How to use Electrification in a sentence
If then the ball be withdrawn, the leaves will diverge a second time with negative electrification.
Clerk Maxwell demonstrated, however, that all electric charge or electrification of conductors consists simply in the establishment of a physical state in the surrounding insulator or dielectric, which state is variously called electric strain, electric displacement or electric polarization.
The reader should, however, notice that what is generally called electric force is the analogue in electricity of the so-called acceleration of gravity in mechanics, whilst electrification or quantity_of electricity is analogous to mass.
This harmonizes with the fact that the real seat of the energy 3f electrification is the dielectric or insulator surrounding the charged conductor.'
By the surface density of electrification on a conductor is meant the charge per unit of area, or the number of tubes of electric force which spring from unit area of its surface.Advertisement
Since the potential of a small charge of electricity dQ at a distance r is equal to dQ/r, and since the potential of all parts of a conductor is the same in those cases in which the distribution of surface density of electrification is uniform or symmetrical with respect to some point or axis in the conductor, we can calculate the potential by simply summing up terms like rdS/r, where dS is an element of surface, o- the surface density of electricity on it, and r the distance from the symmetrical centre.
Electrostatic voltmeters are also liable to have their indications disturbed by electrification of the glass cover of the instrument; this can be avoided by varnishing the glass with a semi-conducting varnish so as to prevent the location of electrostatic charges on the glass.
The function of the apron is to prevent the escape of electrification from the glass during its passage from the rubber to the collecting points.
If it were not for leakage in various ways, the electrification would go on everywhere increasing, but in practice a stationary state is soon attained.
The uses of an electroscope are, first, to ascertain if any body is in a state of electrification, and secondly, to indicate the sign of that charge.Advertisement
To detect electrification it is best to charge the electroscope by induction.
The leading idea which distinguishes his work from that of his predecessors was his use of the phrase " degree of electrification " with a clear scientific definition which shows it to be equivalent in meaning to the modern term " electric potential."
He found that the momentary dissipation was proportional to the degree of electrification at the time, and that, when the charge was moderate, its dissipation was not altered in bodies of different kinds or shapes.
This electrification would favour the spread of a positive, but hinder that of a negative discharge.
In the latter case, which is the standard practice, mechanical vibration of the siphon is substituted in the place of electrification of the ink, so as to eliminate the effect of atmospheric conditions which frequently caused discontinuity in the flow of ink.Advertisement
Riess explains it by the negative electrification of the plate caused by the friction of the water vapour, &c., driven along the surface by the explosion which accompanies the disruptive discharge at the point.
Instruments of the siphon recorder type have been made to work both with and without electrification of the ink.
An electrically neutral atom is believed to be constituted in part, or perhaps entirely, of a definite number of electrons in rapid motion within a " sphere of uniform positive electrification " not yet explained.
The Underground Electric Railways Company, which acquired a controlling influence over these concerns, undertook the construction of a great power station at Chelsea; while the Metropolitan Company, which had fallen into line with the District (not without dispute over the system of electrification to be adopted) erected a station at Neasden on the Aylesbury branch.
The former company combined with the Great Western Company as regards the electrification of, and provision of stock for, the lines which they had previously worked jointly, from Edgware Road by Bishop's Road to Hammersmith, &c. The Baker Street & Waterloo railway (known as the " Bakerloo ") was opened in 1906 and subsequently extended in one direction to Paddington and in the other to the Elephant and Castle.Advertisement
The sign of the electrification imparted to the electroscope when so charged - that is, whether positive or negative - can be determined by rubbing the sealing-wax rod with flannel and the glass rod with silk, and approaching them gently to the electroscope one at a time.
In the next place we must notice that electrification is a measurable magnitude and in electrostatics is estimated in terms of a unit called the electrostatic unit of electric quantity.
The first term on the right hand side expresses the energy of the surface electrification of the conductors in the field, and the second the energy of volume density (if any).
During his first period of discovery, besides the induction of electric currents, Faraday established the identity of the electrification produced in different ways; the law of the definite electrolytic action of the current; and the fact, upon which he laid great stress, that every unit of positive electrification is related in a definite manner to a unit of negative electrification, so that it is impossible to produce what Faraday called "an absolute charge of electricity" of one kind not related to an equal charge of the opposite kind.
The charges thus deposited on the glass disk are carried round so that the upper half is electrified negatively on both sides and the lower half positively on both sides, the sign of the electrification being reversed as the disk passes between the combs and the armature by discharges issuing from them respectively.Advertisement
The electrification of the plate is now tested by sifting over it a mixture of flowers of sulphur and red lead.