How to use Electrical in a sentence
We're in the middle of an electrical storm.
Covers needed to be put on the electrical outlets and the windows still held their tags.
Our internal electrical system works by using cells that have built up electrical gradient or energy that can be given off to other cells by direct transfer.
After the cable has been again subjected to the proper electrical tests and found to be in perfect condition, the ship is taken to the place where the shore end is to be landed.
This strain corresponds to the electrical charging of the antenna.Advertisement
Experiments very similar to these of Edison were made by Elisha Gray of Boston, Mass., and described by him in papers communicated to the American Electrical Society in 1875 and 1878.
The antenna has at one moment a static electrical charge distributed upon it, and lines of electric force stretch from it to the surrounding earth.
When this has been done an electrical test is applied, and if the original fracture is between ship and shore the heaving in of cable will continue until the end comes on board.
The electrical condition of the cable was then excellent, but unfortunately the electrician in charge, Wildman Whitehouse, conceived the wrong idea that it should be worked by currents of high potential.
Hitherto the large bill for electric energy has debarred the general use of electrical heating, in spite of its numerous advantages.Advertisement
He also investigated electrical endosmosis and the electrical resistance of electrolytes.
The result, was in Helmholtz's words, to establish beyond doubt that ordinary light consists of electrical vibrations in an all-pervading ether which possesses the properties of an insulator and of a magnetic medium.
The availability of the energy of electrical separation in a charged Leyden jar is also limited only by the resistance of conductors, in virtue of which an amount of heat is necessarily produced, which is greater the less the time occupied in discharging the jar.
The end is taken into the testing room in the cable-house and the conductor connected with the testing instruments, and, should the electrical tests continue satisfactory, the ship is put on the proper course and steams slowly ahead, paying out the cable over her stern.
At the receiving station electrical mechanisms record the signals once more as perforations in a paper strip forming an exact replica of the transmitting tape.Advertisement
The difficulty experienced is that of securing a good electrical contact under the very slight pressure obtainable from an instrument excited by attenuated arrival-currents.
As the direction and intensity of this induced current are a function of the position of the second coil in its field, and as this position is determined by its mechanical connexion with the recorder coil, it is evident that, by a suitable choice of the electrical elements of the second coil and its alternating field, the indications on the siphon recorder can be magnified to any reasonable extent.
The earliest practical trial of electrical telegraphy was made in 1837 on the London and North Western Railway, and the first public line under the patent of Wheatstone and Cooke was laid from Paddington to Slough on the Great Western Railway in 1843.
This condenser is charged electrically and then suddenly discharged and violent electrical oscillations are set up in it, that is to say, electricity rushes to and fro between the antenna and the earth.
Weissenfels manufactures machinery, ironware, paper and other goods, and has an electrical power-house.Advertisement
Up to 1895 or 1896 the suggestions for wireless telegraphy which had been publicly announced or tried can thus be classified under three or four divisions, based respectively upon electrical conduction through the soil or sea, magnetic induction through space, combinations of the two foregoing, and lastly, electrostatic induction.
The vast number of microphonic contacts present give rise to very strong electrical undulations, and hence to a loud sound.
When one of two subscribers connected together by this arrangement talks, the Exchange From the Post Office Electrical Engineers' Journal.
The lower end e of the cable in the tank T is taken to the testing room, so that continuous tests for electrical condition can be made.
These two circuits are syntonized so that the closed or condenser circuit and the open or antenna circuit are adjusted to have, when separate, the same natural electrical time of vibration.Advertisement
The electrical connexions of the instrument as arranged for actual use are also illustrated in the figure.
In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.
About the same time appeared his elaborate memoir, " On Faraday's Lines of Force," in which he gave the first indication of some of those extraordinary electrical investigations which culminated in the greatest work of his life.
The telautograph is on a similar principle to the Cowper apparatus, the motion of the transmitting pencil or stylus used in writing being resolved by a system of levers into two component rectilinear motions, which are used to control and vary the currents in two distinct electrical circuits.
Poulsen's method of producing continuous or undamped electrical waves has been applied by him in radio-telegraphy.
The scientific study of electric wave telegraphy has necessitated the introduction of many new processes and methods of electrical measurement.
The various electrical phenomena of plants also are obscure.
Hartog has endeavoured to show that it can only he formed by a dual force, analagous to that of magnetism, the spindle-fibi es being comparable to the lines of force in a magnetic field and possibly due to electrical differences in the cell.
The chief industries are the making of sugar and shoes, and there are also electrical works and saw-mills.
Kelway invented an electrical log in 1876.
In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.
The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.
One of Maxwell's last great contributions to science was the editing (with copious original notes) of the Electrical Researches of the Hon.
When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
For ordinary combustions compressed oxygen is used, so that the combustible substance burns almost instantaneously, the action being induced by means of some electrical device which can be controlled from without the calorimeter.
The saw-fishes, Pristidae, the electrical rays, Torpedinae, and ordinary rays and skates, are also found in considerable numbers.
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.
In 1901 the Copley medal of the Royal Society of London was awarded him as being "the first to apply the second law of thermodynamics to the exhaustive discussion of the relation between chemical, electrical and thermal energy and capacity for external work."
An instrument of the latter type of considerable accuracy was designed by Lord Kelvin for the British Board of Trade Electrical Laboratory, and it is there used as the principal standard ampere balance.
For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.
Transformations of electrical into chemical energy are witnessed in the processes of electrolysis (q.v.; see also Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy).
Other thriving trades include the glass-works on the shore, pottery-works in the "auld toon," dye-works and a factory for the making of electrical appliances.
Here is situated the Dreher brewery, the largest in the monarchy; and there are also important smelting and iron works, cotton-spinning, factories of electrical plant, &c. The meeting at Schwechat of the emperor Leopold I.
At the age of fourteen he entered Yale College, where he graduated in 1810 and where under the instruction of Jeremiah Day and Benjamin Silliman he received the first impulse towards electrical studies.
There was nothing electrical in Thoreau's intercourse with his fellow men; he gave off no spiritual sparks.
The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.
Nitrogen is always being synthesized from the atmosphere (by plants, and by electrical discharges which combine nitrogen and oxygen), and this combined nitrogen is either utilized by land organisms or is washed down into the sea in the water of the rivers.
The freezing point curve usually lies below the electrical one, but approaches it as dilution is increased.2 Returning once more to the consideration of the first relation, which deals with the comparison between the number of ions and the number of pressure-producing particles in dilute solution, one caution is necessary.
The electrical phenomena show that there are two ions to the molecule, and that these ions are electrically charged.
It' would be possible for a body in solution to be dissociated into non-electrical parts, which would give osmotic pressure effects twice or three times the normal value, but, being uncharged, would not act as ions and impart electrical conductivity to the solution.
It is possible that in complicated organic substances we might have two kinds of dissociation, electrical and non-electrical, occurring simultaneously, while the possibility of the association of molecules accompanied by the electrical dissociation of some of them into new parts should not be overlooked.
It is probable that the electrical effects constitute the strongest arguments in favour of the theory.
Nevertheless, the remarkable general agreement of the numbers in the four columns is quite enough to show the intimate connexion between chemical activity and electrical conductivity.
As an example of a fairly constant cell we may take that of Daniell, which consists of the electrical arrangement - zinc zinc sulphate solution copper sulphate solution copper, - the two solutions being usually separated by a pot of porous earthenware.
If the chemical changes which occur in the cell were allowed to take place in a closed vessel without the performance of electrical or other work, the change in energy would be measured by the heat evolved.
On the other hand, we may imagine the processes due to the electrical transfer to be reversed by an osmotic operation.
Solvent may be supposed to be squeezed out from the solution which has become more dilute through a semi-permeable wall, and through another such wall allowed to mix with the solution which in the electrical operation had become more concentrated.
Again, we may calculate the osmotic work done, and, if the whole cycle of operations be supposed to occur at the same temperature, the osmotic work must be equal and opposite to the electrical work of the first operation.
The result of the investigation shows that the electrical work Ee is given by the_equation Ee =1 where v is the volume of the solution used and p its osmotic pressure.
Caoutchouc is a bad conductor of heat and electricity, and alone or mixed with other materials is employed as an electrical insulator.
Large metallic surfaces (especially external surfaces) are sometimes plated by means of a "doctor," which, in its simplest form, is a brush constantly wetted with the electrolyte, with a wire anode buried amid the hairs or bristles; this brush is painted slowly over the surface of the metal to be coated, which must be connected to the negative terminal of the electrical generator.
The most extensive application of mica at the present day is for electrical purposes.
Phlogopite is rarely found as colourless transparent sheets and is therefore almost exclusively used for electrical purposes.
He was knighted in 1897, and received the Royal (1875), Davy (1888), and Copley (1904) medals of the Royal Society, besides filling the offices of president of the Chemical Society and of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.
Magnetic induction, like other fluxes such as electrical, thermal or fluid currents, is defined with reference to an area; it satisfies the same conditions of continuity as the electric current does, and in isotropic media it depends on the magnetic force just as the electric current depends on the electromotive force.
The magnetic flux per square centimetre at any point (B, B, or 0) is briefly called the induction, or, especially by electrical engineers, the flux-density.
The ballistic method is largely employed for determining the relation of induction to magnetizing force in samples of the iron and steel used in the manufacture of electrical machinery, and especially for the observation of hysteresis effects.
But though a formula of this type has no physical significance, and cannot be accepted as an equation to the actual curve of W and B, it is, nevertheless, the case that by making the index e =1.6, and assigning a suitable value to r t, a formula may be obtained giving an approximation to the truth which is sufficiently close for the ordinary purposes of electrical engineers, especially when the limiting value of B is neither very great nor very small.
The bottle was held in the hand, and the nail presented to the prime conductor of an electrical machine.
For the purposes of wireless telegraphy, when large condensers are required, the ordinary Leyden jar occupies too much space in comparison with its electrical capacity, and hence the best form of con denser consists of a number of sheets of crown glass, each partly coated on both sides with tin foil.
Gilbert was the first to conduct systematic scientific experiments on electrical phenomena.
Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge.
The fact, which will be referred to later, that the electrical resistance of bismuth is very greatly affected by a magnetic field has been applied in the construction of apparatus for measuring field intensity.
Abrupt alterations, take place in its density, specific heat, thermo-electric quality, electrical conductivity, temperature-coefficient of electrical resistance, and in some at least of its mechanical properties.
The process of electric conduction in metals consists in the movement of detached electrons, and many other phenomena, both electrical and thermal, can be more or less completely explained by their agency.
They relate almost entirely to electrical phenomena, such as the magnetic rotation of light, the action of gas batteries, the effects of torsion on magnetism, the polarization of electrodes, &c., sufficiently complete accounts of which are given in Wiedemann's Galvanismus.
It may be convenient to use the terms "vitality" and "vital force" to denote the causes of certain great groups of natural operations, as we employ the names of "electricity" and "electrical force" to denote others; but it ceases to be proper to do so, if such a name implies the absurd assumption that "electricity" and "vitality" are entities playing the part of efficient causes of electrical or vital phenomena.
His work was mainly, though not exclusively, electrical, and his services were in great demand as an expert witness in patent cases.
In 1890 he was appointed director of the Siemens laboratory at King's College, London, with the title of professor of electrical engineering.
Electrical furnaces have not as yet been employed for ordinary glass-making on a commercial scale, but the electrical plants which have been erected for melting and moulding quartz suggest the possibility of electric heating being employed for the manufacture of glass.
In most modern works the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power and subsequently electrical power having been successfully applied to this purpose; the handling of the great weights of glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible without the aid of machinery.
The method of electrical images will enable the stream function, )' to be inferred from a distribution of doublets, finite in number when the surface is composed of two spheres intersecting at an angle 7r/m, where m is an integer (R.
In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.
His talent for electrical engineering was soon shown, and his progress was rapid; so that in 1852 he was appointed engineer to the Magnetic Telegraph Company, and in that capacity superintended the laying of lines in various parts of the British Isles, including in 1853 the first cable between Great Britain and Ireland, from Portpatrick to Donaghadee.
In conjunction with Josiah Latimer Clark, with whom he entered into partnership in 1861, he invented improved methods of insulating submarine cables, and a paper on electrical standards read by them before the British Association in the same year led to the establishment of the British Association committee on that subject, whose work formed the foundations of the system still in use.
The fact that energy is being used at so high a rate as Too H.P. on so small a charge of material sufficiently indicates that the furnace is only used for experimental work, or for the fusion of metals which, like tungsten or chromium, can only be melted at temperatures attainable by electrical means.
Among the other manufactories are flouring and grist mills, planing mills, foundries, and factories for making agricultural implements, United States mail boxes, furniture, pianos, organs, automobiles, toys and electrical supplies.
Rotating zinc cathodes were used, with scrapers to prevent the accumulation of a layer of insoluble magnesium compounds, which would otherwise increase the electrical resistance beyond reasonable limits.
Depending on the fact that the electrical conductivity of a metallic conductor is decreased by heat, it consists of two strips of platinum, arranged to form the two arms of a Wheatstone bridge; one strip being exposed to a source of radiation from which the other is shielded, the heat causes a change in the resistance of one arm, the balance of the bridge is destroyed, and a deflection is marked on the galvanometer.
The electrical conductivity of a metal is often very much decreased by alloying with it even small quantities of another metal.
When a pure metal is cooled to a very low temperature its electrical conductivity is greatly increased, but this is not the case with an alloy.
Manganese not only forms with iron several alloys of great interest, but alloyed with copper it is used for electrical purposes, as an alloy can thus be obtained with an electrical resistance that does not alter with change of temperature; this alloy, called manganin, is used in the construction of resistance-boxes.
Among the manufactures are brass and copper work, wire for electrical uses, foundry and machine-shop products, locomotives, knit goods, tin cans and canned goods (especially vegetables).
The reader possessed of no previous knowledge of electrical phenomena will best appreciate the meaning of the terms employed by the aid of a few simple experiments.
This experiment proves that when a charged body acts by induction on an insulated conductor it causes an electrical separation to take place; electricity of opposite sign is drawn to the side nearest the inducing body, and that of like sign is repelled to the remote side, and these quantities are equal in amount.
To avoid unnecessary complications we shall assume this latter condition in all the following discussion, which is equivalent simply to assuming that all our electrical measurements are made in air or in vacuo.
In fact it is curious to note how large an opening may be made in a vessel which yet remains for all electrical purposes " a closed conductor."
We must next consider the quality of a conductor called its electrical capacity.
Dielectric constant.-Since all electric charge consists in a state of strain or polarization of the dielectric, it is evident that the physical state and chemical composition of the insulator must be of great importance in determining electrical phenomena.
Measurement of Capacity.-Numerous methods have been devised for the measurement of the electrical capacity of conductors in those cases in which it cannot be determined by calculation.
The electrical capacity of the whole earth considered as a sphere is about 800 microfarads.
Various special keys have been invented for performing the electrical operations expeditiously.
For the various precautions necessary in conducting the above tests special treatises on electrical testing must be consulted.
If, however, we defined the strength of the source by the statement that the strength divided 1 The beginner is often puzzled by the constant appearance of the factor 47r in electrical theorems. It arises from the manner in which the unit quantity of electricity is defined.
A very powerful method of attacking problems in electrical distribution was first made known by Lord Kelvin in 1845 and is described as the method of electrical images.'
We find a precisely analogous effect in optics which justifies the term " electrical image."
Hence this charge is the electrical image of the charge +q at A in the spherical surface.
The student will find it to be a great advantage to read through Faraday's three volumes entitled Experimental Researches on Electricity, as soon as he has mastered some modern elementary book giving in compact form a general account of electrical phenomena.
In the collected Scientific Papers of Lord Kelvin (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882), of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), and of Lord Rayleigh (4 vols., Cambridge, 1903), the advanced student will find the means for studying the historical development of electrical knowledge as it has been evolved from the minds of some of the master workers of the 19th century.
The general illuminant is electricity, and both electrical and gas services are owned by the municipality.
At present we are where we were in electrical science, when Newton produced curious sparks while rubbing glass with paper.
When present in other metals, even in very small quantity, bismuth renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.
Tin amalgam is used for "silvering" mirrors, gold and silver amalgam in gilding and silvering, cadmium and copper amalgam in dentistry, and an amalgam of zinc and tin for the rubbers of electrical machines; the zinc plates of electric batteries are amalgamated in order to reduce polarization.
It has iron-foundries, saw-mills, electrical works, and manufactures of bricks.
In art-work of this nature the principal points to be looked to in depositing are the electrical connexions to the cathode, the shape of the anode (to secure uniformity of deposition), the circulation of the electrolyte, and, in some cases, the means for escape of anode oxygen.
The two principal processes utilized in making calcium carbide by electrical power are the ingot process and the tapping process.
A third pencil traces an observation line in which a kick can be made at will by pressing any one of the electrical pushes placed about the car, and a fourth draws a datum line.
When chemical phenomena occur the molecule may be divided into atoms, and these atoms, in the presence of electrical phenomena, may themselves be further divided into electrons or corpuscles.
The results of this theory have placed the molecular conception of matter in an indisputable position, but even without this theory there is such an accumulation of electrical and optical evidence in favour of the molecular conception of matter that the tenability of this conception could not be regarded as open to question.
The famous experiment with the kite, proving lightning an electrical phenomenon, was performed by Franklin in June 1752.
Nitric acid and lower nitrogen oxides are present, being formed by electrical discharges, and by the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia by ozone.
The striking discovery was, in 1903, made by the same investigators that the spontaneous luminosity of radium gives a spectrum of a kind never before obtained without the aid of powerful excitation, electrical or thermal.
Foundry and machine-shop products were valued at $115,876,193 in 1905, and electrical machinery, apparatus,.
It has manufactures of toys and agricultural machinery, electrical works and breweries.
Its largest industry is, perhaps, the manufacture of thread; there are also in the town ironworks, breweries, shipbuilding yards and electrical works.
This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.
But on the modern theory, which includes the play of electrical phenomena as a function of the aether, there are other considerations which show that this number io 2 is really an enormous overestimate; and it is not impossible that the co-efficient of ultimate inertia of the aether is greater than the co-efficient of inertia (of different kind) of any existing material substance.
It is, however, in complete accordance with a view that would make the aether near the earth fully partake in its orbital motion - a view which the null effect of convection on all terrestrial optical and electrical phenomena also strongly suggests.
When Clerk Maxwell pointed out the way to the common origin of optical and electrical phenomena, these equations naturally came to repose on an electric basis, the connexion having been first definitely exhibited by FitzGerald in 1878; and according as the independent variable was one or other of the vectors which represent electric force, magnetic force or electric polarity, they took the form appropriate to one or other of the elastic theories above mentioned.
It offers courses leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in civil engineering, in electrical engineering and in chemistry.
Having completed his education in Paris, he entered his father's business, but devoted his leisure hours to chemical and electrical researches, and between 1836 and 1848 published several papers on these subjects.
These fish are eaten by the Indians, who, before attempting to capture them, seek to exhaust their electrical power by driving horses into the ponds.
According to Lord Cockburn the effect of the first number of the Edinburgh Review was "electrical."
There are methods of measuring electrical power by means of electrostatic voltmeters, or of quadrant electrometers adapted for the purpose, which when so employed may be called electrostatic wattmeters.
The pressure to which the Sheffield plate was submitted produces a definite colour and texture which is absent from the surface produced by the deposit of silver in a liquid medium by electrical means, and the coat of silver is spread by the latter uniformly over the whole surface without a break, while in the former the junction between the embossed ornaments and the silver strips covering the cut edges may often be detected on careful examination.
Authoritative standards and instruments for the measurement of electricity, based on the fundamental units of the metric system, have been placed in the Electrical Laboratory of the Board of Trade.
On the southern border of the borough is Lake Bantam (about 900 acres, the largest lake in the state) whose falls, at its outlet, provide water power for factories of carriages and electrical appliances.
In 1905 its factory product was valued at $6,809,979, an increase of 32.5% since 1900; 57.6% was in boots and shoes, and the manufactures of combs and silverware, silversmithing products, cotton goods and electrical supplies are also important.
The almost universal adoption of electrical traction in towns has not led to the abandonment of the breeding of horses to the extent that was at one time anticipated.
Polyphase alternators were first exhibited at the Frankfort electrical exhibition in 1891, developed as a consequence of scientific researches by Galileo Ferraris (1847-1897),Nikola Tesla,M.
Thus in twenty years from the invention of the Gramme dynamo, electrical engineering had developed from small beginnings into a vast industry.
The great velocity of electrical transmission suggested the possibility of utilizing it for sending messages; and, after many experiments and the practical advice and business-like co-operation of William Fothergill Cooke (1806-1879), a patent for an electric telegraph was taken out in their joint names in 1837.
In 1835, in a paper on "The Prismatic Decomposition of Electrical Light," he proved that sparks from different metals give distinctive spectra, which afforded a ready means of discriminating between them.
But it is by his electrical work that Wheatstone is best remembered.
The company possesses one of the finest electric stations in the world, and electrical apparatus for the working of train signals is in operation.
Hitherto we were entirely and still are generally confined to electrical excitation or to chemical action as in the case of flames.
The view that visible radiation must be excited by the impact of such an electron is therefore quite consistent with the view that there is no essential difference between the excitement due to chemical or electrical action and that resulting from a sufficient increase of temperature.
At present the quantity of electricity it carries, and also its mass, may be determined, and we can therefore derive units of length and of mass from our electrical measurements.
It was found that during the successive electrical oscillations the metallic lines can be observed to stretch farther and farther away from the poles, thus giving a measure of the gradual diffusion of the metal.
He founded the Sidereal Messenger in 1846, was one of the first to adopt (in 1848) the electrical method of recording observations, and published besides other works, The Orbs of Heaven (1848, &c.), and Popular Astronomy (1860), both reissued at London in 1892.
M`Kendrick, of Glasgow, he investigated the physiological action of light, and examined the changes which take place in the electrical condition of the retina under its influence.
Fleming, of University College, London, in the investigation of the electrical behaviour of substances cooled to very low temperatures.
But Faraday's chemical work, however important in itself, was soon completely overshadowed by his electrical discoveries.
Henceforward, whatever other subjects might from time to time claim his attention, it was from among electrical phenomena that he selected those problems to which he applied the full force of his mind, and which he kept persistently in view, even when year after year his attempts to solve them had been baffled.
Henry Cavendish had before 1773 discovered that glass, wax, rosin and shellac have higher specific inductive capacities than air, and had actually determined the numerical ratios of these capacities, but this was unknown both to Faraday and to all other electricians of his time, since Cavendish's Electrical Researches remained unpublished till 1879.
The first period of Faraday's electrical discoveries lasted ten years.
Besides investigating other phenomena connected with a vacuum, he constructed an electrical machine which depended on the excitation of a rotating ball of sulphur; and he made successful researches in astronomy, predicting the periodicity of the return of comets.
The study of the structure of atoms has suggested a connexion of mass with electrical phenomena which implies its dependence on motion; but this is not inconsistent with the observed fact of its practical constancy, to a high degree of accuracy, for bodies composed of atoms.
Electrical and chemical effects afford similar examples.
In order to explain the electrical properties of a solution, for instance of potassium chloride, we are driven to believe that each molecule of the salt is dissociated into two parts, potassium and chlorine, each associated with an electric charge equal in amount but opposite in sign.
To explain the electrical properties of sulphuric acid in aqueous solution, the supposition of three ions, two of hydrogen and one of the chemical group S04, is necessary.
Now the velocities u and v of the opposite ions under unit potential gradient, and therefore U and V under unit force, are known from electrical data.
About 1879 dynamos began to be introduced into metallurgical practice, and from that date onwards numerous schemes for utilizing this cheaper source of energy were brought before theublic. The first electrical method worthy lectrical P y reduction.
That this process did not depend upon electrolysis, but was simply an instance of electrical smelting or the decomposition of an oxide by means of carbon at the temperature of the electric arc, is shown by the fact that the Cowles furnace would work with an alternating current.
Its electrical conductivity, determined on 99.6% metal, is 60.5% that of copper for equal volumes, or double that of copper for equal weights, and when chemically pure it exhibits a somewhat higher relative efficiency.
With the increasing price of copper, it is coming into vogue as an electrical conductor for uncovered mains; it is found that an aluminium wire 0.126 in.
Bare aluminium strip has recently been tried for winding-coils in electrical machines, the oxide of the metal acting as insulators between the layers.
In the 18th century, and early in the 19th, Norwich had a lucrative trade with the Atlantic ports and the West Indies, but later manufacturing became the most important industry; the manufactures including textiles, cutlery, firearms, paper, electrical supplies, printing presses, &c. In 1905 the factory products were valued at $6,022,391.
A primitive form of frictional electrical machine was constructed about 1663 by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686).
Edward Nairne's electrical machine (1787) consisted of a glass cylinder with two insulated conductors, called prime conductors, on glass legs placed near it.
He also devised an alternating current electrical machine in which the discharge balls were alternately positive and negative.
Determinations of the electrical conductivity of the diazonium chloride and nitrate also show that the diazonium radical is strictly comparable with other quaternary ammonium ions.
On mixing dilute solutions of the diazonium hydroxide and the alkali together, it is found that the molecular conductivity of the mixture is much less than the sum of the two electrical conductivities of the solutions separately, from which it follows that a portion of the ions present have changed to the non-ionized condition.
It has also breweries, distilleries and electrical works.
It is famous for its manufacture of toys; its other industries are the making of glass and porcelain articles, electrical works and breweries.
The establishment of San Vito is devoted entirely to the production of artillery; that of San Bartolomeo is exclusively used for electrical works and the manufacture 'of submarine weapons, especially torpedoes.
Coal and iron ore abound in the vicinity, and the city, manufactures iron, steel, tin plate, electrical and telephone supplies, shovels, boilers, leather, flour, brick and tile, salt, furniture and several kinds of vehicles.
The town has railway, machine and electrical works; cloth, gloves and buttons are also manufactured here, and there are spinning-mills.
The electrical resistance is about that of ordinary glass, and is diminished by one-half during exposure by Rntgen rays; the dielectric constant (16) is greater than that which should correspond to the specific gravity.
The most important methods may be classified roughly under three heads - (I) Steady Flow, (2) Variable Flow, (3) Electrical.
The thermal capacity and electrical conductivity were measured at various temperatures on the same specimens of metal.
In the electrical method, observations of the variable flow are useful for finding the value of c for the specimen, but are not otherwise required.
Moreover, the variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is small and uncertain, whereas the variation of electrical conductivity is large and can be accurately determined, and may therefore be legitimately utilized for eliminating the external heat-loss.
The progress of technical studies and industrial enterprise enabled Germany to take a leading place in railway and shipbuilding,in the manufacture of military weapons, in chemical experiments, and in electrical work.
If, as is now generally believed, aurora represents some form of electrical discharge, it is only reasonable to suppose that the auroral lines arise from atmospheric gases.
The chief varieties of this ware are vitrified china, belleek china, semi-porcelain, white granite and c. c. ware, vitrified porcelain for electrical supplies, porcelain bath tubs and tiles, and terra-cotta.
The town also contains distilleries, saw-mills, oil-mills, tanneries, breweries and electrical works.
The town is an important industrial centre, having tobacco and leather factories, electrical and other mechanical works, and breweries.
It can be demonstrated that they are practically indefatigable - repeatedly stimulated by electrical currents, even through many hours, they, unlike muscle, continue to respond with unimpaired reaction.
The college now grants the degrees of "Bachelor of Arts," "Cultural Bachelor of Science" and "Vocational Bachelor of Science"; the Department of Graduate Studies, the degrees of "Graduate in a School," "Master of Arts," "Master of Science" and "Doctor of Philosophy"; the Department of Law, the degree of "Bachelor of Laws"; the Department of Medicine, the degree of "Doctor of Medicine"; the Department of Engineering, the degrees of "Civil Engineer," "Mechanical Engineer," "Electrical Engineer," "Mining Engineer" and "Chemical Engineer"; and the Department of Agriculture, the degree of "Bachelor of Science in Agriculture."
On his return to London six years later he became professor of applied physics at the Finsbury College of the City and Guilds of London Technical Institute, and in 1884 he was chosen professor of electrical engineering at the Central Technical College, South Kensington.
He published, both alone and jointly with others, a large number of papers on physical, and in particular electrical, subjects, and his name was especially associated, together with that of Professor John Perry, with the invention of a long series of electrical measuring instruments.
In 1870 he became a fellow of the Chemical Society, and in 1872 graduated D.Sc. of London in electrical science.
Schonbein (loc. cit.) assumed that the ordinary oxygen molecule is decomposed into two parts which carry electrical charges of opposite kinds, the one with the positive charge being called "antozone" and the other carrying the negative charge being called "ozone," one variety being preferentially used up by the oxidizing compound or element and the other for the secondary reaction.
The greatest increase of products between 1890 and 1900 was in the manufacture of electrical apparatus (2400%), in which the increase in value of product was 37.2%.
The town has electrical works, but its industries are mainly concerned with the preparation of wine, the best kinds being Rudesheimer Berg, Hinterhaus and Rottland.
The two most important varieties of the method are (a) mechanical, and (b) electrical.
A more convenient unit of work or energy, in practice, on account of the smallness of the erg, is the joule, which is equal to 10.7 ergs, or one watt-second of electrical energy.
On account of its practical convenience, and its close relation to the international electrical units, the joule has been recommended by the British Association for adoption as the absolute unit of heat.
The Value Of The International Electrical Units Has By This Time Been So Accurately Determined In Absolute Measure That They Afford A Very Good, Though Indirect, Method Of Determining The Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat.
But, Quite Apart From This, Electrical Methods Possess The Greatest Value For Calorimetry, On Account Of The Facility And Accuracy Of Regulating And Measuring The Quantity Of Heat Supplied By An Electric Current.
The Defects Of The Earlier Work From An Electrical Point Of View Lay Chiefly In The Difficulty Of Measuring The Current With Sufficient Accuracy Owing To The Imperfect Development Of The Science Of Electrical Measurement.
These Difficulties Have Been Removed By The Great Advances Since 1880, And In Particular By The Introduction Of Accurate Standard Cells For Measurements Of Electrical Pressure.
The Absolute Value Of The Specific Heat Deduced Necessarily Depends On The Absolute Values Of The Electrical Standards Employed In The Investigation.
Hence the phenomena came to be collectively called electrical, a term first used by William Barlowe, archdeacon of Salisbury, in 1618, and the study of them, electrical science.
The third covers the period between 1831 and Clerk Maxwell's enunciation of the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865 and the invention of the self-exciting dynamo, which marks another great epoch in the development of the subject; and the fourth comprises the modern development of electric theory and of absolute quantitative measurements, and above all, of the applications of this knowledge in electrical engineering.
We shall sketch briefly the historical progress during these various stages, and also the growth of electrical theories of electricity during that time.
An account of his electrical discoveries is given in the De magnete, lib.
Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) constructed the first electrical machine with a revolving ball of sulphur (see Electrical Machine), and noticed that light objects were repelled after being attracted by excited electrics.
Sir Isaac Newton substituted a ball of glass for sulphur in the electrical machine and made other not unimportant additions to electrical knowledge.
For a very full list of the papers and works of these early electrical philosophers, the reader is referred to the bibliography on Electricity in Dr Thomas Young's Natural Philosophy, vol.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was one of the great pioneers of electrical science, and made the evermemorable experimental identification of lightning and electric spark.
He asserted that the glass globe, when rubbed, attracted the electrical fire, and took it from the rubber, the same globe being disposed, when the friction ceases, to give out its electricity to any body which has less.
A cloud passed without any electrical indications, and he began to despair of success.
The most important of Franklin's electrical writings are his Experiments and Observations on Electricity made at Philadelphia, 1 75 1 - 1 754; his Letters on Electricity; and various memoirs and letters in the Phil.
Canton first suggested the use of an amalgam of mercury and tin for use with glass cylinder electrical machines to improve their action.
We shall make mention lower down of Canton's contributions to electrical theory.
He also made many experiments with the tourmaline when cut into thin slices, and reduced to the finest powder, in which state each particle preserved its pyro-electricity; and he showed that scolezite and mesolite, even when deprived of their water of crystallization and reduced to powder, retain their property of becoming electrical by heat.
Bancroft was the first person who distinctly suspected that the effects of the torpedo were electrical.
The work of Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) entitles him to a high place in the list of electrical investigators.
Amongst Cavendish's important contributions were his exact measurements of electrical capacity.
In connexion with this subject he anticipated one of Faraday's The Electrical Researches of the Hon.
He seems in this way to have educated in himself a very precise " electrical sense," making use of his own nervous system as a kind of physiological galvanometer.
Galvani had made in 1790 his historic observations on the muscular contraction produced in the bodies of recently killed frogs when an electrical machine was being worked in the same room, and described them in 1791 (De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius, Bologna, 1791).
Volta maintained that the mere contact of metals was sufficient to produce the electrical difference of the end plates of the pile.
Ohm (1787-1854) rendered a great service to electrical science by his mathematical investigation of the voltaic circuit, and publication of his paper, Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet.
He not only collected the facts concerning electromagnetic induction so industriously that nothing of importance remained for future discovery, and embraced them all in one law of exquisite simplicity, but he introduced his famous conception of lines of force which changed entirely the mode of regarding electrical phenomena.
Space compels us to limit our account of the scientific work done by Faraday in the succeeding twenty years, in elucidating electrical phenomena and adding to the knowledge thereon, to the very briefest mention.
Faraday's ideas thus pressed upon electricians the necessity for the quantitative measurement of electrical phenomena.'
Weber at the same time deduced the mathematical laws of induction from his elementary law of electrical action, and with his improved instruments arrived at accurate verifications of the law of induction which by this time had been developed mathematically by Neumann and himself.
By his studies in electrostatics, his elegant method of electrical images, his development of the theory of potential and application of the principle of conservation of energy, as well as by his inventions in connexion with electrometry, he laid the foundations of our modern knowledge of electrostatics.
From 1842 onwards to the end of the 19th century, he was one of the great master workers in the field of electrical discovery and research.
The British Association for the advancement of science appointed in 1861 a committee on electrical units, which made its first report in 1862 and has existed ever since.
Hence although Maxwell's theory of electrical action when first propounded found many adherents in Great Britain, it did not so much dominate opinion on the continent of Europe.
Gramme (1826-1901) inaugurated a departure from which we may date modern electrical engineering.
Stearn in England, succeeded in completely solving the practical problems. From and after that date incandescent electric lighting became commercially possible, and was brought to public notice chiefly by an electrical exhibition held at the Crystal Palace, near London, in 1882.
Going back a few years we find the technical applications of electrical invention had developed themselves in other directions.
Long distance electrical transmission had been before that time exemplified in the great scheme of utilizing the falls of Niagara.
In the elucidation of electrical phenomena, however, towards the end of the 18th century, a modification of the two-fluid theory seems to have been generally preferred.
The formulation of electrical theory as far as regards operations in space free from matter was immensely assisted by Maxwell's mathematical theory.
Oliver Heaviside after 1880 rendered much assistance by reducing Maxwell's mathematical analysis to more compact form and by introducing greater precision into terminology (see his Electrical Papers, 1892).
This is perhaps the place to refer also to the great services of Lord Rayleigh to electrical science.
Succeeding Maxwell as Cavendish professor of physics at Cambridge in 1880, he soon devoted himself especially to the exact redetermination of the practical electrical units in absolute measure.
He followed up the early work of the British Association Committee on electrical units by a fresh determination of the ohm in absolute measure, and in conjunction with other work on the electrochemical equivalent of silver and the absolute electromotive force of the Clark cell may be said to have placed exact electrical measurement on a new basis.
He also made great additions to the theory of alternating electric currents, and provided fresh appliances for other electrical measurements (see his Collected Scientific Papers, Cambridge, 1900) .
Electric Waves.-In the decade 1880-1890, the most important advance in electrical physics was, however, that which originated with the astonishing researches of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894).
Such an arrangement constitutes in effect a condenser, and when the two plates respectively are connected to the secondary terminals of an induction coil in operation, the plates are rapidly and alternately charged, and discharged across the spark gap with electrical oscillations (see Electrokinetics).
The sum total of all these contributions to electrical knowledge had the effect of establishing Maxwell's principles on a firm basis, but they also led to technical inventions of the very greatest utility.
Larmor and many others, the electronic hypothesis of matter and of electricity has been developed in great detail and may be said to represent the outcome of modern researches upon electrical phenomena.
The electrical pressure required to force a current of this intensity through the solution, and to overcome a certain opposing electromotive force arising from the more electro-negative impurities of the anode, depends upon the composition of the bath and of the anodes, the distance between the electrodes, and the temperature, but under the usual working conditions averages o-3 volt for every pair of electrodes in series.
With too% currentefficiency and a potential difference of 0.3 volt between the electrodes, t lb of copper should require about o-154 electrical horse-power hours as the amount of energy to be expended in the tank for its production.
He studied the phenomena of electrical oscillations from 1869 to 1871, and in the latter year he announced that the velocity of the propagation of electromagnetic induction was about 314,000 metres per second.
Faraday had shown that the passage of electrical action involved time, and he also asserted that electrical phenomena are brought about by changes in intervening non-conductors or dielectric substances.
This led Clerk Maxwell to frame his theory of electro-dynamics, in which electrical impulses were assumed to be transmitted through the ether by waves.
Since the electrical repulsion of the balls is equal to C 2V2 4 12 sin 2 0 dynes, where C = r is the capacity of either ball, and this force is balanced by the restoring force due to their weight, Wg dynes, where g is the acceleration of gravity, it is easy to show that we have _ 21sin 0 r " tan V 8 r as an expression for their common potential V, provided that the balls are small and their distance sufficiently great not sensibly to disturb the uniformity of electric charge upon them.
The most important improvements in connexion with electrometers are due, however, to Lord Kelvin, who introduced the guard plate and used gravity or the torsion of a wire as a means for evaluating the electrical forces.
When turbines, as often happens in land practice, are directly coupled to electrical generators, their horse-power can be deduced from the electrical output.
Two points are selected on the surface of the shaft at different positions along it, and the relative displacement which occurs between them round the shaft when power is being transmitted is determined either by electrical means, as in the Denny-Johnson torsion-meter, or optically, as in the Hopkinson-Thring and Bevis-Gibson instruments.
Besides shipbuilding its other industries are matchmaking, silk-weaving, hair-working, copper-working, tubemaking, weaving, and the manufacture of locomotives and electrical apparatus.
Electrical wind storms are frequent in these high altitudes.
Among its industrial establishments are rolling mills, tube and pipe works, furnaces, steel mills, a brass foundry, and manufactories of electrical railway supplies, boxes, asbestos coverings, enamel work and ice.
When a feebly electrified body (such as a stick of sealing-wax gently rubbed upon the coat sleeve) is brought into its neighbourhood, the jet undergoes a remarkable transformation and appears to become coherent; but under more powerful electrical action the scattering becomes even greater than at first.
Under moderate electrical influence there is no material change in the resolution into drops, nor in the subsequent motion of the drops up to the moment of collision.
When the electrical influence is more powerful, the repulsion between the drops is sufficient to prevent actual contact, and then, of course, there is no opportunity for amalgamation.
In this condition there is complete electrical insulation between the jets, as may be proved by the inclusion in the circuit of a delicate galvanometer, and a low electro-motive force.
It would seem that the forces of electrical attraction act with peculiar advantage.
Extremely local contacts of the liquids, while opposed by capillary tension which tends to keep the surfaces flat, are thus favoured by the electrical forces, which moreover at the small distances in question act with exaggerated power.
The effect upon Berlin of the successful issue of the FrancoPrussian War of 1870-71 was electrical.
There he began his lectures on electrical science which brought him invitations to lecture all over the United Kingdom and made him a power in both the scientific and industrial worlds.
This work, which embodied the results of many years' research, was distinguished by its strict adherence to the scientific method of investigation by experiment, and by the originality of its matter, containing, as it does, an account of the author's experiments on magnets and magnetical bodies and on electrical attractions, and also his great conception that the earth is nothing but a large magnet, and that it is this which explains, not only the direction of the magnetic needle north and south, but also the variation and dipping or inclination of the needle.
The rifle factory, founded in 1830 by Josef Werndl, is the largest in Austria, and since 1882 it has added the manufacture of bicycles and electrical plant.
In 1838 he made important investigations in regard to the conditions and range of induction from electrical currents - showing that induced currents, although merely momentary, produce still other or tertiary currents, and thus on through successive orders of induction, with alternating signs, and with reversed initial and terminal signs.
He traced the influence of induction to surprising distances, magnetizing needles in the lower story of a house through several intervening floors by means of electrical discharges in the upper story, and also by the secondary current in a wire 220 ft.
Practical results with a large plant indicate an expenditure of 1.23 electrical horse-power hours per 100 oz.
In 1821 he was busy with electrical experiments and in 1822 with investigations of the fluids contained in the cavities of crystals in rocks.
In the same year the admiralty consulted the Royal Society as to a means of preserving the copper sheathing of ships from corrosion and keeping it smooth, and he suggested that the copper would be preserved if it were rendered negatively electrical, as would be done by fixing "protectors" of zinc to the sheeting.
He was specially noted for his discovery of the electrical conductivity of bismuth and other metals, and for his pioneer work in wireless telegraphy.
A number of his papers were concerned with electrical questions.
One of the earliest was devoted to electrical conduction in a thin plate, and especially in a circular one, and it also contained a theorem which enables the distribution of currents in a network of conductors to be ascertained.
Unsuccessful attempts to lay the cable were made in August 1857 and in June 1858, but the complete cable was laid between the 7th of July and the 5th of August 1858; for a time messages were transmitted, but in October the cable became useless, owing to the failure of its electrical insulation.
Electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies were manufactured largely in the city (value in 1905, $ 1, 79 6, 557), and there was another large plant for their manufacture immediately outside of the city limits.
Here, too, are the plants of the Westinghouse Company for the manufacture of electrical apparatus, of air brakes invented by George Westinghouse (born 1846), and of devices for railway signals which he also invented.
Electrical studies, however, engaged most of his attention, especially in connexion with the theory of the voltaic cell and the electric discharge in rarefied gases.
The alternating current is generally used, the action not being electrolytic. One of the special advantages of the electrical over the older process is that the distilling vessels have a longer life, owing to the fact that they are not externally heated, and so subjected to a relatively high temperature when in contact with the corrosive slag formed in the process.
From an early age he exhibited marked scientific tastes and spent all his spare time in electrical and chemical experiments.
He was the first in England to verify Benjamin Franklin's hypothesis of the identity of lightning and electricity, and he made several important electrical discoveries.
The university has a College of Agriculture, a College of Arts and Science, a College of Law, a School of Civil Engineering, a School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, and a School of mining Engineering.
He experimented successfully with the electrical apparatus presented to Yale by Benjamin Franklin, whose intimate friend he became.
Fleming's Handbook for the Electrical Laboratory and TestingRoom, vol.
The retort carbon products* formed as a dense deposit on the crown of the retort by the action of the high temperature on the hydrocarbons is, however, carbon in a very pure form, and, on account of its density, is largely used for electrical purposes.
Schenectady is a manufacturing centre of growing importance; here are the main works of the General Electric Company, manufacturers of electrical implements, apparatus, motors and supplies, and of the American Locomotive Company.
This work, the germs of which had appeared during the two preceding years in the journals of Schweigger and Poggendorff, has exerted most important influence on the whole development of the theory and applications of current electricity, and Ohm's name has been incorporated in the terminology of electrical science.
Tobacco and market vegetables are raised in Windsor, and among its manufactures are paper, canned goods, knit and woollen goods, cigars and electrical supplies.'
The explanation of this phenomenon is that the metal is trans formed at a red heat into another modification, as is proved by simultaneous changes in its magnetic and electrical properties.
Before the time of Tait's researches such data were of little interest or value, on account of insufficient care in securing the purity of the materials tested; but increased facilities in this respect, combined with great improvements in electrical measurements, have put the question on a different footing.
If the quantity of heat absorbed and converted into electrical energy, when unit quantity of electricity (one ampere-second) flows from cold to hot through a difference of temperature, dt, be represented by sdt, the coefficient s is called the specific heat of electricity in the metal, or simply the coefficient of the Thomson effect.
Consider an elementary couple of two metals A and B for which s has the values s and s" respectively, with junctions at the temperature T and T+dT (absolute), at which the coefficients of the Peltier effect are P and P+dP. Equating the quantity of heat absorbed to the quantity of electrical energy generated, we have by the first law of thermodynamics the relation dE/dT =dP/dT+(s' - s").
The absorption of heat was considered as representing an equivalent conversion of heat energy into electrical energy in the element.
On this hypothesis, if we confine our attention to one of the two metals, say p", in which the current is supposed to flow from hot to cold, we observe that p"dT expresses the quantity of heat converted into electrical energy per unit of electricity by an E.M.F.
It is, however, noteworthy that Spanish capitalists are, as a class, though exclusive of the Catalans, unduly conservative Hence the capital for the establishment of electrical industries was almost exclusively subscribed in Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland and the United States, just as, in the 19th century, the railways and mining industries had been mainly financed by British investors, and the Valencian silk industry by French.
Among its manufactures are foundry and machine shop products, worsted goods and electrical apparatus; the factories utilize the water power of the falls.
The mirror galvanometer and the siphon recorder, which was patented in 1867, were the outcome of these researches; but the scientific value of the mirror galvanometer is independent of its use in telegraphy, and the siphon recorder is the direct precursor of one form of galvanometer (d'Arsonval's) now commonly used in electrical laboratories.
Thomson's work in connexion with telegraphy led to the production in rapid succession of instruments adapted to the requirements of the time for the measurement of every electrical quantity, and when electric lighting came to the front a new set of instruments was produced to meet the needs of the electrical engineer.
Some account of Thomson's electrometer is given in the article on that subject, while every modern work of importance on electric lighting describes the instruments which he has specially designed for central station work; and it may be said that there is no quantity which the electrical engineer is ordinarily called upon to measure for which Lord Kelvin did not construct the suitable instrument.
Currents from the ten-thousandth of an ampere to ten thousand amperes, electrical pressures from a minute fraction of a volt to 100,000 volts, come within the range of his instruments, while the private consumer of electric energy is provided with a meter recording Board of Trade units.
He is celebrated as a pioneer of electrical science, after whom the "volt" is named.
For Volta's electrical work, and his place in the history of discovery (see Electricity; also Voltmeter).
Though the adoption of refrigerating and ice-making machinery for industrial purposes practically dates from the year 1880, the manufacture of these machines has already assumed very great proportions; indeed, in no branch of mechanical engineering, with the exception of electrical machinery, has there been so remarkable a development in recent years.
Weber's name is especially known for his work on electrical measurement.
Transmitters activate the synapses, electrical junctions in the body that stimulate the brain, nerves, and muscle cells to become active and communicate.
Shaking, Deidre wiped her face and followed the severe woman through the simple, stone fortress outfitted with electrical wiring and occasional satellites.
It was that hollow sound of an electrical storm.
His nature, when not enhanced by the electrical and chemical devices of his owner & trainer, is said to be quite placid.
The magnetic system is inside the walls of the elevator shaft, there are no normal electrical controls.
The electrical load on one socket should not exceed 13 amps or 3 kilowatts.
Explain how band theory can account for the electrical conductivity of the elements in groups I - IV.
Young people had been swinging on the electrical conduit to the Church.
He is an electrical contractor with a business in Devonport.
Usually, the fuel is heated by the engine coolant or by the exhaust or electrical system.
These units prevent hull corrosion due to small electrical current leaks.
The properties are important in proportional counters, ionization chambers, drift chambers and in the prediction of the electrical breakdown of gases.
This is a result of the complex dielectric constant which is a measure of the electrical properties of surface materials.
Internally the house benefits from brass halogen down lights throughout, and these are matched by brass dimmer switches and all electrical sockets.
In 1924, women set up the Electrical Association for Women to campaign to remove drudgery from housework.
In fact if you want something electrical, plug into Dixons.
The system also allows for driving shorter distances with just electrical power and therefore zero emissions.