The oldest rocks of Elba consist of schist and serpentine which in the eastern part of the island are overlaid by beds containing Silurian and Devonian fossils.
The most remarkable feature in the geology of Elba is the extent of the granitic and ophiolitic eruptions of the Tertiary period.
The celebrated iron ore of Elba is of Tertiary age and occurs indifferently in all the older rocks.
The other villages in the island are Campo nell' Elba, on the S.
coast, with picturesque Spanish fortifications, constructed in 1602 by Philip III.; Rio dell' Elba and Rio Marina, both on the E.
At Le Grotte, between Portoferraio and Rio dell' Elba, and at Capo Castello, on the N.E.
Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island").
In 453 B.C. Elba was devastated by a Syracusan squadron.
Colt Hoare, A Tour through the Island of Elba (London, 1814).
Of the smaller islands that lie near the coasts of Italy, the most considerable is that of Elba, off the west coast of central Italy, about 50 m.
South of Elba are the equally insignificant islets of Pianosa and Montecristo, while the more considerable island of Giglio lies much nearer the mainland, immediately opposite the mountain promontory of Monte Argentaro, itself almost an island.
Iron is mainly mined in Elba.
Ihe main fisheries are in Sardinia, Sicily and Elba.
Piedmont was declared to be a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, r8oi); and on the 21st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation in the French Republic. About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands of Napoleon.
In return for the great accessions of power to France since the treaty of Amiens (Elba, it may be noted, was annexed in August 1802) Great Britain was to retain Malta for ten years and to acquire the small island of Lampedusa in perpetuity.
On the 10th he bade farewell to his guard and set forth from Fontainebleau for Elba, which the powers had very reluctantly, and owing to the pressure of the tsar, awarded to him as a possession.
Meanwhile Napoleon, after narrow escapes from royalist mobs in Provence, was conducted in the British cruiser "Undaunted" to Elba.
At Elba, as Sir Neil Campbell noted, he became inactive and proportionately corpulent.
The British government, on hearing of his arrival at Plymouth, decided to send him to St Helena, the formation of that island being such as to admit of a certain freedom of movement for the august captive, with none of the perils for the world at large which the tsar's choice, Elba, had involved.
The title of emperor, which he enjoyed at Elba, had been forfeited by the adventure of 1815, and he was now treated officially as a general.
The folly of the monarchs of the Holy Alliance in Europe gained for the writings of Montholon and Las Cases (that of Gourgaud was not published till 1899) a ready reception, with the result that Napoleon reappeared in the literature of the ensuing decades wielding an influence scarcely less potent than that of the grey-coated figure into whose arms France flung herself on his return from Elba.
At the time of Napoleon's first abdication (April 11, 1814), Joseph and Jerome Bonaparte tried to keep the empress under some measure of restraint at Blois; but she succeeded in reaching her father the emperor Francis while Napoleon was on his way to Elba.
But the sultan could not bend his pride to suffer foreign intervention in a matter that touched his honour, and the return of Napoleon from Elba threw the Eastern Question into the background.
Next they sailed up the Eridanus into the Rhodanus, passing through the country of the Celts and Ligurians to the Stoechades, then to the island of Aethalia (Elba), finally reaching the Tyrrhenian Sea and the island of Circe, who absolved them from the murder of Absyrtus.
was restored to the French throne: and Napoleon was permitted to reside in the island of Elba, the sovereignty of which had been conceded to him by the allied powers.
On the return of Napoleon from Elba, in 1815, Fourier published a royalist proclamation, and left Grenoble as Napoleon entered it.
The pillars which support the nave are of marble from Elba and Giglio; those of the side aisles are the spoils of ancient Greek and Roman buildings brought by the Pisan galleys.
In addition to these privileges the Genoese also held Corsica and part of Sardinia; and throughout the island of Elba they were exempted from every tax.
The latter, a man of inferior ability and daring, sold Pisa to the count of Virtu, receiving in exchange 200,000 florins, Piombino, and the islands of Elba, Pianosa and Monte Cristo.
He accepted the Restoration government in 1814, but rejoined his old leader on his return from Elba.
Everything was brought into a state of uncertainty once more by the escape of Napoleon from Elba; but the events of the Hundred Days, in which Talleyrand had no share - he remained at Vienna until the Toth of June - brought in the Bourbons once more; and Talleyrand's plea for a magnanimous treatment of France under Louis XVIII.
On February 27, 1815, Napoleon set sail from Elba with his force of l,000 men and 4 guns, determined to reconquer the throne of France.
It exported iron from Elba, mosaics, pottery, manufactured locally with earth from Ischia (which was in considerable demand until 1883), sulphur (which indeed was extracted in the neighbourhood until the 18th century), probably alum (which is still worked), perfumes, pozzolana earth (taking its name from the place), cretaceous earth for mixing with grain (alica) from the Leucogaean hills, glass cups engraved with views of Puteoli, mineral dyes (the blue invented.
In 1814 he was sent to North America; on the return of Napoleon from Elba he was recalled, but did not arrive in time to take part in the battle of Waterloo.
After the events of 1814 she joined the emperor in the island of Elba and was privy to his plans of escape, returning to Paris during the Hundred Days.
Nevertheless in 1814 she repaired with "Madame Mere" to Elba, and is said to have expressed a wish to share Napoleon's exile in St Helena.
Between the return of Napoleon from Elba and the battle of Waterloo, he headed with no success a royalist rising in La Vendee.
Andreossy now retired into private life, till the escape of his former master from Elba once again called him forth.
Cent Jours), the name commonly given to the period between the 10th of March 1815, the date on which Napoleon arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and the 28th of June 1815, the date of the restoration of Louis XVIII.
Richelieu returned to France in 1814; on the triumphant return of Napoleon from Elba he accompanied Louis XVIII.
Livourne), a city of Tuscany, Italy, chief town of the province of the same name, which consists of the commune of Leghorn and the islands of Elba and Gorgona.
His imperfect acquaintance with French feeling was strikingly proved in the despatch which he sent home on learning of Napoleon's escape from Elba.
By this time Napoleon was tottering to his fall; shortly before the catastrophe of Elba he allowed the pope to return to the States of the Church.
Finely crystallized specimens of pyrite are obtained from many other localities, especially from Cornwall, Elba and Traversella, near Ivrea, in Piedmont.
PIANOSA (anc. Planasia), an island of Italy, belonging to the province of Leghorn, and forming part of the commune of Marciana (Elba), from which it is 72 m.
Mecklenburg lies wholly within the great North-European plain, and its flat surface is interrupted only by one raiIge of low hills, intersecting the country from south-east to north-west, and forming the watershed between the Baltic Sea and the Elba.
Elba (March 5), it remained a mere sketch, the hasty output of a few hurried sessions, of which the elaboration was reserved for the future.
He was again in Paris after the return of Napoleon from Elba, and showed his dislike of the Bourbons and his sympathy with Bonaparte by writing in 1816 a pamphlet entitled The substance of some letter s written by an Englishman resident in Paris during the last reign of the emperor Napoleon.
After this Adams visited Paris, where he witnessed the return of Napoleon from Elba, and then went to London, where, with Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin, he negotiated (1815) a "Convention to Regulate Commerce and Navigation."
Two miles southeast of this lake, at North Elba, is the old farm of the abolitionist John Brown, which contains his grave and is much frequented by visitors.
But no important engagements took place, and when Napoleon escaped from Elba, Murat suddenly returned to the allegiance of his old chief.
by rail S.E., and on the seashore) has become a town of 4865 inhabitants (in 1901); in 1799 Napoleon disembarked there on his return from Egypt, and reembarked for Elba in 1814, while nowadays it is much frequented as a health resort, as is also Valescure (2 m.
When Napoleon returned from Elba, he became minister of foreign affairs, and tried to persuade Europe of the emperor's peaceful intentions.
On Napoleon's escape from Elba (1815) Murat, after some hesitation, placed himself on the emperor's side and waged war against the Austrians, with Pepe on his staff.
The islands of Sardinia and Elba produce considerable quantities of wine, some of which is of fair quality.
The iron mines of Elba, and the tin and copper of the mainland, were owned and smelted by the people of Populonia; hot springs too lay some 6 m.
It is the port of embarcation for Elba, the nearest point of which is about 6 m.
the crystal, from Elba, shows a combination of the fundamental rhombohedron (R), an obtuse rhombohedron (s), and the hexagonal bipyramid (n).
Crystallized haematite, such as that from the iron-mines of Elba, presents a steel-grey or ironblack colour, with a brilliant metallic lustre, sometimes beautifully iridescent.
Haematite is an important ore of iron (q.v.), and is extensively worked in Elba, Spain (Bilbao), Scandinavia, the Lake Superior region and elsewhere.
When Napoleon returned from Elba Soult at once declared himself a Bonapartist, was made a peer of France and acted as majorgeneral (chief of staff) to the emperor in the campaign of Waterloo, in which role he distinguished himself far less than he had done as commander of an over-matched army.
The following year saw the return af Napoleon from Elba, the close of the congress of Vienna, and Lhe campaign that ended with the battle of Waterloo.
The earlier sources of the ores appear to have been in India; the Greeks, however, obtained it from the Chalybes, who dwelt on the south coast of the Black Sea; and the Romans, besides drawing from these deposits, also exploited Spain, Elba and the province of Noricum.
After Waterloo, Hortense, suspected by the Bourbons of having arranged the return from Elba, had to go into exile.
After Napoleons abdication, ~nd exile to the island of Elba, came the Revolutions abdication of her conquests: the first treaty of Paris (May 30th) confirmed Frances renunciation of Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, and her return within her pre-revolutionary frontiers, save for some slight rectifications.
On Napoleon's escape from Elba Murat turned against the Austrians, and Ferdinand had again to leave Florence temporarily; but he returned after Waterloo, and reigned until his death in 1824.
The time of lethargy at Elba seems to have been more unfavourable to his powers than the cold of Russia.
She, along with her son, was escorted into Austria by Count von Neipperg, and refused to comply with the entreaties and commands of Napoleon to proceed to Elba; and her alienation from him was completed when he ventured to threaten her with a forcible abduction if she did not obey.
On his return from Elba it is true that Murat, the king of Naples, took his side; but recklessly opening an offensive campaign, Murat was beaten at Tolentino (May 2-3), and he found himself compelled to fly in disguise to France, where the emperor refused him an audience or employment.
The other petty monarchs were restored, and Murat's rash attempt, after Napoleon's return from Elba, to make himself king of united Italy, gave back Naples to the Bourbons, an event which would have been brought about in any case in the course of the next few years (see Murat, Joachim).
Where the frontier between Egypt and the Sudan reaches the sea is Ras Elba (see further Faa iEA).
Starting with a visit to Piombino, on the coast opposite Elba, he went by way of Siena to Urbino, where he made drawings and began works; was thence hastily summoned by way of Pesaro and Rimini to Cesena; spent two months between there and Cesenatico, projecting and directing canal and harbour works, and planning the restoration of the palace of Frederic II.; thence hurriedly joined his master, momentarily besieged by enemies at Imola; followed him probably to Sinigaglia and Perugia, through the whirl of storms and surprises, vengeances and treasons, which marked his course that winter, and finally, by way of Chiusi and Acquapendente, as far as Orvieto and probably to Rome, where Caesar arrived on the 14th of February 1503.
The Allies defeated Napoleon, entered Paris, forced Napoleon to abdicate, and sent him to the island of Elba, not depriving him of the title of Emperor and showing him every respect, though five years before and one year later they all regarded him as an outlaw and a brigand.
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