Egyptians sentence example

egyptians
  • In 1832 it was taken by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha.
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  • The Tell el-Amarna letters show that, long before the invasion by Joshua, it was occupied by the Egyptians, and was probably a stronghold of considerable importance, as it formed a good strategical position in the hill country of southern Palestine.
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  • The Egyptians believed that our souls have lived in animals, and will go back into animals again.
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  • This empire was finally overthrown by the Egyptians in 1821.
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  • Semites and Egyptians, Peruvians and Aztecs, slew human victims; Africa, especially the West Coast, till recently saw thousands of human victims perish annually; in Polynesia, Tahiti and Fiji were great centres of the rite - in fact, it is not easy to name an area where it has not been known.
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  • In the Mandaean view the Old Testament saints are false prophets; such as Abraham, who arose six thousand years after NU (Noah) during the reign of the sun, Misha (Moses), in whose time the true religion was professed by the Egyptians, and Shlimun (Solomon) bar Davith, the lord of the demons.
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  • Reisner & Firth have shown that the early culture of Nubia was closely akin to that of the predynastic Egyptians, which no doubt came from the south.
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  • A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
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  • The earth is conceived of as a round disk, slightly sloping towards the south, surrounded on three sides by the sea, but on the north by a high mountain of turquoises; behind this is the abode of the blest, a sort of inferior paradise, inhabited by the Egyptians who were saved from drowning with Pharaoh in the Red Sea, and whom the Mandaeans look upon as their ancestors, Pharaoh himself having been their first high priest and king.
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  • Beetles (Scarabaei) are the subjects of some of the oldest sculptured works of the Egyptians, and references to locusts, bees and ants are familiar to all readers of the Hebrew scriptures.
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  • The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
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  • Whence the Egyptians and a little later on the Babylonians got their tin for the alloy we do not yet know.
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  • The experiment of arming the native Egyptians on a large scale does not seem to have been made before the campaign of 217, when Ptolemy IV.
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  • The ancient Egyptians were famed as " geometers," and as early as the days of Rameses II.
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  • Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped; figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples, and they were regarded as emblems of the divine being.
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  • Herodotus, speaking of the sanctity in which some animals were held by the Egyptians, says that the people of every family in which a dog died shaved themselves - their expression of mourning - adding that this was a custom of his own time.
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  • Indeed, it was claimed that Cambyses had left the sanctuary unharmed but had destroyed the temples of the Egyptians.
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  • Nothing is more likely than that Christianity gained adherents among the Therapeutae, and that their institutions were adapted to the new religion, just as they seem to have been borrowed by the Jews from the Egyptians.
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  • Evidence is accumulating, though no completely satisfactory theory can yet be put forward, as to the northern origin of the dynastic Egyptians.
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  • 2 These Colchians certainly were not Egyptians.
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  • The Israelites were commanded to select on the tenth of Abib (Nisan) a he-lamb of the first year, without blemish, to kill it on the eve of the fourteenth and to sprinkle with its blood the lintel and sidepost of the doors of their dwellings so that the Lord should "pass over" them when he went forth to slay the first-born of the Egyptians.
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  • At midnight all the first-born of the Egyptians are slain and Pharaoh sends the Israelites out of Egypt in haste, and the people took the dough before it was leavened upon kneading troughs upon their shoulders.
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  • Admiral de Rigny left for a cruise in the Levant, and Sir Edward Codrington, hearing that an Egyptian armament was on its way from Alexandria, and believing that it was bound for Hydra, steered for that island, which he reached on the 3rd of September, but on the 12th of September found the Egyptians at anchor with a Turkish squadron at Navarino.
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  • The Egyptians and Turks had only three line of battleships and fifteen large frigates, together with a swarm of small craft which raised their total number to eighty and upwards.
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  • The loss of the Turks and Egyptians was never accurately reported, but it was certainly very great.
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  • Gospel according to the Egyptians.
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  • According to Harnack, it is an extract from the Gospel of the Egyptians.
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  • Some of his citations are derived from the Gospel to the Egyptians.
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  • Kassala was founded by the Egyptians in 1840 as a fortified post from which to control their newly conquered territory near the Abyssinian frontier.
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  • It is probable that the algebra of the Egyptians was of a most rudimentary nature, for otherwise we should expect to find traces of it in the works of the Greek geometers, of whom Thales of Miletus (640-546 B.C.) was the first.
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  • The Egyptians, though acquainted with the bastard safflower, do not seem to have possessed saffron; but it is named in Canticles iv.
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  • The ancient Egyptians used various substances as incense.
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  • Hindus, the Egyptians have maintained to the present day; and, although they have changed their religion, the use of incense among them continues to be as familiar and formal as ever.
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  • In cold weather the Egyptians warm their rooms by placing in them a brazier, "chafing-dish," or "standing-dish," filled with charcoal, whereon incense is burnt; and in hot weather they refresh them by occasionally swinging a hand censer by a chain through them - frankincense, benzoin and aloe wood being.
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  • The Egyptians understood the use of incense as symbolical of the purification of the soul by prayer.
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  • The principle of applying metallic films to glass seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the Egyptians, and is mentioned by Alexander Neckam in the 12th century, but it would appear that it was not until the 16th century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected.
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  • Being on the frontier line, the possession of the town was for long a matter of dispute between the Sudanese, and later the Egyptians, on the one hand and the Abyssinians on the other.
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  • About 1870 the Egyptians garrisoned the town, which in 1886 was attacked by the dervishes and sacked.
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  • The Egyptian frontier was crossed on the 3rd of Tammuz (June), and Tirhaka, at the head of the Egyptian forces, was driven to Memphis after fifteen days of continuous fighting, during which the Egyptians were thrice defeated with heavy loss and Tirhada himself was wounded.
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  • Contrary to the opinion of the Greeks, the Ethiopians appear to have derived their religion and civilization from the Egyptians.
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  • On his arrival at Hofuf, Sadlier found that Ibrahim had already left Deraiya, but still hoping to intercept him before quitting Nejd, he followed up the retreating Egyptians through Yemama, and Wushm to Ras in Kasim, where he caught up the main body of Ibrahim's army, though the pasha himself had gone on to Medina.
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  • Medina and subsequently Mecca were eventually taken by the Egyptians, but in spite of continual reinforcements they could do little more than hold their own in Hejaz.
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  • Terms of peace were made, but on the retirement of the Egyptians Abdallah refused to carry out the conditions agreed on, which 'For further details of this period, see Egypt: History, " Mahommedan Period," § 8.
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  • Deraiya was razed to the ground and the principal towns of Nejd were compelled to admit Egyptian garrisons; but though the Arabs saw themselves powerless to stand before disciplined troops, the Egyptians, on the other hand, had to confess that without useless sacrifices they could not retain their hold on the interior.
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  • The Nilotic Nubians are on the whole a strong muscular people, essentially agricultural, more warlike and energetic than the Egyptians.
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  • A Catholic commentator of the 16th century, Hieronymus ab Oleastro, seems to have been the first to connect the name " Jehova " with howah interpreting it contritio, sive pernicies (destruction of the Egyptians and Canaanites); Daumer, adopting the same etymology, took it in a more general sense: Yahweh, as well as Shaddai, meant " Destroyer," and fitly expressed the nature of the terrible god whom he identified with Moloch.
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  • A similar form was used by the ancient Egyptians long prior to the Jewish use.
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  • For Egypt, see Lane's Modern Egyptians, and the Journal of Sir Walter Scott, xi.
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  • Meanwhile Baldwin repelled in successive years the attacks of the Egyptians (1102, 1103, 1105), and in the latter years of his reign (1115-1118) he even pushed southward at the expense of Egypt, penetrating as far as the Red Sea, and planting an outpost at Monreal.
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  • El Obeid, which appears to be a place of considerable antiquity and the ancient capital of the country, was garrisoned by the Egyptians on their conquest of Kordofan in 1821.
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  • What gave them a seeming importance in the eyes of posterity was the fact that the true history of the Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Arabians and Hittites had been well-nigh forgotten.
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  • By the Romans the era of Actium was considered as beginning on the 1st of January of the 16th of the Julian era, which is the 30th B.C. The Egyptians, who used this era till the time of Diocletian, dated its commencement from the beginning of their month Thoth, or the 29th of August; and the Eastern Greeks from the 2nd of September.
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  • In their civil affairs the Armenians follow the ancient vague year of the Egyptians; but their ecclesiastical year, which begins on the 1 1th of August, is regulated in the same manner as the Julian year, every fourth year consisting of 366 days, so that Easter and the other festivals are retained at the same place in the seasons as well as in the civil year.
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  • Till the year 1079 the Persian year resembled that of the ancient Egyptians, consisting of 365 days without intercalation; but at that time the Persian calendar was reformed by Jelal ud-Din Malik Shah, sultan of Khorasan, and a method of intercalation adopted which, though less convenient, is considerably more accurate than the Julian.
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  • More dangerous was the rebellion of Egypt under Inarus (Inaros), which was put down by Megabyzus only after a long struggle against the Egyptians and the Athenians (460-454).
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  • During these two reigns the Egyptians suffered every kind of misery and the temples remained closed.
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  • Herodotus continues that in his own day the Egyptians were unwilling to name these oppressors and preferred to call the pyramids after a shepherd named Philition, who pastured his flocks in their neighbourhood.
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  • The Greeks and Romans generally accepted the view that Herodotus supplies of his character, and moralized on the uselessness of his stupendous work; but there is nothing else to prove that the Egyptians themselves execrated his memory.
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  • Before its conquest by the Egyptians in 1820 its ruler owed allegiance to the kings of Sennar.
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  • The Egyptians adopted from the Greeks, with considerable modifications of its attendant symbolism, the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. Aries became the Fleece; two Sprouting Plants, typifying equality or resemblance, stood for Gemini; Cancer was re-named Scarabaeus; Leo was converted, from the axe-like configuration of its chief stars, into the Knife: Libra into the Mountain of the Sun, a reminiscence, apparently, of the Euphratean association of the seventh month with a " holy mound," designating the biblical tower of Babel.
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  • The Chaldaeans, Egyptians and Greeks were the early cultivators of science, and botany was not neglected, although the study of it was mixed up with crude speculations as to vegetable life, and as to the change of plants into animals.
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  • This fact was also known to the Egyptians, the Phoenicians and other nations of Asia and Africa.
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  • Nothing was known about the method employed by the Egyptians till the year 1719.
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  • Among the ancient Egyptians the local god was the protector and lord of the district.
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  • According to Captain Stanley Flower, director of the Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, Egypt, the ancient Egyptians kept various species of wild animals in captivity, but the first Zoological Garden of which there is definite knowledge was founded in China by the first emperor of the Chou dynasty, who reigned about iioo B.C. This was called the "Intelligence Park," and appears to have had a scientific and educational object.
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  • Outside this group would come what are called the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts (Gospel according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians, of Peter, of Truth, of the Twelve [or Ebionite Gospel], the recently recovered so-called Logia; the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Acts of Pilate, Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas; the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter).
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  • There are many indications early in the 2nd century of a tendency towards the recognition of a single Gospel; for instance, there are the local Gospels according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians; Marcion had but one Gospel, St Luke, the Valentinians preferred St John and so on; Tatian reduced the Four Gospels to one by means of a Harmony, and it is possible that something of the kind may have existed before he did this.
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  • The Egyptians report the weight of a measure of various articles, amongst others water (6), but lay no special stress on it; and the fact that there is no measure of water equal to a direct decimal multiple of the weight-unit, except very high in the scale, does not seem as if the volume was directly based upon weight.
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  • The first theory has assumed three main forms. (a) Harnack maintains that they were taken from the Gospel according to the Egyptians.
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  • The phrase " when ye shall be stripped and not be ashamed " contains an idea which has some affinity with two passages found respectively in the Gospel according to the Egyptians and the so-called Second Epistle of Clement.
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  • The resemblance, however, is not sufficiently close to warrant the deduction that either the Gospel of the Egyptians or the Gospel from which the citation in 2 Clement is taken (if these two are distinct) is the source from which our fragment is derived.
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  • The war with the Turks and Egyptians which succeeded the return from India was rendered notable by the capture of Aleppo and Damascus, and especially by the defeat and imprisonment of Sultan Bayezid I.
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  • Among the ancient Egyptians, as would appear from a calculation in the Rhind papyrus, the number (3) 4, i.e.
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  • Although some of the Greek writers made Busiris an Egyptian king and a successor of Menes, about the sixtieth of the series, and the builder of Thebes, those better informed by the Egyptians rejected him altogether.
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  • The sacrifice of foreign prisoners before a god, a regular scene on temple walls, is perhaps only symbolical, at any rate for the later days of Egyptian history, but foreign intruders must often have suffered rude treatment at the hands of the Egyptians, in spite of the generally mild character of the latter.
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  • Europeans in general, like the ancient Egyptians, place the commencement of the civil day at midnight, and reckon twelve morning hours from midnight to midday, and twelve evening hours from midday to midnight.
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  • Among the ancient Egyptians the month consisted of thirty days invariably; and in order to complete the year, five days were added at the end, called supplementary days.
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  • His policy was evidently to find a deity that should win the reverence alike of Greeks and Egyptians.
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  • The Greeks of that day would have had little respect for a grotesque Egyptian figure, while the Egyptians were more willing to accept divinity in any shape.
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  • The more accurate form is then generally the later, found in documents written by Greeks in familiar intercourse with Egyptians, the less accurate is traditional from an older date in the mouths of pure Greeks and Hellenists, and is used in literary writings.
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  • The preservative climate of Upper Egypt and the belief of the Egyptians in life after death must be the causes which led them to take unusual care for preserving the bodies of their dead.
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  • But the parcels, examined by an expert, contained no trace of organic remains, proving how much the Egyptians depended on magic imitations and make-believe.
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  • The Egyptians did not stop at the mummification of the human body; sacred animals, birds, reptiles, fishes, and even insects were treated in a similar way, and the meat offerings deposited with the wealthy dead were likewise "preserved."
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  • What the Egyptians really thought of mummification can only be partially guessed.
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  • As the corpse was found generally to disappear and decay in spite of preservative magic, especially in the early ages, various substitutes were resorted to; statues and statuettes were thought efficacious, but, apart from their costliness, even these were subject to decay or destruction by violence, and in the absence of anything more substantial the Egyptians doubtless reflected that magic words alone in the last resort made everything right.
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  • In the last thousand years B.C. the life of the Egyptians consisted largely in every kind of religious and superstitious observances.
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  • The plant has been cultivated in Egypt from the beginning of the Christian era, but there is no proof that it was known to the ancient Egyptians.
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  • The town is built in two divisions - the native town to the east, the new town, laid out by the Egyptians (1875-1877), to the west.
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  • However, for the Egyptians see Category:History of Africa
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  • A collection of casts, likewise in the museum, is designed to display the progress of plastic art from the time of the Egyptians and Assyrians to modern ages.
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  • It dates from 1221, and is famous as the scene of the battle of Mansura, fought on the 8th of February 1250, between the crusaders commanded by the king of France, St Louis, and the Egyptians.
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  • In the last crisis of the dying power of Assyria the Egyptians for a short time laid hands on Phoenicia; but after their defeat at the battle of Carchemish (605), the Chaldaeans became the masters of western Asia.
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  • With King Kabarega, a son of Kamurasi, the Egyptians had many encounters.
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  • 5 It is a popular error - especially among painters - that this bird was the sacred ibis of the Egyptians.
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  • Other subjects on which he published papers were the inflammation of turpentine and other essential oils by nitric acid, and the methods of embalmment practised by the Egyptians.
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  • In all that followed Arabi was put forward as the leader of the discontented Egyptians; he was in reality little more than the mouthpiece and puppet of abler men such as Ali Rubi and Mahmud Sami.
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  • Of this extensive work there are still extant only the first five books, treating of the mythic history of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Greeks; and also the i i th to the 20th books inclusive, beginning with the second Persian War, and ending with the history of the successors of Alexander, previous to the partition of the Macedonian empire (302).
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  • These six kings reigned 198 years and 10 months, and all aimed at extirpating the Egyptians.
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  • It is certain that this mysterious people were Asiatic, for they are called so by the Egyptians.
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  • Hatred of these impious foreigners, of which there is some trace in more than one text, aroused amongst the Egyptians (as nothing ever did before or since) that martial spirit which carried the armies of Tethmosis to the Euphrates.
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  • When the Egyptians invaded the Sudan in 1820 Shendi, then a place of considerable size, submitted to Ismail Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt.
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  • In 1822, however, Ismail and his chief followers were treacherously burnt to death at Shendi by order of the mek (ruler) of the town, in revenge for the cruelties committed by the Egyptians.
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  • Idolaters, or, as he more gently terms them in addressing the emperor, "those who worship what among you are said to be gods," he subdivides into the three great world-civilizations - Chaldeans, Greeks and Egyptians.
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  • "The Egyptians have erred worse than all the nations; for they were not content with the worships of the Chaldeans and Greeks, but introduced, moreover, as gods even brute beasts of the dry land and of the waters, and plants and herbs..
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  • It was not, however, until the rulers of the XVIIIth dynasty carried their victorious arms beyond the Egyptian frontiers in every direction that Ammon began to assume the proportions of a universal god for the Egyptians, eclipsing all their other deities and asserting his power over the gods of all foreign lands.
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  • By degrees it became greater than El-Fostat, and took from it the name of Misr, or Masr, which is applied to it by the modern Egyptians.
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  • Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at cross-roads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, AECUISacµovias); and according to Pliny garlic and onions were invocated as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths.
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  • These oases were known and occupied by the Egyptians as early as 1600 s.c., and Kharga (q.v.) rose to special importance at the time of the Persian occupation.
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  • The horses are of indifferent breed, apparently of a type much inferior to that possessed by the ancient Egyptians.
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  • The diseases from which Egyptians suffer are very largely the result of insanitary surroundings.
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  • Smallpox is not uncommon, and skin diseases are numerous, but the two most prevalent diseases among the Egyptians are dysentery and ophthalmia.
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  • Domestic A nimals.-The Egyptians are not particularly a pastora people, though the wealth of the Bedouin in the Eastern or Arabia, i Desert consists in their camels, horses, sheep and goats.
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  • The Egyptians are noted for the making of pottery of the commoner kinds, especially water-jars.
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  • It will be convenient to state first the law as regards foreigners, and secondly the law which concerns Egyptians.
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  • The judicial systems applicable solely to Egyptians are supervised by the ministry of justice, to which has been attached since 1890 a British judicial adviser.
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  • (In the same manner, in matters of personal law, Copts and other non-Moslem Egyptians are, in general, subject to the jurisdiction of their own religious chiefs.)
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  • The eyes, with very few exceptions, are black, large and of a long almond-form, with long and beautiful lashes, and an exquisitely soft, bewitching expressioneyes more beautiful can hardly be conceived: their charming effect is much heightened by the concealment of the other features (however pleasing the latter may be), and is rendered still more striking by a practice universal among the females of the higher and middle classes, and very common among those of the lower orders, which is that of blackening the edge of the eyelids both above and below the eye, with a black powder called kohl (Lane, Modern Egyptians).
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  • Though allowed by his religion four wives, most Egyptians are monogamists.
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  • In social intercourse the Egyptians observe many forms of salutation and much etiquette; they are very affable, and readily enter into conversation with strangers.
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  • Egyptians, however, are as a rule suspicious of all not of their own creed and country.
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  • Their performances are often objectionable and are so regarded by many Egyptians.
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  • The Saadia are famous for charming and eating live serpents, &c., and the Ilwania for eating fire, glass, &c. The Egyptians firmly believe in the efficacy of charms, a belief associated with that in an omnipresent and over-ruling providence.
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  • Lanes Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, first published in 1836.
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  • The education of Egyptians in continental cities had not produced the class of leaders who led the fellahin to victory at Konia.
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  • Marshal Marmont, writing in 1839, mentions the capacity of the Egyptians for endurance; and it was tested In 1883, especially in the 2nd Brigade, since its officers (Turks and Egyptians), anxious to excel as drill-masters, worked their men not only from morn till eve, but also by lamplight in the corridors of the barracks.
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  • Only 1400 Egyptians escaped the slaughter.
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  • In the autumn of 1884, when a British expedition went up the Nile to endeavour to relieve the heroic Gordon, besieged in Khartum, the Egyptians did remarkably good work on the line of communication from Assiut to Korti, a distance of 800 m., and the training and experience thus gained were of great value in all subsequent operations.
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  • Twelve years later the standard of honesty was unimpaired; and the British officers had imparted energy and activity into Egyptians of all ranks.
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  • Of the composition of history and the description of their own manners and customs by the Egyptians for posterity, few traces have reached our day.
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  • Egypt normally included the whole of the Nile valley from the First Cataract to the sea; pure Egyptians, however, formed the population of Lower Nubia above the Cataract in prehistori.c times; at some periods also the land was divided into separate kingdoms, while at others Egypt stretched southward into Nubia, and it generally claimed the neighboring Libyan deserts and oases on the west and the Arabian deserts on the east to the shore of the Red Sea, with Sinai and the Mediterranean coast as far as Rhinocorura (El Arish).
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  • The Egyptians had some traffic on the Mediterranean from very remote times, especially with Byblus in Phoenicia, the port for cedar-wood.
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  • The Egyptians seem to have applied no distinctive name to themselves in early times: they called themselves proudly rmi (RMTW), i.e.
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  • The races of mankind, including the Egyptians, were often called the Nine Archers.
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  • Ultimately the Egyptians, when their insularity disappeared under the successive dominations of Ethiopia, Assyria and Persia, described themselves as rem-n-Ki.ni, men of Egypt.
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  • According to the evidence of the mummies, the Egyptians were of slender build, with dark hair and of Caucasian type.
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  • This was apparently due to admixture with the Lower Egyptians, who themselves had been affected by Syrian immigration.
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  • Urged on by necessity and opportunity, the Egyptians possessed sufficient enterprise and originating power to keep ahead of their neighbors in.
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  • Arms and ArmourFrom the contents of graves and other remains, and the sculptured and painted scenes, an approximate idea can be obtained of the weapons of the Egyptians at all periods from the prehistoric age onwards.
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  • The pig is rarely figured and was less and less tolerated as the Egyptians grew in ceremonial purity.
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  • Science.The Egyptians sought little after knowledge for its own sake: they might indulge in religious speculation, but their science was no more than the knowledge of practical methods.
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  • Undoubtedly the Egyptians acquired great skillinthe application of simple means to the fulfilment of the most difficult tasks.
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  • Such men, who, capable in every field, designed the Great Pyramids and bestowed the highest monumental fame on their masters, must surely have had an insight into scientific principles that would hardly be credited to the Egyptians from the written documents alone.
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  • A papyrus of the Roman period in the British Museum attributes the invention of horoscopes to the Egyptians, but no early instance is known.
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  • Behind the great natural phen.omena that they 0th ceived all around them, the Egyptians, like other primitive cha :, postulated the existence of divine wills not dissimilar the dnd to their own, though vastly superior in power.
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  • Among them the bright star Sirius was any I in special esteem; it was a goddess Sothis (Sopde), often be 1tified by the Egyptians with Isis.
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  • Still the Egyptians themselves seem to have been somewhat at a loss to account for the great veneration that they paid to Osiris.
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  • Nowhere is the conservatism of the Egyptians more clearly displayed than in the tenacity with which they clung to the old forms of the theology, such as -we have essayed to describe.
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  • And the mystical bent of the Egyptians found satisfaction in the multiplicity of forms that their gods could assume; among the favorite epithets which the hymns apply to divinities are such as mysterious of shapes, multiple of faces.
    0
    0
  • It is doubtless such explanations as these that the Greeks had in view when they praised the wisdom of the ancient Egyptians; and, in the classical period similar semi-philosophical interpretations altogether supplanted, among the learned at least, the naive literal beliefs of earlier times.
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  • The Divine Cult.In the midst of every town rose the temple of the local god, a stately building of stone, strongly :ontrasting with the mud and plaster houses in which even the wealthiest Egyptians dwelt.
    0
    0
  • Tombs of brick with a single chamber were succeeded by tombs of stone with several chambers, until they really merited the name of houses of eternity that the Egyptians gave to them.
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    0
  • The conception of this psychical entity is too vaguely formulated by the Egyptians and too foreign to modern thought to admit of exact translation: of the many renderings that have been proposed, perhaps double is the most suitable.
    0
    0
  • In spite of all the precautions they took and the contracts they made, the Egyptians could never quite rid themselves of the dread that their tombs might decay and their cult be neglected; and they sought therefore to obtain by prayers and threats what they feared they might lose altogether.
    0
    0
  • But just as the Egyptians found no contradiction between.
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  • It was but natural that the Egyptians should wish to employ magic for their own benefit or self-gratification, and since religion put no veto on the practice so long as it was exercised within legal bounds, it was put to a widespread use among them.
    0
    0
  • Among the Egyptians, as in other lands,, llnesses were supposed to be due to evil spirits or the ghosts of lead men who had taken up their abode in the body of the fufferer, and they could only be driven thence by charms and;pells.
    0
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  • At other times the gods are threatened with privations or even destruction if they refuse to aid the magician: the Egyptians seem to have found little impiety in such a use of the divine name, though to us it would seem the utmost degree of ptofanity when, for instance, a magician declares that ifhis spell prove ineffective, he will cast fire into Mendes and burn up Osiris.
    0
    0
  • Early in the 2nd century AD., pagan Egyptians, or perhaps foreigners settled in Egypt, essayed, as yet unskilfully, to write the native language in Greek letters.
    0
    0
  • The Egyptians proper are not, and so far as we can.
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    0
  • Very probably the Egyptians never constructed a really systematic list of hieroglyphs.
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    0
  • No enamelling was ever done by Egyptians, and the few rare examples are all of Roman age due to foreign work.
    0
    0
  • Technical.The standard year of the Ancient Egyptians consisted of twelve months of thirty days i each, with five epagomenal days, in all 365 days.
    0
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  • Ultimately the Egyptians gave names to the months taken from festivals celebrated in them, in order as follows:Thoth, Paophi, Athyr, Choiak, Tobi, Mechir, PhamenOth, Pharmuthi, Pachons, Payni, Epiphi, Mesore, the epagomenal days being then called the short year.
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  • This fleet joined the Libyan invaders, but was overthrown with heavy loss by the Egyptians, in whose ranks there actually served many Sherden and Kehaka, Sardinian and Libyan mercenaries.
    0
    0
  • Ihe development of trade in the Mediterranean and contact with new peoples and new civilizations in peace and war had given birth to new ideas among the Egyptians and at the same time to a loss of confidence in their own powers.
    0
    0
  • In other than religious matters, however, the Egyptians were inventing and perhaps borrowing.
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    0
  • Cambyses at first conciliated the Egyptians and respected their religion; but, perhaps after the failure of his expedition into Ethiopia, he enti~ely changed his policy, and his The memory was generally execrated.
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  • Xerxes, 486467 B.C., who put down the revolt with severity, and his successor Artaxerxes, 466425 B.C., like Cambyses, were hateful to the Egyptians.
    0
    0
  • After the Egyptians had experienced a reverse, Iphicrates counselled an immediate advance on.
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  • Breasted, A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest (New York and London, 1905); A History of the Ancient Egyptians (New York and London, 1908); Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, collected, edited and translated (5 vols., Chicago, 1906-1907); \V.
    0
    0
  • Ultimately the new religion spread to the Egyptians; their own creed was worn out, and they found in Christianity a doctrine of the future life for which their old belief had made them not unready; while the social teaching of Christianity came with special fitness to a subject race.
    0
    0
  • His granting of the Roman citizenship to all Egyptians in common with the other provincials was only to extort more taxes.
    0
    0
  • The vigorous measures of the authorities at Bagdad speedily quelled this rebellion, and the Tulunid palace at Kati was then destroyed in order that there might be nothing to remind the Egyptians of the dynasty.
    0
    0
  • In 1374 the Egyptians raided Cilicia and captured Leo VI., prince of Lesser Armenia, which now became an Egyptian province with a Moslem governor.
    0
    0
  • In I49I, however, after the Egyptians had repeatedly defeated the Ottoman troops, Kait Bey made proposals of peace which were accepted, the keys of the towns which the Ottomans had seized being restored to the Egyptian sultan.
    0
    0
  • His reign was remarkable for a naval conflict between the Egyptians and the Portuguese, whose fleet interfered with the pilgrim route from India to Mecca, and also with the trade between India and Egypt; KgnsUh caused a fleet to be built which fought naval battles with the Portuguese with varying results.
    0
    0
  • With the troubles that beset the metropolis of the Ottoman empire, the governors appointed thence came to be treated by the Egyptians with continually decreasing respect.
    0
    0
  • That there might be no doubt of the friendly feeling of the French to the Porte, villages and towns which capitulated to the invaders were required to hoist the flags of both the Porte and the French republic, and in the thanksgiving prescribed to the Egyptians for their deliverance from the Mamelukes, prayer was to be offered for both the sultan and the French army.
    0
    0
  • It does not appear that the proclamation convinced many of the Egyptians of the truth of these professions.
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    0
  • After the battle of Ambabah, at which the forces of both Murd Bey and IbrhIm Bey were dispersed, the populace readily plundered the houses of the beys, and a deputation was sent from al-Azhar to Bonaparte to ascertain his intentions; these proved to be a repetition of the terms of his proclamation, and, though the combination of loyalty to the French with loyalty to the sultan was unintelligible, a good understanding was at first established between the invaders and the Egyptians.
    0
    0
  • The destruction of the French fleet at the battle of the ~u~ Nile, and the failure of the French forces sent to Upper Egypt (where they reached the first cataract) to obtain possession of the person of Murd Bey, shook the faith of the Egyptians in their invincibility; and in consequence of a series of unwelcome innovations the relations between conquerors and conquered grew daily more strained, till at last, on the occasion of the introduction of a house tax, an insurrection broke out in.
    0
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  • By this revolutionary method of land nationalization Mehemet Ali became proprietor of nearly all the soil of Egypt, an iniquitous measure against which the Egyptians had no remedy.
    0
    0
  • Khartum was founded at this time, and in the following years the rule of the Egyptians was largely extended and control obtained of the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa (see SUDAN: History).
    0
    0
  • Our task is not to rule the Egyptians, but as far as possible to teach the Egyptians to rule themselves..
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  • Every possible facility and every encouragement are afforded for the Egyptians to advance along the path of moral improvement.
    0
    0
  • It remains for the Egyptians to take advantage of the opportunities offered to them.
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  • This national party lent what weight it had to the pan-Islamic agitation which arose in the summer and autumn of 1905, regardless of the fact that a pan-Islamic triumph meant the re-assertion of direct Turkish rule in Egypt and the end of the liberty the Egyptians enjoyed.
    0
    0
  • This incident inflamed the minds of many Egyptians, and almost all the opposition elements in the country were united by the appeal to religious fanaticism, of which the incident was partly the effect and partly the cause.
    0
    0
  • The feeling entertained by large numbers even of the educated class of Egyptians was strikingly illustrated by the terms of an anonymous letter received by Lord Cromer in May 1906.
    0
    0
  • A number of members of the council and assembly visited England in July 1908 and were received by Sir Edward Grey, who gave them assurances that Great Britain would always strive to remedy the legitimate grievances of Egyptians.
    0
    0
  • The wild and foolish agitation on this question only served to confirm the impression that the Egyptians were not yet fit to govern themselves.
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    0
  • If the Egyptians showed that the existing institutions and the new provincial councils could do useful work, it would prove the best argument for extending their powers.
    0
    0
  • The Egyptians at different times during the day brought into action about 33 R.M.L.
    0
    0
  • The Egyptians made quite as good a stand as could be expected, but were driven from their guns, which they were unable to use with adequate effect; and the bombardment of Alexandria confirms previous experience that the fire of ships cannot really compete with that of well-mounted and well-handled guns on shore.
    0
    0
  • On the 9th of September the Egyptians again attacked Kassassin, but were completely repulsed by 9 A.M., with a loss of 4 guns, and were pursued to within extreme range of the guns of Tell-elKebir.
    0
    0
  • The Indian contingent, on the south of the canal, cccoperated, intercepting the Egyptians at the canal bridge.
    0
    0
  • The British loss amounted to 58 killed, 379 wounded and 22 missing; nearly 2000 Egyptians were killed, and more than 500 wounded were treated in hospital.
    0
    0
  • Within the last year and a half the Egyptians had lost something like 9000 men, while it was estimated that 40,000 of their opponents had perished.
    0
    0
  • As the British troops retired to Upper Egypt, his followers seized the evacuated country, and the khalifa cherished the idea, already formulated by the mahdi, of the conquest of Egypt, but for some years he was too much occupied in quelling risings, massacring Lne Egyptians in the Sudan, and fighting Abyssinia, to move seriously in the matter.
    0
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  • Instead of marching on to Kassala, Ras Alula, who at this time was much offended by the transfer of Massawa by the Egyptians to Italy, made a triumphant entry into Asmara, and absolutely refused to make any further efforts to extricate Egyptian garrisons from the grip of the khalifa.
    0
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  • Bishara and his men retreated, but were pursued by the Egyptians until the retreat became a hopeless rout.
    0
    0
  • The Indian brigade at Suakin returned to India, and was replaced by Egyptians.
    0
    0
  • Colonel Lewis, who was at Karkoj with a small force, moved to Roseires, where he received reinforcements from Omdurman, and on the 26th of December caught Ahmed Fedils force as it was crossing the Blue Nile at Dakheila, and after a very severe fight cut it up. The dervish loss was 500 killed, while the Egyptians had 24 killed and 118 wounded.
    0
    0
  • The chariots of the Egyptians and Assyrians, with whom the bow was the principal arm of attack, were richly mounted with quivers full of arrows, while those of the Greeks, whose characteristic weapon was the spear, were plain except as regards mere decoration.
    0
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  • The Israelites are represented as living among the Egyptians, and enjoy no immunity from the plagues, except that of darkness.
    0
    0
  • The ancient Egyptians symbolized an ignorant person by the head and ears of an ass, and the Romans thought it a bad omen to meet one.
    0
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  • Certainly there is no reason to connect them with the ancient Egyptians.
    0
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  • The Fayum is the site of the Lake of Moeris (q.v.) of the ancient Egyptians - a lake of which Birket el Kerun is the shrunken remnant.
    0
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  • The explanation of this would seem to lie in the fact that the relics are in most cases the paraphernalia of tombs, the funereal vessels and vases, and iron being considered an impure metal by the ancient Egyptians it was never used in their manufacture of these or for any religious purposes.
    0
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  • With regard to the ancient Egyptians, however, we learn that the huntsmen Historic constituted an entire sub-division of the great second Field dresses and furniture were ornamented with similar subjects.2 The game pursued included the lion, the wild ass, the gazelle and the hare, and the implements chiefly employed seem to have been the javelin and the bow.
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  • The partiality for the chase which the ancient Egyptians manifested was shared by the Assyrians and Babylonians, as is shown by the frequency with which hunting scenes are depicted on the walls of their temples and palaces; it is even said that their 1 See on this whole subject ch.
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  • He is presumably the Baal who is associated with thunder and lightning, and with the bull, and who was familiar to the Egyptians of the XIXth and XXth Dynasties in the adulations of their divine king.
    0
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  • But in spite of this assistance the conquest of Coele-Syria was not quickly achieved; and when Antiochus advanced in 218 B.C. he was opposed by the Egyptians on land and sea.
    0
    0
  • The Egyptians, however, repulsed the invaders and drove them back, retaking the captured Syrian cities.
    0
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  • They then marched on to Gaza, where the Egyptians joined them, and together inflicted a crushing defeat on the Christians and Moslems of Syria, for once compelled to unite by the common danger.
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  • The Khwarizmians and Egyptians afterwards quarrelled, and the former were compelled to retire, leaving Palestine under the rule of the Mameluke 2 sultans of Egypt.
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  • By other methods of treatment, known to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and others, but now forgotten, it could be hardened and formed into knife and razor edges of the utmost keenness.
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  • Among the Assyrians, Egyptians and Greeks the use of iron, either cast or wrought, was very limited, bronze being the favourite metal almost for all purposes.
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  • As in almost all the arts, the ancient Egyptians excelled in their metal-work, especially in the use of bronze and the precious metals.
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  • The Jews, Chaldeans and Babylonians began the day at the rising of the sun; the Athenians at the fall; the Umbri in Italy began at midday; the Egyptians and Romans at midnight; and in England, the United States and most of the countries of Europe the Roman civil day still prevails, the day usually commencing as soon as the clock begins to strike 12 P.M.
    0
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  • However this may be, tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in Egyptian inscriptions of 1700 and 1300 B.C., and the Berbers were probably intimately related with the Egyptians in very early times.
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  • To the Egyptians they were known as " Lebu," " Mashuasha," " Tamahu," " Tehennu " and " Kahaka "; a long list of names is found in Herodotus, and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms which have been derived respectively from the Greek voµaSes (nomads), the name Gued'oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western).
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  • Dr Franz Pruner-Bey, Henri Duveyrier and Prof. Flinders Petrie maintain that they are closely related to the ancient Egyptians.
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  • The Egyptians took advantage of civil war in Abyssinia to seize Keren and the Bogos country in 1872 1, an action against which the negus Johannes (King John), newly come to the throne, did not at the 1 During the Second Empire unsuccessful efforts were made by France to obtain a Red Sea port and a foothold in northern Abyssinia.
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  • In 1875 and 1876 the Egyptians, who sought to increase their conquests, were defeated by the Abyssinians at Gundet and Gura.
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  • Walad Michael,the hereditary ruler of Bogos, fought as ally of King John at Gundet and of the Egyptians at Gura.
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  • The Gospels, in fact, are adaptations or redactions of an older Gospel, such as the Gospel of the Hebrews, of Peter, of the Egyptians, or of the Ebionites.
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  • Twenty years later they entered Asia Minor, whence in a later period they came into Europe, under the name of Athinganoi (Ziganes) and Egyptians (gipsies).2 A far more difficult task lay before Motasim, the subjection of Babak al-Khorrami in Azerbaijan.
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  • Meanwhile, Ibrahim had occupied Gaza and Jerusalem as well as Jaffa; on the 27th of May, a few days after the publication of the ban, Acre was stormed; on the 15th of June the Egyptians occupied Damascus.
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  • The result was the crowning victory of the Egyptians at Konia (Dec. 21).
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  • In March the Egyptians were severely defeated by the revolted Arabs of the Hauran; and the Porte, though diplomatic pressure kept it quiet, hurried on preparations for war.
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  • The arming of Egyptians in this campaign had a disturbing effect upon the native population of Egypt, so that rebellions were continuous for the next thirty years.
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  • As a matter of fact the Egyptians might have passed about thirty-five centuries B.C. from the picture writing of hieroglyphs to genuine alphabetic signs.'
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  • They did not, however, profit by their discovery, because, amongst the Egyptians, writing was clearly a mystery in both senses - only possible at that period for masters in the craft, and also something, like the writing of medical prescriptions at the present day in Latin, which was not to be made too easily intelligible to the common people.
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  • The alphabet devised by the Egyptians consisted of twenty-four letters.
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  • Sesostris is evidently a mythical figure calculated to satisfy the pride of the Egyptians in their ancient achievements, after they had come into contact with the great conquerors of Assyria and Persia.
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  • Mexicans and Peruvians, Arcadians, Chinese, Egyptians,: Hindus, Persians, Germans, Romans, with the Greek religion in the highest rank; (3) Religions of Redemption (Judaism forming the transition from the second group), Buddhism in the sense of world negation, and, positively, Christianity.
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  • Maspero, Dawn of Civilization, p. 204; Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, p. 227; Budge, Gods of Egypt, i.
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  • At the time of the occupation of the Sudan by the Egyptians a small fishing village existed on the site of the present city.
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  • In 1822 the Egyptians established a permanent camp here and out of this grew the city, which in 1830 was chosen as the capital of the Sudanese possessions of Egypt.
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  • The history of the city is intimately bound up with that of the Sudan generally, but it may be recalled here that in 1884, at the time of the Mandist rising, General Gordon was sent to Khartum to arrange for the evacuation by the Egyptians of the Sudan.
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  • It has already been mentioned, that, in his efforts to concifiate the Egyptians, Darius placed his chief reliance on the priesthood: and the same tendency runs throughout the imperial policy toward the conquered races.
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  • In itself, indeed, this loss was of no great significance to such a vast empire; and th at tempts of Athens to annex Cyprus and conquer the Nile valley, in alliance with the revolted Egyptians, ended in failure Athens, in fact, had not sufficient strength to undertake a seriou~ invasion of the empire or an extensive scheme of conquest.
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  • But these works, while proving Scaliger's right to the foremost place among his contemporaries as Latin scholar and critic, did not go beyond mere scholarship. It was reserved for his edition of Manilius (1579), and his De emendatione temporum (1583), to revolutionize all the received ideas of ancient chronology - to show that ancient history is not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, hitherto neglected as absolutely worthless, and that of the Jews, hitherto treated as a thing apart, and that the historical narratives and fragments of each of these, and their several systems of chronology, must be critically compared, if any true and general conclusions are to be reached.
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  • Collins indicates the possible extent to which the Jews may have been indebted to Chaldeans and Egyptians for their theological views, especially as great part of the Old Testament would appear to have been remodelled by Ezra; and, after dwelling on the points in which the prophecies attributed to Daniel differ from all other Old Testament predictions, he states the greater number of the arguments still used to show that the book of Daniel deals with events past and contemporaneous, and is from the pen of awriter of theMaccabean period, a view now generally accepted.
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  • The Jews spoiled the Egyptians: some made a golden calf and worshipped it: others destroyed it and turned the spoils into vessels for the sanctuary: some again sighed for the fleshpots of Egypt, if they did not actually return thither.
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  • Its position, commanding the passage of the mountains to the north of Syria, rendered it important as a military station in the contest between the Egyptians and the Turks in 1832.
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  • After the defeat of the Turkish army at Konia it was granted to Ibrahim Pasha, and though the firman announcing his appointment named him only muhassil, or collector of the crown revenue, it continued to be held by the Egyptians till the treaty of July 1840 restored it to the Porte.
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  • No ethnical relationship can ever have existed between the Aztecs and the Egyptians; yet each race developed the idea of the pyramid tomb through that psychological similarity which is as much a characteristic of the species man as is his physique.
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  • Meeting near the Mareb, the Egyptians were beaten in detail, and almost annihilated at Gundet (13th November 1875).
    0
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  • Although reinforced by Walad Michael, who had now quarrelled with John, the Egyptians were a second time (25th March 1876) heavily beaten by the Abyssinians, and retired, losing an enormous quantity of both men and rifles.
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  • Gordon, governor-general of the Sudan, was now ordered to go and make peace with John, but the king had moved south with his army, intending to punish Menelek for having raided Gondar whilst he, John, was engaged with the Egyptians.
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  • In 1709 he published (at the Hague) Adeisidaemon and Origines Judaicae, in which, amongst other things, he maintained that the Jews were originally Egyptians, and that the true Mosaic institutions perished with Moses.
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  • Riaz's standpoint was that of the benevolent autocrat; he believed that the Egyptians were not fitted for self-government and must be treated like children, protected from ill-treatment by others and prevented from injuring themselves.
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  • It is conferred indifferently upom Moslems and Christians, and is frequently given to foreigners in the service of the Turks or Egyptians.
    0
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  • The Egyptians as a rule used only unit-fractions, other fractions being expressed as the sum of unit-fractions.
    0
    0
  • The Greeks originally used unit-fractions, like the Egyptians; later they introduced the sexagesimal fractions of the Babylonians, extending the system to four or more successive subdivisions of the unit representing a degree.
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  • Its decay probably dates from the invasion of the Mongols (1260), who fought two important; battles with the Egyptians (1281 and 1299) in its vicinity.
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  • In the decisive battle at Pelusium the Egyptians were beaten, and shortly afterwards Memphis was taken.
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  • The Egyptian inscriptions show that Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the costume of the Pharaohs, although we may very well believe that he did not conceal his contempt for the customs and the religion of the Egyptians.
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  • The little island won great favour as a religious resort, not only for the Egyptians and the Ethiopians and others who frequented the border district and the market of Assuan, but also for Greek and Roman visitors.
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  • The Assyrians and Egyptians made considerable use of the metal; and in Genesis iv.
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  • And occasional fasts are more See Fink's article " Fasten " in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopddie; Lane, Modern Egyptians; and Rycaut, Present State of the Armenian Church.
    0
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  • The anubis baboons, as shown by the frescoes, were tamed by the ancient Egyptians and trained to pluck sycamore-figs from the trees.
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  • He married Amuhia, daughter of the Median king, according to Abydenus, and in 605 B.C. defeated Necho at Carchemish, driving the Egyptians out of Asia and annexing Syria to the Babylonian empire.
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  • Examples are preserved of the various forms of spoons used by the ancient Egyptians of ivory, flint, slate and wood, many of them carved with the symbols of their religion.
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  • The importance of their heliacal risings, or first visible appearances at dawn, for the purposes both of practical life and of ritual observance, caused them to be systematically noted; the length of the year was accurately fixed in connexion with the annually recurring Nile-flood; while the curiously precise orientation of the Pyramids affords a lasting demonstration of the high degree of technical skill in watching the heavens attained in the third millennium B.C. The constellational system in vogue among the Egyptians appears to have been essentially of native origin; but they contributed little or nothing to the genuine progress of astronomy.
    0
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  • Thus both the Mangaians and the Egyptians have been puzzled by their own gods in the form of beasts.
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  • The Egyptians invented an explanation - itself a myth - that in some moment of danger the gods concealed themselves from their foes in the shapes of animals.'
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  • It is admitted that Greeks, Romans, Aryans of India in the age of the Sanskrit commentators, Egyptians of the Ptolemaic and earlier ages, were as much puzzled as we are by the mythical adventures of their gods.
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  • As the ancestors of the Greeks, with the Aryans of India, the Egyptians, and others advanced in civilization, their religious thought was shocked and surprised by myths (originally dating from the period of savagery, and natural in that period) which were preserved down to the time of Pausanias by local priesthoods, or which were stereotyped in the ancient poems of Hesiod and Homer, or in the Brahmanas and Vedas of India, or were retained in the popular religion of Egypt.
    0
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  • Therefore where similar myths are found among Greeks, Australians, Egyptians, Mangaians and others, it is unnecessary to account for their wide diffusion by any hypothesis of borrowing, early or late.
    0
    0
  • But in grotesque and savage points of faith the ancient Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Vedic Indians ran even the Aztecs pretty close.
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  • Plutarch observes that the Greeks, though accustomed to the conceptions of the animal attendants of their own gods, were amazed when they found animals worshipped as gods by the Egyptians.
    0
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  • Precisely the same ideas are found at various periods among the ancient Egyptians.
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  • The evidence of Herodotus, Plutarch and the other writers show that the Egyptians of each district refused to eat the flesh of the animal they held sacred.
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  • Beasts also appeared in the royal genealogies, as if the early Egyptians had filled up the measure of totemism by regarding themselves as actually descended from animals.
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  • 26), or, according to another view, are living in the midst of the Egyptians (e.g.
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  • The question as to the ethnic affinities of the pre-dynastic Egyptians is still unsolved; but they may be regarded as, in the main, Hamitic, though it is a question how far it is just to apply a name which implies a definite specialization in what may be comparatively modern times to a people of such antiquity.
    0
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  • Sergi in his " Mediterranean Race," were active on the north coast of Africa in very early times, and had relations with the Egyptians from a prehistoric period.
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  • They further celebrated their deliverance at Ptolemais, where they built a synagogue, and they reached their various abodes to find themselves not only reinstated in their possessions, but raised in the esteem of the Egyptians.
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  • All the mystic symbolism of the morning sun, especially in connexion with the doctrine of the future life, could thus be transferred to the benu, and the language of the hymns in which the Egyptians praised the luminary of dawn as he drew near 2 Some other ancient accounts may be here referred to.
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  • The first three were certainly known to the Egyptians; and it is probable that the icosahedron and dodecahedron were added by the Greeks.
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  • When the powers moved against the Egyptians in 1840, Beirut had recently been occupied in force by Ibrahim as a menace to the Druses; but he was easily driven out after a destructive bombardment by Admiral Sir Robert Stopford (1768-1847).
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  • The fourth group consists of the states conquered during the igth century by the Egyptians and now under the joint control of Great Britain and Egypt.
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  • There has also been a slight immigration of Abyssinians, Egyptians, Syrians and Europeans - the last named chiefly Greeks.
    0
    0
  • The native villages are composed of straw or palm huts; the places occupied by Europeans or Egyptians are merely " posts " where the administrative business of the district is carried on.
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    0
  • The governor-general, the chiefs of the various departments of state and the mudirs are all Europeans, the majority being British military officers The minor officials are nearly all Egyptians or Sudanese.
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  • In the immediate neighbourhood of Jebel Barkal (the " holy mountain " of the ancient Egyptians), a flat-topped hill which rises abruptly from the desert on the right bank of the Nile a mile or two above the existing village of Merawi (Merowe), are many pyramids and six temples, the pyramids having a height of from 35 to 60 ft.
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  • These disorders continued up to the time of the conquest of the country by the Egyptians.
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  • Thereafter the Shagia furnished useful auxiliary cavalry to the Egyptians.
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  • (This camp developed into the city of Khartum.) At this time Badi, the king of Sennar, from whom all real power had been wrested by his leading councillors, determined to submit to the Egyptians, and as Ismail advanced up the Blue Nile he was met at Wad Medani by Badi who declared that he recognized Mehemet Ali as master of his kingdom.
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  • Ismail and Badi entered the town of Sennar together on the 12th of June 1821, and in this peaceable manner the Egyptians became rulers of the ancient empire of the Funj.
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  • Of the rulers who had submitted to Ismail, Nair Mimr, the mek of Shendi, had been compelled to follow in the suite of the Egyptians as a sort of hostage, and this man entertained deep hatred of the pasha.
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  • Whilst the Egyptians were feasting the mek set fire to the straw and Ismail and all his companions were burnt to death.
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  • Having conquered Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan the Egyptians set up a civil government, placing at the head of the administration a governor-general with practically unlimited power.2 About this period Mehemet Ali leased from the sultan of Turkey the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa, and by this means got into his hands all the trade routes of the eastern Sudan.
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  • Ismail Pasha, who became viceroy of Egypt in 1863, gave orders for the suppression of the slave trade, and to check the operations of the Arab traders a military force was stationed at Fashoda (1865), this being the most southerly point then held by the Egyptians.
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  • This action led to wars with Abyssinia, in which the Egyptians were generally beaten.
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  • Meantime Suliman (acting on the instructions of his father, who was still at Cairo) had broken out into open revolt against the Egyptians in the Bahr-eIGhazal.
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  • The next month, December 1883, saw the surrender' of Slatin in Darfur, whilst in February 1884 Osman Digna, his amir in the Red Sea regions, inflicted a crushing defeat on some 4000 Egyptians at El Teb near Suakin.
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  • He enabled some thousands of refugees to make their escape to ' Writing from Darfur in April 1879 Gordon said: " The government of the Egyptians in these far-off countries is nothing else but one of brigandage of the very worst description.
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  • All hope of a peaceful retreat of the Egyptians was thus rendered impossible.
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  • He had liberated the Sudanese from the extortions of the Egyptians, but the people soon found that the Mandi's rule was even more oppressive than had been that of their former masters, and after the Mandi's death the situation of the peasantry in particular grew rapidly worse, neither life nor property being safe.
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  • The arsenal and dockyard and the printing-press at Khartum were kept busy (the workmen being Egyptians who had escaped massacre).
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  • At the head of every mudiria (province) was placed a British official, though many of the subordinate posts were filled by Egyptians.
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  • In the hands of the Greeks and of the later Egyptians both astrology and astronomy were carried far beyond the limits attained by the Babylonians, and it is indeed a matter of surprise to observe the harmonious combination of the two fields - a harmony that seems to grow more complete with each age, and that is not broken until we reach the threshold of modern science in the 16th century.
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  • What the images do prove is the large amount of intercourse between Egypt and Canaan, and the presence of Egyptians in the subject country.
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  • Isis was identified with Demeter by Herodotus, and described as the goddess who was held to be the greatest by the Egyptians; he states that she and Osiris, unlike other deities, were worshipped throughout the land.
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  • In 1820-22 Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan had been conquered by Egypt, and the authority of the Egyptians was subsequently extended southward, eastward to the Red Sea and westward over Darfur (conquered by Zobeir Pasha in 1874).
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  • He went up to Bogos, and had an interview with Walad Michael, an Abyssinian chief and the hereditary ruler of Bogos, who had joined the Egyptians with a view to raiding on his own account.
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  • This dynasty lasted about ninety years; it was supplanted by that of the Abbasids, who removed the seat of empire to Mesopotamia; and Damascus passed through a period of unrest in which it was captured and ravaged by Egyptians, Carmathians and Seljuks in turn.
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  • In its more recent history the only incidents that need be mentioned are its capture by Ibrahim Pasha, the Egyptian general, in 1832, when the city was first opened to the representatives of foreign powers; its revolt against Ibrahim's tyranny in 1834, which he crushed with the aid of the Druses; the return of the city to Turkish domination, when the Egyptians were driven out of Syria in 1840 by the allied powers; and the massacre of July 1860, when the Moslem population rose against the Christians, burnt their quarter, and slaughtered about 3000 adult males.
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  • The ancient Egyptians believed that a person had to earn the right to enter the afterlife.
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  • For example; The ancient Egyptians used Hematite in the creation of their magical amulets.
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  • The Egyptians were experts at embalming using aromatics to help preserve flesh.
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  • Fact: The Ancient Egyptians thought dung beetles were sacred.
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  • In the 17th century, Athanasius Kircher wrote about the Egyptians and attempted to translate hieroglyphics, although his theories have since been overturned.
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  • In a similar myth, the Egyptians credited Thoth, whose symbol was the white ibis, with the invention of writing.
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  • The Egyptians were not merciful to them in all their painful work.
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  • The Egyptians made funeral shrouds from it and the Romans used it to make napkins which could be cleaned by throwing into the fire.
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  • How did the Egyptians erect 100 foot granite obelisks?
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  • The Ancient Egyptians used obsidian in talismans, which had to be imported from Ethiopia.
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  • Origins: European polecat; the ferret was domesticated by the Egyptians and originally bred to hunt rabbits.
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  • The ancient Egyptians were renowned shipbuilders and the Romans traveled along Red Sea shores.
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  • The Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming their dead.
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  • Egyptians - The Theban Mapping Project Homepage of the group excavating the largest tomb found in Egypt.
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  • They had seen themselves facing total wipeout at the hands of the Egyptians, who had chased them to the shore of the sea.
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  • As regards the origin of the domesticated cats of western Europe, it is well known that the ancient Egyptians were in the habit of domesticating (at least in some degree) the Egyptian race of the African wild cat (Felis ocreata maniculata), and also of embalming its remains, of which vast numbers have been found in tombs at Beni Hasan and elsewhere in Egypt.
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  • And its use has been traced through the Egyptians to the Greeks and Romans, representations of Trajan (arch of Constantine) and Antoninus Pius (reverse of a medal) being found with it.
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  • Some years later Syria was again invaded by the Egyptians, who reduced Judah to the position of a tributary state.
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  • Papyri from Elephantine in Upper Egypt, of the same age, proceed from Jewish families who carry on a flourishing business, live among Egyptians and Persians, and take their oaths in courts of law in the name of the god " Yahu," the " God of Heaven," whose temple dated from the last Egyptian kings.
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  • By the Egyptians this constellation was symbolized as a couple of young kids; the Greeks altered this symbol to two children, variously said to be Castor and Pollux, Hercules and Apollo, or Triptolemus and Iasion; the Arabians used the symbol of a pair of peacocks.
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  • An important piece of evidence on this point has recently come to light in the shape of the carved hippopotamus-tusk handle of an Egyptian predynastic stone knife, said to have been found in the Wadi el 'Araq, on the right bank of the Nile opposite Nag`Hamadi, and now in the Louvre.23 On this remarkable object, which is certainly of predynastic Egyptian date (before 3500 B.C.), we see representations of early Egyptians and perhaps other tribes fighting, with ships, some like those represented on the Egyptian predynastic pots and others different, with high prows and sterns, and we also see a strange deity of Babylonian aspect.
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  • The historical review in the second part is coloured by a bitter hatred of the ancient Egyptians; whether this springs from resentment of the former sufferings of the Israelites or is meant as an allusion to the circumstances of the author's own time it is hardly possible to say.
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  • Another species of glass manufacture in which the Egyptians would appear to have been peculiarly skilled is the so-called mosaic glass, formed by the union of rods of various colours in such a manner as to form a pattern; the rod so formed was then reheated and drawn out until reduced to a very small size, z sq.
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  • Following on a period of good rule and prosperity under Rhampsinitus, Cheops closed the temples, abolished the sacrifices and made all the Egyptians labour for his monument, working in relays of ioo,000 men every three months (see Pyramid).
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  • Skulls are rarely visible on a battlefield for more than two or three seasons after the fight, and we may therefore presume that it was during the reign of Inarus (460-454 B.C.), 2 when the Athenians had great authority in Egypt, that he visited the country, making himself known as a learned Greek, and therefore receiving favour and attention on the part of the Egyptians, who were so much beholden to his countrymen (see Athens, Cimon, Pericles).
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  • - The Phoenicians, in imitation of the Egyptians, claimed that their oldest cities had been founded by the gods themselves, and that their race could boast an antiquity of 30,000 years (Africanus in Syncellus, p. 31).
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  • Herodotus, who states that they, with the Egyptians and the Ethiopians, were the first to practise circumcision, believed them to have sprung from the relics of the army of Sesostris, and thus regarded them as Egyptians.
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  • In social intercourse the Egyptians observe many forms of salu tation and much etiquette; they are very affable, and readily enter into conversation with strangers.
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  • Literature.The vast mass of writing which has come down to us from the ancient Egyptians comprises documents of almost every conceivable kind, business documents and correspondence, legal documents, memorial inscriptions, historical, scientific, didactic, magical and religious literature; also tales and lyrics and other compositions in poetical language.
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  • Contact with, foreign lands ight with it several new deities, Baal, Anat and ~ieph from Syria, and the misshapen dwarf Bes r such order as can be discerned in the mythological conions of the Egyptians the priesthood was largely responsible.
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  • The parallelism between the attitude of the Egyptians towards the dead and their attitude towards the gods is so striking that it ought never to be lost sight of: nothing can illustrate it better than the manner in which the Osirian doctrines came to permeate both kinds of cult.
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  • Other parts of a mans being to which at given moments and in particular contexts the Egyptians assigned a certain degree of separate existence are the ~
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  • Probably neither the Sothic nor any other era was employed by the ancient Egyptians, who dated solely by regnal years (see below).
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  • The history of the events that led up to the battle of Navarino and the liberation of Greece is told elsewhere (see NAVARINO and GREEK INDEPENDENCE, WAR OF); the withdrawal of the Egyptians from the Morea was ultimately due to the action of Admiral Sir Edward Codrington, who early in August 1828 appeared before Alexandria and induced the pasha, by no means sorry to have a reasonable excuse, by a threat of bombardment, to sign a convention undertaking to recall Ibrahim and his army.
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  • None the less, till Marathon the Persians were successful in discomfiting every enemy before he could close, whether that enemy consisted of similarly accoutred bowmen (as the Medes), of cavalry armed with the lance (as the Lydians), or of heavily armoured warriors (as the Babylonians, Egyptians and Greeks).
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  • The named Arabian baboon, P. hamadryas of North Africa and Arabia, dedicated by the ancient Egyptians to the god Thoth, and the South Arabian P. arabicus, typify Hamadryas; while the drill and mandrill of the west coast, P. leucophaeus and P. maimon, constitute the subgenus Maimon.
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  • All the people of the world were once Egyptians.
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  • Then he called his wisest men together and asked them, "Is it really true that the first people in the world were Egyptians?"