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elaborated

elaborated Sentence Examples

  • Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.

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  • chiefly, they provide a number of channels, penetrating every part of the leaf, along which water and dissolved salts are conveyed to, and elaborated food-substances from, the mesophyll cells.

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  • They are said, though it is not easy to p believe, to have been elaborated by way of Utopia.

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  • If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.

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  • This is the absorption of elaborated compounds from their environment, by whose decomposition the potential energy expended in their construction can be liberated.

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  • The project, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, was submitted to a Hungarian 1861.

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  • Cuvier's His classification as finally elaborated in Le Regne classifi- cation.

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  • In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.

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  • Fungal and phanerogamic parasites can make no use of stich substances as carbon dioxide, but draw elaborated products from the bodies of their hosts.

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  • This source is not, however, anything new, for the elaborated compounds so absorbed have been primarily constructed by other plants through the mechanism which has just been described.

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  • The physical side of geography continued to be elaborated after Varenius's methods, while the historical side was developed separately.

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  • The physical side of geography continued to be elaborated after Varenius's methods, while the historical side was developed separately.

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  • Thus was elaborated the type of despot which attained completeness in Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Lorenzo de Medici.

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  • But, from the national distrust of system, it has not been elaborated into a consistent metaphysic, but is rather traceable as a tendency harmonizing with the spirit of natural science.

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  • In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.

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  • The theory of natural selection, or survival of the fittest, was suggested by William Charles Wells in 1813, and further elaborated by Patrick Matthew in 1831.

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  • gonium largely independent of the supply of elaborated organic food from the thallus of the mother plant (the gametophyte).

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  • To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.

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  • In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.

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  • Simultaneously General Ricotti Magnani matured the army reform scheme which he had elaborated under the preceding administration.

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  • For this reason and because the system of Thomas is simply that of Albert rounded to a greater completeness and elaborated in parts by the subtle intellect of the younger man, it will be convenient not to separate the views of master and scholar, except where their differences make it necessary.

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  • Simultaneously General Ricotti Magnani matured the army reform scheme which he had elaborated under the preceding administration.

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  • In the zemstvo congress of November the " Cadets " protested against the " grant " of a constitution already elaborated, and demanded the convocation of a Constituent Assembly.

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  • The enormous programme of constitutional reform foreshadowed in the manifesto had to be elaborated in haste by Count Witte, the minister of the interior, under circumstances by no means promising.

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  • Zaimis, as high commissioner, took the oath to the new constitution elaborated after much debate by the Cretan national assembly.

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  • There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.

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  • In the metabolic Hexapoda the resting pupal instar shows externally the wings and other characteristic imaginal organs which have been gradually elaborated beneath the larval cuticle.

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  • 251269) a statement of his general views on ornithological classification which were based on a comparative examination of those bodies in various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space by giving an abstract of his plan, 8 which hardly includes any but European species, because it was subsequently elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way that must presently be mentioned at greater length.

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  • Y Y P > > much skill, elaborated from them the excellent work known as Nitzsch's Pterylographie, which was published at Halle in 1840, and translated into English, for the Ray Society in 1867.

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  • When Augustine proposed this task he had already planned and made some progress with his own De civitate Dei; it is the same argument that is elaborated by his disciple, namely, the evidence from history that the circumstances of the world had not really become worse since the introduction of Christianity.

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  • Similar systems of symbols, but elaborated to include compounds, appear in Greek MSS.

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  • The fundamental theory of the transmutation of metals is to be found in the Greek alchemists, although in details it was modified and elaborated by the Arabs and the Latin alchemists.

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  • From the schemes prepared by these committees, a general plan had to be elaborated, and the government appointed a special imperial commission for this purpose.

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  • On the basis of the new teaching arose a widely spread priesthood (athravano) who systematized its doctrines, organized and carried on its worship, and laid down the minutely elaborated laws for the purifying and keeping clean of soul and body, which are met with in the Vendidad.

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  • But, above all, in an unpublished work preserved at Oxford, the Defensor minor, Marsilius completed and elaborated in a curious manner certain points in the doctrine laid down in the Defensor pacis.

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  • Le Couronnement Looys, already mentioned, Le Charroi de Nimes (12th century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and Aliscans (r2th century), with the earlier Chanrun, are among the finest of the French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic elaborated by the trouveres, and the giant Rainouart has more than a touch of Rabelaisian humour.

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  • Attempts have been made to explain magnetic deformation by various theories of magnetic stress,' notably that elaborated by G.

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  • comprising the primitive phyllopods, the minute copepods, the parasitic cirrhipedes and the powerful crabs and lobsters, and the highly elaborated sand-hoppers and slaters.

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  • Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).

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  • Zaimis, as high commissioner, took the oath to the new constitution elaborated after much debate by the Cretan national assembly.

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  • When Augustine proposed this task he had already planned and made some progress with his own De civitate Dei; it is the same argument that is elaborated by his disciple, namely, the evidence from history that the circumstances of the world had not really become worse since the introduction of Christianity.

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  • Such systems have been elaborated chiefly by modern thinkers, but the germs of the ideas are found widely spread in the older Oriental philosophies and in pre-Christian European thought.

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  • It should be remembered that such comparatively simple activities, though there is little about them to arrest popular attention, are just the raw material out of which the normal active life of such organisms is elaborated, and that for scientific treatment they are therefore not less important than those more conspicuous performances which seem at first sight to call for special treatment, or even to demand a supplementary explanation.

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  • A regular hierarchical order was elaborated for the official classes, both civil and military, whereby the rank of each person was clearly defined.

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  • In these attempts new methods are elaborated and in their criticism contributory phenomena are discovered.

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  • At first sight it appears difficult to understand how g PP the complicated series of actions which are definitely exhibited as so-called " instincts " by a variety of animals can have been due to the selection of congenital variations, or can be otherwise explained than by the transmission of habits acquired by the parent as the result of experience, and continuously elaborated and added to in successive generations.

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  • Juncaceae are, in fact, a less elaborated group of the same series as Liliaceae, but adapted to a simpler and more uniform environment than that larger and much more highly developed family.

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  • These represent the albuminoid series, and are probably elaborated by the cells from albuminous substances through the influence of specific ferments.

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  • C. Coote in his Romans of Britain elaborated a description of the survival of Roman influence in English institutions, but his views did not obtain much support from London historians.

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  • This is only alluded to in Gomme's book, but it is elaborated in an article in the Cornhill Magazine (November 1906).

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  • In the treatment of the spiritual categories, Croce laid special stress upon those which had been least elaborated and least studied.

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  • Arminius died, worn out by uncongenial controversy and ecclesiastical persecution, before his system had been elaborated into the logical consistency it attained in the hands of his celebrated successor, Simon Episcopius; but though inchoate in detail, it was in its principles clear and coherent enough.

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  • Some time elapsed before this example found followers, but ultimately a programme was elaborated and carried out having for its basis a grand trunk line extending the whole length of the main island from Aomori on the north to Shimonoseki on the south, a distance of 1153 m.; and a continuation of the same line throughout the length of the southern island of KiQshiO, from Moji on the northwhich lies on the opposite side of the strait from Shimonosekito Kagoshima on the south, a distance of 2323/4 m.; as well as a line from Moji to Nagasaki, a distance of 1631/8 m.

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  • For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or interruption from his family - three precious years in which the first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, was elaborated.

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  • In course of time, however, his ideas approximating to those of Schelling in his later years, he elaborated with I.

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  • The process, as elaborated by Messrs.

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  • Here for the first time a consistently elaborated world-historical interpretation is carried out from the reign of Domitian to Lyra's own period.

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  • Mohn and subsequently elaborated by V.

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  • The bishop of Rome, who had from the first probably enjoyed a leading position in the Church as " the successor of the two most glorious of the apostles," elaborated his claims to be the divinely appointed head of the ecclesiastical organization.

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  • The following year, 1532, parliament presented a petition to the king (which had been most carefully elaborated by the monarch's own advisers) containing twelve charges against the bishops, relating to their courts, fees, injudicious appointments and abusive treatment of heretics, which combined to cause an unprecedented and " marvellous disorder of the godly quiet, peace and tranquillity" of the realm.

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  • The most favoured areas were those where corn and other plants could be artificially produced, and there barbaric cultures were elaborated.

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  • Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated the Jewish and Christian ideas as to angels.

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  • The first demand of the overwhelmingly democratic diet returned under this reform bill was that the king should accept the German constitution elaborated by the Frankfort parliament.

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  • Probably nursing has been elaborated to the inevitable point of specialization, and a somewhat different preparation is needed for different branches of the art.

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  • modified form of which was elaborated by Dr Adolf Engler of Berlin, the principal editor of Die naturliche Pflanzenfamilien.

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  • If material systems are constituted of discrete atoms, separated from each other by many times the diameter of any of them, this simple plan of exhibiting their interactions in terms of direct forces between them would indeed be exact enough to apply to a wide range of questions, provided we could be certain that the laws of the forces depended only on the positions and not also on the motions of the atoms. The most important example of its successful application has been the theory of capillary action elaborated by P. S.

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  • In the early part of 1841 the "Third of March Association" was formed to watch over the interests of the citizens, and in November of that year the government was forced by a popular demonstration to summon an assemblee constituante, which in 1842 elaborated a new constitution that was accepted by the citizens.

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  • In most cases, however, where an ancient civilization shows us a strong priestly system we are unable to make out in any detail the steps by which that system was elaborated; the clearest case perhaps is the priesthood of the Jews, which is not less interesting from its origin and growth 1 Cf.

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  • But at the beginning of 1766 Prince Nicholas Repnin was sent as Russian minister to Warsaw with instructions which can only be described as a carefully elaborated plan for destroying the Republic. The first weapon employed was the dissident question.

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  • From the study of these contemporary and genuine documents, he elaborated the theory that the earliest Christianity, the Christianity of Jesus and the original apostles, was wholly Judaistic in tone and practice.

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  • Pedigrees, elaborated by Cecil himself with the help of Camden, the antiquary, associated him with the Cecils or Sitsyllts of Altyrennes in Herefordshire, and traced his descent from an Owen of the time of King Harold and a Sitsyllt of the reign of Rufus.

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  • 5, xiv., 1884, p. 117, &c.) has further improved upon the then prevailing arrangements, and has elaborated a classification which, used by himself in the three volumes of the catalogue of lizards in the British Museum, is followed in the present article with slight alterations in the order of treatment of the families.

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  • Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.

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  • The sense-organs of medusae are of two classes: (1) pigment spots, sensitive to light, termed ocelli, which may become elaborated into eye-like structures with lens, retina and vitreous body; (2) organs of the sense of balance or orientation, commonly termed otocysts or statocysts.

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  • He has moreover elaborated a method for preserving Rotif era for microscopic observation, so that the types of each observer are now as readily available for comparison as the plant-specimens of the botanist's herbarium.

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  • It may be noticed that the Flatey Book narrative gives a somewhat different but much slighter account of Thorfinn's expedition, making both Thorvald Ericsson and Freydis undertake separate Vinland ventures - one before, the other after, Karlsefni's enterprise - Thorvald being killed on his (as in Red Eric Saga, but with divergent details), and Freydis on her committing atrocities upon her comrades, the Icelanders Helgi and Finnbogi, which are unnoticed in Red Eric. The latter, however, in its mention of the domestic broils which arose over the women of the colony in its third winter, points to something which may have been the germ of the highly elaborated Freydis story in Flatey.

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  • It was elaborated, and connected with dogmatic Gallicanism, by the famous theologian, Edmond Richer (1559-1631), and finally incorporated by Bossuet in a solemn Declaration of the French Clergy, made in 1682.

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  • It was not until the 13th century that the symbolical meaning of the cross began to be elaborated, and this was still further accentuated from the 14th century onward by the increasingly widespread custom of adding to it the figure of the crucified Christ and other symbols of the Passion.

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  • One of the most important contributions to the discussion is that of Sir Leslie Stephen (Science of Ethics), who elaborated a theory of the "social organism" in relation to the individual.

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  • Besides his principal work, he elaborated in a separate form its better and larger part, the History of St Olaf (the great Olaf's Saga).

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  • But in the gradual process of composition, by which a work once begun was kept going with the rest, although a work such as the Politics (begun in 357) was begun early, and some works more rudimentary came earlier than others, the general body of writings was so kept together in Aristotle's library, and so simultaneously elaborated and consolidated into a system that it soon becomes impossible to put one before another.

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  • It is a commentator's blunder to suppose that the founder of logic elaborated it into a system, and then applied it to the sciences.

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  • Mazarin was not a Frenchman, but a citizen of the world, and always paid most attention to foreign affairs; in his letters all that could teach a diplomatist is to be found, broad general views of policy, minute details carefully elaborated, keen insight into men's characters, cunning directions when to dissimulate or when to be frank.

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  • - Lastly, in Germany, partly influenced by Leibnitz and partly roused by Hume, Kant elaborated his transcendental or critical idealism, which if not, as he thought, the prolegomena to all future metaphysics, is still the starting-point of most metaphysical idealists.

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  • Lotze (1817-1881) elaborated a very different noumenal idealism, which perhaps we may express by the name " Pan.

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  • Hence, according to Wundt, the world we know is still unitary experience, distinguished, not separated, into subject and object, aggregates of ideas analysed by judgment and combined by inference, an object of idea elaborated into causes and substances by logical thinking, at most a world of our ideas composed out of our sensations, and arranged under our categories of our understanding by our inner wills, or a world of our ideating wills; but nothing else.

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  • In 1865 this was elaborated into a separate biography by another son, Henry Ingersoll Bowditch (1808-1892), a famous Boston physician.

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  • To his firmness, and at the same time to the conciliatory readiness with which he accepted and elaborated the principles of a modus vivendi, the two powers owed the avoidance of what threatened to be a dangerous quarrel.

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  • Thus these two great discoveries were elaborated, like his earlier one, in about three months.

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  • In the later editions of this essay the thesis is elaborated with greater detail.

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  • And in the World War, while optical instruments of this kind were elaborated and improved, the periscope as such came into use for the infantry garrisoning trenches.

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  • He next devised a plan for manufacturing pure alumina from the natural ores, and finally elaborated a process and plant which held the field for almost thirty years.

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  • The Deville process as gradually elaborated between 1855 and 1859 exhibited three distinct phases: - Production of metallic sodium, formation of the pure double chloride of sodium and aluminium,and preparation of the metal by the inter action of the two former substances.

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  • The wonder, however, seems to be that it does not occur more frequently, seeing that fluids must pass from stock to scion, and matter elaborated in the leaves of the scion must certainly to some extent enter the stock.

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  • Cuttings of growing plants are prepared by removing with a sharp knife, and moderately close, the few leaves which would otherwise be buried in the soil; they are then cut clean across just below a joint; the fewer the leaves thus removed, however, the better, as if kept from being exhausted they help to supply the elaborated sap out of which the roots are formed.

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  • A plan had been elaborated at Constantinople for uniting the Volga and Don by a canal, and in the summer of 1569 a large force of Janissaries and cavalry were sent to lay siege to Astrakhan and begin the canal works, while an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov.

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  • He was elected president of the Constituent Assembly on the 17th of August 1789; but on the rejection by the Assembly of the scheme elaborated by the first constitutional committee, he attached himself to the party of moderate royalists, known as monarchiens, led by P. V.

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  • The proclamation on the 26th of February 1861 of the new constitution for the whole monarchy, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, though far from satisfying the national aspirations of the races within the empire, at least gave Austria a temporary popularity in Germany; the liberalism of the Habsburg monarchy was favourably contrasted with the " reactionary " policy of Prussia, where Bismarck was defying the majority of the diet in his determination to build up the military power of Prussia.

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  • The first two editions of the Catalogus plantarum Angliae (1670, 1677) were likewise arranged alphabetically; but in the Synopsis stirpium Britannicarum (1690, 1696, also re-edited by Dillenius, 1724, and by Hill, 1760) Ray applied the scheme of classification which he had by that time elaborated in the Methodus and the Historia plantarum.

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  • These bonds had then reached a sum exceeding 20,000,000 and were held chiefly by French firms. The unification scheme was elaborated in a khedivial decree of the 7th of May 1876, but was rendered abortive by the opposition of the British bondholders.

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  • At the same time it is believed that but for the faculty given by the decree of 1888 to spend the General Reserve Fund on public works, the financial system elaborated by the London Convention would have broken down altogether.

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  • This theme is elaborated with great detail in the Pyramid texts, where it is the dead king to whom this destiny is promised.

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  • It was full of delicate variety in the surfaces, and of elaborated close-packed lines of hair and ornaments.

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  • The areas of intervening cortex, arriving at structural completion later than the above sense-spheres, are called by some association-spheres, to indicate the view that they contain the neural mechanisms of reactions (some have said "ideas") associated with the sense perceptions elaborated in the several sensese spheres.

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  • In his instructions to Novosiltsov, his special envoy in London, the tsar elaborated the motives of his policy in language which appealed as little to the common sense of Pitt as did later the treaty of the Holy Alliance to that of Castlereagh.

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  • It is not difficult in such compact species to distinguish between superficial cells, whose chief function is assimilation, subjacent cells charged with reserve material, and a core of tissue engaged in the convection of elaborated material from part to part.

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  • The presence of phycocyanin, phyco a role in the morphological development of land plants is entirely wanting in algae, such conducting tissues as do exist in the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae serving rather for the convection of elaborated organic substance, and being thus comparable with the phloem of the higher plants.

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  • Other panel portraits of the period are three small ones of members of the Tucher family at Weimar and Cassel, and the striking, restlessly elaborated half-length of Oswald Krell at Munich.

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  • On the other hand, many of his ideas have passed into the common literary stock, and have been more precisely elaborated by later writers on sociology and history; and though his own work is now somewhat neglected, its influence was immensely valuable in provoking further research and speculation.

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  • It is not an introduction - for the philosophy which it was to introduce was not then fully elaborated.

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  • 23) and elaborated and embellished by subsequent writers.

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  • Moreover, the ammonia process has been gradually elaborated into a very complicated but perfectly regularly working scheme, in which the cost of labour and the loss of ammonia are reduced to a minimum.

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  • The consilience of empirical and deductive processes was an Aristotelian discovery, elaborated by Mill against Bacon.

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  • It is natural, then, that the central contribution of the Sceptics to the knowledge controversy lies in the modes (Tp07rot) in which the relativity of phenomena is made good, that these are elaborated with extreme care, and that they have a modern ring and are full of instruction even to-day.

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  • Locke, when Cartesianism had raised the problem of the contents of consciousness, and the spirit of Baconian positivism could not accept of anything that bore the ill-omened name of innate ideas, elaborated a theory of knowledge which is psychological in the sense that its problem is how the simple data with which the individual is in contact in sensation are worked up into a system.

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  • But his claims, however great they may be, can in no way conflict with those of Hamilton, whose mode of multiplying couples (in which the " inner " and " outer " multiplication are essentially involved) was produced in 1833, and whose quaternion system was completed and published before Grassmann had elaborated for press even the rudimentary portions of his own system, in which the veritable difficulty of the whole subject, the application to angles in space, had not even been attacked.

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  • An attempt has been made to dispute James's authorship of the poem, but the arguments elaborated by J.

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  • In the succeeding year he showed, in the same journal, that if the elements be arranged in the order of their atomic weights, those having consecutive numbers frequently either belong to the same group or occupy similar positions in different groups, and he pointed out that each eighth element starting from a given one is in this arrangement a kind of repetition of the first, like the eighth note of an octave in music. The Law of Octaves thus enunciated was at first ignored or treated with ridicule as a fantastic notion unworthy of serious consideration, but the idea, subsequently elaborated by D.

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  • Anaxagoras (q.v.) elaborated a quasi-dualistic theory according to which all things have existed from the beginning.

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  • In their theory of a triple manifestation of an impersonal deity, the Brahmanical theologians, as we have seen, had indeed elaborated a doctrine which might have seemed to form a reasonable, authoritative creed for logy.

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  • Meanwhile the drama was emerging from the medieval mysteries; and the classical type, made popular by Garnier's genius, was elaborated, as in Italy, upon the model of Seneca and the canons of the three unities.

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  • The failure of the Jackson administration to reduce the Tariff of 1828 drew from Calhoun his "Address to the People of South Carolina" in 1831, in which he elaborated his views of the nature of the Union as given in the "Exposition."

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  • He was ignorant of the rules of grammar, confused genders and cases, and wrote in the vernacular Latin of his time, apart from certain passages which are especially elaborated and filled with poetical and elegant expressions.

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  • He elaborated a theory of Toltec migrations and considered the prehistoric Mexican to be of Asiatic origin, because of observed similarities to Japanese architecture, Chinese decoration, Malaysian language and Cambodian dress, &c.

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  • The theory was elaborated by S.

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  • Here, again, the theology was further developed, and an attempt made to annul the old dualism by envisaging both Ormuzd and Ahriman as emanations of an original principle of infinite time (Zervan), a doctrine which long enjoyed official validity under the Sassanids till, in the reign of Chosroes I., the sect of Zervanites was pronounced heretical.i But, above all, the ritual and the doctrine of purity were elaborated and expanded, and there was evolved a complete and detailed system of casuistry, dealing with all things allowed and forbidden, the forms of pollution and the expiation for each, &c., which, in its arid and spiritles1 monotony vividly recalls the similar prescriptions in the Pentateuch.

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  • The terms agreed upon were elaborated in a convention signed at Pretoria in August following.

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  • This phenomenon follows injury to the phloem in the lower parts of the stem, preventing the downward flow of elaborated sap. The injury may be due to gnawing insects, and particularly to the fungus Corticium vagum, var.

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  • It is clear that the activity of these teachers was chiefly directed to ethics: they elaborated fresh definitions of the chief good, designed either to make yet clearer the sense of the formulas of Chrysippus or else to meet the more urgent objections of the New Academy.

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  • Their plans were carefully elaborated, and on the 1st of December 1640 various strategic points were seized, the few partisans of Spain who attempted resistance were overpowered, and a provisional government was formed under D.

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  • The technique of serum preparation has become since that time greatly elaborated and improved, the work of P. Ehrlich in this respect being specially noteworthy.

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  • He contributed little to the solution of the problem, but forced the investigation of the canon alike on theologians and the reading public. Again, he sketched a view of early church history, further worked out by Johann Salomo Semler (1725-1791), and surprisingly like that which was later elaborated by the Tubingen school.

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  • He may be said to have introduced the direct and colloquial manner upon the American public platform, as distinct from the highly elaborated and often ornate style which had been established by Edward Everett; nor has there ever been a reversion since his day to the more artificial method.

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  • As the Pharisees accumulated the oral tradition which was afterwards codified and elaborated or preserved by fragments, which served some useful purpose, in the Talmud and other Rabbinic writings, the Sadducees acquired concrete regulations to oppose so long as they dared.

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  • The same turn for detail is observable in his ethics, where, to judge from the imperfect evidence of the Characters, he elaborated still farther Aristotle's portraiture of the virtues See Gellius, Noct.

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  • Davis has elaborated a theory of river classification, and a scheme of the origin of surfacefeatures which is attractive in its simplicity.

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  • Taking as the basis for discussion the draft loi organique of 1901, it elaborated a measure laying down the principles applicable to the Congo State when it should become a Belgian colony.

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  • However his own particular interpretations may have been condemned, they were conceived in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with approval from the heads of the church.

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  • Perhaps the best criticism of Edwards's philosophy as a whole is that, instead of being elaborated on purely rational principles, it is mixed up with a system of theological conceptions with which it is never thoroughly combined, and that it is exposed to all the disturbing effects of theological controversy.

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  • The growing solidarity between the two Ruman principalities received a striking illustration in 1816, when the Walachian and Moldavian hospodars published together a code applicable to both countries, and which had been elaborated by a joint commission.

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  • The Organic Law thus elaborated was by no means of a liberal character, and amongst other abuses maintained the feudal privileges of the boiars.

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  • Their chief contributions to thought were Cudworth's theory of the "plastic nature" of God, More's elaborate mysticism, Norris's appreciation of Malebranche, Glanvill's conception of scepticism as an aid to Faith, and, in a less degree, the harmony of Faith and Reason elaborated by Culverwel.

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  • But his great influence on modern thought is undeniable, both as the historic founder of French socialism and as suggesting much of what was afterwards elaborated into Comtism.

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  • This assembly elaborated 102 canons, which did not become part of the Western law till much later, on the initiative of Pope John VIII.

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  • The theory which had most influence on the conceptions of Echinoderms in the two concluding decades of the 19th century was that of Lover', elaborated by P. H.

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  • - Spines may be variously elaborated and are set more at right angles to the arm-axis.

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  • Treating this rule as axiomatic the Schoolmen elaborated their analyses of the sacrament of penance, distinguishing form and matter, attrition and contrition, mortal and venial sins.

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  • Ephorus, relying on Hesiodic tradition of an aboriginal Pelasgian type in Arcadia, elaborated a theory of the Pelasgians as a warrior-people spreading (like "Aryans") from a "Pelasgian home," and annexing and colonizing all the parts of Greece where earlier writers had found allusions to them, from Dodona to Crete and the Troad, and even as far as Italy, where again their settlements had been recognized as early as the time of Hellanicus, in close connexion once more with "Tyrrhenians."

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  • Those nearest to the lens are the corneagen cells of this more elaborated eye, and those between the original retinula cells and the corneagen cells become firm and transparent.

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  • This magnum opus, rewritten and further elaborated (4th ed., 16 vols.

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  • Appearance and Reality was not primarily concerned with morals, yet it inevitably led to certain conclusions affecting conduct, and it was no very long time before these conclusions were elaborated in detail.

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  • But in his exposition of the fundamental contradiction involved in morality elaborated with much care and illustrative argument he appeals for the most part to facts familiar to the unphilosophical moral consciousness.

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  • Telling of stories was a recognized form of entertainment at all feasts and gatherings, and it was the necessity of the reciter which gradually worked them into a regular form, by which the memory was relieved and the artistic features of the story allowed to be more carefully elaborated.

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  • The Eudoxian or " homocentric " system, after it had been further elaborated by Callippus and Aristotle, was modified by Apollonius of Perga (fl.

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  • He further elaborated it by the introduction of " eccentrics," which accounted for the changes in orbital velocity of the sun and moon by a displacement of the earth, to a corresponding extent, from the centre of the circles they were assumed to describe.

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  • That the Osirian myth (much as it was elaborated and allegorized) originated in the same sort of fancy as the Tacullie story of the dismembered beaver out of whose body things were made is a conclusion not devoid of plausibility.

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  • It was no longer upon religion or morality, it was upon imperial and Roman rights that these chevaliers s lois based the princes omnipotence; and nothing more clearly marks the new tradition which was being elaborated than the fact that all the great events of Philip the Fairs reign were lawsuits.

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  • The royal exchequer, which was being painfully elaborated in the chambre des corn ptes, and the treasury of the crown lands at the Louvre, together barely sufficed to meet the expenses of this more complicated and costly machinery.

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  • At this period (1880-1882) schemes for the reorganization and better administration of the Sudan were elaborated on paper, but the revolt in Egypt under Arabi (see Egypt: History) and the appearance in the Sudan of a Mandi prevented these schemes from being put into s Up to 1877, when the work was abandoned, some 50 m.

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  • To his disciples there he assigned the task of writing lives of the English saints, while his own time was largely devoted to the completion of an essay on the development of Christian doctrine, by which principle he sought to reconcile himself to the elaborated creed and the practical system of the Roman Church.

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  • But the Connecticut authorities in their effort to establish a legal claim to the country and to thwart the efforts of the Hamilton family to assert its claims to the territory between the Connecticut river and Narragansett Bay - claims derived from a grant of the Plymouth Company to James, marquess of Hamilton (1606-1649) in 1635 - elaborated the theory that the Plymouth Company had made a grant to Warwick, and that consequently his quit claim conferred jurisdiction upon the Say and Sele Company; but even in this event, Fenwick had no right to make his sale, for which he never secured confirmation.

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  • The information was elaborated upon for specific countries, showing the transition between 2000 and 2015.

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  • cohabiting mind to be elaborated.

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  • The English philologist and historian, Owen Barfield, has pointed out how our medieval forebears enthusiastically elaborated the possibilities of logical judgment.

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  • This heralds the very beginnings of the theory of the divine incarnation, or avatara, which we find elaborated upon in the Puranas.

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  • In place of formalism, Burnham elaborated a theory of systems esthetics, heavily inflected by his reading of systems theory.

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  • Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.

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  • The proposed form, first elaborated in the conciliary commission de fide, was the object of long public discussions from the 50th general congregation (May 13th, 1870) to the 85th (July 13th); the constitution as a whole was adopted at a public session, on the r 8th, of the 535 bishops present, two only replied " Non placet "; but about 50 had preferred not to be present.

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  • After studying at Marburg under Hermann Kolbe and at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen, he came to England in 1862 and obtained a position in a chemical works at Widnes, where he elaborated the practical application of a method he had devised for recovering the sulphur lost as calcium sulphide in the black ash waste of the Leblanc alkali process.

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  • But, from the national distrust of system, it has not been elaborated into a consistent metaphysic, but is rather traceable as a tendency harmonizing with the spirit of natural science.

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  • In L'Evolutionnisme des idees forces (1890), La Psychologie des idees forces (1893), and La Morale des idees forces (1907), is elaborated his doctrine of idees forces, or of mind as efficient cause through the tendency of ideas to realize themselves in appropriate movement.

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  • In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.

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  • Thus was elaborated the type of despot which attained completeness in Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Lorenzo de Medici.

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  • Hence it may be concluded that the gonophores are degenerate medusae, and not that the medusae are highly elaborated gonophores, as the organ-theory requires.

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  • § 12), where he is arguing in favour of the hypothesis, afterwards elaborated by Leibnitz, of a graduated series of minds (species of spirits) from the Deity down to the lowest animal intelligence.

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  • The theory of natural selection, or survival of the fittest, was suggested by William Charles Wells in 1813, and further elaborated by Patrick Matthew in 1831.

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  • gonium largely independent of the supply of elaborated organic food from the thallus of the mother plant (the gametophyte).

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  • In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.

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  • chiefly, they provide a number of channels, penetrating every part of the leaf, along which water and dissolved salts are conveyed to, and elaborated food-substances from, the mesophyll cells.

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  • Fungal and phanerogamic parasites can make no use of stich substances as carbon dioxide, but draw elaborated products from the bodies of their hosts.

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  • If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.

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  • This is the absorption of elaborated compounds from their environment, by whose decomposition the potential energy expended in their construction can be liberated.

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  • This source is not, however, anything new, for the elaborated compounds so absorbed have been primarily constructed by other plants through the mechanism which has just been described.

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  • While the theory of the sphere was being elaborated the efforts of practical geographers were steadily directed towards ascertaining the outline and configuration of the oekumene, or habitable F i tting the world, the only portion of the terrestrial surface known oekumene to the ancients and to the medieval peoples, and still to the retaining a shadow of its old monopoly of geographical sphere.

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  • 2 The origin of the present constitution of Russia must be sought, not in this ancient and obsolete institution, but in the artificial constitution elaborated by Mikhail Speranski (q.v.) in 1809 at the instance of the emperor Alexander I.

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  • In the zemstvo congress of November the " Cadets " protested against the " grant " of a constitution already elaborated, and demanded the convocation of a Constituent Assembly.

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  • The enormous programme of constitutional reform foreshadowed in the manifesto had to be elaborated in haste by Count Witte, the minister of the interior, under circumstances by no means promising.

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  • In this and in many other respects the records of the first monarchy have been elaborated and now reveal traces of differing conceptions of the events (see DAN; David; ELI; Samuel; Saul; Solomon).

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  • Dugald Stewart, however, deliberately .emphasizes the merely qualitative nature of our knowledge as the foundation of philosophical argument, and thus paves the way for the thoroughgoing philosophy of nescience elaborated by Hamilton.

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  • Such systems have been elaborated chiefly by modern thinkers, but the germs of the ideas are found widely spread in the older Oriental philosophies and in pre-Christian European thought.

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  • There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.

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  • In the metabolic Hexapoda the resting pupal instar shows externally the wings and other characteristic imaginal organs which have been gradually elaborated beneath the larval cuticle.

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  • For want of space it must here suffice simply to name some of the ornithologists who have elaborated, to an extent elsewhere unknown, the science as regards their own country: Altum, Baldamus, Bechstein, Blasius (father and two sons), Bolle, Borggreve, whose Vogel-Fauna von Norddeutschland (8vo, 1869) contains what is practically a bibliographical index to the subject, Brehm (father and sons), Von Droste, Gatke, Gloger, Hintz, Alexander and Eugen von Homeyer, Ji ckel, Koch, KOnig-Warthausen, Kriiper, Kutter, Landbeck, Landois, Leisler, Von Maltzan, Bernard Meyer, Von der Miihle, Neumann, Tobias, Johann Wolf and Zander.

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  • 251269) a statement of his general views on ornithological classification which were based on a comparative examination of those bodies in various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space by giving an abstract of his plan, 8 which hardly includes any but European species, because it was subsequently elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way that must presently be mentioned at greater length.

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  • Y Y P > > much skill, elaborated from them the excellent work known as Nitzsch's Pterylographie, which was published at Halle in 1840, and translated into English, for the Ray Society in 1867.

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  • To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.

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  • Similar systems of symbols, but elaborated to include compounds, appear in Greek MSS.

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  • The fundamental theory of the transmutation of metals is to be found in the Greek alchemists, although in details it was modified and elaborated by the Arabs and the Latin alchemists.

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  • From the schemes prepared by these committees, a general plan had to be elaborated, and the government appointed a special imperial commission for this purpose.

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  • On the basis of the new teaching arose a widely spread priesthood (athravano) who systematized its doctrines, organized and carried on its worship, and laid down the minutely elaborated laws for the purifying and keeping clean of soul and body, which are met with in the Vendidad.

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  • It should be remembered that such comparatively simple activities, though there is little about them to arrest popular attention, are just the raw material out of which the normal active life of such organisms is elaborated, and that for scientific treatment they are therefore not less important than those more conspicuous performances which seem at first sight to call for special treatment, or even to demand a supplementary explanation.

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  • A regular hierarchical order was elaborated for the official classes, both civil and military, whereby the rank of each person was clearly defined.

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  • But, above all, in an unpublished work preserved at Oxford, the Defensor minor, Marsilius completed and elaborated in a curious manner certain points in the doctrine laid down in the Defensor pacis.

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  • The instruments - current-meters, sounding apparatus, water-collecting bottles, thermometers, hydrometers, etc. - were all elaborated and improved.

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  • In these attempts new methods are elaborated and in their criticism contributory phenomena are discovered.

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  • celibacy), would naturally have been discarded now that the clergy were allowed to marry, while the stole had become intimately associated with the doctrine of holy orders elaborated by the medieval schoolmen and rejected by the Reformers (see Holy Order).

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  • Humboldt, Ehrenberg and Gustav Rose also paid in the course of these years short visits to Siberia, and gave a new impulse to the accumulation of scientific knowledge; while Ritter elaborated in his Asien (1832-1859) the foundations of a sound knowledge of the structure of Siberia.

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  • Le Couronnement Looys, already mentioned, Le Charroi de Nimes (12th century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and Aliscans (r2th century), with the earlier Chanrun, are among the finest of the French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic elaborated by the trouveres, and the giant Rainouart has more than a touch of Rabelaisian humour.

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  • Attempts have been made to explain magnetic deformation by various theories of magnetic stress,' notably that elaborated by G.

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  • The mathematical theory which was constructed by Poisson, and extended and freed from doubtful hypotheses by Kelvin, has been elaborated by other investigators, notably F.

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  • The one-sided specialization and the peculiar metallic colouring of the lateral tail feathers mark them as the extreme terms of a degenerative series, whilst the symmetry, likeness of constituent parts inter se, and absence of specialized pigment, as well as the fact that they differ little from any average feather of birds in general, mark the contour feather as primitively simple, and as the starting-point from which the highly elaborated eye-painted tail feather has gradually evolved.

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  • comprising the primitive phyllopods, the minute copepods, the parasitic cirrhipedes and the powerful crabs and lobsters, and the highly elaborated sand-hoppers and slaters.

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  • Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).

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  • For this reason and because the system of Thomas is simply that of Albert rounded to a greater completeness and elaborated in parts by the subtle intellect of the younger man, it will be convenient not to separate the views of master and scholar, except where their differences make it necessary.

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  • The project, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, was submitted to a Hungarian 1861.

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  • Cuvier's His classification as finally elaborated in Le Regne classifi- cation.

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  • At first sight it appears difficult to understand how g PP the complicated series of actions which are definitely exhibited as so-called " instincts " by a variety of animals can have been due to the selection of congenital variations, or can be otherwise explained than by the transmission of habits acquired by the parent as the result of experience, and continuously elaborated and added to in successive generations.

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  • In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.

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  • Juncaceae are, in fact, a less elaborated group of the same series as Liliaceae, but adapted to a simpler and more uniform environment than that larger and much more highly developed family.

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  • These represent the albuminoid series, and are probably elaborated by the cells from albuminous substances through the influence of specific ferments.

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  • C. Coote in his Romans of Britain elaborated a description of the survival of Roman influence in English institutions, but his views did not obtain much support from London historians.

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  • This is only alluded to in Gomme's book, but it is elaborated in an article in the Cornhill Magazine (November 1906).

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  • The plans for bringing the rrth Division and bulk of the Toth Division from the islands to Suvla and disembarking them had been elaborated with meticulous care by the naval and military staffs.

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  • In the treatment of the spiritual categories, Croce laid special stress upon those which had been least elaborated and least studied.

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  • Croce has elaborated the various philosophic sciences in treating of the various theories to which they give rise, and he has completed the doctrines with their history, either, as in the case of the Aesthetic, with a masterly historical survey of previous speculation on the subject, or in a more modest form in appendices.

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  • Arminius died, worn out by uncongenial controversy and ecclesiastical persecution, before his system had been elaborated into the logical consistency it attained in the hands of his celebrated successor, Simon Episcopius; but though inchoate in detail, it was in its principles clear and coherent enough.

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  • The blood of most species behaves differentially towards precipitants, and it is therefore conceivable that when blood is used as food and is elaborated into special compounds for the nutrition of the reproductive organs of a parasite, these specific or larger differences in the blood of animal hosts may prevent the ripening of the gonads of a widely diffused parasite and only one particular kind of blood prove suitable.

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  • They are said, though it is not easy to p believe, to have been elaborated by way of Utopia.

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  • Some time elapsed before this example found followers, but ultimately a programme was elaborated and carried out having for its basis a grand trunk line extending the whole length of the main island from Aomori on the north to Shimonoseki on the south, a distance of 1153 m.; and a continuation of the same line throughout the length of the southern island of KiQshiO, from Moji on the northwhich lies on the opposite side of the strait from Shimonosekito Kagoshima on the south, a distance of 2323/4 m.; as well as a line from Moji to Nagasaki, a distance of 1631/8 m.

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  • For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or interruption from his family - three precious years in which the first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, was elaborated.

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  • In course of time, however, his ideas approximating to those of Schelling in his later years, he elaborated with I.

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  • The process, as elaborated by Messrs.

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  • Thus the Calvinism of the 16th and 17th centuries elaborated answers to questions, which if no attempt had been made to answer them, would have perplexed earnest souls and condemned the system; but many parts of the system are now obsolete, because the conditions which suggested the questions which they sought to answer no longer exist or have no longer any interest or importance."

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  • These brief allusions were elaborated by the "cyclic" poets, and the adventures of Philoctetes formed the subject of tragedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides.

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  • Here for the first time a consistently elaborated world-historical interpretation is carried out from the reign of Domitian to Lyra's own period.

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  • Mohn and subsequently elaborated by V.

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  • Its merit lies in the genuine scientific enthusiasm and interest in nature which pervade it; and of any other poetic quality - except a certain, sometimes felicitous but oftener ill-placed, elaborated pomp of words - it may without injustice be said to be almost destitute.

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  • The bishop of Rome, who had from the first probably enjoyed a leading position in the Church as " the successor of the two most glorious of the apostles," elaborated his claims to be the divinely appointed head of the ecclesiastical organization.

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  • The following year, 1532, parliament presented a petition to the king (which had been most carefully elaborated by the monarch's own advisers) containing twelve charges against the bishops, relating to their courts, fees, injudicious appointments and abusive treatment of heretics, which combined to cause an unprecedented and " marvellous disorder of the godly quiet, peace and tranquillity" of the realm.

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  • The most favoured areas were those where corn and other plants could be artificially produced, and there barbaric cultures were elaborated.

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  • Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated the Jewish and Christian ideas as to angels.

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  • The first demand of the overwhelmingly democratic diet returned under this reform bill was that the king should accept the German constitution elaborated by the Frankfort parliament.

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  • Probably nursing has been elaborated to the inevitable point of specialization, and a somewhat different preparation is needed for different branches of the art.

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  • modified form of which was elaborated by Dr Adolf Engler of Berlin, the principal editor of Die naturliche Pflanzenfamilien.

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  • If material systems are constituted of discrete atoms, separated from each other by many times the diameter of any of them, this simple plan of exhibiting their interactions in terms of direct forces between them would indeed be exact enough to apply to a wide range of questions, provided we could be certain that the laws of the forces depended only on the positions and not also on the motions of the atoms. The most important example of its successful application has been the theory of capillary action elaborated by P. S.

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  • In the early part of 1841 the "Third of March Association" was formed to watch over the interests of the citizens, and in November of that year the government was forced by a popular demonstration to summon an assemblee constituante, which in 1842 elaborated a new constitution that was accepted by the citizens.

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  • In most cases, however, where an ancient civilization shows us a strong priestly system we are unable to make out in any detail the steps by which that system was elaborated; the clearest case perhaps is the priesthood of the Jews, which is not less interesting from its origin and growth 1 Cf.

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  • But at the beginning of 1766 Prince Nicholas Repnin was sent as Russian minister to Warsaw with instructions which can only be described as a carefully elaborated plan for destroying the Republic. The first weapon employed was the dissident question.

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  • In his Treatise on Perspective (1712) he explained the mathematical principles of that art; and anticipated the method afterwards elaborated by Brook Taylor.

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  • The grammar of the Stoics, gradually elaborated by Zeno, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, supplied a terminology which, in words such as " genitive," " accusative " and " aorist," has become a permanent part of the grammarian's vocabulary; and the study of this grammar found its earliest home in Pergamum.

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  • From the study of these contemporary and genuine documents, he elaborated the theory that the earliest Christianity, the Christianity of Jesus and the original apostles, was wholly Judaistic in tone and practice.

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  • Pedigrees, elaborated by Cecil himself with the help of Camden, the antiquary, associated him with the Cecils or Sitsyllts of Altyrennes in Herefordshire, and traced his descent from an Owen of the time of King Harold and a Sitsyllt of the reign of Rufus.

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  • 5, xiv., 1884, p. 117, &c.) has further improved upon the then prevailing arrangements, and has elaborated a classification which, used by himself in the three volumes of the catalogue of lizards in the British Museum, is followed in the present article with slight alterations in the order of treatment of the families.

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  • Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.

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  • The sense-organs of medusae are of two classes: (1) pigment spots, sensitive to light, termed ocelli, which may become elaborated into eye-like structures with lens, retina and vitreous body; (2) organs of the sense of balance or orientation, commonly termed otocysts or statocysts.

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  • He has moreover elaborated a method for preserving Rotif era for microscopic observation, so that the types of each observer are now as readily available for comparison as the plant-specimens of the botanist's herbarium.

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  • It may be noticed that the Flatey Book narrative gives a somewhat different but much slighter account of Thorfinn's expedition, making both Thorvald Ericsson and Freydis undertake separate Vinland ventures - one before, the other after, Karlsefni's enterprise - Thorvald being killed on his (as in Red Eric Saga, but with divergent details), and Freydis on her committing atrocities upon her comrades, the Icelanders Helgi and Finnbogi, which are unnoticed in Red Eric. The latter, however, in its mention of the domestic broils which arose over the women of the colony in its third winter, points to something which may have been the germ of the highly elaborated Freydis story in Flatey.

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  • It was elaborated, and connected with dogmatic Gallicanism, by the famous theologian, Edmond Richer (1559-1631), and finally incorporated by Bossuet in a solemn Declaration of the French Clergy, made in 1682.

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  • It was not until the 13th century that the symbolical meaning of the cross began to be elaborated, and this was still further accentuated from the 14th century onward by the increasingly widespread custom of adding to it the figure of the crucified Christ and other symbols of the Passion.

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  • One of the most important contributions to the discussion is that of Sir Leslie Stephen (Science of Ethics), who elaborated a theory of the "social organism" in relation to the individual.

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  • But theologians in the West had elaborated a theory of the grace of confirmation, which made its severance from baptism seem natural; and at the time of the Reformation, while neither side favoured the Eastern practice, the reformers, with their strong sense of the crucial importance of faith, emphasized the action of the individual in the service, and therefore laid it down as a rule that confirmation should be deferred till the child could learn a catechism on the fundamentals of the Christian faith, which Calvin thought he might do by the time he was ten.

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  • Besides his principal work, he elaborated in a separate form its better and larger part, the History of St Olaf (the great Olaf's Saga).

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  • But in the gradual process of composition, by which a work once begun was kept going with the rest, although a work such as the Politics (begun in 357) was begun early, and some works more rudimentary came earlier than others, the general body of writings was so kept together in Aristotle's library, and so simultaneously elaborated and consolidated into a system that it soon becomes impossible to put one before another.

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  • It is a commentator's blunder to suppose that the founder of logic elaborated it into a system, and then applied it to the sciences.

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  • Mazarin was not a Frenchman, but a citizen of the world, and always paid most attention to foreign affairs; in his letters all that could teach a diplomatist is to be found, broad general views of policy, minute details carefully elaborated, keen insight into men's characters, cunning directions when to dissimulate or when to be frank.

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  • - Lastly, in Germany, partly influenced by Leibnitz and partly roused by Hume, Kant elaborated his transcendental or critical idealism, which if not, as he thought, the prolegomena to all future metaphysics, is still the starting-point of most metaphysical idealists.

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  • Lotze (1817-1881) elaborated a very different noumenal idealism, which perhaps we may express by the name " Pan.

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  • Hence, according to Wundt, the world we know is still unitary experience, distinguished, not separated, into subject and object, aggregates of ideas analysed by judgment and combined by inference, an object of idea elaborated into causes and substances by logical thinking, at most a world of our ideas composed out of our sensations, and arranged under our categories of our understanding by our inner wills, or a world of our ideating wills; but nothing else.

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  • In 1865 this was elaborated into a separate biography by another son, Henry Ingersoll Bowditch (1808-1892), a famous Boston physician.

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  • To his firmness, and at the same time to the conciliatory readiness with which he accepted and elaborated the principles of a modus vivendi, the two powers owed the avoidance of what threatened to be a dangerous quarrel.

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  • Thus these two great discoveries were elaborated, like his earlier one, in about three months.

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  • In the later editions of this essay the thesis is elaborated with greater detail.

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  • And in the World War, while optical instruments of this kind were elaborated and improved, the periscope as such came into use for the infantry garrisoning trenches.

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  • The uniformity, however, of the Old Testament text is due to the labours of successive schools of grammarians who elaborated the Massorah (see Hebrew Literature), thereby obliterating local or dialectic differences, which undoubtedly existed, and establishing the pronunciation current in the synagogues about the 7th century A.D.

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  • He next devised a plan for manufacturing pure alumina from the natural ores, and finally elaborated a process and plant which held the field for almost thirty years.

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  • The Deville process as gradually elaborated between 1855 and 1859 exhibited three distinct phases: - Production of metallic sodium, formation of the pure double chloride of sodium and aluminium,and preparation of the metal by the inter action of the two former substances.

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  • The wonder, however, seems to be that it does not occur more frequently, seeing that fluids must pass from stock to scion, and matter elaborated in the leaves of the scion must certainly to some extent enter the stock.

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  • Cuttings of growing plants are prepared by removing with a sharp knife, and moderately close, the few leaves which would otherwise be buried in the soil; they are then cut clean across just below a joint; the fewer the leaves thus removed, however, the better, as if kept from being exhausted they help to supply the elaborated sap out of which the roots are formed.

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  • A plan had been elaborated at Constantinople for uniting the Volga and Don by a canal, and in the summer of 1569 a large force of Janissaries and cavalry were sent to lay siege to Astrakhan and begin the canal works, while an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov.

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  • He was elected president of the Constituent Assembly on the 17th of August 1789; but on the rejection by the Assembly of the scheme elaborated by the first constitutional committee, he attached himself to the party of moderate royalists, known as monarchiens, led by P. V.

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  • The proclamation on the 26th of February 1861 of the new constitution for the whole monarchy, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, though far from satisfying the national aspirations of the races within the empire, at least gave Austria a temporary popularity in Germany; the liberalism of the Habsburg monarchy was favourably contrasted with the " reactionary " policy of Prussia, where Bismarck was defying the majority of the diet in his determination to build up the military power of Prussia.

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  • The first two editions of the Catalogus plantarum Angliae (1670, 1677) were likewise arranged alphabetically; but in the Synopsis stirpium Britannicarum (1690, 1696, also re-edited by Dillenius, 1724, and by Hill, 1760) Ray applied the scheme of classification which he had by that time elaborated in the Methodus and the Historia plantarum.

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  • These bonds had then reached a sum exceeding 20,000,000 and were held chiefly by French firms. The unification scheme was elaborated in a khedivial decree of the 7th of May 1876, but was rendered abortive by the opposition of the British bondholders.

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  • At the same time it is believed that but for the faculty given by the decree of 1888 to spend the General Reserve Fund on public works, the financial system elaborated by the London Convention would have broken down altogether.

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  • This theme is elaborated with great detail in the Pyramid texts, where it is the dead king to whom this destiny is promised.

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  • It was full of delicate variety in the surfaces, and of elaborated close-packed lines of hair and ornaments.

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  • The areas of intervening cortex, arriving at structural completion later than the above sense-spheres, are called by some association-spheres, to indicate the view that they contain the neural mechanisms of reactions (some have said "ideas") associated with the sense perceptions elaborated in the several sensese spheres.

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  • In his instructions to Novosiltsov, his special envoy in London, the tsar elaborated the motives of his policy in language which appealed as little to the common sense of Pitt as did later the treaty of the Holy Alliance to that of Castlereagh.

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  • It is not difficult in such compact species to distinguish between superficial cells, whose chief function is assimilation, subjacent cells charged with reserve material, and a core of tissue engaged in the convection of elaborated material from part to part.

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  • The presence of phycocyanin, phyco a role in the morphological development of land plants is entirely wanting in algae, such conducting tissues as do exist in the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae serving rather for the convection of elaborated organic substance, and being thus comparable with the phloem of the higher plants.

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  • Other panel portraits of the period are three small ones of members of the Tucher family at Weimar and Cassel, and the striking, restlessly elaborated half-length of Oswald Krell at Munich.

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  • On the other hand, many of his ideas have passed into the common literary stock, and have been more precisely elaborated by later writers on sociology and history; and though his own work is now somewhat neglected, its influence was immensely valuable in provoking further research and speculation.

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  • It is not an introduction - for the philosophy which it was to introduce was not then fully elaborated.

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  • 23) and elaborated and embellished by subsequent writers.

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  • Moreover, the ammonia process has been gradually elaborated into a very complicated but perfectly regularly working scheme, in which the cost of labour and the loss of ammonia are reduced to a minimum.

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  • The consilience of empirical and deductive processes was an Aristotelian discovery, elaborated by Mill against Bacon.

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  • It is natural, then, that the central contribution of the Sceptics to the knowledge controversy lies in the modes (Tp07rot) in which the relativity of phenomena is made good, that these are elaborated with extreme care, and that they have a modern ring and are full of instruction even to-day.

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  • Locke, when Cartesianism had raised the problem of the contents of consciousness, and the spirit of Baconian positivism could not accept of anything that bore the ill-omened name of innate ideas, elaborated a theory of knowledge which is psychological in the sense that its problem is how the simple data with which the individual is in contact in sensation are worked up into a system.

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  • But his claims, however great they may be, can in no way conflict with those of Hamilton, whose mode of multiplying couples (in which the " inner " and " outer " multiplication are essentially involved) was produced in 1833, and whose quaternion system was completed and published before Grassmann had elaborated for press even the rudimentary portions of his own system, in which the veritable difficulty of the whole subject, the application to angles in space, had not even been attacked.

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  • An attempt has been made to dispute James's authorship of the poem, but the arguments elaborated by J.

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  • This principle was elaborated in the firman, issued on the 13th of February, by which the sultan conferred on Mehemet Ali and his heirs by direct descent the pashalik of Egypt, the greatest care being taken not to bestow any rank and authority greater than that enjoyed by other viziers of the empire.

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  • In the succeeding year he showed, in the same journal, that if the elements be arranged in the order of their atomic weights, those having consecutive numbers frequently either belong to the same group or occupy similar positions in different groups, and he pointed out that each eighth element starting from a given one is in this arrangement a kind of repetition of the first, like the eighth note of an octave in music. The Law of Octaves thus enunciated was at first ignored or treated with ridicule as a fantastic notion unworthy of serious consideration, but the idea, subsequently elaborated by D.

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  • Anaxagoras (q.v.) elaborated a quasi-dualistic theory according to which all things have existed from the beginning.

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  • In their theory of a triple manifestation of an impersonal deity, the Brahmanical theologians, as we have seen, had indeed elaborated a doctrine which might have seemed to form a reasonable, authoritative creed for logy.

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  • Meanwhile the drama was emerging from the medieval mysteries; and the classical type, made popular by Garnier's genius, was elaborated, as in Italy, upon the model of Seneca and the canons of the three unities.

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  • The failure of the Jackson administration to reduce the Tariff of 1828 drew from Calhoun his "Address to the People of South Carolina" in 1831, in which he elaborated his views of the nature of the Union as given in the "Exposition."

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  • He was ignorant of the rules of grammar, confused genders and cases, and wrote in the vernacular Latin of his time, apart from certain passages which are especially elaborated and filled with poetical and elegant expressions.

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  • He elaborated a theory of Toltec migrations and considered the prehistoric Mexican to be of Asiatic origin, because of observed similarities to Japanese architecture, Chinese decoration, Malaysian language and Cambodian dress, &c.

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  • The theory was elaborated by S.

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  • Here, again, the theology was further developed, and an attempt made to annul the old dualism by envisaging both Ormuzd and Ahriman as emanations of an original principle of infinite time (Zervan), a doctrine which long enjoyed official validity under the Sassanids till, in the reign of Chosroes I., the sect of Zervanites was pronounced heretical.i But, above all, the ritual and the doctrine of purity were elaborated and expanded, and there was evolved a complete and detailed system of casuistry, dealing with all things allowed and forbidden, the forms of pollution and the expiation for each, &c., which, in its arid and spiritles1 monotony vividly recalls the similar prescriptions in the Pentateuch.

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  • The terms agreed upon were elaborated in a convention signed at Pretoria in August following.

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  • This phenomenon follows injury to the phloem in the lower parts of the stem, preventing the downward flow of elaborated sap. The injury may be due to gnawing insects, and particularly to the fungus Corticium vagum, var.

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  • It is clear that the activity of these teachers was chiefly directed to ethics: they elaborated fresh definitions of the chief good, designed either to make yet clearer the sense of the formulas of Chrysippus or else to meet the more urgent objections of the New Academy.

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  • Their plans were carefully elaborated, and on the 1st of December 1640 various strategic points were seized, the few partisans of Spain who attempted resistance were overpowered, and a provisional government was formed under D.

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  • The technique of serum preparation has become since that time greatly elaborated and improved, the work of P. Ehrlich in this respect being specially noteworthy.

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  • He contributed little to the solution of the problem, but forced the investigation of the canon alike on theologians and the reading public. Again, he sketched a view of early church history, further worked out by Johann Salomo Semler (1725-1791), and surprisingly like that which was later elaborated by the Tubingen school.

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  • He may be said to have introduced the direct and colloquial manner upon the American public platform, as distinct from the highly elaborated and often ornate style which had been established by Edward Everett; nor has there ever been a reversion since his day to the more artificial method.

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  • As the Pharisees accumulated the oral tradition which was afterwards codified and elaborated or preserved by fragments, which served some useful purpose, in the Talmud and other Rabbinic writings, the Sadducees acquired concrete regulations to oppose so long as they dared.

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  • The same turn for detail is observable in his ethics, where, to judge from the imperfect evidence of the Characters, he elaborated still farther Aristotle's portraiture of the virtues See Gellius, Noct.

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  • Davis has elaborated a theory of river classification, and a scheme of the origin of surfacefeatures which is attractive in its simplicity.

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  • Taking as the basis for discussion the draft loi organique of 1901, it elaborated a measure laying down the principles applicable to the Congo State when it should become a Belgian colony.

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  • However his own particular interpretations may have been condemned, they were conceived in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with approval from the heads of the church.

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  • Perhaps the best criticism of Edwards's philosophy as a whole is that, instead of being elaborated on purely rational principles, it is mixed up with a system of theological conceptions with which it is never thoroughly combined, and that it is exposed to all the disturbing effects of theological controversy.

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  • The growing solidarity between the two Ruman principalities received a striking illustration in 1816, when the Walachian and Moldavian hospodars published together a code applicable to both countries, and which had been elaborated by a joint commission.

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  • The Organic Law thus elaborated was by no means of a liberal character, and amongst other abuses maintained the feudal privileges of the boiars.

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  • Their chief contributions to thought were Cudworth's theory of the "plastic nature" of God, More's elaborate mysticism, Norris's appreciation of Malebranche, Glanvill's conception of scepticism as an aid to Faith, and, in a less degree, the harmony of Faith and Reason elaborated by Culverwel.

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  • But his great influence on modern thought is undeniable, both as the historic founder of French socialism and as suggesting much of what was afterwards elaborated into Comtism.

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  • This assembly elaborated 102 canons, which did not become part of the Western law till much later, on the initiative of Pope John VIII.

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  • The theory which had most influence on the conceptions of Echinoderms in the two concluding decades of the 19th century was that of Lover', elaborated by P. H.

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  • - Spines may be variously elaborated and are set more at right angles to the arm-axis.

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  • Treating this rule as axiomatic the Schoolmen elaborated their analyses of the sacrament of penance, distinguishing form and matter, attrition and contrition, mortal and venial sins.

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  • Ephorus, relying on Hesiodic tradition of an aboriginal Pelasgian type in Arcadia, elaborated a theory of the Pelasgians as a warrior-people spreading (like "Aryans") from a "Pelasgian home," and annexing and colonizing all the parts of Greece where earlier writers had found allusions to them, from Dodona to Crete and the Troad, and even as far as Italy, where again their settlements had been recognized as early as the time of Hellanicus, in close connexion once more with "Tyrrhenians."

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  • Those nearest to the lens are the corneagen cells of this more elaborated eye, and those between the original retinula cells and the corneagen cells become firm and transparent.

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  • This magnum opus, rewritten and further elaborated (4th ed., 16 vols.

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  • Appearance and Reality was not primarily concerned with morals, yet it inevitably led to certain conclusions affecting conduct, and it was no very long time before these conclusions were elaborated in detail.

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  • But in his exposition of the fundamental contradiction involved in morality elaborated with much care and illustrative argument he appeals for the most part to facts familiar to the unphilosophical moral consciousness.

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  • Telling of stories was a recognized form of entertainment at all feasts and gatherings, and it was the necessity of the reciter which gradually worked them into a regular form, by which the memory was relieved and the artistic features of the story allowed to be more carefully elaborated.

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  • The Eudoxian or " homocentric " system, after it had been further elaborated by Callippus and Aristotle, was modified by Apollonius of Perga (fl.

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  • He further elaborated it by the introduction of " eccentrics," which accounted for the changes in orbital velocity of the sun and moon by a displacement of the earth, to a corresponding extent, from the centre of the circles they were assumed to describe.

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  • That the Osirian myth (much as it was elaborated and allegorized) originated in the same sort of fancy as the Tacullie story of the dismembered beaver out of whose body things were made is a conclusion not devoid of plausibility.

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  • It was no longer upon religion or morality, it was upon imperial and Roman rights that these chevaliers s lois based the princes omnipotence; and nothing more clearly marks the new tradition which was being elaborated than the fact that all the great events of Philip the Fairs reign were lawsuits.

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  • The royal exchequer, which was being painfully elaborated in the chambre des corn ptes, and the treasury of the crown lands at the Louvre, together barely sufficed to meet the expenses of this more complicated and costly machinery.

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  • The Leges Wisi got horuni were elaborated in these councils (see GERMANIC LAW).

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  • At this period (1880-1882) schemes for the reorganization and better administration of the Sudan were elaborated on paper, but the revolt in Egypt under Arabi (see Egypt: History) and the appearance in the Sudan of a Mandi prevented these schemes from being put into s Up to 1877, when the work was abandoned, some 50 m.

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  • To his disciples there he assigned the task of writing lives of the English saints, while his own time was largely devoted to the completion of an essay on the development of Christian doctrine, by which principle he sought to reconcile himself to the elaborated creed and the practical system of the Roman Church.

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  • But the Connecticut authorities in their effort to establish a legal claim to the country and to thwart the efforts of the Hamilton family to assert its claims to the territory between the Connecticut river and Narragansett Bay - claims derived from a grant of the Plymouth Company to James, marquess of Hamilton (1606-1649) in 1635 - elaborated the theory that the Plymouth Company had made a grant to Warwick, and that consequently his quit claim conferred jurisdiction upon the Say and Sele Company; but even in this event, Fenwick had no right to make his sale, for which he never secured confirmation.

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  • This view was, however, overborne by the great authority of Lachmann, whose theory, in complete harmony with the principles popularized by the brothers Grimm, was accepted and elaborated by a long series of critics.

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  • Others, however, are much more elaborated, with preliminary rounds held that encompass a variety of divisions, including formal wear, swimwear, casual wear, interviews, and sometimes even talent competitions.

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  • Within fine arts, this etymological nuance has been elaborated into a full-fledged aesthetic distinction between the naked and the nude, a distinction most famously articulated by Kenneth Clark.

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  • Deep Space Nine introduced a number of new races to the Star Trek universe and elaborated upon many of the traditional ones.

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