All elections and appointments are biennial.
The state elections of 1837 and 1838 were disastrous for the Democrats, and the partial recovery in 1839 was offset by a second commercial crisis in that year.
In view of the annexation of new provinces under the peace treaties and of the altered state of public opinion on internal policy, he dissolved the Chamber on April 7 1921, and was confirmed in power by the elections on May 15.
Women have the right to vote in all elections relating to schools and school officers in cities, towns and graded school districts, and also the right to be elected to any local school position or to the office of township clerk.
elections materially affected by them.
The Colorados favoured Battle as his successor, and before the elections to the chamber in November 1910 the Blancos were again in arms.
The elections for the Constituent Assembly took place on April 18, and negotiations with Germany for reparation were opened.
But while he was negotiating, the elections in France had caused a change in the foreign policy of the government.
The legislative department consists of a senate of 30 members, apportioned among the counties according to population, but with the proviso that each county must have at least one senator, and a House of Representatives of 245 members, one from each township. Since 1870 elections and legislative sessions have been biennial.
New elections are held every two years.
It was under these unlucky auspices that the elections of new deputies took place in 1829.
Free elections can be threatening as well, literally to their livelihoods.
The judicial powers of the county court are confined to probate, the appointment of executors, administrators and other personal representatives, and the settlement of their accounts, matters relating to apprentices and to contested elections for county and district officers.
The United States Congress in1871-1872enacted a series of "Force Laws" intended to break up the secret societies and to control the Southern elections.
Cromwell's government seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was guaranteed in its elections.
At the general parliamentary elections of 1904 a few Catholics had been elected as such, and the encyclical of the 11th of June 1905 On the political organization of the Catholics, practically abolished the non erpedit.
But he appeared again on the scene in the general elections of 1909, as a Christian Democratic candidate; he was elected, and alone of the Catholic deputies took his seat in the Chamber on the Extreme Left, where all his neighbors were violent anti-clericals.
These are (1) causes relating to elections, translations and deprivations of, and criminal prosecutions against, bishops, and (2) the matrimonial cases of princes (Taunton, op. cit.
The Blancos, using the fraudulent elections in 1896 as a pretext, now broke out in armed revolt under the leadership of Aparicio Saraiva.
The most celebrated among the many reform decrees issued by Gregory was the constitution determining for the first time the form of conclave at papal elections, which in large measure has remained ever since the law of the church.
The rules governing elections to the zemstvos were taken as a model for the electoral law of 3906 and are sufficiently indicated by the account of this given below.
The elections were held in March 1906, and on the 27th of April the emperor Nicholas II.
An imperial ukaz fixed the new elections of the for the 14th of September, and the meeting of the electoral third Duma for the 14th of November; at the same law.
The elections of 1909 returned a strong Giolittian majority, but the Premier found himself faced with the necessity for renewing the steamship conventions which were about to lapse.
When peace was concluded fresh elections were held on the new franchise law introduced by the Cabinet, which raised the electorate from 3,000,000 to 8,000,000 votes (Oct.
In Austria, as in Germany, anti-Semitism is a factor in the parliamentary elections.
The elections held under the new system proved a failure, the Christians refusing to go to the polls, and for the next five years Crete was governed absolutely by a succession of Mahommedan Valis.
Thus we find dictators destined to hold the elections, to make out the list of the senate, to celebrate games, to establish festivals, and to drive the nail into the temple of Jupiter - an act of natural magic which was believed to avert pestilence.
The state has always been Democratic in national politics, except in the presidential elections of 1840 (Whig) and 1872 (Republican).
In the elections to the fourth Duma he failed to secure a seat.
He was a preacher of great power, and influenced the elections for the Short Parliament of 1640.
This was seen in the elections for one-third of the 750 members composing the two councils of the nation (the Anciens and the Council of Five Hundred); they gave the moderates a majority alike in that of the older deputies and in that of the younger deputies (April 1797), and that majority elected Barthelemy, a well-known moderate, as the fifth member of the Directory.
The Councils allowed the elections to be annulled in forty-nine departments of France, and re-enacted some of the laws of the period of the Terror, notably those against non-juring priests and returned émigrés.
The constitution requires that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system was adopted in 1891; registration is required in cities having a population of 11,800 or more.
Vallandigham, the Democratic leader, was deported from the state by military order, and the Republicans were successful in the elections of 1863 and 1864.
It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.
signed the famous decree of Kuttenberg, by which the Bohemian nation was given three votes in the elections to the faculty of Prague University as against one for the three other "nations."
assistants, a secretary and a constable were chosen as the civil officers; annual elections and an annual session of the General Court in the last week of October were agreed upon; English statute and common law were expressly excluded; and the "worde of God was adopted as the onely rule to be attended unto in ordering the affayres of government in this plantation."
In the November elections he won an overwhelming victory over James M.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
But he resigned office on the heavy defeat of his party at the elections in December.
The strong measures of the Federalists shocked the country; the leaders of the dominant party quarrelled fiercely among themselves; and the Republicans carried the elections of 1800.
In the elections of 1828 the new party proved unexpectedly strong, and after this year it practically superseded the National Republican party in New York.
This is why, besides the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, the celebration of divine service, the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, are found also decrees aimed at some of the "rights" by which the popes had extended their power, and helped out their finances at the expense of the local churches.
As early as December 1862 the Union military government, at President Lincoln's direction, had ordered elections for Congress, and the men chosen were admitted in February 1863.
Since 1 9 00 a white Republican Party has made some headway in Louisiana politics, but in national and state elections the state has been uninterruptedly and overwhelmingly Democratic since 1877.
As for the representation accorded Cuba in the Spanish Cortes, as a rule about a quarter of her deputies were Cuban-born, and the choice of only a few autonomists was allowed by those who controlled the elections.
The preliminaries of the elections of December 1905 and March 1906 being marked by frauds and injustice, the Liberals deserted the polls at those elections, and instead of appealing to judicial tribunals controlled by the Moderates, issued a manifesto of revolution on the 28th of July 1906.1 This insurrection rapidly assumed large proportions.
The president resigned (on the 28th of September), Congress dispersed without choosing a successor, and as an alternative to anarchy the United States was compelled to proclaim on the 29th of September 1906 a provisional government, - to last " long enough to restore order and peace and public confidence," and hold new elections.
The conseil du roi first divided the total sum among the various generalites (the higher financial divisions), again dividing the amount due from each generalite among the elections of which it was composed.
In certain provinces where the royal taille was levied there were neither elections nor generalites, and the whole administration of the tax was in the hands of the intendants.
At the dissolution of the pensionary parliament, he was, in the new elections, returned for Bedfordshire.
In 1890 the elections to the council led to the return of a majority in favour of accepting self-government, and in 1893 a bill in favour of the proposed change was passed and received the sanction of the Imperial government.
The tone of this diet was passionate, and the government was fiercely attacked for interfering with the elections.
Immediately before the elections, however, Deak succeeded in reuniting all the Liberals on the common platform of " The Ten Points ": (1) Responsible ministries, (2) Popular representation, (3) The incorporation of Transylvania, (4) Right of public meeting, (6) Absolute religious liberty, (7) Universal equality before the law, (8) Universal taxation, (9) The abolition of the Aviticum, an obsolete and anomalous land-tenure, (io) The abolition of serfdom, with compensation to the landlords.
The ensuing elections resulted in a complete victory of the Progressives.
The Deak party preserved its majority at the elections of 1869, but the Left Centre and Extreme Left returned to the diet considerably reinforced.
Subsequently, Banffy still further exasperated the opposition by exercising undue influence during the elections of 1896.
As a result of this compromise the budget of 1899 was passedlin little more than a month, and the commercial and tariff treaty with Austria were renewed till 1903.2 But the government had to pay for this complacency with a so-called " pactum," which bound its hands in several directions, much to the profit of the opposition during the " pure " elections of 1901.
3 In the general elections that followed the Liberal party was practically wiped out, its leader, Count Istvan Tisza, retiring into private life.
The plan, concerted by Kossuth and Apponyi, with the approval of Baron Aehrenthal, was to carry on a modified coalition government with the aid of the Andrassy Liberals, the National party, the Clerical People's party 2 and the Independence party, on a basis of suffrage reform with plural franchise, the 2 The People's party first emerged during the elections of 1896, when it contested 98 seats.
His attempt to emancipate himself from the control of the coalition at the general elections of Oct.
1910 failed miserably, and after a year of temporizing, he suddenly threw off all pretence at legal forms, dissolved the Diet almost before it had met, and in Dec. 1911 ordered new elections.
30 Skerlecz was made Ban, the illegal decrees of Cuvaj revoked, and general elections ordered - the fifth since 1906.
A commission of inquiry was then at last appointed by the Allies, and ordered elections under inter-Allied control and the dissolution of the terrorist " League of Volunteers."
So long as vital frontier disputes were unregulated, the central Government in Belgrade held that elections could not be held, and governed for the first two years through a provisional Parliament, for which no one could claim a really representative character.
The elections to the Constituent Assembly (Nov.
They are elected for a period of six years, but as half of each class retire at the end of three years, new elections for one half the number take place at the end of that time.
The elections to the Union House of Assembly, held in September, were notable as showing the strength of the Progressive (or Unionist) party.
Finally a great triennial competition decides the elections.
It was not his ideas or his commanding personality, nor any positive programme, that brought the Liberals back to power, but the country's weariness of their predecessors and the successful employment at the elections of a number of miscellaneous issues.
In his speech at the Albert Hall on the 21st of December 1905 it was noticeable that, before the elections, the prime minister laid stress on only one subject which could be regarded as part of a constructive programme - the necessity of doing something for canals, which was soon shelved to a royal commission.
He, who had been for years admittedly the first writer in France, had been repeatedly passed over in elections to the Academy.
Triennial elections of councillors by householders (male and female) on the rate-books.
In 1394 the Ordinance respecting annual elections was repealed by the king (Richard II.).
In 1376 an ordinance was made by the mayor and aldermen, with the assent of the whole commons, to the effect that the companies should select men with whom they were content, and none other should come to the elections of mayors and sheriffs; that the greater companies should not elect more than six, the lesser four and the least two.
The elections in Common Hall were by the whole body of citizens until Edward I.'s reign, citizens were then specially summoned to Common Hall by the mayor.
In Edward IV.'s reign the elections of mayor, sheriffs and other officers and members of parliament were transferred to liverymen.
to dissolve the house, and the elections of October 1816 gave them a majority.
Metternich especially ascribed this mainly to the "weakness" of the ministry, and when in 1819 the political elections still further illustrated this trend, notably by the election of the celebrated Abbe Gregoire, it began to be debated whether the time had not come to put in force the terms of the secret treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
During the war the Eight had been practically rulers of the city, but now the parte Guelfa, led by Lapo da Castiglionchio and Piero degli Albizzi, attempted to reassert itself by illicit interference in the elections and by a liberal use of "admonitions "(ammonizioni).
Like the other states of South America its constitution provides for popular control of legislation and the execution of the laws through free elections and comparatively short terms of office, but in practice these safeguards are often set aside and dictatorial methods supersede all others.
So far as state and national elections are concerned, the privilege was extended to native non-freeholders by the constitution of 1842, to naturalized foreigners who had served in the Civil War by an amendment of the 7th of April 1886, and to all adult male citizens by the amendment of the 4th of April 1888.
A constitutional amendment of 1888 extended to them the right of suffrage in state and national elections, and an amendment of 1909 partially remedied the evils in the system of apportionment.
The elections had given the Liberals a considerable majority.
By the famous Golden Bull of 1356 Frankfort was declared the seat of the imperial elections, and it still preserves an official contemporaneous copy of the original document as the most precious of the eight imperial bulls in its possession.
The plan was to overthrow the Lincoln government in the elections and give to the Democrats the control of the state and Federal governments, which would then make peace and invite the Southern States to come back into the Union on the old footing.
The elections are, however, indirect; the citizens nominating the Wahlmonner (deputy electors) and the latter electing the representatives.
The elections of 1830 were not interfered with; and the result was the return of a Liberal majority.
The elections resulted in a majority favourable to the new ministry, and a series of laws were passed of a reactionary tendency with a view to strengthening the government.
This last pretension came very ill from a statesman who in 1780 had advocated yearly elections.
At the elections of 1878 and 1882 he was defeated, and thereafter confined himself to literature.
The Excise Bill in 1733 and the Septennial Bill in the following year offered opportunities for further attacks on the government, which Bolingbroke supported by a new series of papers in the Craftsman styled "A Dissertation on Parties"; but the whole movement collapsed after the new elections, which returned Walpole to power in 1735 with a large majority.
Feudalism is practically extinct among them and with the decline of the Druses, and the great stake they have acquired in agriculture, they have laid aside much of their warlike habit together with their arms. Even their instinct of nationality is being sensibly impaired by their gradual assimilation to the Papal Church, whose agents exercise from Beirut an increasing influence on their ecclesiastical elections and church government.
This constitution has worked well on the whole, the only serious hitches having been due to the tendency of governors-general and kaimakams to attempt to supersede the mejliss by autocratic action, and to impair the freedom of elections.
The archdeacon's court, the sessions and the county elections were long held at Lostwithiel, but all have now been removed.
Sacheverell was one of the managers on behalf of the Commons at the trial of Lord Stafford in Westminster Hall; but took no further part in public affairs till after the elections of March 1681, when he was returned unopposed for Derbyshire.
A celebrated debate on this question took place in the House of Commons in January 1690; but the evident intention of the Whigs to perpetuate their own ascendancy by tampering with the franchise contributed largely to the Tory reaction which resulted in the defeat of the Whigs in the elections of that year.
Defeated in the general elections of September 1889, he was elected again in 1890 by the arrondissement of Auxerre.
The election of elderly Grand Masters became prevalent, the turmoil and chances of frequent elections being acceptable to younger members.
New elections in the autumn of 1848 returned a constitutional majority, but it ended by voting in favour of a constituent assembly.
Elections are biennial.
The initial day of the consulate was never fixed, at least before the 7th century of Rome, but varied with the different accidents which in times of political commotion so frequently occurred to accelerate or retard the elections.
Two other members of this distinguished family of the Valerian gens may be mentioned: Marcus Valerius Messalla, father of the preceding, consul in 53 B.C. He was twice accused of illegal practices in connexion with the elections; on the first occasion he was acquitted, in spite of his obvious guilt, through the eloquence of his uncle Quintus Hortensius; on the second he was condemned.
Again in 1880 the circuit court, by virtue of the Federal statute of 1872 on elections, appointed supervisors of elections in Delaware.
Re-elected in the municipal elections of the 2nd of December 1792, he was soon charged with the functions of procurator of the Commune, and contributed with success to the enrolments of volunteers by his appeals to the populace.
Prior to 1904 elections were annual, but by an amendment of that year they became biennial.
The elections for the States General were soon to take place; and the first important act of the new bishop was to draw up a manifesto or programme of the reforms which he desired to see carried out by the States General of France.
While the canonical elections were re-established, the prerogatives of the crown were greatly increased, as in England.
It included: the number, character and nationality of the cardinals, the abuse of the " reservations " made by the apostolic see, the annates, the collation to benefices, expectative favours, cases to be brought before the papal Curia (including appeals), functions of the papal chancery and penitentiary, benefices in commendam, confirmation of elections, income during vacancies, indulgences, tenths, for what reasons and how is a pope to be corrected or deposed.
Massachusetts is one of the only two states in the Union in which elections for state officers are held annually.
In 1888 an act was passed providing for the use in state elections of a blanket ballot, on which the names of all candidates for each office are arranged alphabetically under the heading of that office, and there is no arrangement in party columns.
Every female citizen having the qualifications of a male voter may vote in the city and town elections for members of the school committee.
The subsequent elections were annual, and within a few years the number of assistants was increased to seven.
30 1912, shortly before the elections.
In the elections of June 1920 he secured a seat in the Reichstag as a member of the Deutsche Volkspartei, the new electioneering name of the former National Liberal party.
All city elections are held in odd numbered years.
It was under these conditions that the Loyalists, in the elections of 1768 and 1769, gained control of the assembly and in the latter year passed an act granting the soldiers' supplies.
Hostility to free silver and " Bryanism " in the large financial and industrial centres put the state strongly in the Republican column in the elections of 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1908.
Elected deputy by Marseilles in the general elections of 1881, he was at that time the sole representative of the Socialist party in the chambers.
Following the general elections in April for the Ottoman Chamber, in which the Committee of Union and Progress had exhausted every method of corruption and violence to secure the return of their candidates, 30,000 Albanian clansmen, exasperated by "Turkification" and repression, mustered in organized rebellion.
Their purpose was the overthrow of Committee Government, to which end they demanded new elections.
The two great political issues of the time were the secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were sup ported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.
Two general elections and the defeat of four ministries within three years had done nothing to solve the difficulties of the situation.
General elections are held biennially, in evennumbered years, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and candidates, except those for the supreme court bench and a few local offices, are nominated at a direct primary election, held the second Tuesday in September.
In politics the state has been Republican in national elections, except in 1896, when it was carried by a fusion of Democrats and Populists.
Following the elections the governor, Sir Hamilton Goold-Adams, sent for Mr Fischer, who formed a ministry, his colleagues being ex-General J.
The Jeffersonian was a quiet and instructive rather than a vehement campaign sheet, and the Whigs believed that it had a great effect upon the elections of the next year.
In most of the territorial or state elections the Democrats, or the Democrats and Populists united, have been triumphant, a Republican governor having been elected only in 1892; but the contests have often been ardent and bitter.
Clark secured his election to the senate in 1899, but Daly furnished to the Committee on Elections and Privileges such evidence of bribery and fraud that it decided against seating him.
A widespread agitation was the outcome, and the temper of the people, of what became known as the " Red Kingdom," was displayed in the elections of 1903 to the German imperial parliament, when, under the system of universal suffrage, of 23 members returned 22 were Social Democrats.
In the elections of 1906, however, only 8 of the Social Democrats succeeded in retaining their seats.
There was only a cautious and gradual extension of the right to vote in Diet and municipal elections in the several territories; and it was not till Jan.
20 1918 that the Government adopted the point of view of the Social Democrats, and promised to extend the principle of the parliamentary franchise, as established in the case of elections to the Reichsrat, to the communal elections also, but with reservations intended to guard against " the undesirable reaction of nationality in districts of mixed population."
Thus it happened that the elections to the Reichsrat in July 1911 were characterized by a temporary coalition of the German Liberals with the Social Democrats against the Christian Socialist party; this led to heavy losses on the part of the latter, especially in the towns.
Hancock was not by nature a leader, but he wielded great influence on account of his wealth and social position, and was liberal, public-spirited, and, as his repeated election - the elections were annual - to the governorship attests, exceedingly popular.
Similarly, the dissolution of the German Reichstag in December 1906 was a weapon directed against Ultramontanism; and, though the elections of 1907 failed to diminish the numbers of the Centre, they rendered possible the formation of a majority, in face of which that system forfeited the influence it had previously possessed.
The elections of 1905 having sent his party back with a large majority, he was received in audience by the king and helped to construct the Wekerle ministry, of which he was one of the most distinguished members.
In the elections to the Convention, Marat was elected seventh out of the twenty-four deputies for Paris, and for the first time took his seat in an assembly of the nation.
In 119 as tribune he proposed a law intended to limit the influence of the nobles at elections.
Suffrage is universal, both men and women who have attained the age of 21 years being able to vote in elections to the House of Deputies.
To vote in elections to the Senate the voter must have reached the age of twenty-six.
At Prague there sits also an electoral court which decides upon the validity of disputed elections or forfeiture of seats and other questions relating to parliamentary or elected bodies.
In Alsace-Lorraine about half of those entitled to vote appear at the polls; but in other districts of Germany very little interest is shown in the elections to the parish councils.
and, instead of assigning them to the four urban tribes, he distributed them through all the tribes and thus gave them practical control of the elections.
But at all three elections, though money and intrigue were freely employed, they were not the determining factors of the contest.
In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
In the same year a separate law was passed providing for primary elections for the choice of United States senators; but here also the method is not that of nomination by a plurality throughout the state, but by the vote of counties and legislative districts, so that this measure, like the other primary law, is not sufficiently direct to give Baltimore a vote proportional to its population.
In general, each county has from three to seven commissioners - the number is fixed by county laws - elected on a general ticket of each county for a term of from two to six years, entrusted with the charge and control of property owned by the county, empowered to appoint constables, judges of elections, collectors of taxes, trustees of the poor, and road supervisors, to levy taxes, to revise taxable valuations of real property, and open or close public roads.
By 1650 the assembly had been divided into two houses, in one of which sat only the representatives of the freemen without whose consent no bill could become a law, and annual sessions as well as triennial elections were coming to be the usual order.
But this step was followed by more and more impassioned complaints against him, such as: that he was interfering with elections, that he was summoning only a part of the delegates elected, that he was seeking to overawe those summoned, that he was abusing his veto power, and that he was keeping the government in the hands of Roman Catholics, who were mostly members of his own family.
In the first county council elections for Carnarvonshire he played a strenuous part on the Radical side, and was chosen an alderman; and in 1890, at a by-election for Carnarvon Boroughs, he was returned to parliament by a majority of 18 over a strong Conservative opponent.
The constitution provides for local option elections on the liquor question in counties, cities, towns and precincts; in 1907, out of 119 counties 87 had voted for prohibition.
He also threw Lorenzo Ricci, the general, into prison, first in the English college and then in the castle of St Angelo, where he died in 1775, under the pontificate of Pius VI., who, though not unfavourable to the Society, and owing his own advancement to it, dared not release him, probably because his continued imprisonment was made a condition by the powers who enjoyed a right of veto in papal elections.
Elections are generally indirect, like those for the national executive, and official terms correspond closely to those of similar offices in the national organization.
In 1909 indeed there were some disquieting symptoms. Owing to Diaz's age the vice-presidency had been revived in 1904, and Don Ramon Corral elected to it; but at the elections of 1909 a movement arose in favour of replacing him by General Bernardo Reyes, Governor of Nuevo Leon, but he was disposed of by an official commission to study the military systems of Europe.
For sixty years there was no change whatever, and only three amendments, those of 1852 (removing the property qualifications of representatives, senators and the governor), were adopted until 1877, when twelve amendments were adopted, - the most important being those providing for biennial (instead of annual) state elections in November (instead of March), and those doing away with the previous requirement that representatives, senators and the governor " be of the Protestant religion."
In accordance with the general laws each city elects a mayor, a board of aldermen, and a common council in whom is vested the administration of its " fiscal, prudential and municipal affairs "; the mayor presides at the meetings of the board of aldermen, and has a veto on any measure of this body, and no measure can be passed over his veto except by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the aldermen; each ward elects three selectmen, a moderator and a clerk in whom is vested the charge of elections; the city marshal and assistant marshals are appointed by the mayor and aldermen, but the city clerk and city treasurer are elected by the aldermen and common council in joint session.
National elections in New Hampshire were carried by the Federalists until 1816, except in 1804 when President Thomas Jefferson won by a small majority; but within this period of Federalist supremacy in national politics the Democrat-Republicans elected the governor from 1805 to 1812 inclusive except in 1809.
In 1816 the Democrats won both state and national elections; and out of the transition from Federalist to Democratic control, which was effected under the leadership of William Plumer (1759-1850), a prominent politician in New Hampshire for half a century, a United States senator from 1802 to 1807 and governor of the state in1812-1813and 1816-1819, arose the famous Dartmouth College Case.
Manlius Torquatus accused the consuls-elect for the following year of bribery in connexion with the elections; they were condemned, and Cotta and Torquatus chosen in their places.
The consuls were its usual presidents for elections and for legislation, but the praetors summoned it for purposes of jurisdiction.
The comitia curiata and the two assemblies of the tribes met within the walls, the former usually in the Comitium, the latter in the Forum or on the Area Capitolii; but the elections at these assemblies were in the later Republic held in the Campus Martius outside the walls.
In elections as well as in legislative acts an absolute majority was required, and hence the candidate who gained a mere relative majority was not returned.
In Italy, however, the reality of popular elections seems to have survived to a later date.
The inscriptions at Pompeii, for instance, give evidence of keenly contested elections in the and century.
Each has its own documentary constitution; its legislature of two elective houses; its executive, consisting of a governor and other officials; its judiciary, whose decisions are final, except in cases involving Federal law; its system of local government and local taxation; its revenue, system of taxation, and debts; its body of private civil and criminal law and procedure; its rules of citizenship, which may admit persons to be voters in state and national elections under conditions differing from those prevailing in other states.
may through a long life never be reminded of the Federal government, except when he votes at Federal elections (once in every two years), lodges a complaint against the post office, or is required -to pay duties of customs or excise.
Five states Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho and Washingtongive the suffrage for all elections to women.i In 1905 women could vote at school elections in twenty-four states.
The suffrage for legislature elections generally determines that for all other elections within the state, and as a rule it carries with it eligibility to office.
And by the Federal Constitution it is also the suffrage for Federal elections, viz, elections of representatives in Congress and of presidential electors.
There used to be a good deal of fraud practised at elections, including personating and repeating, as well as a good deal of bribery in a few states and in some of the larger cities.
Legislation has reduced these evils in recent years; and efforts have been made to prevent the excessive expenditure of money at elections, and the making of contributions to party campaign funds by wealthy corporations who desire to secure some benefit for themselves.
This, of course, does not apply to elections to a legislature; but in city elections, and to some extent in state elections and county elections also, it creates great difficulties, for how is the average citizen.
The value of local self-government as a training for the duties of citizenship has been very great, and in many parts of the country, especially where the funds dealt with are small, elections are not fought and offices not distributed upon party lines.
The most important committees are the following: ways and means, rules, elections, appropriations (with several committees for different branches of public expenditure), rivers and harbours, banking and currency, and foreign.
This matter is the electoral franchise in Federal elections.
As the electoral suffrage for state legislature elections is also that for Federal elections (including the election of presidential electors), the working of the Federal Constitution has thus been affected without any change in the Constitution itself.
These three are: first, to influence governmental~ policy; secondly, to form opinion; and thirdly, to win elections.
These laws vary greatly in their details from state to state, but they all aim at enabling the voters to exercise a free and unfettered voice in the selection of their candidates, and they have created a regular system of elections of candidates preliminary to the election of office-holders from among the candidates.
The laws usually contain provisions punishing fraud or bribery practised at a primary, similar to those which apply to the subsequent elections to office.
The best account of the presidential elections is in Edward Stanwoods History of the Presidency (Boston, 1898).
The administration thus established underwent many changes, but after winning three general elections it was still in power in 1909.
Notwithstanding that Quebec was almost solidly Roman Catholic the Rouges sternly resisted clerical pressure; they appealed to the courts and had certain elections voided on the ground of undue clerical influence, and at length persuaded the pope to send out a delegate to Canada, through whose inquiry into the circumstances the abuses were checked and the zeal of the ultramontanes restrained.
By Giving A Greater Or Less Number Of Days To The Intercalary Month, The Pontiffs Were Enabled To Prolong The Term Of A Magistracy Or Hasten The Annual Elections; And So Little Care Had Been Taken To Regulate The Year, That, At The Time Of Julius Caesar, The Civil Equinox Differed From The Astronomical By Three Months, So That The Winter Months Were Carried Back Into Autumn And The Autumnal Into Summer.
The "Unionists" were successful in the elections of 1851 and 1852, but the feeling of uncertainty engendered in the south by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the course of the slavery agitation after 1852 led the State Democratic convention of 1856 to revive the "Alabama Platform"; and when the "Alabama Platform" failed to secure the formal approval of the Democratic National convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, the Alabama delegates, followed by those of the other cotton "states," withdrew.
The constitution, as amended in 1905, provides that elections on the question ‘ of local school taxes for counties or for school districts may be called upon a petition signed by one-fourth of the qualified voters of the county, or district, in question; under this provision several counties and a large number of school districts are supplementing the general fund.
The constitution was duly adopted by popular vote, and elections were held for the choice of a governor and legislature.
Although he was defeated at the elections of 1898 and was for four years outside the chamber, his eloquent speeches made him a force in politics as an intellectual champion of socialism.
At the general elections of 1 9 06 M.
It was not till 1829, when the result of the elections had proved the futility of Villele's policy of repression, that Charles consented unwillingly to try a policy of compromise.
The result of the new elections was what might have been foreseen: a large increase in the Opposition; and Charles, on the advice of his ministers, determined on a virtual suspension of the constitution.
This court, faithful to the practice observed by it in the preceding elections, nominated another candidate, Cadalus, bishop of Parma, who was proclaimed at the council of Basel under the name of Honorius II., marched to Rome, and for a long time jeopardized his rival's position.
It is only necessary here to consider certain important features in the elections, as ordinarily understood, namely, the exercise of the right of voting for political and municipal offices in the United Kingdom and America.
For practical details as to the conduct of political elections in England reference must be made to the various text-books on the subject; the candidate and his election agent require to be on their guard against any false step which might invalidate his return.
Considerable alterations have been made in recent years in the law of Great Britain and Ireland relating to the procedure at parliamentary and municipal elections, and to election petitions.
As regards parliamentary elections (which may be either the " general election," after a dissolution of parliament, or " byelections," when casual vacancies occur during its continuance), the most important of the amending statutes is the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act 1883.
This act, and the Parliamentary Elections Act 1868, as amended by it, and other enactments dealing with corrupt practices, are temporary acts requiring annual renewal.
As regards municipal elections, the Corrupt Practices (Municipal Elections) Act 1872 has been repealed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882 for England, and by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 for Ireland.
The governing enactments for England are now the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, part iv., and the Municipal Elections (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act 1884, the latter annually renewable.
The provisions of these enactments have been applied with necessary modifications to municipal and other local government elections in Ireland by orders of the Irish Local Government Board made under powers conferred by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.
In Scotland the law regulating municipal and other local government elections is now to be found in the Elections (Scotland) (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act 1890.
The alterations in the law have been in the direction of greater strictness in regard to the conduct of elections, and increased control in the public interest over the proceedings on election petitions.
The Corrupt Practices Acts apply, with necessary variations in details, to parliamentary elections in Scotland and Ireland.
The amendments in the law as to municipal elections are generally similar to those which have been made in parliamentary election law.
Petitions against municipal elections were dealt with in 35 & 36 Vict.
The provisions are generally similar to those relating to parliamentary elections.
The Municipal Elections (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act 1884 applied to school board elections subject to certain variations, and has been extended by the Local Government Act 1888 to county council elections, and by the Local Government Act 1894 to elections by parochial electors.
The law in Scotland is on the same lines, and extends to all nonparliamentary elections, and, as has been stated, the English statutes have been applied with adaptations to all municipal and local government elections in Ireland.
- Elections are much more frequent in the United States than they are in Great Britain, and they are also more complicated.
As a general rule, but subject to exceptions, the national elections call out the largest number, the state elections next, and the local elections the smallest number of voters.
The tendency of recent years has been towards a decrease both in the number and in the frequency of elections.
State and local elections take place in accordance with state laws, and may or may not be on the same day as the national elections.
Originally the rule was for the states to hold annual elections; in fact, so strongly did the feeling prevail of the need in a democratic country for frequent elections, that the maxim " where annual elections end, tyranny begins," became a political proverb.
But opinion gradually changed even in the older or Eastern states, and in 1909 Massachusetts and Rhode Island were the only states in the Union holding annual elections for governor and both houses of the state legislature.
In the Western states especially state officers are chosen for longer terms - in the case of the governor often for four years - and the number of elections has correspondingly decreased.
Another cause of the decrease in the number of elections is the growing practice of holding all the elections of any year on one and the same day.
Before the Civil War Pennsylvania held its state elections several months before the national elections.
Ohio and Indiana, until 1885 and 1881 respectively, held their state elections early in October.
The selection of one day in the year for all elections held in that year has resulted in a considerable decrease in the total number.
Another tendency of recent years, but not so pronounced, is to hold local elections in what is known as the " off " year; that is, on the odd-numbered year, when no national election is held.
The average American citizen is only too prone to carry his national political predilections into local elections, and to vote for the local nominees of his party, without regard to the question of fitness of candidates and the fundamental difference of issues involved.
On the other hand, if local elections are held on the " off " or odd year, and there be no national or state candidates, the voter feels much more free to select only those candidates whom he considers best qualified for the various offices.
On the important question of the purity of elections it is difficult to speak with precision.
In many of the states, especially those with an enlightened public spirit, such as most of the New England states and many of the North-Western, the elections are fairly conducted, there being no intimidation at all, little or no bribery, and an honest count.
It can safely be said that through the Union as a whole the tendency of recent years has been decidedly towards greater honesty of elections.
This is owing to a number of causes: (1) The selection of a single day for all elections, and the consequent immense number voting on that day.
Some years ago, when for instance the Ohio and Indiana elections were held a few weeks before the general election, each party strained every nerve to carry them, for the sake of prestige and the influence on other states.
In fact, presidential elections were often felt to turn on the result in these early voting states, and the party managers were none too scrupulous in the means employed to carry them.
With the elimination of the coloured vote by educational or other tests the honesty of elections has increased.
With the reform of the civil service elections become less a scramble for office and more a contest of political or economic principle.
The act applies to all public elections except that of town officers, and also covers nominations by caucuses and conventions as well.
There is nothing to prevent their contributing to political committees, and the financial methods and the amounts expended by such committees are not made public. But behind all these causes that have led to more honest elections lies the still greater one of a healthier public spirit.
In recent years, however, a new and healthier interest has sprung up in things political; and one result of this improved civic spirit is seen in the various laws for purification of elections.
It may now be safely affirmed that in the majority of states the elections are honestly conducted; that intimidation, bribery, stuffing of the ballot boxes or other forms of corruption, when they exist, are owing in large measure to temporary or local causes; and that the tendency of recent years has been towards a decrease in all forms of corruption.
The expenses connected with elections, such as the renting and preparing of the polling-places, the payment of the clerks and other officers who conduct the elections and count the vote, are borne by the community.
The king took an active part in the elections, and used his patronage to the utmost to influence legislation.
Under the influence of General Sam Houston the capital was for a time in 1842-1845 removed from Austin to Houston, but in 1845 an ordinance was passed making Austin the capital, and it remained the state capital after Texas entered the Union, although Huntsville and Tehuacana Springs in 1850 and Houston in 1872 attempted in popular elections to be chosen in its place.
One of the great families of Rome, that of the vestararius Theophylact, took possession of the temporal authority, and succeeded in influencing the papal elections.
Henceforth the elections remained entirely free from those secular influences which had hitherto been so oppressive.
The work of reform was now in a good way; the freedom of the pontifical elections had been assured, which gave some Gregory promise that the struggle against abuses would be VII., conducted successfully.
A synod assembled at the Lateran in April passed the famous new regulations for the elections to the papacy.
It must not, however, be forgotten that, in the negotiations at Sutri, Paschal had pride and independence enough to propose to the emperor the only solution of the conflict that was entirely logical and essentially Christian, namely, the renunciation by the Church of its temporal power and the renunciation by the lay lords of all intervention in elections and investitures - in other words, the absolute separation of the priesthood and the state.
Their elections gave rise to innumerable lawsuits, which all terminated at the court of Rome, and in most cases it was the pope himself who designated the monks to fill vacant posts in the abbeys.
Of his ecclesiastical achievements the bull against simony at papal elections deserves the most honourable mention.
availed himself to the full of the (for him) convenient clauses of the Italian Law of Guarantees (May 13, 1871), while refusing the civil list of three and a quarter million lire provided for his use, and inhibiting Italian Catholics from participating in the elections to the House of Deputies (ne elettori eletti).
He was defeated at the elections of 1898 at Paris, but was re-elected in 1902 and in 1906 by the colony of Guadeloupe.
Having been defeated at the elections of 1904, he was nominated senator; in parliament he had long been a staunch follower of Sig.
The whole efforts of the elector and his minister were directed to nullifying the constitutional control vested in the diet; and the Opposition was fought by manipulating the elections, packing the judicial bench, and a vexatious and petty persecution of political "suspects," and this policy continued after the retirement of Hassenpflug in 1837.
The general impression was that inasmuch as the senate was packed with men devoted to the royal couple, and inasmuch as the government obtained a large majority at the general elections, King Alexander would not hesitate any longer to proclaim Queen Draga's brother as the heir to the throne.
The elections of 1905 for the Second Chamber gave the liberals a narrow majority of four.
The final change in the system of parliamentary elections was made in 1899-1900, when proportional representation was introduced.
In 1902 there were 1,146,482 voters with 2,007,704 votes, the principles of multiple votes, with, however, a maximum of four votes and proportional representation, being in force for communal as for legislative elections.
The elections of 1854 modified the parliamentary situation by increasing the strength of the Conservatives; the ministry resigned and a new one was formed, under Pierre de Decker, of moderate Catholics and Progressives.
The elections of July 1864 gave a majority to the Liberals, and M.
For the four categories of elections a supplementary vote was given to (a) citizens who having attained the age of thirty-five years, and being married or widowers with children, paid at least 5 f.
The new cabinet at once (August 1899) introduced a bill giving complete proportional representation in parliamentary elections to all the arrondissements.
His bull of the 14th of January 1505 against simony in papal elections was re-enacted by the Lateran council (February 16, 1513).
Both the Bundesrat and the Reichstag meet in annual sessions convoked by tile emperor who has the right of proroguing and dissolving the Diet; but the prorogation must not exceed 60 days, and in case of dissolution new elections must be ordered within 60 days, and the new session opened within 90 days.
The following table shows its composition after the elections of 1903 and I 907:
This office is divided into four departments, dealing with (i.) the business of the Bundesrat, the Rcichstag, the elections, citizenship, passports, the press, and military and naval matters, so far as the last concern the civil authorities; (ii.) purely social matters, such as old age pensions, accident insurance, migration, settlement, poor law administration, &c.; (iii.) sanitary matters, patents, canals, steamship lines, weights and measures; and (iv.) commercial and economic relationssuch as agriculture, industry, commercial treaties and statistics.
On the other hand it was arranged that these elections should take place in the presence of the emperor or his representative, and that he should invest the new prelate with the sceptre, thus signifying that the bishop, or abbot, held his temporal fiefs from him and not from the pope.
Seven years before, at Eger in July 1213, he had made extensive concessions to the church, undertaking to take no part in episcopal elections, thus surrendering the advantages gained by the concordat of Worms, and to allow to German bishops the right of appeal to Rome.
Embodied in a WahiCharles kapitulation, as it was called, these were practically and the the conditions on which the new sovereign was allowed move- to take the crown, and the precedent was followed at subsequent elections.
Great hindrances were put in the way of the elections, but, as the Prussian and Austrian governments were too much occupied with their immediate difficulties to resist to the uttermost, the parliament was at last chosen, and met at Frankfort on the I8th May.
Public opinion was now violently excited against the government; the new elections resulted (May 6) in the return of a yet larger Liberal majority; on the 22nd of August the army estimates were thrown out.
Fifty-four membersof the Prussian parliament at once joined the new party, and in the elections for the Reichstag in 1871 they won sixty seats.
In the elections of 1898 they still returned nine members to the Reichstag, but in those of I903 their representation had sunk to six, and in 1907 it had practically dii~appeared.
The same spirit was shown in the elections for local purposes.
In order to strengthen their position for the new elections, the Liberal ministry, who owed their position chiefly to the support of the king, by royal ordinance ordered a redistribution of seats.
These measures of the government, however, did not succeed in winning over the Catholic population, and in the elections for the Reichstag in January 1874 the party of the Centre increased in number from 63 to 91; 1,4.43,170 votes were received by them.
So great was the popular feeling, that a repressive measure would easily have been carried; Bismarck, however, while the excitement was at its height, dissolved the Reichstag, and in the elections which took place immediately, the Liberal parties, who had refused to vote for the first law, lost a considerable number of seats, and with them their control over the Reichstag.
At elections every kind of agitation, whether by meetings of the party or by distribution of literature, was suppressed.
Here it was determined that the members of the Reichstag, who were protected by their position, should henceforward be the managing committee of the party, and arrangements were made for contesting the elections of 1881.
The elections of 1878, by weakening the Liberal parties, enabled Bismarck also to take in hand the great frnancial reform which he had long contemplated.
At the elections of 1881 they secured forty-seven seats, but they were not strong enough to maintain themselves, and with great reluctance ~fl 1884 formed a coalition with the Progressives (Freisinnigen), who had gained greatly in strength owing to the breach among the government parties.
The remainder of the National Liberals only won forty-five seats in 1881, and during the next three years they were without influence on the government; and even Bennigsen, unable to follow Bismarck in his new policy, disgusted at the proposals for biennial budgets and the misuse of government influence at the elections, retired from political life.
After the elections of 1881 a protest was raised against the systematic influence exercised by Prussian officials.
Puttkammer, who had now become minister of the interior, defended the practice, and a royal edict of 4th January 1882 affirmed the monarchical character of the Prussian constitution, the right of the king personally to direct the policy of the state, and required those officials who held appointments of a political nature to defend the policy of the government, even at elections.
In the elections of 1881 the Centre gained five more seats, and in 1883 a new law was introduced prolonging and extending that of 1881.
During the years 1879 to 1881 the anti-Semite agitation gained considerable importance in Berlin, Breslau and other Prussian cities, and it culminated in the elections of that year, leading in some cases to riots and acts of violence.
The elections caused greater excitement than any which had taken place since 1870.
One of his first acts was severely to reprimand Puttkammer for misusing government influence at elections.
f elections, the first for a quinquennial period, would take Bisnarck,.
The repeal of the Socialist law was naturally welcome to them as a great personal triumph over Bismarck;in the elections of 1890 they won thirty-five, in 1S93 forty-four, in 1898 fifty-six seats.
Before the elections the Radical party broke up, as about twenty of them determined to accept the compromise.
In the elections of 1907, indeed, the Social Democratic party, owing to the unparalleled exertion of the government, had a set-back, its representation in parliament sinking to 43; but at the International Socialist Congress, which met at Stuttgart on the 18th of August, Herr Bebel was able to point oui that, in spite of its defeat at the polls, the Socialist cause had actually gained strength in the country, their total poll having increased from 3,010,771.
The budget presented to the Reichstag by Prince B 610w, which laid new burdens upon the landed and capitalist classes, was fiercely opposed bytheAgrarians, and led to the break-up of the Liberal-Conservative bloc on whose support the chancellor had relied since the elections of 1906.
In Bohemia, where the attempt to hold elections for the Frankfort parliament had broken down on the opposition of the Czechs and the conservative German aristocracy, a separate constitution had been proclaimed on the 8th of April; on March the 23rd the election by the diet of Agram of Baron Joseph Jellachich as ban of Croatia was confirmed, as a concession to the agitation among the southern Sla y s; on the 18th of March Count Stadion had proclaimed a new con stitution for Galicia.
Parliamentary discussion, moreover, was sure to bring out those racial differences which it was desirable should be forgotten, and the elections carried into every part of the empire a political agitation which was very harmful when each party represented a different race.
Belcredi, who had come into power in 1865 as a Federalist, and had suspended the constitution of 1861 on the 2nd of January 1867, ordered new elections for the diets, which were then to elect deputies to an extraordinary Reichsrath which should consider the Ausgleich, or compact with Hungary.
introducedbya regular Reichsrath summoned in accord ance with it, protested against the decree, and, in some cases, threatened not to take part in the elections.
Hence the German Liberals were prevented from introducing direct elections to the Reichsrath, and the functions of the Reichsrath were slightly less extensive than they had hitherto been.
2 The German majority declared that they had forfeited their seats, and ordered new elections.
by Beust, probably with the sympathy of the emperor; the others determined to cripple the opposition by taking away the elections for the Reichsrath from the diets.
So long as parliament was sitting they were kept in check; as soon as it had voted supplies and the Delegations had separated, they ordered new elections in all those diets where there was a Liberal majority.
They were completely defeated in the elections which followed, but for the next four years the two parties among the Czechs were as much occupied in opposing one another as in opposing the Germans.
Slav races was, however, not merely the result of government assistance; it had begun long before Taaffe assumed office; it was to be seen in the census returns and in the results of elections.
After the elections of 1885 the Left, therefore, broke up again into two clubs, the " German Austrian," which included the more moderate, and the " German," which wished to use sharper language.
At the elections in 1891 a great struggle took place between the Old and the Young Czechs.
The result of the elections of 1897 was the return of a House so constituted as to make any strong government impossible.
Young Rumanians Total The most remarkable result of the elections was the disappearance of the Liberals in Vienna.
The new elections on which so much was to depend did not take place till January 1901.
Notwithstanding the result of the elections, the first months of the new parliament passed in comparative peace.
to be crowned emperor at Rome in 1355, but protested against the famous "Golden Bull" of the following year, which prohibited papal interference in German royal elections.
The release of the Denshawai prisoners in January 1908 and the death of Mustafa Kamel in the following month had a quieting effect on the public mind; while the fact that in the elections (December 1907) for the legislative council and the general assembly only 5% of the electors went to the polls, afforded a striking commentary alike on the appreciation of the average Egyptian of the value of parliamentafy institutions and of the claims of the Nationalist members of the assembly to represent the Egyptian people.
The members of these councils are elected on a system similar to that applied to the elections for the Landsthing.
The Left was willing to vote 30,000,000 crowns for extraordinary military expenses, exclusive of the fortifications of Copenhagen, on condition that the amount should be raised by a property and income tax; and, as the elections of 1875 had given them a majority of three-fourths in the popular chamber, they spoke with no uncertain voice.
But the difficulties of the ministry were somewhat relieved by a split in the Radical party, still further accentuated by the elections of 1879, which enabled Estrup to carry through the army and navy defence bill and the new military penal code by leaning alternately upon one or the other of the divided Radical groups.
After the elections of 1881, which brought about the reamalgamation of the various Radical sections, the opposition presented a united front to the government, so that, from 1882 onwards, legislation was almost at a standstill.
The elections of 1884.
The elections of 1895 resulted in an undeniable victory of the extreme Radicals; and the budget of 1895-1896 was passed only at the last moment by a compromise.
The elections of 1898 were a fresh defeat for the Conservatives, and in the autumn session of the same year, the Folketing, by a crushing majority of 85 to 12, rejected the military budget.
At the elections of 1906 the government lost its small absolute majority, but remained in power with support from the Moderates and Conservatives.
He had taken a prominent part in politics as a Liberal since his university days, especially in work for the Eighty Club, and in 1886 was elected member of parliament for East Fife, a seat which he retained in subsequent elections.
He refused the offer of the London embassy, and in 1880 was reporter of the committee on the adoption of the scrutin de liste at elections, on which he delivered an adverse judgment.
Meanwhile, on the 10th of March 1871, he had introduced in the National Assembly at Versailles, on behalf of his Radical colleagues, the bill establishing a Paris municipal council of eighty members; but he was not returned himself at the elections of the 26th of March.
At the elections of 1885 he advocated a strong Radical programme, and was returned both for his old seat in Paris and for the Var, selecting the latter.
During this long period of legislative activity he served in the House on the committees on elections, ways and means, and appropriations, took a prominent part in the anti-slavery and reconstruction measures during and after the Civil War, in tariff legislation, and in the establishment of a fish commission and the inauguration of daily weather reports.
In 1903 the legislature authorized the municipal ownership of public service corporations, and in 1906 the city of Chicago took steps to acquire ownership of its street railways - a movement which seemed to have spent its force in 1907, when the municipal ownership candidates were defeated in the city's elections - and in 1902 the right of that city to regulate the price of gas was recognized by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals.
In the elections of 1864 the Republicans and Union Democrats united, and after an exciting campaign they were successful.
Before the election was decided Kruger took care to conciliate the volksraad members, as well as to see that at all the volksraad elections, which occurred shortly before the presidential election, his supporters were returned, or, if not returned, that his opponents were objected to on some trivial pretext, and by this means prevented from actually sitting in the volksraad until the presidential election was over.
The other district includes Grand Canary, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, and has at its head a sub-governor, residing in Las Palmas, on Grand Canary, who is independent of the governor except in regard to elections and municipal administration.
the Parliamentary Elections Act 1868, the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act 1883) Sundays and holidays are excluded in reckoning days, and consequently all the Sundays, &c., of a prescribed sequence of days would be eliminated.
His conciliatory policy produced a mild schism in his own party, but proved eminently wise, and the state elections of 1801 fulfilled his prophecy of 1791 that the policy of the Federalists would leave them" all head and no body."In 1804 he was re-elected by 162 out of 176 votes.
The first elections took place during December 1909, with results that showed wide-spread interest and were generally accepted as satisfactory.
popular demand was now that Naples should assist the Lombards in their revolt against Austria, for a feeling of Italian solidarity The was growing up. The ministry of Carlo Troya succonstituceeded to that of Serracapriola, and after the parlia tion of mentary elections, in which many extreme Radicals 1848.
Fresh elections were held and the new parliament met on the 15th of July, but it had the king, the army and the mob against it, and anti-constitutionalist demonstrations became frequent.
The elections for the first Philippine Assembly were held on the 30th of July 1907, and 31 Nationalists, 16 Progressists, 33 Independents and others were elected.
Mill and Bentham, whose chief principles were representative government, vote by ballot, the abolition of a state church, frequent elections.
the 1st of June, and in the November elections he was re-elected, defeating De Witt Clinton by 128 votes to 89.
Elections of members of the state legislature and of Congress are not held at the same time - a very unusual provision.
Elections are by Australian ballot; the constitution prescribes that no law shall " be enacted whereby the right to vote at any election shall be made to depend upon any previous registration of the elector's name " (extremely unusual).
In state gubernatorial elections after the Civil War the Democrats won in 1867, 1875,1882, 1886, 1894; the Republicans in 1871, 1879, 1890, 1898, 1902.
In the United States the McKinley Tariff Bill was one of the main causes of the Democratic victory in the Congressional elections of 1890, in which McKinley himself was defeated by an extraordinary Democratic gerrymander of his Congressional district.
In 1894 he made an extended campaign tour before the Congressional elections, and spoke even in the South.
General elections are held biennially, in even-numbered years, the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and each new administration begins the first Monday in the following January.
In the national elections of 1860 Virginia returned a majority of unionist electors as against the secession candidates, Breckinridge and Lane, many of the large planters voting for the continuance of the Union, and many of the smaller slave-owners supporting the secessionists.
In national elections the state has supported the Democratic party, except in 1860, when its vote was cast for John Bell, the candidate of the Constitutional Union party.
He entered the London County Council in 1892 as member for Deptford, and was returned at the head of the poll in the successive elections of 1895, 1898, 1901 and 1904.
The General Assemblies are biennial, sessions limited to 90 days (45 before 1884); state and county elections are held at the same time (since 1902).
Following the repeal of the Sherman Law and other acts and tendencies unfavourable to silver coinage in 1893 and thereafter, the silver question became the dominant issue in politics, resulting in the success of the Populist-Democratic fusion party in three successive elections, and permanently and greatly altering prior party organizations.
At the elections of 1898 he was defeated, and thenceforward took little part in public affairs.
The first elections, April 1907, resulted in the election to the diet of about 40% representatives of the Social Democratic party, and nineteen women members.
At the Trade Union Congress in 1887 he attacked the secretary, Mr. Broadbent, for supporting capitalist candidates at elections,: thus starting the campaign for Independent Labour representation which he brought into prominence in 1888 by contesting Mid-Lanark as an Independent Labour candidate.
declared both elections void; and with John's consent ordered that a new election should be made in his presence by the representatives of the monks.
If the pope would confirm the elections of his bishops, Gustavus promised to be an obedient son of the Church.
The On the 1st of June the Reaction Riksdag, as it was generally called, removed to the capital; and it was now that the French ambassador and the crown prince Gustavus called upon the new senators to redeem their promise as to a reform of the constitution which they had made before the elections.
The elections held on the demise of the Crown resulted in a partial victory for the Caps, especially among the 1771- lower orders; but in the estate of the peasants 1792.
On the 1st of September 1866, the first elections under the new system were held; and on the 19th of January 1867, the new Riksdag met for the first time.
The elections of 1890, when the metropolis returned free traders and Liberals to the Second Chamber, certainly effected a change in the latter, as the representatives of the towns and the old " Landtmanna " party joined issue and established a free-trade majority in the chamber, but in the combined meetings of the two chambers the compact protectionist majority in the First Chamber turned the scale.
After the elections in 1890, the alliance already mentioned between the old " Landtmanna " party and the representatives of the towns had the result that the Liberals in the Second Chamber to whom the re resentatives of the Franchise ' ', p Reform.
He succeeded all the better as the new elections to the Riksdag of 1900 showed clearly that the Swedish people was not inclined to follow the ultraconservative or so-called " patriotic " party, which resulted in the resignation of the two leaders of that party, Professor Oscar Alin and Count Marschal Patrick Reutersvard as members of the First Chamber.
It brought in a bill for manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, together with single member constituencies and election on the absolute majority principle.
The latter chamber instead passed a bill for manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, on the condition that the elections for both chambers should take place on the basis of proportional representation.
Both chambers thereupon decided to ask the opinion of the king with regard to the simultaneous extension of the franchise to women at elections for the Second Chamber.
The government bill having, however, been passed by the Second Chamber, the prime minister proposed to the king that the Riksdag should be dissolved and new elections for the Second Chamber take place in order to hear the opinion of the country, but as the king did not approve of this Mr Staaff and his government resigned.
By this act proportional representation was established for both chambers, together with universal manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, a reduction of the qualifications for eligibility for the First Chamber and a reduction of the electoral term of this chamber from nine to six years, and finally payment of members of the First Chamber, who hitherto had not received any such emolument.
These elections are held on the 25th of June in the last year of a presidential term, the electors cast their votes on the 25th of July, and the counting takes place in a joint session of the two chambers of congress on the 30th of August, congress in joint session having the power to complete the election when no candidate has been duly chosen by the electors.
On several occasions, notably in 1882 and 1885, President Santa Maria used his influence in the elections of senators and deputies to congress for the purpose of creating a substantial majority in his favour.
In order to ensure a majority favourable to his views, the president threw the whole weight of his official influence into the elections for senators and deputies in 1888; but many of the members returned to the chambers through this official influence joined the opposition shortly after taking their seats.
The president of the republic has no power to dissolve the chambers, to endeavour to remedy the evil by one or another political party obtaining a substantial working majority, but must wait to see the results of the triennial elections.
These unsettled political circumstances checked any continuity of policy, and tended to block the passage of all useful legislation to help forward the economic development of the country and inhabitants; on the other hand, the financial situation was better by the end of 1899 than in the previous year, since all proposals for a fresh paper issue had been vetoed; and the elections for congress and municipal office at the opening of 1900 returned a majority favourable to a stable currency policy.
By an ordinance of the 10th of September the number of members was fixed at 162 (60 for Teheran, 102 for the provinces) to be raised to 200 if necessary, and elections were held soon after.
The new letters patent instituting self-government in the Transvaal were issued on the 12th of December 1906; the elections were held in February 1907, and gave the Het Volk party a clear majority of seven (in a house numbering 69 members) over all other parties.
In the Orange River Colony the first elections under the self-government constitution were held in November 1907, and out of 38 seats in the House of Assembly Oranjie Unie candidates secured 2 9.
The elections, which resulted in a Nationalist majority of 13 over all other parties, showed that the Unionists were stronger than had been thought.
But the victorious Hats refused to redeem the pledges which they had given before the elections.
(1375), the trading companies were to nominate the members of common council, and the persons so nominated alone were to attend both at common councils and at elections.
(1383) restored the elections of common councilmen to the wards, but corporate officers and representatives in parliament were elected by a convention summoned by the lord mayor from the nominees of the companies.
masters and wardens were ordered to associate with themselves the honest men of their mysteries, and come in their best liveries to the elections; that is to say, the franchise was restricted to the "liverymen" of the companies.
Calpurnius Piso, his colleague in the consulship (67), he brought forward a severe law (Lex Acilia Calpurnia) against illegal canvassing at elections.
In 1909 a direct primary elections law was passed which required a majority of all votes to nominate, and, to make a majority possible, provided for preferential (or second-choice) voting, such votes to be canvassed and added to the first-choice vote for each candidate if there be no majority by the first-choice vote.
The popes attached golden bullae to their confirmations of the elections of the emperors in the 12th and 13th centuries; and they issued them on such occasions as when Leo X.
In 1903 a law (revised in 1908) was passed providing for the conduct at public cost of primary elections for the nomination of nearly all elective officers, and for the nomination of delegates to party nominating conventions; nominations for primary elections are made by petitions signed by at least ten voters (except in very small election districts) who make affidavit as to their party affiliations; the nominee thus indorsed must file a letter of acceptance.
This instrument, which was designed to replace the Concessions, provided for the government of the province by a governor chosen by the proprietors, a common council consisting of the proprietors or their proxies together with 12 freemen, and a great council consisting of the proprietors or their proxies together with 144 freemen chosen by a mixed system of elections and the casting of lots.
The second war with England interrupted this material progress, and at its beginning was so unpopular, especially with the Quakers, that the Federalists carried the elections in the autumn of 1812.
1874), then a Republican member of the Assembly and in1906-1908a state senator, began in 1904; it did much to secure the passage of acts limiting public service franchises to 20 years (unless extended to 40 years by the voters of the municipality concerned), the increase of taxes on railways, the increase of franchise tax rates by 12% each year up to 5%, the adoption of direct primary elections, and the modification of the existing promoters' liability law.
Before he was four-and-twenty he had stood two contested elections for the university of Cambridge, at which he was defeated, and he entered parliament for a pocketborough, Newtown, Isle of Wight, in June 1807.
There are four quarterly meetings in every year, the dates of which may be fixed by the council, with the exception of that which must be held on the 16th March or some day within ten days after the 8th of March as already noticed 'when treating of elections.
They may divide a parish into wards for purposes of elections or of parish meetings.
One-third of the whole council retire in each year, the annual elections being held in March, but there may be a simultaneous retirement of the whole council in every third year if the county council at the instance of the district council so order.
These are practically the persons whose names appear in the parliamentary register or in the local government register as being entitled to vote at elections for members of parliament or county or parish councillors as the case may be.
The election is by ballot on the same lines as those prescribed for a municipal election, and the Corrupt Practices Act, the provisions of which have been referred to when dealing with county councils, applies to the elections of district councils.
They are very similar to those which are in force with reference to the elections of district councils, which have already been noticed.
The "Union" exercised an essential influence on the elections of 1852, and was, in fact, the beginning of the national Liberal party, which found its natural leader in Hall.
Before this act and the elections of August 1906 Alaska was a governmental district of the United States without a delegate in Congress.
State elections were annual until 1897 when they were made biennial; they are held on the second Monday in September in even numbered years, Maine being one of the few states in the Union in which they are not held in November.
Every citizen of the United States, male or female, twenty-one years old or over, who has lived one year within the state, four months within the county and sixty days within the precinct has the right of suffrage, except that idiots, insane, and those convicted of treason or crime against the elective franchise are disfranchised; but in elections levying a special tax, creating indebtedness or increasing the rate of state taxation, only those who have paid a property tax during the preceding year may vote.
Bryan, the Democratic candidate for the presidency, has voted for the Republican nominees in presidential elections.
The legate exercises growing influence on patriarchal and other elections, and on Church government and discipline.
The elections, though often controlled by the Turkish Divan, were still constitutionally in the hands of the boiars, who were split up into various factions, each with its own pretender to the throne.
The elections took place early in May 1871, and the government, to which all the most respectable elements in the country had rallied, obtained a large majority.
Elections for a new chamber took place in February 1888, and the whole of the leaders of the opposition were elected, including Dimitrie Bratianu, the premier's brother, and Lascar Catargiu.
As regards home politics, the overwhelming majority of the Liberal party at the elections of 1895, instead of being a source of strength, proved the very reverse.
Her border counties furnished the bogus citizens who invaded Kansas to carry the first territorial elections, and soon guerrilla forays back and forth gave over the border to a carnival of crime and plunder.
This instability is shown in congressional and local rather than in general state elections.
From1820-1844the elections were in August and inaugurations in November; Governor King served from the 27th of December 1848 till January 1853; thereafter the inauguration was in January, and beginning with 1864 the election was in November.
As the constituent assembly which amended the constitution, according to the president's wishes in 1905, was to continue in office until 1908 and to provide laws for the regulation of elections and other public affairs, it appeared that the president would permit no expression of popular dissent to interfere with his purpose to establish a dictatorial regime in Colombia similar to the one in Mexico.
It became law, and the elections for the additional seats were held in July, after the close of the session.
- The elections for the legislative council were held in January 1908 and resulted in a Bond victory.
The elections for the legislative assembly followed in April and, partly in consequence of the reinfranchisement of the ex-rebels, resulted in a decisive majority for the Merriman ministry.
Among the measures adopted were: a'law (of doubtful constitutionality) requiring legislators to vote for the people's choice for a United States senator - this was adopted by a vote of 69,668 to 21,162; a corrupt practices act, regulating the expenditure of moneys in political campaigns and limiting a candidate's expenses to onefourth of one year's salary; an amendment permitting the establishment of state institutions elsewhere than at the capital; an amendment changing the time of state elections from June to November; an amendment permitting the legislature to pass a law providing for proportional representation, i.e.
All municipal officers are elected in May in order to separate municipal from state and national elections.
By 1471 a general asembly of burgesses had acquired power to take part in elections.
At the same time under the Public Meetings Bill, introduced in 1907 and now passed, no language save German was to be used at any public meetings other than international congresses, &c. - save during actual parliamentary elections (Ann.
Universal manhood suffrage is the rule, but women may vote in school and municipal elections, Kansas being the first state to grant women municipal suffrage as well as the right to hold municipal offices (1887).
General elections to state, county and township offices are biennial, in even-numbered years, and take place on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed applicable to all nominations except for presidential electors, school district officers and officers in cities of less than 5000 inhabitants; like public elections the primaries are made a public charge; nomination is by petition signed by a certain percentage (for state office, at least 1%; for district office, at least 2%; for sub-district or county office, at least 3%) of the party vote; the direct nominating system applies to the candidates for the United States Senate, the nominee chosen by the direct primaries of each party being the nominee of the party.
Municipal elections are far removed from those of the state, being held in odd-numbered years in April.
After the Civil War the Republicans held uninterrupted supremacy in national elections, and almost as complete control in the state government, until 1892.
R011fl Several of its members were in favor of assimilating the borough franchise to that in force in municipal elections, and practically conferring a vote on every householder who had three years residence in the constituency.
But the Lords ventured to reject a measure for the introduction of the ballot at elections, and refused to proceed with a bill for the abolition of purchase in the army.
This radical reconstruction of the electorate necessarily made the result of the elections doubtful.
For the first time in the queens reign two general elections occurred within twelve months.
At the general elections of 1885 and 1886 the existence of a strong, united Irish party had exercised a dominating influence.
Elections to the Senate and Assembly are biennial.
Until 1881 elections to the legislature were held annually, and the term of assemblymen was one year and of senators two years.
He advocated as the true reform, against the scheme of entrusting elections to the members of the senate, the use of college funds and the subvention of scientific and professorial work.
At the ensuing diet of 1769, when the Hats returned to power, Fersen was again elected marshal of the diet; but he made no attempt to redeem his pledges to the crown prince Gustavus, as to a very necessary reform of the constitution, which he had made before the elections, and thus involuntarily contributed to the subsequent establishment of absolutism.
It was the great question at the polls; and the first elections by the new constituencies went violently against the authors of their being.
were confirmed by every circumstance of the 1874 elections.
The elections went heavily against him.
Significant as was the common grief when he died, no such consequence could be inferred from it, and certainly not from the elections of r880.
At length in 1 202 the pope annulled all previous elections, and ordered a new one.
The elections to the states-general of 1789 were held in unfavourable circumstances.
Ever since the elections virtual freedom of the press and freedom of speech had prevailed in Paris.
At the elections of 1791 the party which desired to carry the Revolution further had a success out of all keeping with its numbers.
As the elections to the Convention were close at hand, the Commune resolved to strike the public with terror by the slaughter of its prisoners.
The elections to the Convention were by almost universal suffrage, but indifference or intimidation reduced the voters to a The small number.
The feeling of the nation was clearly shown in the elections.
They habitually disregarded the terms of the constitution, and, when the elections went against them, appealed to the sword.