That a body carrying a positive electric charge should move against the direction of the electric intensity is contrary to all our notions of electric forces, and we are compelled to seek some other explanation.
There are strong reasons for believing that magnetism is a phenomenon involving rotation, and as early as 1876 Rowland, carrying out an experiment which had been proposed by Maxwell, showed that a revolving electric charge produced the same magnetic effects as a current.
The question whether a corpuscle actually has a material gravitating nucleus is undecided, but there are strong reasons for believing that its mass is entirely due to the electric charge.
This shows that some bodies are conductors and others non-conductors or insulators of electricity, and that bodies can be electrified by friction and impart their electric charge to other bodies.
So far we have spoken of electric charge as if it resided on the conductors which are electrified.
Clerk Maxwell demonstrated, however, that all electric charge or electrification of conductors consists simply in the establishment of a physical state in the surrounding insulator or dielectric, which state is variously called electric strain, electric displacement or electric polarization.
If we consider lines of electric force to be drawn from the boundaries of these areas, they will cut up the space round the conductor into tubular surfaces called tubes of electric force, and each tube will spring from an area of the conductor carrying a unit electric charge.
The surface of a charged conductor is an equipotential surface, because when the electric charge is in equilibrium there is no tendency for electricity to move from one part to the other.
In the interior no trace of electric charge could be found when tested by electroscopes or other means.
In this case the electric charge exists at the point where the stem is attached, and there leakage by creeping takes place.
Faraday expressed this fact by saying that no absolute electric charge could be given to matter.
Dielectric constant.-Since all electric charge consists in a state of strain or polarization of the dielectric, it is evident that the physical state and chemical composition of the insulator must be of great importance in determining electrical phenomena.
We have next to consider the energy storage which takes place when electric charge is created, i.e.
It is then a zero potential surface, and every point outside is at zero potential as far as concerns the electric charge on the conductors inside.
Then if U is the potential outside the surface due to this electric charge inside alone, and V that due to the opposite charge it induces on the inside of the metal surface, we must have U+V =O or U = - V at all points outside the earthed metal surface.
This number is probably to be identified with the electric charge upon the nucleus of the atom.
In order to explain the electrical properties of a solution, for instance of potassium chloride, we are driven to believe that each molecule of the salt is dissociated into two parts, potassium and chlorine, each associated with an electric charge equal in amount but opposite in sign.
If we assume that a certain minimum electric charge must be brought into contact with a group of colloid particles to produce coagulation, twice as many univalent ions must collect to produce the same effect as a number of divalent ions, and three times as many as an effective number of trivalent ions.
A natural electric charge on the particles would oppose this tendency, and tend to increase the free surface and thus promote disintegration and solution.
To Franklin also we owe the important knowledge that the electric charge resides really in the glass and not in the metal coatings, and that when a condenser has been charged the metallic coatings can be exchanged for fresh ones and yet the electric charge of the condenser remains.
Radio-active bodies are chiefly recognized by the power they possess of rendering the air in their neighbourhood conductive; hence the electroscope detects the presence of a radio-active body by losing an electric charge given to it more quickly than it would otherwise do.
Fully familiar with the fact that an electric charge upon one conductor could produce a charge of opposite sign upon a neighbouring conductor, Faraday asked himself whether an electric current passing through a conductor could not in any like manner induce an electric current in some neighbouring conductor.
2 Towards the end of the third quarter of the 19th century it therefore became clear that electricity, whatever be its nature, was associated with atoms of matter in the form of exact multiples of an indivisible minimum electric charge which may be considered to be " Nature's unit of electricity."
The subject was pursued by Thomson and the Cambridge physicists with great mathematical and experimental ability, and finally the conclusion was reached that in a high vacuum tube the electric charge is carried by particles which have a mass only a fraction, as above mentioned, of that of the hydrogen atom, but which carry a charge equal to the unit electric charge of the hydrogen ion as found by electrochemical researches.
Since the electrical repulsion of the balls is equal to C 2V2 4 12 sin 2 0 dynes, where C = r is the capacity of either ball, and this force is balanced by the restoring force due to their weight, Wg dynes, where g is the acceleration of gravity, it is easy to show that we have _ 21sin 0 r " tan V 8 r as an expression for their common potential V, provided that the balls are small and their distance sufficiently great not sensibly to disturb the uniformity of electric charge upon them.
antiparticle of an electron is a particle of positive electric charge called the positron.
Ionization The process by which a neutral atom or molecule acquires or loses an electric charge.
When an electric charge is applied to the outside surface of the pixel, it becomes hydrophilic.
A string looping through the hole can lead to massive particles with fractional electric charge or to massive magnetic monopoles with multiple magnetic charges.
These microscopic particles now have an electric charge which enables them to stick to surfaces more easily.
pollutant aerosols either become charged or carry excess electric charge.
The electric charge may be positive, in which case the beta particle is called a positron.
Much of this expanse is due to electric charge repulsion between the negatively charged phosphate groups in the DNA backbone.
True amber has sometimes been called karabe, a word of oriental derivation signifying "that which attracts straw," in allusion to the power which amber possesses of acquiring an electric charge by friction.
He formulated the conception, therefore, of electric charge as consisting in a displacement taking place in the dielectric or electromagnetic medium (see Electrostatics).
Thomson, the successor of Maxwell and Lord Rayleigh in the Cavendish chair of physics in the university of Cambridge, began about the year 1899 a remarkable series of investigations on the cathode discharge, which finally enabled him to make a measurement of the ratio of the electric charge to the mass of the particles of matter projected from the cathode, and to show that this electric charge was identical with the atomic electric charge carried by a hydrogen ion in the act of electrolysis, but that the mass of the cathode particles, or " corpuscles " as he called them, was far less, viz.
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