should be encouraged.

  • Intravenous rehydration is used to restore the fluid and electrolyte balance of the body due to illness, surgery, or accident.

  • Sodium-An element; sodium is the most common electrolyte found in animal blood serum.

  • "Water, Electrolyte, Mineral, and Acid-Base Metabolism."

  • The affected child should be encouraged to drink fluids such as water, breast milk or formula (if applicable), electrolyte replacement drinks, or clear broths.

  • Fluid imbalances upset the balance of specific essential chemicals (electrolytes) in the blood, which can cause complications such as irregular heartbeat and, without correction of the electrolyte imbalance, shock.

  • Electrolyte solutions may be given intravenously to restore electrolyte balance.

  • Dehydration can upset the body's electrolyte balance, leading to potentially life-threatening problems such as heart beat abnormalities (arrhythmia).

  • A complete blood count, various serum chemical and electrolyte tests, and a urinalysis may be helpful in discovering any underlying medical disorders.

  • Overhydration is the most common electrolyte imbalance in hospitals, occurring in about 2 percent of all people.

  • Pocket Guide to Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance, 5th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2004.

  • Brenner. "Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances."

  • Fluid imbalances upset the balance of certain important chemicals (electrolytes) in the blood, which can cause complications such as irregular heartbeat and, without correction of the electrolyte imbalance, shock.

  • Intravenous fluids will be infused to prevent dehydration and to correct electrolyte imbalances that may have already occurred.

  • Sodium-An element; sodium is the most common electrolyte found in animal blood serum.

  • Pharmacists can recommend effective, pleasant-tasting, electrolyte replacement fluids that are available without a prescription.

  • An electrolyte replacement fluid can be made at home by adding one teaspoon of salt and four teaspoons of sugar to one quart of water.

  • Blood is taken to measure oxygen levels and to determine electrolyte balances.

  • Following abdominal surgery, uncomplicated cases of ileus can be managed by minimizing the amount of food the patient consumes, ensuring adequate fluid intake, and correcting any electrolyte disturbances such as low potassium.

  • The loss of fluids through diarrhea and vomiting can upset the body's electrolyte balance, leading to potentially life-threatening problems such as heart beat abnormalities (arrhythmia).

  • Potassium, an electrolyte, must be balanced with sodium.

  • Prolonged vomiting can lead to fluid and electrolyte depletion.

  • This concern intensifies if the vomiting is accompanied by diarrhea that accelerates fluid and electrolyte depletion.

  • Laboratory tests, including blood tests (to check electrolyte levels) and urine tests (e.g. urine specific gravity and creatinine), may be used to evaluate the severity of the problem.

  • Anemia, diarrhea, and fluid and electrolyte disorders are common.

  • In patients with severe PEM, the first stage of treatment consists of correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, treating infection with antibiotics that do not affect protein synthesis, and addressing related medical problems.

  • Death usually results from heart failure, an electrolyte imbalance, or low body temperature.

  • As a result of electrolyte imbalance, many functions can become impaired.

  • Electrolyte levels will be measured along with carbon dioxide and pH and serum osmolality, which may indicate hypertonic dehydration.

  • Treatment will take place over a period of several days, including administration of insulin, usually in combination with administration of intravenous fluids and salts to restore fluid and electrolyte balance.

  • Urine and blood lab tests can screen for electrolyte disturbances and possible metabolic disorders.

  • For starters, eating disorders can cause electrolyte abnormalities.

  • Vitamin B6 (2 mg): Important for hormonal balance in women as well as electrolyte balance in the blood.

  • Potassium is an electrolyte that is crucial in cell function and electrical impulses.

  • The titanium is immersed in an electrolyte bath and then electricity is run through it.

  • The material that leaks from alkaline batteries is potassium hydroxide which is the electrolyte of the battery's make-up.

  • The abuse of diuretics can lead to dehydration and an electrolyte imbalance.

  • Thyroid function and electrolyte balance will be checked, along with liver, kidney, and pancreatic function.

  • Studies have shown that extreme fluctuations in weight can harm your health and cause negative consequences, such as hair loss and electrolyte imbalances.

  • Drink plenty of water to ensure that any fluids lost during exercise do not cause an electrolyte imbalance.

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