How to use Elbe in a sentence
The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
Neuwerk and Scharhorn, situated off the mouth of the Elbe, are islands belonging to the state of Hamburg.
For practical studies see official reports on the Mississippi, Rhine, Seine, Elbe and other great rivers.
Augustus had planned the conquest of Germany up to the Elbe.
The harbour is good and secure, and is much frequented by vessels delayed in the Elbe by unfavourbale weather.Advertisement
It is also most probable that another similar stream - the N., coming from the Elbe, through the basin of the Vistula - ought to be distinguished.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
The south-western Baltic was a Danish Mediterranean, and Danish territory extended from the Elbe to lake Peipus.
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
The united river flows north to Grimma and thence past Wurzen, Eilenburg and Bitterfeld to Dessau, where it joins the Elbe.Advertisement
The magnificent bridge here spanning the Elbe, one mile in length, was built in 1851 at a cost of £237,500.
He controlled all the lands from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, and had Spain and Italy at his beck and call.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
The crusaders of northern Germany never went to the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe - a fact which at once attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the Second Crusade.
It is pleasantly situated at the foot of a lofty range of hills, which here dip down to the river, at the junction of the main lines of railway from Bremen and Hanover to Hamburg, which are carried to the latter city over two grand bridges crossing the southern and the northern arms of the Elbe.Advertisement
From both ridges spurs of greater or less length are sent off at various angles, whence a magnificent view is obtained from Breslau to Prague; the lowlands of Silesia, watered by the Oder, and those of Bohemia, intersected by the Elbe and the Moldau, appearing to lie mapped in relief.
The Bohemian ridge is cleft about the middle by a deep gorge through which pour the headwaters of the river Elbe, which finds its source in the Siebengriinde.
The bridge over the Elbe was destroyed by the French in 1813, and again by the Saxons in June 1866 in order to impede the march of the Prussians on Dresden.
Colin on the right bank of the Elbe was incorporated with Meissen in 1901.
The troops had got much mixed up, but as the French did not immediately press the pursuit home, order was soon re-established and a combined retreat was begun towards the mouth of the Elbe and Lubeck.Advertisement
Thus it happened that the viceroy of Italy felt himself compelled to depart from the positive injunctions of the emperor to hold on at all costs to his advanced position at Posen, where about 14,000 men had gradually rallied around him, and to withdraw step by step to Magdeburg, where he met reinforcements and commanded the whole course of the lower Elbe.
In this manner by the end of March upwards of 200,000 men were moving towards the Elbe,' and in the first fortnight of April they were duly concentrated in the angle formed by the Elbe and Saale, threatening on the one hand Berlin, on the other Dresden and the east.
The allies, aware of the gradual strengthening of their enemy's forces but themselves as yet unable to put more than 200,000 in the field, had left a small corps of observation opposite Magdeburg and along the Elbe to give timely notice of an advance towards Berlin; and with the bulk of their forces had taken up a position about Dresden, whence they had determined to march down the course of the Elbe and roll up the French from right to left.
As soon as possible the army pressed on in pursuit, Ney being sent across the Elbe to turn the position of the allies at Dresden.
This threat forced the latter to evacuate the town and retire over the Elbe, after blowing up the stone bridge across the river.Advertisement
Finally he decided to group his corps round Gorlitz and Bautzen whence they could either meet the enemy advancing from Breslau or fall on his flank over the mountains if they attempted to force their way into Saxony by the valley of the Elbe.
Corps up the Elbe to Pirna and KOnigstein to cover the fortifications of Dresden itself.
Seeing clearly that his want of an efficient cavalry precluded all ideas of a resolute offensive in his old style, he determined to limit himself to a defence of the line of the Elbe, making only dashes of a few days' duration at any target the enemy might present.
Reinforcements had been coming up without ceasing and at the beginning of August he calculated that he would have 30o,000 men available about Bautzen and 10o,000 along the Elbe from Hamburg via Magdeburg to Torgau.
At length becoming impatient he advanced a portion of his army towards Blucher, who fell back to draw him into a trap. Then the news reached him that Schwarzenberg was pressing down the valley of the Elbe, and, leaving Macdonald to observe Blucher, he hurried back to Bautzen to dispose his troops to cross the Bohemian mountains in the general direction of KOnigstein, a blow which must have had decisive results.
It is situated on the Aupa, a tributary of the Elbe, at the foot of the Riesengebirge, and possesses a beautiful church built in 1283 and restored in 1768.
As they are subject to the ebb and flow of the Elbe, at certain times they run almost dry.
Near the west extremity, abutting upon the Elbe, the moat was filled in in 1894-1897, and some good streets were built along the site, while the Kersten Miles-Briicke, adorned with statues of four Hamburg heroes, was thrown across the Helgolander Allee.
The southern arm of the Elbe, on the south side of the island of Wilhelmsburg, is crossed by another railway bridge of four arches and 2050 ft.
An excellent service of electric trams interconnect the towns of Hamburg, Altona and the adjacent suburbs, and steamboats provide communication on the Elbe with the riparian towns and villages; and so with Blankenese and Harburg, with Stade, Gliickstadt and Cuxhaven.
During the last 25 years of the 19th century the channel of the Elbe was greatly improved and deepened, and during the last two years of the 19th century some £360,000 was spent by Hamburg alone in regulating and correcting this lower course of the river.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).
Archbishop Unwan of Hamburg-Bremen (1013-1029) substituted a chapter of canons for the monastery, and in 1037 Archbishop Bezelin (or Alebrand) built a stone cathedral and a palace on the Elbe.
The first steamboat was seen on the Elbe on the 17th of June 1816; in 1826 a regular steam communication was opened with London; and in 1856 the first direct steamship line linked the port with the United States.
The Schwarzenberg canal between the Great MÃ¼hl and the Moldau establishes a direct navigable route between the Danube and the Elbe.
The mark of Meissen was originally a district centring round the castle of Meissen or Misnia on the Middle Elbe, which was built about 920 by the German king Henry I., the Fowler, as a defence against the Sla y s.
There is a harbour on the Elbe here, and a brisk trade is carried on in coal, grain and timber.
The Geestlande comprise the suburban districts encircling the city on the north and west; the Marschlande includes various islands in the Elbe and the fertile tract of land lying between the northern and southern arms of the Elbe, and with its pastures and market gardens supplying Hamburg with large quantities of country produce.
Two rivers, the Alster and the Bille, flow through the city of Hamburg into the Elbe, the mouth of which, at Cuxhaven, is 75 m.
The jurisdiction of the Free Port was on the 1st of January 1882 restricted to the city and port by the extension of the Zollverein to the lower Elbe, and in 1888 the whole of the state of Hamburg, with the exception of the so-called "Free Harbour" (which comprises the port proper and some large warehouses, set apart for goods in bond), was taken into the Zollverein.
Some miles lower down, at Leitmeritz (433 ft.), the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Eger, a stream which drains the southern slopes of the Erzgebirge.
At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.
Eight miles above Hamburg the stream divides into the Norder (or Hamburg) Elbe and the Slider (or Harburg) Elbe, which are linked together by several cross-channels, and embrace in their arms the large island of Wilhelmsburg and some smaller ones.
Since 1842, but more especially since 1871, improvements have been made in the navigability of the Elbe by all the states which border upon its banks.
In 1869 the maximum burden of the vessels which were able to ply on the upper Elbe was 250 tons; but in 1899 it was increased to Boo tons.
The large towns through which the river flows have vied with one another in building harbours, providing shipping accommodation, and furnishing other facilities for the efficient navigation of the Elbe.
In spite, however, of all that has been done, the Elbe remains subject to serious inundations at periodic intervals.
The growth of traffic up and down the Elbe has of late years become very considerable.
The fleet of steamers and barges navigating the Elbe is in point of fact greater than on any other German river.
In addition to goods thus conveyed, enormous quantities of timber are floated down the Elbe; the Ix.
A vast amount of traffic is directed to Berlin, by means of the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the lower and middle Elbe.
Since 1896 great improvements have been made in the Moldau and the Bohemian Elbe, with the view of facilitating communication between Prague and the middle of Bohemia generally on the one hand, and the middle and lower reaches of the Elbe on the other.
In the year named a special commission was appointed for the regulation of the Moldau and Elbe between Prague and Aussig, at a cost estimated at about I, 000,000, of which sum two-thirds were to be borne by the Austrian empire and one-third by the kingdom of Bohemia.
In 1900 Lubeck was put into direct communication with the Elbe at Lauenburg by the opening of the Elbe-Trave Canal, 42 m.
A gigantic project has also been put forward for providing water communication between the Rhine and the Elbe, and so with the Oder, through the heart of Germany.
Another canal has been projected for connecting Kiel with the Elbe by means of a canal trained through the Plan Lakes.
Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).
At both Hamburg and Harburg, again, there are handsome railway bridges, the one (1868-1873 and 1894) crossing the northern Elbe, and the other (1900) the southern Elbe; and the former arm is also crossed by a fine triple-arched bridge (1888) for vehicular traffic.
Finally, in 1870, 1,000,000 thalers were paid to Mecklenburg and 85,000 thalers to Anhal, which thereupon abandoned all claims to levy tolls upon the Elbe shipping, and thus navigation on the river became at last entirely free.
At Pirna (and Lilien stein) in 1756 he caught the entire Saxon army in his fowler's net, after driving back at Lobositz the Austrian forces which were hastening to their asistance; but only nine months later he lost his reputation for " invincibility " by his crushing defeat at Kolin, where the great highway from Vienna to Dresden crosses the Elbe.
As the army of the Elbe was numerically inferior to Clam-Gallas and the Saxons, the reserve corps was at once despatched to reinforce it, and the Guard was sent to the crown prince.
To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.
But Moltke, wishing to preserve full freedom for manoeuvre for each army, determined to preserve the interval between them, and began his dispositions to manoeuvre the Austrians out of the position he had selected as the best for them to take up, on the left or farther bank of the Elbe.
Moltke, knowing well the danger for a great army of being forced into a battle with an unfordable river behind it, and with his naturally strong bent towards the defensive in tactics, concluded that Benedek would elect to hold the left bank of the Elbe, between the fortified towns of Josephstadt and Kiiniggra,tz, with his right thrown back and covered by the lower courses of the Aupa and the Mettau.
According to these orders, the Elbe army was directed to Chlumetz on the way to Pardubitz, the I.
The remainder of the Austrian main body, the whole of which was in fact still on the right bank of the Elbe, was hidden from view behind high ground farther to the eastward.
Not even deigning to notice the retreating columns, apparently too without escort, the batteries pressed forward till they reached the summit of the ridge trending eastward from Chlum towards the Elbe, whence the whole interior of the Austrian position was disclosed to them, and then they opened fire upon the Austrian reserves which lay below them in solid masses of army corps.
Occurring about 2.30, and almost simultaneously with the withdrawal of the Austrian guns on their left already alluded to, this may be said to have decided the battle, for although the Saxons still stood firm against the attacks of the Elbe army, and the reserves, both cavalry and infantry, attempted a series of counterstrokes, the advantage of position and moral was all on the side of the Prussians.
The Elbe army had crossed the front of the I.
Moreover the little fortresses of Josephstadt and Koniggratz both refused to capitulate, and the whole Prussian armies were thus compelled to move down the Elbe to Pardubitz before they could receive any definite new direction.
The Rhine has been one of the chief waterways of Europe from the earliest times; and, as its channel is not exposed to the danger of silting up like those of the Elbe and the Oder, it has always been comparatively easy to keep it open.
It is situated on the left bank of the Elbe opposite Tetschen, and is an important railway junction, containing also an Austrian and a Saxon custom-house.
While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of Slavic territory east of the Elbe.
In 1252 the first treaty privileges for German trade in Flanders show two men of Lubeck and Hamburg heading the "Merchants of the Roman Empire," and in the later organization of the counter at Bruges four or five of the six aldermen were chosen from towns east of the Elbe, with Lubeck steadily predominant.
At the same time they had a kingdom in central Europe, apparently in or round the basin of the Elbe.
Along the centre lies the watershed between the basins of the Main and the Saale, belonging to the systems of the Rhine and Elbe respectively.
During these years the tribes living between the Elbe and the Oder were made tributary, bishoprics were founded in this district, and in 950 the king himself marched against the Bohemians and reduced them to dependence.
The dues were fostered by the growing trade of Hamburg, and in 1861, when they were redeemed (for 427,600) by the nations trading in the Elbe, the exchequer of Hanover was in the yearly receipt of about L45,000 from this source.
It has manufactures of cloth, leather, chemicals and optical instruments; large quantities of beetroot sugar are produced in the neighbourhood; and there is a considerable transit trade on the Elbe.
Turning his attention to the east, Henry reduced various Slavonic tribes to subjection, took Brennibor, the modern Brandenburg, from the Hevelli, and secured both banks of the Elbe for Saxony.
This contest, in which the king himself took a very active part, brought the Franks into collision with the Wiltzi, a tribe dwelling east of the Elbe, who in 789 was reduced to dependence.
Thus the emperor's dominions now stretched from the Eider to the Ebro, and from the Atlantic to the Elbe, the Saale and the Raab, and they also included the greater part of Italy; while even beyond these bounds he exercised an acknowledged but shadowy authority.
Ruppin's analysis of Baltic water, which has an alkalinity of 16 to 18 instead of the 5 or 6 which would be the amount proportional to the salinity, while the water of the Vistula and the Elbe with a salinity of o 1 per mille has an alkalinity of 28 or more.
His first care was to establish his authority over some districts east of the Elbe; and quickly making himself independent of the king, he stood forth as the representative of the Saxon race.
The emperor seconded the efforts of his vassals, Albert the Bear, margrave of the Saxon north mark, and Conrad I., margrave of Meissen and Lusatia, to extend the authority of the Germans in the districts east of the Elbe, and assisted Norbert, archbishop of Magdeburg, and Albert I., archbishop of Bremen, to spread Christianity.
Formerly common in England, the European beaver has not only been exterminated there, but likewise in most of the countries of the continent, although a few remain on the Elbe, the Rhone and in parts of Scandinavia.
Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinmas.
A system of waterways (the Geeste and Hadelner canals, meeting one another at Bederkesa) connects the estuary of the Weser with that of the Elbe; a canal between the Hunte and the Leda gives connexion with the Ems. On the upper Weser (above Bremen) the navigation, which is interrupted by occasional rapids, is assisted by locks and weirs.
North-west from this group, and along both banks of the Elbe, which divides it from the Erzgebirge, XXIV.
With the trifling exception of the south-east of Bautzen, which sends its waters by the Neisse to the Oder, Saxony lies wholly in the basin of the Elbe, which has a navigable course of 72 m.
Comparatively few of the numerous smaller streams of Saxony flow directly to the Elbe, and the larger tributaries only join it beyond the Saxon borders.
It is mildest in the valleys of the Elbe, Mulde and Pleisse and severest in the Erzgebirge, where the district near Johanngeorgenstadt is known as Saxon Siberia.
There are no canals in the kingdom, and the only navigable river is the Elbe.
Wine is said to have been grown here in the iith century; the Saxon vineyards, chiefly on the banks of the Elbe near Meissen and Dresden, have of late years, owing to the ravages of the phylloxera, become almost extinct.
The Elbe produces excellent pike, salmon and eels, its tributaries trout in considerable quantities, while the marshy ponds lying on the left bank furnish a good supply of carp, a fish held in great esteem by the inhabitants.
Excellent sandstone for building is found on the hills of the Elbe.
The earlier Saxony was the district lying between the Elbe and the Saale on the east, the Eider on the north and the Rhine on the west, with a fluctuating boundary on the south.
This act made the Saxons more furious than ever, but in 783 Charles inflicted two defeats upon them at Detmold and on the river Hase, and ravaged their territory from the Weser to the Elbe.
But in 792 some Frankish troops were killed at the mouth of the Elbe, and a similar disaster in the following year was the signal for a renewal of the ravages with great violence, when churches were destroyed, priests killed, or driven away, and many of the people returned to heathenism.
At the same time in 794, as a fresh experiment in policy, every third man was transported; while the king was assisted in his work of conquest by the Abotrites who inhabited a district east of the Elbe.
Some of these bishoprics were under the authority of the archiepiscopal see of Cologne, others under that of Mainz, and this arrangement was unaltered when in 834 Hamburg was raised to an archbishopric. In 847 the bishopric of Bremen was united with Hamburg, but the authority of this archbishopric extended mainly over the districts north and east of the Elbe.
The Sla y s were driven back, the domestic policy of Henry the Fowler was continued, the Saxon court became a centre of learning visited by Italian scholars, and in 968 an archbishopric was founded at Magdeburg for the lands east of the Elbe.
During the century which followed the death of Hermann Billung, there had been constant warfare with the Slays, but although the emperors had often taken the field, the Saxons had been driven back to the Elbe, which was at this time their eastern boundary.
The new and more honourable title of elector of Saxony now superseded his other titles, and the name Saxony gradually spread over his other possessions, which included Meissen and Thuringia as well as Saxe-Wittenberg, and thus the earlier history of the electorate and kingdom of Saxony is the early history of the mark of Meissen, the name of which now lingers only in a solitary town on the Elbe.
He engaged in a successful expedition against the Abotrites, or Obotrites, in 1147, and won a considerable tract of land beyond the Elbe, in which were re-established the bishoprics of Mecklenburg,' Oldenburg 2 and Ratzeburg.
He planted Flemish and Dutch settlers in the land between the Elbe and the Oder, fostered the growth and trade of Lubeck, and in other ways encouraged trade and agriculture.
He was at once attracted into the political movement for the defence of the rights of the Elbe duchies, of which Kiel was the centre.
From Saalberg the Saale enters the dreary limestone formation of Thuringia, sweeps beneath the barren, conical hills lying opposite to the university town of Jena, passes the pleasant watering-place of Kosen, washes numerous vine-clad hills and, after receiving at Naumburg the deep and navigable Unstrut, flows past Weissenfels, Merseburg, Halle, Bernburg and Kalbe, and joins the Elbe just above Barby, after traversing a distance of 226 m.
They were governed by kings, whose realm in the early 6th century touched both the Danube and the lower Elbe.
German priests and bishops carried the Christian faith to the Czechs and the Moravians, laboured among the Hungarians and the Poles, and won the wide district between the Elbe and the Oder at once for Christianity and for the German nation.
Some 60% of the entire area of the republic is included in the basin of the Danube, the rest being traversed by the Labe (Elbe) and the Vltava (Moldau), the former passing in particular through regions remarkable for their rich fertility.
As a wholly inland nation, Czechoslovakia has to rely in the matter of transport upon its railways and its waterways, notably the Elbe, which connects the republic with Hamburg and the North Sea, and the Danube, which unites it with the east of Europe and the Balkans.
Before the war the Czechoslovak traffic on the Elbe totalled some 4 million tons annually.
It was also proposed to link up the Elbe and the Danube by a canal which would enable direct transport to be effected from North and Baltic Seas to the Black Sea.
He was primarily a warrior, whose reign, an almost uninterrupted warfare, resulted in the formation of a vast kingdom extending from the Baltic to the Carpathians, and from the Elbe to the Bug.
With this object, during Charles XII.'s stay at Altranstadt (1706-1707), he tried to divert the king's attention to the Holstein question, and six years later, when the Swedish commander, Magnus Stenbock, crossed the Elbe, Gertz rendered him as much assistance as was compatible with not openly breaking with Denmark, even going so far as to surrender the fortress of Tenning to the Swedes.
North Albingia, as the district between the Eider and the Elbe was then called, now became Danish territory.
It included the present governmental department of Minden, but by far the larger part of the kingdom lay outside and chiefly to the east of the modern province, and comprised the Hanoverian department of Hildesheim and in part that of Arensberg, Brunswick, the northern part of the province of Saxony as far as the Elbe, Halle, and most of Hesse-Cassel.
It lies on the right bank of the Elbe, which becomes here navigable for steamers and is spanned by an iron bridge 1700 ft.
On the opposite bank of the river, where the Eger discharges itself into the Elbe, lies Theresienstadt (pop. 7046), an important garrison town.
When the insurrection broke out in the Elbe duchies (1848) he left the Danish service, and offered his services to the provisional government of Kiel, an offer that was not accepted.
On the 23rd of March 1873 the province was increased by the addition of the Jade territory (purchased by Prussia from Oldenburg), lying south-west of the Elbe and containing the great naval station and arsenal of Wilhelmshaven.
The most fertile districts lie on the banks of the Elbe and near the North Sea, where, as in Holland, rich meadows are preserved from encroachment of the sea by broad dikes and deep ditches, kept in repair at great expense.
The main feature of the northern plain is the so-called Luneburger Heide, a vast expanse of moor and fen, mainly covered with low brushwood (though here and there are oases of fine beech and oak woods) and intersected by shallow valleys, and extending almost due north from the city of Hanover to the southern arm of the Elbe at Harburg.
The three chief rivers of the province are the Elbe in the north-east, where it mainly forms the boundary and receives the navigable tributaries Jeetze, Ilmenau, Seve, Este, Luhe, Schwinge and Medem; the Weser in the centre, with its important tributary the Aller (navigable from Celle downwards); and in the west the Ems, with its tributaries the Aa and the Leda.
The best agriculture is to be found in the districts of Hildesheim, Calenberg, GÃ¶ttingen and Grubenhagen, on the banks of the Weser and Elbe, and in East Friesland.
The terrace commands a view of the Elbe and the distant heights of Loschwitz and the Weisser Hirsch, but the prospect has of late years become somewhat marred, owing to the extension of the town up the river and to the two new up-stream bridges.
On the right bank of the Elbe in Neustadt stand the fine buildings of the ministries of war, of finance, justice, the interior and education.
A little to the south of Dresden, on the left bank of the Elbe, is the village Racknitz, in which is Moreau's monument, erected on the spot where he was mortally wounded in 1813.
The navigation on the Elbe has of recent years largely developed, and, in addition to trade by river with Bohemia and Magdeburg-Hamburg, there is a considerable pleasure-boat traffic during the summer months.
To the north are the vine-clad hills of the LOssnitz commanding views of the valley of the Elbe from Dresden to Meissen; behind them, on an island in a lake, is the castle of Moritzburg, the hunting box of the king of Saxony.
Dresden (Old Slav Drezga, forest, Drezgajan, forestdwellers), which is known to have existed in 1206, is of Slavonic origin, and was originally founded on the right bank of the Elbe, on the site of the present Neustadt, which is thus actually the old town.
It is situated on the Elbe, and its chief attraction lies in the interesting and valuable collections in its château, which has belonged to the princely family of Lobkowitz since the beginning of the 17th century.
Yet throughout the bronze age it is possible to trace a fairly well-defined group of antiquities covering the basin of the Elbe, Mecklenburg, Holstein, Jutland, southern Sweden and the islands of the Belt, and archaeologists have conjectured with much probability that these antiquities represent the early civilization of the Teutonic peoples.
By this time the extension of Teutonic dominion towards the south and west had brought about its natural sequel in the occupation of the old Teutonic lands in eastern Germany, including even the basin of the Elbe, by Slavonic peoples.
From this time onwards it was from the west mainly that Roman civilization made its way into Germany; but in earlier ages, as we have already noticed, there are more abundant traces of civilization in the basin of the Elbe than in the districts farther to the west.
The Vistula touches the province on the south-east, and receives a few small tributaries from it, while on the west the Spree and Black Elster belong to the system of the Elbe.
Thence it curves southwest, past Potsdam and Brandenburg, traversing another chain of lakes, and finally continues north-west until it joins the Elbe from the right some miles above Wittenberge after a total course of 221 m.
It is situated on the Elbe, and amongst its noteworthy buildings may be specially mentioned the beautiful early Gothic church of St Bartholomew, erected during the latter half of the 14th century.
Meanwhile Gustavus Adolphus had landed in Germany, and the elector had refused to allow him to cross the Elbe at Wittenberg, thus hindering his attempt to relieve Magdeburg.
In 1230 the conquest of Prussia was begun by the Order, although not under his immediate leadership. In 1225 he reconciled Valdemar II., king of Denmark, with Henry I., count of Schwerin, and thus won again the land on the right bank of the Elbe for the Empire, and the recognition of imperial superiority over Denmark.
The rivers are numerous though small; most of them are affluents of the Elbe, which traverses a small portion of Mecklenburg.
This group of mountains, occupying what may be regarded as ethnologically the centre of Germany, forms a hydrographical centre, whence the Naab flows southward to the Danube, the Main westward to the Rhine, the Eger eastward to the Elbe, and the Saale northward, also into the Elbe.
In the east a tableland of sandstone, called Saxon Switzerland, from the picturesque outlines into which it has been eroded, adjoins the Erzgebirge; one of its most notable features is the deep ravine by which the Elbe escapes from it.
Tile standstone range of the Elbe tinites in the east with the low Lusatian group, along the east of which runs the best road from northern Germany to Bohemia.
Excluding the Alps, the Schneekoppe (5266 ft.) is the highest peak in Germany; and the southern declivities of this range contain the sources of the Elbe.
North of the middle districts of the Elbe country the heights are called the Flaming hills.
Westward lies as the last link of this series the Luneburger Heide or Heath, between the Weser and Elbe, north of Hanover.
The plain contains, however, a few districts of the Utmost fertility, particularly the tracts on the central Elbe, and the marsh lands on the west coast of Holstein and the north coast of Hanover, Oldenburg and East Frisia, which, within the last two centuries, the inhabitants have reclaimed from the sea by means of immense dikes.
The navigable tributaries of the Elbe are the Saale (below Naumburg), the Havel, Spree, Elde, Sude and some others.
The climate of north-western Germany (west of the Elbe) shows a predominating oceanic character, the summers not being too hot (mean summer temperature 60 to 62), and snow in winter remaining but a short time on the ground.
The Oder and some of the tributaries of the Elbe abound in crayfish, and in the stagnant lakes of East Prussia leeches are bred.
The population is thickest in upper Silesia around Beuthen (coal-fields), around Ratibor, Neisse and Waldenburg (coal-fields), around Zittau (kingdom of Saxony), in the Elbe valley around Dresden, in the districts of Zwickau and Leipzig as far as the Saale, on the northern slopes of the Harz and around Bielefeld in Westphalia.
Berlin is noted for its flower nurseries, the Rhine valley, Wurttemberg and the Elbe valley below Dresden for fruit, and Frankfurt-on-main for cider.
In the valley of the Saale and Elbe (near Dresden), and in lower Silesia (between Guben and Grunberg), the number of vineyards is small, and the wines of inferior quality; but along the Rhine from Basel to Coblenz, in Alsace, Baden, the Palatinate and Hesse, and above all in the province of Nassau, the lower slopes of the hills are literally covered with vines.
The main centre is in East and West Prussia, then follow the marsh districts on the Elbe and Weser, some parts of Westphalia, Oldenburg, Lippe, Saxony and upper Silesia, lower Bavaria and klsace-Lorraine.
The greatest number of canals is found around Berlin; they serve to join the Spree to the Oder and Elbe, and include the Teltow canal opened in 1906.
Navigable and canalized rivers, to which belong the great water-systems of the Rhine, Elbe and Oder, have a total length of about 600o m.
The bronze civilization of the Aegean seems to have had direct influence along the basins of the Danube and Elbe, while the culture of the western parts of central Germany was transmitted through Italy and France.
No doubt the pre-eminence of the north, and especially of Denmark, at this period, was due to the amber trade, causing southern influence to penetrate up the basin of the Elbe to Jutland.
After Drusus death in 9 B.C., while on his return from an expedition which reached the Elbe, the German command was twice undertaken by Tiberius, who in A.D.
A Roman garrison was left in the conquered districts between the Rhine and the Elbe, but the reduction was not thoroughly completed.
The coastlands north of the mouth of the Rhine were occupied by the Canninefates, beyond them by the Frisii as far as the mouth of the Ems, thence onward to the mouth of the Elbe by the Chauci.
The basin of the Elbe was inhabited by Suebic tribes, the chief of which were the Marcomanni, who seem to have been settled on the Saale during the latter part of the 1st century n.c., but moved into Bohemia before the beginning of the Christian era, where they at once became a formidable power under their king Maroboduus.
The Quadi were settled somewhat farther east about the source of the Elbe.
To the east of the Franks between the Harz, the Elbe and the Saale lay the kingdom of the Thuringi, the origin of whom is not clear.
The Heruli also had a powerful kingdom, probably in the basin of the Elbe, and to the east of them were the Langobardi.
The Warni apparently now dwelt in the regions about the mouth of the Elbe, while the whole coast from the mouth of the Weser to the west Scheldt was in the hands of the Frisians.
By this time all the country east of the lower Elbe seems to have been Slavonic. In the north, perhaps in the province of Schleswig, we hear now for the first time of the Danes.
Their lands were given by the Frankish king Sigeberht to the north Suebi and other tribes who had come either from the Elbe basin or possibly from the Netherlands.
By the end of the 6th century the whole basin of the Elbe except the Saxon territory near the mouth had probably become Slavonic, To the east of the Saale were the Sorbs (Sorabi), and beyond them the Daleminci and Siusli.
To the east of the Saxons were the Polabs (Polabi) in the basin of the Elbe, and beyond them the Hevelli about the Havel.
In the northeast, dwelling between the Rhine and the Elbe, were the Saxons (q.v.), to the east and south of whom stretched the extensive kingdom of Thuringia (q.v.).
They were bounded on the east by the Elbe and the Bohemian mountains, and on the west beyond the Rhine they included the districts known afterwards as Alsace and Lorraine.
When he was ready he used his new troops, before turning them against their chief enemy, the Magyars, to punish refractory Slavonic tribes; and he brought under temporary subjection nearly all the Slays between the Elbe and the Oder.
Among the Slays between the Elbe and the Oder the kinj was represented by Margrave Gero, a warrior well fitted for th rough work he had to do, loyal to his sovereign, but capabl of any treachery towards his enemies, who conquered much 0 the country north of Bohemia between the Oder and the uppe and middle Elbe.
Margrave Billung, who looked after th Abotrites on the lower Elbe, was less fortunate, mainly becaus of the neighborhood of the Danes, who, after the death of King Henry, often attacked the hated Germans, but some progress was made in bringing this district under German influence.
Henry led his troops in person and obtained assistance from the Russians and the Hungarians; peace was concluded in 1018, the Elbe remaining the north-east boundary of Germany.
His authority was recognized by the Bohemians, and two expeditions taught the Slavonic tribes between the Elbe and the Oder to respect his power.
During this reign the work of conquering and Germanizing the Slavonic tribes east of the Elbe was seriously taken in hand under the lead of Albert the Bear and Henry the Lion, and the foundation of the margraviate of Brandenburg by Albert tended to make life and property more secure in the north-east of Germany.
Since the death of Otto the Great the Slavonic lands to the east of the Elbe had been very imperfectly held in subjection by the Germans.
He built towns and encouraged those which already existed; he founded and restored bishoprics in his new territories; and between the Elbe and the Oder he planted bodies of industrious colonists.
Austria, shorn of her fairest provinces, robbed of her oversea commerce, bankrupt and surrounded on all sides by the territories of the French emperor and his allies, seemed to exist only on sufferance, and had ceased to have any effective authority in Germanynow absolutely in the power of Napoleon, who proved this in 1810 by annexing the whole of the northern coast as far as the Elbe to his empire.
In Germany the relations between prussia Austria and Prussia were becoming unpleasantly and the strained in the question of the admission of the Habs Austro- burg monarchy to the Zollverein, in that of the elector Italian of Hesse and his parliament, in that of the relation War, of the Elbe duchies to the crown of Denmark.
Austria now sought in the question of the Elbe duchies an occasion for re-establishing her influence in Germany.
The most important works were the canal from Dortmun.d to the mouth of the Ems, and the Jahde canal from the Ems to the Elbe, which enables Westphalian coal to reach the sea, and so to compete better with English coal.
In addition to this, however, a large number of smaller works were undertaken, such as the canalization of the Main from Frankfort to the Rhine; and a new canal from the Elbe to LUbeck.
The great ship canal from Kiel to the Elbe, which was begun in 1887 and completed in 1896, has perhaps even more importance for naval than for commercial purposes.
The Prussian government also planned a great scheme by which the Westphalian coal-fields should be directly connected with the Rhine in one direction and the Elbe in the other by a canal which would join together Minden, Hanover and Magdeburg.
This would give uninterrupted water communication from one end of the country to the other, for the Elbe, Oder and Vistula are all navigable rivers connected by canals.
They successfully opposed the construction of the great canal from Westphalia to the Elbe, on the ground that it would facilitate the importation of foreign corn.
The acquisition of Heligoland enabled a new naval station to be established off the mouth of the Elbe; the completion of the canal from Kid to the mouth of the Elbe, by enabling ships of war to pass from the Baltic to the North Sea greatly increased the strategic strength of the fleet.
These public works were chiefly a canal from the Danube to the Oder; a ship canal from the Danube to the Moldau near Budweis, and the canalization of the Moldau from Budweis to Prague; a ship canal running from the projected Danube-Oder canal near Prerau to the Elbe near Pardubitz, and the canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; a navigable connexion between the Danube-Oder Canal and the Vistula and the Dniester.
It is situated in a mountainous district, at the confluence of the Biela and the Elbe, and, besides being an active river port, is an important junction of the northern Bohemian railways.
No further reference to these districts is found till towards the close of the migration period, about the beginning of the 6th century, when the Heruli, a nation dwelling in or near the basin of the Elbe, were overthrown by the Langobardi.
It lies in a broad and fertile plain, mainly on the left bank of the Elbe, 88 m.
In the Elbe, between the old town and the Friedrichstadt, lies an island whereon stands the citadel; this is united with both banks by bridges.
Along the Elbe, however, extend fine promenades, the Fiirstenwall and the Fiirsten Ufer.
A new winter harbour, made at a cost of £400,000, facilitates the river traffic along the Elbe.
As Korner's guest in Dresden and at Loschwitz on the Elbe, Schiller completed Don Carlos, wrote the dramatic tale, Der Verbrecher aus Infamie (later entitled Der Verbrecher aus verlorener Ehre, 1786) and the unfinished novel, Der Geisterseher (1789).
It has been conjectured that the "estuary" here mentioned refers to the Baltic, the existence of which as a separate sea was unknown to all ancient geographers; but the obscure manner in which it is indicated, as well as the inaccuracy of the statements concerning the place from whence the amber was actually derived, both point to the sort of hearsay accounts which Pytheas might readily have picked up on the shores of the German Ocean, without proceeding farther than the mouth of the Ems, Weser or Elbe, which last is supposed by Ukert to have been the limit of his voyage in this direction.
The family gathered in this three-storeyed building, with its back windows looking over the Elbe and its front door opening on a great garden, was latterly Luther and his wife, their three sons and two daughters, Magdelena von Bora, Catherine's aunt, two orphan nieces and a grandniece.
The peninsula (Chersonese or Cimbric peninsula of ancient geography) extends northward, from a line between Lubeck and the mouth of the Elbe, for 270 m.
In order to counterbalance their rivalry, the quays have been extended, a canal was opened in 1900 between the Trave and the Elbe, the river up to the wharves has been deepened to 25 ft.
A harbour was made in1899-1900on the Wakenitz canal for boats engaged in inland traffic, especially on the Elbe and ElbeTrave Canal.
Its most conspicuous building is the Schloss Hartenfels, on an island in the Elbe, which was built, or at least was finished, by the elector of Saxony, John Frederick the Magnanimous.
The chief industries of the town are the manufacture of gloves, carriages, agricultural machinery, beer and bricks; there is a trade in grain both on the Elbe and by rail.
It reached the height of its prosperity in the 15th century, and in the 17th century it was the depot for much of the merchandise exported from Saxony and Bavaria to the mouth of the Elbe; then after a period of decay the 19th century witnessed a revival of its prosperity.
Three years later his brilliant step-son Drusus died on his way back from a campaign in Germany, in which he had reached the Elbe.
The difficult task of bringing the German tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe under Roman rule, commenced by Drusus in 13 B.C., had on his death been continued by Tiberius (9-6 B.C.).
Augustus, however, was now seventytwo, the Dalmatian outbreak had severely tried his nerve, and now for the second time in three years the fates seemed to pronounce clearly against a further prosecution of his long-cherished scheme of a Roman Germany reaching to the Elbe.
Henry the Fowler beats back the Sla y s and places the outposts of Christendom along the Elbe and the Oder.
The Premonstratensians played a predominant part in the conversion of the Wends and the Christianizing and civilizing of the territories about the Elbe and the Oder.
Her newly won possessions were both small and scattered, though, on the other hand, she had secured the practical control of the Position of three principal rivers of north Germany - the Oder, the Elbe and the Weser - and reaped the full advantage of the tolls levied on those great commercial arteries.
The Paiz do Vinho, on the Douro, and the Tagus near Abrantes, with their terraced bush-vines grown up the steep banks of the rivers, are often compared with the Rhine and the Elbe.
From the earliest times these tribes inhabited the basin of the Elbe.
The Marcomanni occupied the basin of the Saale, but under their king, Maroboduus, they moved into Bohemia during the early part of Augustus's reign, while the Quadi, who are first mentioned in the time of Tiberius, lay farther east towards the sources of the Elbe.
With him it includes not only the tribes of the basin of the Elbe, but also all the tribes north and east of that river, including even the Swedes (Suiones).
The Alamanni (q.v.) seem to have been, in part at least, the descendants of the ancient Hermunduri, but it is likely that they had been joined by one or more other Suebic peoples, from the Danubian region, or more probably from the middle Elbe, the land of the ancient Semnones.
The situation of Berlin, midway between the Elbe and the Oder, with which rivers it is connected by a web of waterways, at the crossing of the main roads from Silesia and Poland to the North Sea ports and from Saxony, Bohemia and Thuringia to the Baltic, made it in medieval days a place of considerable commercial importance.
After this they are said to have wandered through regions which cannot now be identified, apparently between the Elbe and the Oder, under legendary kings, the first of whom was Agilmund, the son of Aio.
Situated in the geographical centre of the European continent, at about equal distance from all the European seas, enclosed by high mountains, and nevertheless easily accessible through Moravia from the Danubian plain and opened by the valley of the Elbe to the German plain, Bohemia was bound to play a leading part in the cultural development of Europe.
Its lowest-lying points are not in the middle but in the north, in the valley of the Elbe, and the country can be divided into two parts by a line passing through Hohenmauth - Prague - Komotau.
The mountain-ranges of the interior of Bohemia are the Brdywald (2798 ft.) in the middle; the Tepler Gebirge (2657 ft.), the Karsbader Gebirge (3057 ft.) and the Kaiserwald (3238 ft.), in the north-west part; while the northern corner is occupied by the Mittelgebirge (2739 ft.), a volcanic massif, stretching on both sides of the Elbe.
Bohemia belongs to the watershed of the Elbe, which rises within the territory and receives on the right the Iser and the Polzen, and on the left the Adler; the Eger with its affluent the Tepl; the Biela and the Moldau.
But the principal river of Bohemia, from every point of view, is the Moldau (Czech Vltava), not the Elbe.
A glance at the hydrographic structure of Bohemia, which is of such a striking regularity, shows us that the Moldau is the main stem, while the Elbe and the other rivers are only lateral branches; moreover, the Elbe below Melnik, the point of its confluence with the Moldau, follows the general direction of the Moldau.
The textile industry stands in the front rank and is mostly concentrated in the north-east corner of Bohemia, round Reichenberg, and in the valley of the Lower Elbe.
The centre of the railway system, which had in 1898 a length of some 3500 m., or 30% of the total length of the Austrian railways, is Prague; and through the Elbe Bohemia has easy access to the sea for its export trade.
In the Elbe the twaite shad spawns below Hamburg, the allis shad above Dresden.
The Elbe forms the southern boundary of Holstein for 65 m., but the only river of importance within the province is the Eider, which rises in Holstein, and after a course of 120 m.
A monument erected on the field proclaimed that the army of Tiberius had conquered every tribe between the Rhine and the Elbe.
This engineering work, constructed in 1773-1774, by command of Frederick II., connects the Brahe with the Netze, and thus establishes communication between the Vistula, the Oder and the Elbe.
On the death of Otto, Boleslaus invaded Germany, penetrated to the Elbe, occupying Stralsund and Meissen on his way, and extended his dominions to the Elster and the Saale.
At his death in 1025 he left Poland one of the mightiest states of Europe, extending from the Bug to the Elbe, and from the Baltic to the Danube, and possessing besides the overlordship of Russia.
The only river of this country which flows into the North Sea is the Elbe.
The Elbe has a course within the Austrian dominions of 185 m., for about 65 of which it is navigable.
Dagoberts victories over Samo, king of the Slays along the Elbe, and his subjugation of the Bretons and the Basques, maintained the prestige of the Frankish empire; while the luxury of his court, his taste for the fine arts (ministered to by his treasurer Eloi i), his numerous achievements in architectureespecially the abbey of St Denis, burial-place of the kings of Francethe brilliance and the power of the churchmen who surrounded him and his revision of the Salic law, ensured for his reign, in spite of the failure of his plans for unity, a fame celebrated in folksong and ballad.
Moreover, the countries formerly subdued by the Franks availed themselves of this opportunity to loosen the yoke; Thuringia was lost by Sigebert in 641, and the revolt of Alamannia in 643 set back the frontier of the kingdom from the Elbe to Austrasia.
Aquitaine bordered upon Mussulman Spain; the Avars of Hungary threatened Bavaria with their tireless horsemen; beyond the Elbe and the Saul the Slays were perpetually at war with the Saxons, and to the north of the Eider were the Danes.
All nations from the Oder to the Elbe and from the Danube to the Atlantic were subject or tributary, and Charlemagnes power even crossed these frontiers.
He and his brother took an active part in local affairs, and in 1846 he was appointed Deichhauptmann, an office in which he was responsible for the care of the dykes by which the country, in the neighbourhood of the Elbe, was preserved from inundation.
On the other hand, in order to secure the complete control of North Germany, which was his immediate object, he required that the whole of Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Nassau and the city of Frankfort, as well as the Elbe duchies, should be absorbed in Prussia.
When Gero died in 965, his mark was divided into two parts, the northern portion, lying along both banks of the middle Elbe, being called the north or old mark, and forming the nucleus of the later margraviate of Brandenburg.
After Otto the Great died, the Sla y s regained much of their territory, Brandenburg fell again into their hands, and a succession of feeble margraves ruled only the district west of the Elbe, together with a small district east of that river.
Brandenburg appears about this time to have fallen into three divisions - the old mark lying west of the Elbe, the middle mark between the Elbe and the Oder, and the new mark, as the newly conquered lands beyond the Oder began to be called.
He diminished the burden of taxation, suppressed the violence of the nobles, improved navigation on the Elbe and Oder, and encouraged commerce by alliances with the Hanse towns, and in other ways.
From the Harz the country gently shelves down to the Saale; and between this river and the Elbe there lies a fine tract of fertile country.
The portion of the duchy lying east of the Elbe is mostly a fiat sandy plain, with extensive pine forests, though interspersed, at intervals, by bog-land and rich pastures.
The Elbe is the chief river, and intersecting the eastern portion of the duchy, from east to west, receives at Rosslau the waters of the Mulde.
The rivers yield abundant fish, salmon (in the Elbe), sturgeon and lampreys.
Gustavus, still too weak to meet the foe, entrenched himself at Werben, at the confluence of the Havel and Elbe.
It was obviously Gustavus's plan to drive Wallenstein away from the Leipzig road, north of which he had posted himself, and thus, in case of success, to isolate, and subsequently, with the aid of the Saxons in the Elbe fortresses, annihilate him.
About nine-tenths of Prussian Saxony belongs to the basin of the Elbe, the chief feeders of which within the province are the Saale, with its tributary the Unstrut, and the Mulde, but a small district on the west drains into the Weser.
Trade is facilitated by the great waterway of the Elbe as well as by a complete system of railways.
The Elbe is a flowing river, so we sped along at a fair lick.
It lies on the right bank of the Elbe, is bounded by the territories of Hamburg, Lubeck, Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the province of Hanover, and comprises an area of 453 sq.
Eugene, with Lauriston's, Macdonald's and Regnier's corps, on the lower Saale, Ney in front of Weimar, holding the defile of Kdsen; the Guard at Erfurt, Marmont at Gotha, Bertrand at Saalfeld, and Oudinot at Coburg, and during the next few days the whole were set in motion towards Merseburg and Leipzig, in the now stereotyped Napoleonic order, a strong advanced guard of all arms leading, the remainder - about twothirds of the whole - following as " masse de manoeuvre," this time, owing to the cover afforded by the Elbe on the left, to the right rear of the advanced guard.
The Schwarzenberg canal between the Great MÃƒ¼hl and the Moldau establishes a direct navigable route between the Danube and the Elbe.
During this period the mark of Meissen lay on both banks of the Elbe, and stretched from Bohemia to the duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, embracing an area of about 3000 sq.
After these had been de facto, though not de jure, in abeyance during the period of the Napoleonic wars, a commission of the various Elbe states met and drew up a scheme for their regulation, and the scheme, embodied in the Elbe Navigation Acts, came into force in 1822.
The Elbe cannot rival the Rhine in the picturesqueness of the scenery it travels through, nor in the glamour which its romantic"end legendary associations exercise over the imagination.
The various treaties of Prague, Berlin and Vienna which followed the armistice secured the annexation by Prussia of Hanover, the Elbe duchies, the electorate of Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt, the dissolution of the existing confederation and the creation of a new North German Confederation under the hegemony of Prussia, and the payment of war indemnities to Prussia (the Austrian share being 6,000,000).
The southern part of the country was now fairly tranquil, and the later campaigns were directed mainly against the Nordalbingians, the branch of the Saxons living north of the Elbe, who suffered a severe reverse near Bornhoved in 798.
The spirit of courage and endurance which had enabled the Czechoslovaks to achieve their independence was now to inspire a further work of no mean significance - the consolidation of a free, democratic and enlightened republic in the heart of Europe, the most westerly outpost of the great Slavonic world stretching from the banks of the Elbe and the Danube to the Pacific Ocean, and at the same time a nation bound by ties of gratitude and common interest to the Anglo-Saxon and Latin races.
The Slavonic peoples, whose territories then extended to the Elbe, and embraced the whole southern shore of the Baltic, were beginning to recoil before the vigorous impetus of the Germans in the West, who regarded their pagan neighbours in much the same way as the Spanish Conquistadores regarded the Aztecs and the Incas.
The best agriculture is to be found in the districts of Hildesheim, Calenberg, GÃƒ¶ttingen and Grubenhagen, on the banks of the Weser and Elbe, and in East Friesland.
It is situated on the Elbe, and its chief attraction lies in the interesting and valuable collections in its chÃ¢teau, which has belonged to the princely family of Lobkowitz since the beginning of the 17th century.
By means of the Stecknitz canal, the Elbe, the principal river, is connected with the Trave.