383; Ehrlich, " Mastzellen," Arch.
If the striking conceptions of Paul Ehrlich and Emil Fischer continue to prove as fertile in inspiring and directing research as at present they seem to be, another wide sphere of.
Immunity: Ehrlich, " On Immunity with Special Reference to Cell-life," Proc. R.
The technique of serum preparation has become since that time greatly elaborated and improved, the work of P. Ehrlich in this respect being specially noteworthy.
In other cases such changes cannot be detected, and the only evidence of their occurrence may be the associated symptoms. The very important work of Ehrlich on diphtheria toxin shows that in the molecule of toxin there are at least two chief atom groups - one, the " haptophorous," by which the toxin molecule is attached to the cell protoplasm; and the other the " toxophorous," which has a ferment-like action on the living molecule, producing a disturbance which results in the toxic symptoms. On this theory, susceptibility to a toxin will imply both a chemical affinity of certain tissues for the toxin molecule and also sensitiveness to its actions, and, furthermore, non-susceptibility may result from the absence of either of these two properties.
Anti-substances may be arranged, as has been done by Ehrlich, into three main groups.
The unit of antitoxin in Ehrlich's new standard is the amount requisite to antagonize i oo times the minimum lethal dose of a particular toxin to a guinea-pig of 250 grm.
The latter view, first advocated by Ehrlich, harmonizes with the facts established with regard to toxic action and the behaviour of antitoxins, and may now be regarded as established.
Ehrlich's view is that the two substances form a firm combination like a strong acid and a base.
This result, which is usually known now as the " Ehrlich phenomenon," was explained by him on the supposition that the " toxin " does not represent molecules which are all the same, but contains molecules of different degrees of combining affinity and of toxic action.
It has, moreover, been found that the serum of various animals has a certain amount of antitoxic action, and thus the basis for antitoxin production, according to Ehrlich's theory, is afforded.
The former (Immunko y per of Ehrlich, substance sensibilisatrice of Bordet) is the more stable, resisting a temperature of 60° C., and though giving the specific character to the reaction cannot act alone.
Natural immunity against toxins must be taken into account, and, if Ehrlich's view with regard to toxic action be correct, this may depend upon either the absence of chemical affinity of the living molecules of the tissues for the toxic molecule, or upon insensitiveness to the action of the toxophorous group. It has been shown with regard to the former, for example, that the nervous system of the fowl, which possesses immunity against tetanus toxin, has little combining affinity for it.
The most important works on immunity are: Ehrlich, Studies in Immunity (English translation, New York, 5906), and Metchnikoff, Immunity in Infective Diseases (English translation, Cambridge, 1905).
surmise that the figure was discerned in a cloudy crystal ball that is Ehrlich's head.
It is strongly supported by Ehrlich, who, in his so-called " side-chain " (Seitenkette) theory, explains antitoxin production as an instance of regeneration after loss.
The former (Immunko y per of Ehrlich, substance sensibilisatrice of Bordet) is the more stable, resisting a temperature of 60Ã‚° C., and though giving the specific character to the reaction cannot act alone.
red corpuscles (Bordet, Ehrlich and Morgenroth), leucocytes and spermatozoa (Metchnikoff).
We can only surmise that the figure was discerned in a cloudy crystal ball that is Ehrlich 's head.
Abraham Ehrlich started the company in 1954 when he started his career offering auto insurance products to auto dealers throughout Southern California.
The agency grew as Robert Ehrlich also joined the company and before long they found that the insurance products they offered were not sufficient.
The publication of Ehrlich's chemical, or rather physical, theory of immunity has thrown much light upon this very intricate and obscure subject.
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