Weissenfels is a place of considerable antiquity, and from 1656 till 1746 it was the capital of the small duchy of Saxe-Weissenfels, a branch of the electoral house of Saxony, founded by Augustus, second son of the elector John George I.
In 1876 Garfield for the eighth time was chosen to represent his district; and afterwards as one of the two representatives of the Republicans in the House, he was a member of the Electoral Commission which decided the dispute regarding the presidential election of 1876.
That the charges against Garfield were not generally credited, however, is shown by the fact that he received 214 electoral votes to his opponent's 155.
Rupert, who from 1353 to 1390 was sole ruler, gained the electoral dignity for the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1356 by a grant of some lands in upper Bavaria to the emperor Charles IV.
(the "Winter King") was driven from his dominions, the electoral privilege was transferred to Bavaria, and in 1648, by the Peace of Westphalia, an eighth electorate was created for the Wittelsbachs of the Palatinate, and was exercised by the senior branch of the family.
leader of the Fortschrittspartei, and the expression Kulturkampf had, it is believed, its origin in one of his electoral manifestoes.
Thurman was a member of the Electoral Commission of 1877, and was one of the American delegates to the international monetary conference at Paris in 1881.
It is the seat of a justice of the peace, and is the electoral unit for the general council and the district council.
The electoral districts so formed are expected to be equal in proportion to the number of inhabitants; but this method has led to much abuse in the past, through the making of unequal districts for partisan purposes.
JOHANN AUGUST ERNESTI (1707-1781), German theologian and philologist, was born on the 4th of August 1707, at Tennstadt in Thuringia, of which place his father was pastor, besides being superintendent of the electoral dioceses of Thuringia, Salz and Sangerhausen.
In 17 9 4 the United Irishmen, persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French invasion.
The mandamenti or administrative divisions no longer correspond to the judicial divisions (mandamenti giudiziarii) which in November 1891 were reduced from 1806 to 1535 by a law which provided that judicial reform should not modify existing administrative and electoral divisions.
These three bodies were to be chosen by three electoral colleges consisting of (a) landed proprietors, (b) learned men.
Notwithstanding this prospective loss of revenue, parliament showed great reluctance to vote any new impost, although hardly a year previously it had sanctioned (3oth June 1879) Depretiss scheme for spending during the next eighteen years 43,200,000 in building 5000 kilometres of railway, an expenditure not wholly justified by the importance of the lines, and useful principally as a source of electoral sops for the constituents of ministerial deputies.
Thenceforward the elector of Trier held the third place in the electoral college.
The Treveran territories on the right bank of the Rhine were secularized and given to Nassau-Weilburg in 1803, and in 1814 nearly the whole of the former electoral dominions were given to Prussia.
He was minister to Great Britain in1796-1803and again in 1825-1826, and was the Federalist candidate for vicepresident in 1804 and 1808, and for president in 1816, when he received 34 electoral votes to 183 cast for Monroe.
He received nine electoral votes for the vice-presidency in 1808, and in 1812 was an elector on the Madison ticket.
One senator is named for each department by an electoral college, whose members are elected directly by the people.
The president of the senate, Juan Cuestas, in accordance with the constitution, assumed the duties of president of the republic. He arranged that hostilities should cease on the conditions that representation of the Blancos was allowed in Congress for certain districts where their votes were known to predominate; that a certain number of the jefes politicos should be nominated from the Blancos; that free pardon be extended to all who had taken part in the revolt; that a sufficient sum in money be advanced to allow the settlement of the expenses contracted by the insurgents; and that the electoral law be reformed on a basis allowing the people to take part freely in e1ctions.
Stolypin defended the ukaz of the 2nd of June 1907, which in flat contradiction of the provisions of the fundamental laws altered the electoral law without the consent of the legislature, on the ground that what the autocrat had granted the autocrat could take away.
Every industrial concern employing fifty hands or over elects one or more delegates to the electoral P ?
These ordinances must, however, be of a temporary nature, must not infringe the fundamental laws or statutes passed by the two chambers, or change the electoral system, and must be laid upon the table of the Duma at the first opportunity.
The rules governing elections to the zemstvos were taken as a model for the electoral law of 3906 and are sufficiently indicated by the account of this given below.
4 Until the ukaz of October 18, 1906, the peasant class was stereotyped under the electoral law.
8 In spite of these restrictions and of an electoral system which tended to make these assemblies as strait-laced and reactionary as any government bureau, the zemstvos did good work, notably educational, in those provinces where the proprietors were inspired with a more liberal spirit.
It was dissolved, therefore, on the 16th of June 1907, and the electoral law which had given such unsatisfactory results was modified by imperial ukase.
An imperial ukaz fixed the new elections of the for the 14th of September, and the meeting of the electoral third Duma for the 14th of November; at the same law.
time, in violation of the October manifesto, the electoral law was altered, so as to secure a representation at once more Russian and more conservative.
Even more drastic were the changes in the electoral machinery, by far the most complicated in Europe, established by the law of 1905.6 This was based on the principle of indirect 3 Of this M.
6 The electoral law covers 107 octavo pages.
THE] election, through a series of electoral colleges.
Harper, The New Electoral Law for the Russian Duma (Chicago, 1908); J.
Having failed to secure a re-election to the Senate in '887, Harrison was nominated by the Republican party for the presidency in 1888, and defeated Grover Cleveland, the candidate of the Democratic party, receiving 233 electoral votes to Cleveland's 168.
The Republicans, however, secured the electoral votes of Nevada in 1872 and in 1876, and in 1878 were again in full control, only to suffer defeat in 1880.
The Democratic and Silver parties united, with the result that the state's electoral vote went to Bryan and Sewall, the Democratic nominees, while the Silver party retained most of the state offices.
At the ensuing election in November, Taft and Sherman received 321 electoral votes against 162 cast for William Jennings Bryan and John W.
He endorsed the claims of Maximilian of Bavaria to the electoral dignity, and was rewarded with the gift of the Heidelberg library, which was carried off to Rome.
Each county or legislative district casts as many electoral votes as it has members in the state house of representatives, and a majority of both the electoral and the popular vote is required.
The electoral vote was not counted in 1864 and 1868.
He was formally nominated for that office by the Massachusetts legislature in 1835, and received the electoral vote of that state, but of that state only.
Keeping the electoral machinery almost unchanged (save that the lists of notables were to be permanent) Bonaparte entirely altered the upper parts of the constitutional pyramid reared by the philosopher.
The resulting Acte additionel (supplementary to the constitutions of the empire) bestowed on France an hereditary chamber of peers and a chamber of representatives elected by the "electoral colleges" of the empire, which comprised scarcely one hundredth part of the citizens of France.
Victory was with the Democrats in 1848 and 1852, but since the organization of the Republican party in 1854 the state has uniformly given to the Republican presidential candidates its electoral votes.
The electoral vote was 404 for Harding against 127 for Cox.
By a similar process the board's decision in favour of the election of Republican presidential electors was nullified, and the Democratic electors were declared the successful candidates; but the electoral commission, appointed by Congress, reversed this decision.
During his brief Congressional career he delivered six speeches, all of which attracted attention, introduced a bill in regard to the presidential succession, and appeared before the Electoral Commission in Tilden's interest.
In September 1831 the party at a national convention in Baltimore nominated as its candidates for the presidency and vice-presidency William Wirt of Maryland and Amos Ellmaker (1787-1851) of Pennsylvania; and in the election of the following year it secured the seven electoral votes of the state of Vermont.
Tilden, he lost the disputed election by the decision of the electoral commission, but he was elected with Grover Cleveland in 1884.
The right to determine the electoral franchise is vested in the legislature itself and that body has conferred it upon practically all adult males.
He was at Warsaw when his master died in 1733, and he secured a hold on the confidence of the electoral prince, Frederick Augustus, who was at Dresden, by laying hands on the papers and jewels of the late ruler and bringing them promptly to his successor.
He had for a time to put up with the presence of old servants of the electoral house, but after 1738 he was in effect sole minister.
In this institution they were both housed and fed, and they not only supported themselves by their labours but earned a surplus for the benefit of the electoral revenues.
But in 1864 the opposition of Congress to presidential reconstruction had clearly developed, so that the electoral votes of Louisiana (like those of Tennessee) for president were not counted.
In the national election of 1876 there were double returns (Republican: 75,315 for Hayes and 70,508 for Tilden; and Democratic: 83,723 for Tilden and 77,174 for Hayes) from Louisiana, which, as was the case with the double electoral returns from Florida, Oregon and South Carolina, were adjudicated by the Electoral Commission in favour of the Republican electors voting for Hayes.
The president of the Republic, who is elected for four years by an electoral college, and cannot hold office for more than two successive terms, has a cabinet whose members he may appoint and remove freely, their number being determined by law.
The senate contains four members from each province, chosen for eight years by a provincial electoral board, which consists of the provincial councilmen plus a double number of electors (half of them paying high taxes) who are selected at a special election by their fellow citizens.
Its powers are extensive, including, in addition to ordinary legislative powers, control of financial affairs, foreign affairs, the power to declare war and approve treaties of peace, amnesties, electoral legislation for the provinces and municipalities, control of the electoral vote for president and vice-president, and designation of an acting president in case of the death or incapacity of these officers.
There is also a legislative assembly of 29 members, representing 15 electoral districts; the franchise being extended to white and coloured men of 21 years of age at least, resident in the colony for not less than twelve months, and possessing land of a value of 5 or more, or being householders for six months at a rental not less than £2: 18s.
Crawford, and received the electoral vote of Georgia for vice-president; but he shrewdly kept out of the acrimonious controversy which followed the choice of John Quincy Adams. He early recognized the availability of Andrew Jackson, however, as a presidential candidate, and after the election sought to bring the Crawford and Jackson followers together, at the same time strengthening his control as a party leader in the Senate.
In the election he received 189 electoral votes, while Jackson received 219 for President.
In the election Van Buren received 170 electoral votes against 73 for William Henry Harrison, his principal opponent; but the popular vote showed a plurality of less than 25,000 in a total vote of about 1,500,000.
In 1848 he was again nominated, first by the "Barnburner" faction of the Democrats, then by the Free Soilers, with whom the "Barnburners" coalesced, but no electoral vote was won by the party.
In the election, however, he was defeated by William McKinley, the Republican candidate, receiving 176 electoral votes to 271.
In the November election after a canvass that almost equalled in activity that of 1896 he was again defeated, receiving only 155 electoral votes to 292.
After a heated contest Mr Bryan again suffered a decisive defeat, President Taft securing 321 electoral votes to Mr Bryan's 162.
In 1407 William was succeeded by his nephew Frederick, called the Warlike, who in 1423 received from the emperor Sigismund the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
The electoral law was framed to prevent more than a very few natives obtaining the franchise.
In 1816 Monroe was chosen president of the United States; he received 183 electoral votes, and Rufus King, his Federalist opponent, 34.
In 1820 he was re-elected, receiving all the electoral votes but one, which William Plumer (1759-1850) of New Hampshire cast for John Quincy Adams, in order, it is said, that no one might share with Washington the honour of a unanimous election.
The House of Representatives consists of members elected, under the Electoral Law of 1874, by a complicated franchise based upon property, taxation, profession or official position, and ancestral privileges.3 The house consists of 453 members, of which 413 are deputies elected in Hungary and 43 delegates of Croatia-Slavonia sent by the parliament of that province.
electoral reform, was not realized, nor near being realized.
In the Republican national convention of 1876 Conkling sought nomination for the presidency, and after the disputed election of this year he took a prominent part in devising and securing the passage of a bill creating an electoral commission.
The Opus Palatinum of Rheticus was published by Valentine Otho, mathematician to the electoral prince palatine, in 1596.
When the possessions of the house of Wittelsbach were divided in 1255 and the branches of Bavaria and the Palatinate were founded, a dispute arose over the exercise of the electoral vote, and the question was not settled until in 1356 the Golden Bull bestowed the privilege upon the count palatine of the Rhine, who exercised it until 1623.
The president and vice-presidents, who must be Venezuelans by birth and more than thirty years old, are elected by an electoral body or council composed of members of the national Congress, one member from each state and the Federal District.
to urge a change in the electoral law that should render such a "scandal" as Gregoire's election impossible for the future.
On the 4th of January 1791 Kersaint was appointed administrator of the department of the Seine by the electoral assembly of Paris.
President Lincoln in his second electoral campaign (1864), and the Tories in allusion to the Whig remnant who joined C. J.
In 1896 a reform of the electoral law was sanctioned.
By the provisions of this act an electoral committee was constituted, composed of nine members, two of these nominated by the senate, two by the chamber of deputies, four by the supreme court, and one by the president with the consent of his ministers.
In the prosecution of this enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge from Sigismund, who further rewarded him in January 1423 with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; and Frederick's formal investiture followed at Ofen on the 1st of August 1425.
The result of the contest was at no time in doubt; Grant received 214 electoral votes and Seymour 80.
The old electoral palace (1627-1678), a large building of red sandstone, now contains a valuable collection of Roman and Germanic antiquities, a picture gallery, a natural history museum, the Gutenberg Museum, and a library of 220,000 volumes.
Its archbishop was president of the electoral college, arch-chancellor of the empire and primate of Germany.
The movement as a whole was of exactly the same character as the industrial revolution in England, and it led to the same result, a struggle for electoral reform.
The cloisters were rebuilt in 1348-1447, and the electoral chapel, on the south of the choir, was completed in 1355.
The measures adopted to redeem the country's credit were successful, but they imposed much hardship on the people and a rising took place which was only quelled by the aid of troops from electoral Saxony.
Sigismund, anxious to obtain another vote in the electoral college, appointed Frederick to exercise the Brandenburg vote on his behalf, and it was largely through his efforts that Sigismund was chosen German king.
He took part in the war against the Hussites, but became estranged from Sigismund when in 1423 the king invested Frederick of Wettin, margrave of Meissen, with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
He was a member of the joint committee which drew up and reported (1877) the Electoral Commission Bill, and subsequently served as a member of the commission.
The Tsar's Government under the electoral statute of 1905 granted the four-class franchise (landowners, peasants, townsmen and workmen) in such wise as to favour the rural population.
The electoral vote was 404 for Harding and 127 for Cox.
There are eight electoral districts with a total of about io,000 electors.
This is partly eradicated by the new constitution of 1897, which reapportioned representation according to electoral districts, so that New Castle has seven senators and fifteen representatives, while each of the other counties has seven senators and ten representatives.
As the Federal Constitution contained no provision for settling a dispute of this kind the two houses of Congress agreed to the appointment of an extra-constitutional body, the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.) which decided all the contests in favour of the Republican candidates.
1878 the New York Tribune (Republican) published a series of telegraphic despatches in cipher, accompanied by translations, by which it attempted to prove that during the crisis folio;ring the election Tilden had been negotiating for the purchase of the electoral votes of South Carolina and Florida.
The cry of atheism was raised, and the electoral government of Saxony, followed by all the German states except Prussia, suppressed the Journal and confiscated the copies found in their universities.
In 1818 he saved Paris from a financial crisis by buying a large amount of stock, but next year, in consequence of his heated defence of the liberty of the press and the electoral law of 1867, the governorship of the Bank was taken from him.
In the election Clinton received 89 electoral votes and Madison 128.
The Cape electoral division, which includes Cape Town, had in 1865 a population of 50,064, in 1875 57,319, in 1891 97,238, and in 1904 213,167, of whom 120,475 were whites.
In February 1856, while he was travelling abroad, he was nominated for the presidency by the American or Know Nothing party, and later this nomination was also accepted by the Whigs; but in the ensuing presidential election, the last in which the Know Nothings and the Whigs as such took any part, he received the electoral votes of only one state, Maryland.
He was a member of the commission which revised the California code in 1873 and of the Electoral Commission in 1877, voting in favour of Tilden.
The result was close, but Cleveland carried New York, and was elected, obtaining a majority in the electoral college of 219 to 182.
The campaign turned on the tariff issue, and Harrison was elected, receiving 233 electoral votes to 168 for Cleveland, who however received a popular plurality of more than 100,000.
Cleveland received 277 electoral votes and Harrison 145, and 22 were cast for James B.
JOHANN JACOB REISKE (1716-1774), German scholar and physician, was born on the 25th of December 1716 at ZOrbig in Electoral Saxony.
In 1747 an Arabic dedication to the electoral prince of Saxony got him the title of professor, but neither the faculty of arts nor that of medicine was willing to admit him among them, and he never delivered a course of lectures.
In Egypt, Amasis had the occupation of each individual annually registered, nominally to aid the official supervision of morals by discouraging disreputable means of subsistence; and this ordinance, according to Herodotus, was introduced by Solon into the Athenian scheme of administration, where it developed later into an electoral record.
Politically this opposition had the effect of temporarily reviving the Federalist party, which secured control of the legislature, and gave the electoral vote of the state in 1812 to De Witt Clinton, whom the Federalists had accepted as a candidate to oppose Madison for re-election on the war issue.
Hoffman, for governor, and by the issue of false naturalization papers and fraudulent voting in New York City on a gigantic scale Hoffman was chosen governor and the electoral vote was cast for Seymour.
In 1876, Tilden having been nominated for the presidency, New York cast its electoral vote for him.
In 1884 Cleveland as the Democratic presidential nominee received the electoral vote of his state.
The franchise is adult suffrage, conditional on a previous residence in the colony for a year, including six months in the electoral district for which a claim to vote is registered.
On Ballance's sudden death in April 1893 his place was taken by Richard Seddon, minister of mines in the Ballance cabinet, whose first task was to pass the electoral bill of his predecessor, which granted the franchise to all adult women.
Kunkel to have been known as an arcanum or secret medicine to the electoral house of Saxony in the middle of the 16th century, but it was first described by J.
On the other hand, it readily leads to a limited power of election by the magnates, and in fact good Arabian sources speak of seven electoral princes.
The electoral prince Frederick, afterwards the elector Frederick III., had, however, in a private compact pledged himself to restore Schwiebus to the emperor Leopold I.
There is a biennial registration of voters, and every five years the electoral areas are to be redivided, with the object of giving to each constituency an approximately equal number of voters.
He received 7,623,486 popular votes and 33 6 electoral votes to 5,077,971 popular votes and 140 electoral votes cast for Judge Alton B.
In 1765 the regent Prince Xaver imported 300 merino sheep from Spain, and so improved the native breed by this new strain that Saxon sheep were eagerly imported by foreign nations to improve their flocks, and " Saxon electoral wool " became one of the best brands in the market.
Both retained the ducal title and claimed the electoral privilege, a claim which the Lauenburg line refused to abandon when it was awarded to the Wittenberg line by the Golden Bull of 1356.
died in 1412 he was succeeded by his son Eric V., who made strenuous but vain efforts to obtain the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, which fell vacant on the death of the elector Albert III.
Eric died in 1436 and was followed by his brother Bernard IV., whose claim to exercise the electoral vote was quashed by the electors in 1438; and who was succeeded by his son John IV.
in 1530, was the first duke to abandon the claim to the electoral privilege.
A new era in the history of Saxony dates from 1423, the year when the emperor Sigismund bestowed the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg upon Frederick, margrave of Meissen.
Ernest, the elder brother, obtained Saxe-Wittenberg with the electoral dignity, Thuringia and the Saxon Vogtland; while Albert received Meissen, Osterland being divided between them.
A new electoral law of the same year reformed the Saxon diet by abolishing the old distinction between the various " estates " and lowering the qualification for the franchise; the result was a Liberal majority in the Lower House and a period of civil and ecclesiastical reform.
So alarming did the growth appear, that the other parties combined, and on the 28th of March 1896 a new electoral law was passed, introducing indirect election and a franchise based on a triple division of classes determined by the amount paid in direct taxation.
More important, however, was the extraordinary situation created by the electoral law of 1896.
In 1907 the government announced their intention of modifying the electoral system in Saxony by the adding of representation for certain professions to that of the three classes of the electorate.
The Social Democratic party endeavoured, indeed, to remove the last remains of the old electoral privilege in town and country; but the urgent motion which they brought in to this effect as early as July 8 1908 broke down, owing to a not unfounded anxiety lest in the Crown territories of mixed populations one nationality should predominate too much over another.
The principle of full equality of electoral rights in all three spheres was not carried out till the republic.
He died childless in 1440, and Thuringia then passed to the electoral dynasty of Saxony.
On the Ile in the Rhone stands the tower (built c. 1219) of the old castle belonging to the bishop. Among the modern buildings we may mention the following: the University(founded in 1559, but raised to the rank of a University in 1873 only), the Athenee, the Conservatoire de Musique, the Victoria Hall (a concert hall, presented in 1904 to the city by Mr Barton, formerly H.B.M.'s Consul), the theatre, the Salle de la Reformation (for religious lectures and popular concerts), the Batiment Electoral, the Russian church and the new post office.
It set up a conseil representatif or legislature of 250 members, which named the conseil d'etat or executive, while it was itself elected by a limited class, for the electoral qualification was the annual payment of direct taxes to the amount of 20 Swiss livres or about 23 shillings.
About this time Maurice seized the idea of securing for himself the electoral dignity held by John Frederick, and his opportunity came when Charles was preparing to attack the league of Schmalkalden.
Maurice was promised some rights over the archbishopric of Magdeburg and the bishopric of Halberstadt; immunity, in part at least, for his subjects from the Tridentine decrees; and the question of transferring the electoral dignity was discussed.
He secured the formal consent of Charles to the transfer of the electoral dignity and took the field in November.
Maurice's ally, Albert Alcibiades, prince of Bayreuth, was taken prisoner at Rochlitz; and the duke, driven from electoral Saxony, was unable to prevent his own lands from being overrun.
At Prague there sits also an electoral court which decides upon the validity of disputed elections or forfeiture of seats and other questions relating to parliamentary or elected bodies.
In the election of 1800 he was placed on the Democratic-Republican presidential ticket with Thomas Jefferson, and each received the same number of electoral votes.
Jiiterbog belonged in the later middle ages to the archbishopric of Magdeburg, passing to electoral Saxony in 1648, and to Prussia in 1815.
The deputies are chosen for a term of four years by local electoral colleges, whose members are returned by the votes of all self-supporting citizens.
A dispute with Tennessee over the southern boundary was settled in a similar manner in 1820.1 The constitution of 1792 provided for manhood suffrage and for the election of the governor and of senators by an electoral college.
The electoral vote of the state was cast for Jackson in 1828 and for Clay in 1832.
In 1860 Everett was the candidate of the short-lived Constitutional-Union party for the vice-presidency, on the ticket with John Bell, but received only 39 electoral votes.
There he had been informed in confidence of the renewal by the Allies of their treaty binding them to interfere in case of a renewal of revolutionary trouble in France; and it was partly owing to this knowledge that he resigned office in December of the same year, on the refusal of his colleagues to support a reactionary modification of the electoral law.
There is no standard of electoral right in the Society except in the election of the general himself.
The president and vice-president are elected indirectly through an electoral college chosen by popular vote, and serve for a period of six years (the term was four years previous to 1904), the vice-president succeeding to the office in case of the death or permanent disability of the president.
On May 16th 1877, he was one of the "363" who voted want of confidence in the Broglie ministry (thus paying his debts), and he took considerable part in organizing the subsequent electoral campaign.
By the settlement of 1803 the church lands were secularized, and Prussia received the bishopric of Paderborn and the eastern part of Munster, while the electoral duchy of Westphalia was given to Hesse-Darmstadt.
Pierce received °2 J4 electoral votes, and General Winfield Scott, his Whig opponent, only 42.
This assembly seems to have been already in existence at the epoch of the Twelve Tables in 451 B.C., its electoral activity is perhaps attested in 447 B.C., and it appears as a legislative body in 357 B.C.
The electoral body was composed of 17 tribes selected by lot from the whole body of 35.
the names, functions and powers of the houses of the legislature, the chief executive officials, and the courts of justice, with provisions regulating the electoral franchise; Provisions creating, or directing the creation of, a system of local government for cities and rural areas; Miscellaneous provisions relating to law and administration, including the militia, revenue and taxation, state prisons and hospitals, agriculture, banking and other corporations, railways, labor questions; Provisions for the amendment of the constitution; A schedule prescribing the method of submitting the draft constitution to the vote of the people, with temporary provisions regulating the mode of tranfition from the old constitutional arrang~ments to the new ones.
This assembly elects the town officials at the annual meetings, but it is much more than an electoral body.
The electoral franchise on which the house is elected is for each state the same as that by which, under the provisions of the state constitution, the members of the more numerous branch of the state legislature are chosen.
Michigan, however, in the election of 1892 reverted to the district system, thereby dividing its electoral vote.
the party which carries New York by even a small majority gains all the 39 electoral votes of that state.
This matter is the electoral franchise in Federal elections.
In 1789 property qualifications were general, but now in all the northern and western states these have been long since abolished, and the electoral suffrage is practically manhood suffrage.
As the electoral suffrage for state legislature elections is also that for Federal elections (including the election of presidential electors), the working of the Federal Constitution has thus been affected without any change in the Constitution itself.
The general election of 1882 turned chiefly upon endorsement of the national policy of protection; in that of 1887 the electoral test was again applied to the same issue, while Sir John Macdonald also asked for approval of the government's action in exacting from Riel the full penalty of his guilt.
Brings Up A Large Family, And Founds A Settlement Which Grows Into Several Parishes And Finally Becomes The Centre Of The Electoral, District Of " Rivardville," Which Returns Him To Parliament.
An excited controversy having arisen about the result of the balloting in the states of South Carolina, Florida, Oregon and Louisiana, the two parties in Congress in order to allay a crisis dangerous to public peace agreed to pass an act referring all contested election returns to an extraordinary commission, called the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.), which decided each contest by eight against seven votes in favour of the Republican candidates.
A league was formed to prevent any addition to the electoral college; France and Sweden were called upon for assistance; and the constitution of the Empire was reduced to a state of chaos.
as king of Poland; the electoral sword of Saxony; a group by Dinglinger, in gold and enamel, representing the court of the grand mogul Aurungzebe, and consisting of 132 figures upon a plate of silver 4 ft.
In the year of a presidential election the citizen may be called upon to vote at one time for all of the following: (1) National candidates - president and vice-president (indirectly through the electoral college) and members of the House of Representatives; (2) state candidates - governor, members of the state legislature, attorney-general, treasurer, &c.; (3) county candidates - sheriff, county judges, district attorney, &c.; (4) municipal or town candidates - mayor, aldermen, selectmen, &c. The number of persons actually voted for may therefore be ten or a dozen, or it may be many more.
On the 23rd of June the Confession, originally intended as the statement of Electoral Saxony alone, was discussed and signed by a number of other Protestant princes and cities, and read before the diet on the 25th of June.
The result was an electoral defeat which indicated, no doubt, a pronounced weakening of Mr Balfour's position in public confidence.
The building now occupied by the university was originally the electoral palace, constructed about 1717 out of the materials of the old fortifications.
It was seldom that an episcopal election took place without a division in the chapter, in which resided the electoral right.
Towards the close of the 13th century the necessity arose for an express ruling on the question of the exercise of this electoral right.
The cardinal-electors endeavoured to derive from their electoral power a right of control over the acts of the pope elect.
electoral dignity from the Calvinistic elector of the Palatinate to the staunchly Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria.
Harrison and Tyler each received 234 electoral votes and were elected.
The ancient electoral palace is another of the buildings that suffered severely in 1760; it now contains archives.
Electoral Hesse), now the government district of Cassel in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
On the 2nd of September the diet was dissolved; the taxes were continued by electoral ordinance; and the country was placed under martial law.
It was originally founded by the electoral prince Frederick, afterwards Frederick I.
As a secular principality Hersfeld passed to Hesse, and with electoral Hesse was united with Prussia in 1866.
The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the German Protestants gave her ruler much importance during the Thirty Years' War.
They received no electoral votes, all these being divided between the Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor, who was elected, and the Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass.
These candidates, however, received no electoral votes and a popular vote of only 156,149, of which but 25,329 were polled in New York, By 1856 they abandoned their separate organization and joined the movement which resulted in the formation of the powerful Republican party, of which the Free Soil party was the legitimate precursor.
A general election takes place every six years, and, under the electoral law of 1906, is direct.
Neighbouring states encroached upon its borders, and the nobles ignored the authority of the dukes, who, deprived of the electoral vote, were mainly occupied for fifty years with intestine strife.
obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of Schmalkalden by promising him in certain eventualities the succession to the Bohemian throne, and the electoral dignity enjoyed by the count palatine of the Rhine.
The result was a unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War; during the earlier years of which he was so successful as to acquire the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity which had been enjoyed since 1356 by the elder branch of the Wittelsbach family.
The recovery of the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact; the acquisition of the electoral vote made it influential; and the duchy was able to play a part in European politics which intestine strife had rendered impossible for the past four hundred years.
The members of the second chamber are chosen in the electoral districts by all capable male citizens not under 23 years of age, who pay one or more direct taxes, ranging from a minimum of one guilder (is.
After a fierce electoral fight the Takkians were victors at the first polls, but were beaten at the second ballots.
From 1837 to 1841 he was vicepresident of the United States, to which position he was elected over Francis Granger, by the Senate, none of the four candidates for the vice-presidency having received a majority of the electoral votes.
In the ensuing election Johnson received most of the Democratic electoral votes, but was defeated by the Whig candidate, John Tyler.
In April 1894 the new electoral law altered the whole system.
The following has been accepted as a clear definition of what proportional representation is:- " Each electoral district has the number of its members apportioned in accordance with the total strength of each party or political programme in that district.
In an electoral district with 32,000 votes which returns eight deputies, four parties send up candidates, let us say, eight Catholics, eight Liberals, eight Socialists and one Catholic-Democrat.
In 1848 a new electoral law was passed, which lowered the franchise to 20 florins' worth of property and doubled the number of electors.
On the!18th of March 1886, a socialist rising suddenly burst out at Liege, on the occasion of the 18th of April the chamber adopted an electoral system until then unknown - le suffrage universel plural.
In the Thirty Years' War Demmin was the object of frequent conflicts, and even after the peace of Westphalia was taken and retaken in the contest between the electoral prince and the Swedes.
The head of the executive is the president, chosen by an electoral college for four years, and only re-eligible after eight consecutive years.
At the outbreak of the Revolution, intoxicated with republican ideas, he threw himself with enthusiasm into politics, was elected an officer in the National Guard of the Aisne, and by fraud - he being yet under age - admitted as a member of the electoral assembly of his district.
It was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, and in 1635 it surrendered to the imperial forces; in 1703 it was bombarded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and forced to pay a contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in the war of 1803 it suffered severely.
The National Convention of the Republican Party in 1856 cast i ra votes for Lincoln as its vice-presidential candidate on the ticket with Fremont, and he was on the Republican electoral ticket of this year, and made effective campaign speeches in the interest of the new party.
Lincoln was elected by a popular vote of 1,866,452 to 1,375,157 for Douglas, 847,953 for Breckinridge and 590,631 for Bell - as the combined vote of his opponents was so much greater than his own he was often called "the minority president"; the electoral vote was: Lincoln, 180; John C. Breckinridge, 72; John Bell, 39; Stephen A.
This was the real beginning of the electoral college whose members at this time were the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier, the duke of Saxony, the duke of Bavaria, who was also count palatine of the Rhine, the margrave of Brandenburg and the king of Bohemia.
This move was very popular in Germany, and the papal party received a further rebuff in July 1338 when the electors met at Rense and declared that in no possible manner could they allow any control over, or limitation of, their electoral rights.
For instance, if the territory belonging to an electoral family were divided, as was often the case, it had never been settled whether all the ruling princes were to vote, or, if one only were entitled to this privilege, by what principle the choice was to be made.
He secured some help from Frederick of Brandenburg, from Albert of Austria, afterwards the German king Albert II., an~ from Frederick of Meissen, to whom he granted the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; but it was only when the Hussites were split into two factions, and when ~alka was dead, that Germany was in any way relieved from a crushing and intolerabh burden.
Bertold called the electors together to decide upon a plan of campaign; Maximilian on his part tried to destroy the electoral union by winning over individual members.
was condoned by the Lutheran divines, and the dissensions between John Frederick, the ruler of electoral, and Maurice, the new ruler of ducal Saxony.
Charles was aided by soldiers hurried from Italy and the Netherlands, but he did not gain any substantial successes until after October 1546, when his ally Maurice invaded electoral Saxony and forced John Frederick to march northwards to its defence.
But these divergences of opinion were not only between Roman Catholic and Lutheran or between Lutheran and Calvinist, they were, in electoral and ducal Saxony at least, between.
electoral Saxony re-established a rigid Lutheranism at home and pursued a policy of moderation and neutrality abroad.
The restoration of the elector palatine to part of his lands, and his reinstatement in the electoral office, were important concessions; but on the other hand, the duke of Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate, the elector palatine becoming the eighth and junior member of the electoral college.
The functions of the executive were, however, extended, the electoral law was made less democratic, and it was decided that, instead of an emperor, there should be merely a sf~preme chief aided by a college of princes.
The political disqualifications which remained only applied to electoral rights.
The rulers of Austria lacked the the close prestige which attached to the electoral office, and, of the although five of them had held the position of German middle king, the four who preceded Maximilian had added ages.
The diets themselves were elected for six years; they were chosen generally (there were slight local differences) in the following way: (a) a certain number of bishops and rectors of universities sat in virtue of their office; (b) the rest of the members were chosen by four electoral bodies or curiae, - (i) the owners of estates which before 1848 had enjoyed certain feudal privileges, the so-called great proprietors; (2) the chambers of commerce; (3) the towns; (4) the rural districts.
The feudal nobles had great power arising from their wealth, the great traditions of their families, and the connexion with the court, and by the electoral law they had a large number of representatives in the diet.
A still greater blow to the Federalists was the passing of a new electoral law in 1873.
After a fortnight's discussion an agreement was made on the basis of a separation between the German and the Czech districts, and a revision of the electoral law.
Their main principles were the abolition of the curia or electoral class system and the establishment of the franchise on the basis of universal suffrage; and the division of Austria electorally into racial compartments within which each race would be assured against molestation from other races.
In the election of 1852 he was again returned for Manchester on the principles of free trade, electoral reform and religious freedom.
The constitutional rescript of the 28th of January 1848 had been withdrawn in favour of an electoral law for a national assembly, of whose 152 members 38 were to be nominated by the king and to form an Upper House (Landsting), while the remainder were to be elected by the people and to form a popular chamber (Folketing).
In 1904 he resigned on being nominated by the Democrats for president, but he was defeated by Theodore Roosevelt, the electoral vote being 336 for Roosevelt to 140 for Parker, the popular vote 7,623,486 for Roosevelt to 5,077,971 for Parker.
In 1800 he was the Federalist candidate for vice-president, and in 1804 and again in 1808 for president, receiving 54 electoral votes in the former and 47 in the latter year.
The town, which is first mentioned in 1288, came into the possession of electoral Saxony in 1635 and of Prussia in 1815.
In the manifesto the three ministers asserted that " from the peculiarity of its geographical position, and the considerations attendant upon it, Cuba is as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present members "; spoke of the danger to the United States of an insurrection in Cuba; asserted that " we should be recreant to our duty, be unworthy ingly on his return from England in 1856 he was nominated by the Democrats as a compromise candidate for president, and was elected, receiving 174 electoral votes to 114 for John C. Fremont, Republican, and 8 for Millard Fillmore, American or " Know-Nothing."
During the campaign Crawford was stricken with paralysis, and when the electoral vote was cast Jackson received 99, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37.
Originally a settlement of the Sorbian Wends, and in the 12th century part of the possessions of the bishops of Merseburg, Delitzsch ultimately passed to the Saxe-Merseburg family, and, on their extinction in 1738, was incorporated with Electoral Saxony.
But it was easy to reach most parts of Electoral Saxony without actually crossing the frontiers.
The Electoral College was divided.
Of the other four, Jackson received 99 electoral votes, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37; as no one had a majority, the decision was made by the House of Representatives, which was confined in its choice to the three candidates who had received the largest.
The first care of the new elector was to come to terms with John Frederick, and to strengthen his own hold upon the electoral position.
A preacher named Matthias Flacius held an influential position in ducal Saxony, and taught a form of Lutheranism different from that taught in electoral Saxony.
Associated with Flacius was a knight, William of Grumbach, who, not satisfied with words only, made inroads into electoral Saxony and sought the aid of foreign powers in his plan to depose Augustus.
The form of Lutheranism taught in electoral Saxony was that of Melanchthon, and many of its teachers and adherents, who were afterwards called Crypto-Calvinists, were favoured by the elector.
In 1573 he became guardian to the two sons of John William, duke of Saxe-Weimar, and in this capacity was able to add part of the county of Henneberg to electoral Saxony.
In the presidential election of 1796 John Adams, the Federalist candidate, received the largest number of electoral votes, and Jefferson, the Republican candidate, the next largest number, and under the law as it then existed the former became president and the latter vice-president.
Jackson obtained the largest number of votes (99) in the electoral college (Adams receiving 84, Crawford 41 and Clay 37); but no one had an absolute majority, and it thus became the duty of the House of Representatives to choose one of the three candidates - Adams, Jackson and Crawford - who had received the greatest numbers of electoral votes.
In 1832 Jackson was re-elected by a large majority (219 electoral votes to 49) over Henry Clay, his chief opponent.
In the ensuing election he was defeated by James Buchanan by 174 to 114 electoral votes.
The population of the state entitles it to seven representatives in the national House of Representatives, and to nine votes in the Electoral College (census of 1900).
In 1880 he was the candidate of the Greenback party for president and received a popular vote of 308,578; and in 1892 he was the candidate of the People's party, and received 22 electoral votes and a popular vote of 1,041,021.
The campaign was enthusiastic: the Republican candidate was called the "advance agent of prosperity"; "Bill McKinley and the McKinley Bill" became a campaign cry; the panic of 1893 was charged to the repeal of the McKinley tariff measure; and "business men" throughout the states were enlisted in the cause of "sound money" to support McKinley, who was elected in November by a popular vote of 7,106,779 to 6,502,925 for Bryan, and by an electoral vote of 271 to 176.
The wish expressed by the Whigs, that a member of the electoral family should be invited to England, had already aroused the queen's indignation in 1708; and now, in 1714, a writ of summons for the electoral prince as duke of Cambridge having been obtained, Anne forbade the Hanoverian envoy, Baron Schutz, her presence, and declared all who supported the project her enemies; while to a memorial on the same subject from the electress Sophia and her grandson in May, Anne replied in an angry letter, which is said to have caused the death of the electress on the 8th of June, requesting them not to trouble the peace of her realm or diminish her authority.
1705, and in 1706 had bestowed the Garter on the electoral prince and created him duke of Cambridge; while the Regency Act provided for the declaration of the legal heir to the crown by the council immediately on the queen's death, and a further enactment naturalized the electress and her issue.
Before the French Revolution the German empire was a complex confederation, with the states divided into electoral colleges, consisting-00 of the ecclesiastical electors and of the secular electors, including the king of Bohemia; (2) of the spiritual and temporal princes of the empire next in rank to the electors; and (3) of the free imperial cities.
In each county an electoral board, consisting of the attorney for the Commonwealth, the division superintendent and one member appointed by the judge of the circuit court, appoints a board of three school trustees for each district, one each year.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.