In 1832 it was taken by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha.
In 1815 he was commissioned by government to complete the translation of Strabo which had been begun by Laporte-Dutheil, and in March 1816 he was one of those who were admitted to the Academy of Inscriptions by royal ordinance, having previously contributed a Memoire, " On the Metrical System of the Egyptians," which had been crowned.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
To the native Egyptians Alexander appeared as a deliverer from the Persian tyranny, and he sacrificed piously to the gods of Memphis.
The Tell el-Amarna letters show that, long before the invasion by Joshua, it was occupied by the Egyptians, and was probably a stronghold of considerable importance, as it formed a good strategical position in the hill country of southern Palestine.
We do not know how the Egyptians were forced to abandon Jerusalem; but, at the time of the Israelite conquest, it was undoubtedly in the hands of the Jebusites, the native inhabitants of the country.
Saturn for lead, Venus for copper, and Mars for iron, and the belief that the colours of flowers ' The Egyptians believed that the medicinal virtues of plants were due to the spirits who dwelt within them.
The Egyptians themselves delighted in identifying together goddesses of the most diverse forms and attributes; but Ubasti was almost indistinguishable in form from Tafne.
The pursuing Egyptians were drowned, and the miraculous preservation of the chosen people at the critical moment marks the first stage in the national history?
The amethyst was used as a gem-stone by the ancient Egyptians, and was largely employed in antiquity for intaglios.
This empire was finally overthrown by the Egyptians in 1821.
40.61), it was the custom of the ancient Egyptians to beat themselves during the annual festival in honour of their goddess Isis.
Under pressure from Treaty of England and France the Egyptians retreated and the Unklar- Russian forces were withdrawn, but the tsar had mean- Skelessl, while (July 8, 1833) concluded with the sultan the 1833' treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi, which constituted ostensibly a defensive and offensive alliance between the two Powers and established virtually a Russian protectorate over Turkey.
Semites and Egyptians, Peruvians and Aztecs, slew human victims; Africa, especially the West Coast, till recently saw thousands of human victims perish annually; in Polynesia, Tahiti and Fiji were great centres of the rite - in fact, it is not easy to name an area where it has not been known.
Lastly, the rite of circumcision, which the Hebrews practised in common with their Semitic neighbours as well as the Egyptians, belonged to ages long anterior to the time of Moses.
It was the signal victory won by Moses at the exodus against the Egyptians and in the subsequent battle at Rephidim against `Amalek (Ex.
Indeed, it was claimed that Cambyses had left the sanctuary unharmed but had destroyed the temples of the Egyptians.
The Egyptians attributed to it, as well as to the tambourine, the power of dispersing and terrifying evil spirits and more especially the Typhon.
pascha', of the Hebrew name of the Passover festival n4 pesach, from r "he passed over," in memory of the great deliverance, when the destroying angel "passed over the houses, of the children of Israel in Egypt when he smote the Egyptians" (Exod.
Engaged from the earliest times in the slave trade, they were among the first, as they were certainly the most fervent, supporters of the mandi when he rose in revolt against the Egyptians (1882).
Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.
the Egyptians and especially the Phoenicians.
The earth is conceived of as a round disk, slightly sloping towards the south, surrounded on three sides by the sea, but on the north by a high mountain of turquoises; behind this is the abode of the blest, a sort of inferior paradise, inhabited by the Egyptians who were saved from drowning with Pharaoh in the Red Sea, and whom the Mandaeans look upon as their ancestors, Pharaoh himself having been their first high priest and king.
In the Mandaean view the Old Testament saints are false prophets; such as Abraham, who arose six thousand years after NU (Noah) during the reign of the sun, Misha (Moses), in whose time the true religion was professed by the Egyptians, and Shlimun (Solomon) bar Davith, the lord of the demons.
Besides Sundays there are six great feasts: (1) that of the New Year (Nauruz rabba), on the first day of the first month of winter; (2) Dehwa h' nina, the anniversary of the happy return of Hibil Ziva from the kingdom of darkness into that of light, lasting five days, beginning with the 18th of the first month of spring; (3) the Marwana, in commemoration of the drowned Egyptians, on the first day of the seoond month of spring; (4) the great five days' baptismal festival (pantsha), the chief feast, kept on the five intercalary days at the end of the second month of summer - during its continuance every Mandaean, male .and female, must dress in white and bathe thrice daily; (5) Dehwa d'daimana, in honour of one of the three hundred and sixty `Uthras, on the first day of the second month of autumn; (6) Kanshe Zahla, the preparation feast, held on the last day of the year.
The notions of the Egyptians and the Red Sea, according to the same work (v.
Nisibis (Nezib) appeared for the last time in history in 1839, when the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Turkish army under Hafiz Pasha on the 24th of June in a battle at which von Moltke was present.
Beetles (Scarabaei) are the subjects of some of the oldest sculptured works of the Egyptians, and references to locusts, bees and ants are familiar to all readers of the Hebrew scriptures.
A Venetian fleet of 1 20 sail came in 1123, and after aiding in the repulse of an attack, which the Egyptians had taken advantage of Baldwin II.'s captivity to deliver, they helped the regent Eustace to capture Tyre (1124), in return for considerable privileges - freedom from toils throughout the kingdom, a quarter in Jerusalem, baths and ovens in Acre, and in Tyre onethird of the city and its suburbs, with their own court of justice and their own church.
This had been won by Baldwin I., by way of revenge for the attacks of the Egyptians on his kingdom; and here, as early as 1116, he had built the fort of Monreal, half way between Aila and the Dead Sea.
The Egyptians designated their eastern neighbours collectively as `Amu.
Nothing is more likely than that Christianity gained adherents among the Therapeutae, and that their institutions were adapted to the new religion, just as they seem to have been borrowed by the Jews from the Egyptians.
de Candolle 3 observes that it was not cultivated by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the ancient Greeks and the Romans.
Berthelot, " alchemy rested partly on the industrial processes of the ancient Egyptians, partly on the speculative theories of the Greek philosophers, and partly on the mystical reveries of the Gnostics and Alexandrians."
We Su have seen that the science took its origin in the arts practised by the Egyptians, and, having come under the influence of philosophers, it chose for its purpose the isolation of the quinta essentia, and subsequently the " art of making gold and silver."
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
3 Now as these beads are admittedly worked metallic iron and must date before 4000 B.C., it is obvious that they are a remarkable confirmation of those who, like the present writer, have in opposition to Prof. Montelius always maintained that iron was known to and occasionally used in a worked state by the Egyptians at a period long anteridr to its general introduction and replacing of bronze for weapons and tools.
Reisner & Firth have shown that the early culture of Nubia was closely akin to that of the predynastic Egyptians, which no doubt came from the south.
dynasty, and introduced into Egypt by Nubian colonists, perhaps soldiers or enslaved prisoners, who preserved also their own native (and really old Egyptian) burial customs, interring their dead in " pan " graves much resembling those of the primitive Egyptians of two and three thousand years before.
Evidence is accumulating, though no completely satisfactory theory can yet be put forward, as to the northern origin of the dynastic Egyptians.
Whence the Egyptians and a little later on the Babylonians got their tin for the alloy we do not yet know.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
The Babylonians apparently refused to be impressed by the Egyptians in this matter, and went on building temples in brick, probably for the good reason that they could not get any stone.
88; (6) Survey Dept., Cairo, 1908-11; (7) The Ancient Egyptians (1911); (8) This is the view of Mr. P. E.
The Egyptians had, of course, ascribed deity by old custom to their kings, and were ready enough to add Alexander to the list.
The experiment of arming the native Egyptians on a large scale does not seem to have been made before the campaign of 217, when Ptolemy IV.
had employed Egyptians in the army, though chiefly as carriers, Diod.
The ancient Egyptians were famed as " geometers," and as early as the days of Rameses II.
about the middle of the 7th century B.C. Among the visitors to Egypt, there were, no doubt, some who took an interest in the science of the Egyptians.
2 These Colchians certainly were not Egyptians.
Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped; figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples, and they were regarded as emblems of the divine being.
Herodotus, speaking of the sanctity in which some animals were held by the Egyptians, says that the people of every family in which a dog died shaved themselves - their expression of mourning - adding that this was a custom of his own time.
They have been identified with the people of Punt, who were known to the Egyptians of the early dynasties.
The occupation of Berbera by the Egyptians in 1875 was, however, followed by several journeys into the interior.
- The Greek Alexandria was divided into three regions: (1) the Jews' quarter, forming the north-east portion of the city; (2) Rhacotis, on the west, occupied chiefly by Egyptians; (3) Brucheum, the Royal or Greek quarter, forming the most magnificent portion of the city.
The Egyptians, by whom `Amr was greatly beloved, were so much dissatisfied by this act, and even showed such a tendency to revolt, that the Greek emperor determined to make an effort to reduce Alexandria.
A brief description of how the Egyptians were punished through the very things with which they sinned (though the punishment was not fatal, for God loves all things that exist), and how judgments on the Canaanites were executed gradually (so as to give them time to repent), is followed by a dissertation on the origin, various forms, absurdity and results of polytheism and idolatry (xiii.-xv.): the worship of natural objects is said to be less blameworthy than the worship of images - this latter, arising from the desire to honour dead children and living kings (the Euhemeristic theory), is inherently absurd, and led to all sorts of moral depravity.
In the four last chapters the author, returning to the history, gives a detailed account of the provision made for the Israelites in the wilderness and of the pains and terrors with which the Egyptians were plagued.
Viewing the subject as a whole, and apart from remote developments which have not in fact seriously influenced the great structure of the mathematics of the European races, it may be said to have had its origin with the Greeks, working on pre-existing fragmentary lines of thought derived from the Egyptians and Phoenicians.
The Israelites were commanded to select on the tenth of Abib (Nisan) a he-lamb of the first year, without blemish, to kill it on the eve of the fourteenth and to sprinkle with its blood the lintel and sidepost of the doors of their dwellings so that the Lord should "pass over" them when he went forth to slay the first-born of the Egyptians.
At midnight all the first-born of the Egyptians are slain and Pharaoh sends the Israelites out of Egypt in haste, and the people took the dough before it was leavened upon kneading troughs upon their shoulders.
He appeals also to many of the lost gospels, such as those of the Hebrews, of the Egyptians and of Matthias.
OSIRIS, one of the principal gods of the ancient Egyptians.
Admiral de Rigny left for a cruise in the Levant, and Sir Edward Codrington, hearing that an Egyptian armament was on its way from Alexandria, and believing that it was bound for Hydra, steered for that island, which he reached on the 3rd of September, but on the 12th of September found the Egyptians at anchor with a Turkish squadron at Navarino.
The Egyptians and Turks had only three line of battleships and fifteen large frigates, together with a swarm of small craft which raised their total number to eighty and upwards.
The loss of the Turks and Egyptians was never accurately reported, but it was certainly very great.
Gospel according to the Egyptians.
According to Harnack, it is an extract from the Gospel of the Egyptians.
Some of his citations are derived from the Gospel to the Egyptians.
Kassala was founded by the Egyptians in 1840 as a fortified post from which to control their newly conquered territory near the Abyssinian frontier.
It is probable that the algebra of the Egyptians was of a most rudimentary nature, for otherwise we should expect to find traces of it in the works of the Greek geometers, of whom Thales of Miletus (640-546 B.C.) was the first.
Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians (ed.
The Egyptians, though acquainted with the bastard safflower, do not seem to have possessed saffron; but it is named in Canticles iv.
The ancient Egyptians used various substances as incense.
In embalming their dead the Egyptians filled the cavity of the belly with every sort of spicery except frankincense (Herod.
Homer tells us that the Egyptians of his time were emphatically a nation of druggists (Od.
3 Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, i.
Hindus, the Egyptians have maintained to the present day; and, although they have changed their religion, the use of incense among them continues to be as familiar and formal as ever.
In cold weather the Egyptians warm their rooms by placing in them a brazier, "chafing-dish," or "standing-dish," filled with charcoal, whereon incense is burnt; and in hot weather they refresh them by occasionally swinging a hand censer by a chain through them - frankincense, benzoin and aloe wood being.
Egyptians, pp. 34, 41, 1 39, 187, 438 (ed.
The Egyptians understood the use of incense as symbolical of the purification of the soul by prayer.
The principle of applying metallic films to glass seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the Egyptians, and is mentioned by Alexander Neckam in the 12th century, but it would appear that it was not until the 16th century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected.
Being on the frontier line, the possession of the town was for long a matter of dispute between the Sudanese, and later the Egyptians, on the one hand and the Abyssinians on the other.
About 1870 the Egyptians garrisoned the town, which in 1886 was attacked by the dervishes and sacked.
The Egyptian frontier was crossed on the 3rd of Tammuz (June), and Tirhaka, at the head of the Egyptian forces, was driven to Memphis after fifteen days of continuous fighting, during which the Egyptians were thrice defeated with heavy loss and Tirhada himself was wounded.
Contrary to the opinion of the Greeks, the Ethiopians appear to have derived their religion and civilization from the Egyptians.
On his arrival at Hofuf, Sadlier found that Ibrahim had already left Deraiya, but still hoping to intercept him before quitting Nejd, he followed up the retreating Egyptians through Yemama, and Wushm to Ras in Kasim, where he caught up the main body of Ibrahim's army, though the pasha himself had gone on to Medina.
Medina and subsequently Mecca were eventually taken by the Egyptians, but in spite of continual reinforcements they could do little more than hold their own in Hejaz.
Terms of peace were made, but on the retirement of the Egyptians Abdallah refused to carry out the conditions agreed on, which 'For further details of this period, see Egypt: History, " Mahommedan Period," § 8.
Deraiya was razed to the ground and the principal towns of Nejd were compelled to admit Egyptian garrisons; but though the Arabs saw themselves powerless to stand before disciplined troops, the Egyptians, on the other hand, had to confess that without useless sacrifices they could not retain their hold on the interior.
The Nilotic Nubians are on the whole a strong muscular people, essentially agricultural, more warlike and energetic than the Egyptians.
A Catholic commentator of the 16th century, Hieronymus ab Oleastro, seems to have been the first to connect the name " Jehova " with howah interpreting it contritio, sive pernicies (destruction of the Egyptians and Canaanites); Daumer, adopting the same etymology, took it in a more general sense: Yahweh, as well as Shaddai, meant " Destroyer," and fitly expressed the nature of the terrible god whom he identified with Moloch.
A similar form was used by the ancient Egyptians long prior to the Jewish use.
See Erman, Egyptian Religion; Budge, Gods of the Egyptians; Meyer, in Zeits.
For Egypt, see Lane's Modern Egyptians, and the Journal of Sir Walter Scott, xi.
Meanwhile Baldwin repelled in successive years the attacks of the Egyptians (1102, 1103, 1105), and in the latter years of his reign (1115-1118) he even pushed southward at the expense of Egypt, penetrating as far as the Red Sea, and planting an outpost at Monreal.
El Obeid, which appears to be a place of considerable antiquity and the ancient capital of the country, was garrisoned by the Egyptians on their conquest of Kordofan in 1821.
On the contrary, the scholarship of to-day regards the fifth millennium B.C. as well within the historical period for such nations as the Egyptians and the Babylonians.
What gave them a seeming importance in the eyes of posterity was the fact that the true history of the Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Arabians and Hittites had been well-nigh forgotten.
By the Romans the era of Actium was considered as beginning on the 1st of January of the 16th of the Julian era, which is the 30th B.C. The Egyptians, who used this era till the time of Diocletian, dated its commencement from the beginning of their month Thoth, or the 29th of August; and the Eastern Greeks from the 2nd of September.
In their civil affairs the Armenians follow the ancient vague year of the Egyptians; but their ecclesiastical year, which begins on the 1 1th of August, is regulated in the same manner as the Julian year, every fourth year consisting of 366 days, so that Easter and the other festivals are retained at the same place in the seasons as well as in the civil year.
Till the year 1079 the Persian year resembled that of the ancient Egyptians, consisting of 365 days without intercalation; but at that time the Persian calendar was reformed by Jelal ud-Din Malik Shah, sultan of Khorasan, and a method of intercalation adopted which, though less convenient, is considerably more accurate than the Julian.
More dangerous was the rebellion of Egypt under Inarus (Inaros), which was put down by Megabyzus only after a long struggle against the Egyptians and the Athenians (460-454).
vii., stratagems of the barbarians (Medes, Persians, Egyptians, Thracians, Scythians, Celts); bk.
Temple's essay had treated of the intellectual and spiritual growth of the race, and had pointed out the contributions made respectively by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, and others.
During these two reigns the Egyptians suffered every kind of misery and the temples remained closed.
Herodotus continues that in his own day the Egyptians were unwilling to name these oppressors and preferred to call the pyramids after a shepherd named Philition, who pastured his flocks in their neighbourhood.
The Greeks and Romans generally accepted the view that Herodotus supplies of his character, and moralized on the uselessness of his stupendous work; but there is nothing else to prove that the Egyptians themselves execrated his memory.
Before its conquest by the Egyptians in 1820 its ruler owed allegiance to the kings of Sennar.
The Egyptians adopted from the Greeks, with considerable modifications of its attendant symbolism, the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. Aries became the Fleece; two Sprouting Plants, typifying equality or resemblance, stood for Gemini; Cancer was re-named Scarabaeus; Leo was converted, from the axe-like configuration of its chief stars, into the Knife: Libra into the Mountain of the Sun, a reminiscence, apparently, of the Euphratean association of the seventh month with a " holy mound," designating the biblical tower of Babel.
Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians (London, 1897), p. 159; E.
The Chaldaeans, Egyptians and Greeks were the early cultivators of science, and botany was not neglected, although the study of it was mixed up with crude speculations as to vegetable life, and as to the change of plants into animals.
This fact was also known to the Egyptians, the Phoenicians and other nations of Asia and Africa.
Nothing was known about the method employed by the Egyptians till the year 1719.
Among the ancient Egyptians the local god was the protector and lord of the district.
According to Captain Stanley Flower, director of the Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, Egypt, the ancient Egyptians kept various species of wild animals in captivity, but the first Zoological Garden of which there is definite knowledge was founded in China by the first emperor of the Chou dynasty, who reigned about iioo B.C. This was called the "Intelligence Park," and appears to have had a scientific and educational object.
3) it is stated that the prohibition against intermarriage with the Moabites, Ammonites, Egyptians and Edomites, though given in the Bible, only applied for a certain number of generations and did not apply at all to their daughters, but, it is added, "Bastards and Nethinim are prohibited (to marry Israelites), and this prohibition is perpetual and applies both to males and females."
Outside this group would come what are called the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts (Gospel according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians, of Peter, of Truth, of the Twelve [or Ebionite Gospel], the recently recovered so-called Logia; the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Acts of Pilate, Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas; the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter).
There are many indications early in the 2nd century of a tendency towards the recognition of a single Gospel; for instance, there are the local Gospels according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians; Marcion had but one Gospel, St Luke, the Valentinians preferred St John and so on; Tatian reduced the Four Gospels to one by means of a Harmony, and it is possible that something of the kind may have existed before he did this.
Josephus in turn has another story wherein Moses leads the Egyptians against Ethiopia (Ant.
In measure, Egyptians of Dynasty IV.
The Egyptians report the weight of a measure of various articles, amongst others water (6), but lay no special stress on it; and the fact that there is no measure of water equal to a direct decimal multiple of the weight-unit, except very high in the scale, does not seem as if the volume was directly based upon weight.
The first theory has assumed three main forms. (a) Harnack maintains that they were taken from the Gospel according to the Egyptians.
The phrase " when ye shall be stripped and not be ashamed " contains an idea which has some affinity with two passages found respectively in the Gospel according to the Egyptians and the so-called Second Epistle of Clement.
The resemblance, however, is not sufficiently close to warrant the deduction that either the Gospel of the Egyptians or the Gospel from which the citation in 2 Clement is taken (if these two are distinct) is the source from which our fragment is derived.
The war with the Turks and Egyptians which succeeded the return from India was rendered notable by the capture of Aleppo and Damascus, and especially by the defeat and imprisonment of Sultan Bayezid I.
Among the ancient Egyptians, as would appear from a calculation in the Rhind papyrus, the number (3) 4, i.e.
Although some of the Greek writers made Busiris an Egyptian king and a successor of Menes, about the sixtieth of the series, and the builder of Thebes, those better informed by the Egyptians rejected him altogether.
The sacrifice of foreign prisoners before a god, a regular scene on temple walls, is perhaps only symbolical, at any rate for the later days of Egyptian history, but foreign intruders must often have suffered rude treatment at the hands of the Egyptians, in spite of the generally mild character of the latter.
Europeans in general, like the ancient Egyptians, place the commencement of the civil day at midnight, and reckon twelve morning hours from midnight to midday, and twelve evening hours from midday to midnight.
Among the ancient Egyptians the month consisted of thirty days invariably; and in order to complete the year, five days were added at the end, called supplementary days.
His policy was evidently to find a deity that should win the reverence alike of Greeks and Egyptians.
The Greeks of that day would have had little respect for a grotesque Egyptian figure, while the Egyptians were more willing to accept divinity in any shape.
The more accurate form is then generally the later, found in documents written by Greeks in familiar intercourse with Egyptians, the less accurate is traditional from an older date in the mouths of pure Greeks and Hellenists, and is used in literary writings.
23, or in the midst of the Egyptians) see the recent commentaries.
The preservative climate of Upper Egypt and the belief of the Egyptians in life after death must be the causes which led them to take unusual care for preserving the bodies of their dead.
But the parcels, examined by an expert, contained no trace of organic remains, proving how much the Egyptians depended on magic imitations and make-believe.
The Egyptians did not stop at the mummification of the human body; sacred animals, birds, reptiles, fishes, and even insects were treated in a similar way, and the meat offerings deposited with the wealthy dead were likewise "preserved."
What the Egyptians really thought of mummification can only be partially guessed.
As the corpse was found generally to disappear and decay in spite of preservative magic, especially in the early ages, various substitutes were resorted to; statues and statuettes were thought efficacious, but, apart from their costliness, even these were subject to decay or destruction by violence, and in the absence of anything more substantial the Egyptians doubtless reflected that magic words alone in the last resort made everything right.
In the last thousand years B.C. the life of the Egyptians consisted largely in every kind of religious and superstitious observances.
The plant has been cultivated in Egypt from the beginning of the Christian era, but there is no proof that it was known to the ancient Egyptians.
The town is built in two divisions - the native town to the east, the new town, laid out by the Egyptians (1875-1877), to the west.
However, for the Egyptians see Category:History of Africa
A collection of casts, likewise in the museum, is designed to display the progress of plastic art from the time of the Egyptians and Assyrians to modern ages.
It dates from 1221, and is famous as the scene of the battle of Mansura, fought on the 8th of February 1250, between the crusaders commanded by the king of France, St Louis, and the Egyptians.
Gardiner Wilkinson, A Second Series of the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, ii.
is not arranged upon strict ethnographic principles; perhaps religious antagonism induced the Hebrews to assign to the Canaanites an ancestry different from their own; at any rate the close connexion which existed from an early date between the Phoenicians and the Egyptians may have suggested the idea that both peoples belonged to the same race.
In the last crisis of the dying power of Assyria the Egyptians for a short time laid hands on Phoenicia; but after their defeat at the battle of Carchemish (605), the Chaldaeans became the masters of western Asia.
With King Kabarega, a son of Kamurasi, the Egyptians had many encounters.
IBIS, one of the sacred birds of the ancient Egyptians.
Wilkinson (Ancient Egyptians, ser.
5 It is a popular error - especially among painters - that this bird was the sacred ibis of the Egyptians.
Other subjects on which he published papers were the inflammation of turpentine and other essential oils by nitric acid, and the methods of embalmment practised by the Egyptians.
279) states that the Egyptians of Colchis preserved as heirlooms a number of wooden 60as (tablets) showing seas and highways with considerable accuracy.
In all that followed Arabi was put forward as the leader of the discontented Egyptians; he was in reality little more than the mouthpiece and puppet of abler men such as Ali Rubi and Mahmud Sami.
Of this extensive work there are still extant only the first five books, treating of the mythic history of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Greeks; and also the i i th to the 20th books inclusive, beginning with the second Persian War, and ending with the history of the successors of Alexander, previous to the partition of the Macedonian empire (302).
This theology, the fact that the preacher seems to quote the Gospel according to the Egyptians (in ch.
These six kings reigned 198 years and 10 months, and all aimed at extirpating the Egyptians.
It is certain that this mysterious people were Asiatic, for they are called so by the Egyptians.
Hatred of these impious foreigners, of which there is some trace in more than one text, aroused amongst the Egyptians (as nothing ever did before or since) that martial spirit which carried the armies of Tethmosis to the Euphrates.
When the Egyptians invaded the Sudan in 1820 Shendi, then a place of considerable size, submitted to Ismail Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt.
In 1822, however, Ismail and his chief followers were treacherously burnt to death at Shendi by order of the mek (ruler) of the town, in revenge for the cruelties committed by the Egyptians.
Idolaters, or, as he more gently terms them in addressing the emperor, "those who worship what among you are said to be gods," he subdivides into the three great world-civilizations - Chaldeans, Greeks and Egyptians.
"The Egyptians have erred worse than all the nations; for they were not content with the worships of the Chaldeans and Greeks, but introduced, moreover, as gods even brute beasts of the dry land and of the waters, and plants and herbs..
It was not, however, until the rulers of the XVIIIth dynasty carried their victorious arms beyond the Egyptian frontiers in every direction that Ammon began to assume the proportions of a universal god for the Egyptians, eclipsing all their other deities and asserting his power over the gods of all foreign lands.
By degrees it became greater than El-Fostat, and took from it the name of Misr, or Masr, which is applied to it by the modern Egyptians.
Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at cross-roads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, AECUISacµovias); and according to Pliny garlic and onions were invocated as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths.
These oases were known and occupied by the Egyptians as early as 1600 s.c., and Kharga (q.v.) rose to special importance at the time of the Persian occupation.
The horses are of indifferent breed, apparently of a type much inferior to that possessed by the ancient Egyptians.
The diseases from which Egyptians suffer are very largely the result of insanitary surroundings.
Smallpox is not uncommon, and skin diseases are numerous, but the two most prevalent diseases among the Egyptians are dysentery and ophthalmia.
Domestic A nimals.-The Egyptians are not particularly a pastora people, though the wealth of the Bedouin in the Eastern or Arabia, i Desert consists in their camels, horses, sheep and goats.
The Egyptians are noted for the making of pottery of the commoner kinds, especially water-jars.
It will be convenient to state first the law as regards foreigners, and secondly the law which concerns Egyptians.
The judicial systems applicable solely to Egyptians are supervised by the ministry of justice, to which has been attached since 1890 a British judicial adviser.
(In the same manner, in matters of personal law, Copts and other non-Moslem Egyptians are, in general, subject to the jurisdiction of their own religious chiefs.)
Lane, Modern Egyptians).
acteristics and customs common to the Moslem Egyptians Physical and particularly to those of the cities.
With regard to physical characteristics the Egyptians are of full average height (the men are mostly 5 ft.
The eyes, with very few exceptions, are black, large and of a long almond-form, with long and beautiful lashes, and an exquisitely soft, bewitching expressioneyes more beautiful can hardly be conceived: their charming effect is much heightened by the concealment of the other features (however pleasing the latter may be), and is rendered still more striking by a practice universal among the females of the higher and middle classes, and very common among those of the lower orders, which is that of blackening the edge of the eyelids both above and below the eye, with a black powder called kohl (Lane, Modern Egyptians).
Though allowed by his religion four wives, most Egyptians are monogamists.
In social intercourse the Egyptians observe many forms of salutation and much etiquette; they are very affable, and readily enter into conversation with strangers.
Egyptians, however, are as a rule suspicious of all not of their own creed and country.
Their performances are often objectionable and are so regarded by many Egyptians.
The Saadia are famous for charming and eating live serpents, &c., and the Ilwania for eating fire, glass, &c. The Egyptians firmly believe in the efficacy of charms, a belief associated with that in an omnipresent and over-ruling providence.
AUTiloRfTIEs.The standard authority for the Moslem Egyptians is E.
Lanes Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, first published in 1836.
The education of Egyptians in continental cities had not produced the class of leaders who led the fellahin to victory at Konia.
of the 1st infantry brigade had three British mounted officers, Turks and Egyptians holding the corresponding positions in the battalions of the 2nd Brigade.
Marshal Marmont, writing in 1839, mentions the capacity of the Egyptians for endurance; and it was tested In 1883, especially in the 2nd Brigade, since its officers (Turks and Egyptians), anxious to excel as drill-masters, worked their men not only from morn till eve, but also by lamplight in the corridors of the barracks.
Only 1400 Egyptians escaped the slaughter.
In the autumn of 1884, when a British expedition went up the Nile to endeavour to relieve the heroic Gordon, besieged in Khartum, the Egyptians did remarkably good work on the line of communication from Assiut to Korti, a distance of 800 m., and the training and experience thus gained were of great value in all subsequent operations.
Twelve years later the standard of honesty was unimpaired; and the British officers had imparted energy and activity into Egyptians of all ranks.
which the captain is a black and the lieutenants are Egyptians.
Of the composition of history and the description of their own manners and customs by the Egyptians for posterity, few traces have reached our day.
Egypt normally included the whole of the Nile valley from the First Cataract to the sea; pure Egyptians, however, formed the population of Lower Nubia above the Cataract in prehistori.c times; at some periods also the land was divided into separate kingdoms, while at others Egypt stretched southward into Nubia, and it generally claimed the neighboring Libyan deserts and oases on the west and the Arabian deserts on the east to the shore of the Red Sea, with Sinai and the Mediterranean coast as far as Rhinocorura (El Arish).
The Egyptians had some traffic on the Mediterranean from very remote times, especially with Byblus in Phoenicia, the port for cedar-wood.
The Egyptians seem to have applied no distinctive name to themselves in early times: they called themselves proudly rmi (RMTW), i.e.
The races of mankind, including the Egyptians, were often called the Nine Archers.
Ultimately the Egyptians, when their insularity disappeared under the successive dominations of Ethiopia, Assyria and Persia, described themselves as rem-n-Ki.ni, men of Egypt.
According to the evidence of the mummies, the Egyptians were of slender build, with dark hair and of Caucasian type.
This was apparently due to admixture with the Lower Egyptians, who themselves had been affected by Syrian immigration.
Urged on by necessity and opportunity, the Egyptians possessed sufficient enterprise and originating power to keep ahead of their neighbors in.
of an after-life was exceedingly vivid: the piety of the Egyptians in the later days was a matter of wonder and scoffing to their contemporaries; it is generally agreed that certain features in the development of Christianity are to be traced to Egypt as their birthplace and nidus.
Arms and ArmourFrom the contents of graves and other remains, and the sculptured and painted scenes, an approximate idea can be obtained of the weapons of the Egyptians at all periods from the prehistoric age onwards.
Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, new ed.
The pig is rarely figured and was less and less tolerated as the Egyptians grew in ceremonial purity.
Science.The Egyptians sought little after knowledge for its own sake: they might indulge in religious speculation, but their science was no more than the knowledge of practical methods.
Undoubtedly the Egyptians acquired great skillinthe application of simple means to the fulfilment of the most difficult tasks.
Such men, who, capable in every field, designed the Great Pyramids and bestowed the highest monumental fame on their masters, must surely have had an insight into scientific principles that would hardly be credited to the Egyptians from the written documents alone.
with the numerator unity: in order to express such an idea as ~ the Egyptians were obliged to reduce it to a series of primary fractions through double fractions 1~+~1rt~r+1~w+ 1~ 4(1+
A papyrus of the Roman period in the British Museum attributes the invention of horoscopes to the Egyptians, but no early instance is known.
Behind the great natural phen.omena that they 0th ceived all around them, the Egyptians, like other primitive cha :, postulated the existence of divine wills not dissimilar the dnd to their own, though vastly superior in power.
Among them the bright star Sirius was any I in special esteem; it was a goddess Sothis (Sopde), often be 1tified by the Egyptians with Isis.
Still the Egyptians themselves seem to have been somewhat at a loss to account for the great veneration that they paid to Osiris.
Nowhere is the conservatism of the Egyptians more clearly displayed than in the tenacity with which they clung to the old forms of the theology, such as -we have essayed to describe.
And the mystical bent of the Egyptians found satisfaction in the multiplicity of forms that their gods could assume; among the favorite epithets which the hymns apply to divinities are such as mysterious of shapes, multiple of faces.
It is doubtless such explanations as these that the Greeks had in view when they praised the wisdom of the ancient Egyptians; and, in the classical period similar semi-philosophical interpretations altogether supplanted, among the learned at least, the naive literal beliefs of earlier times.
SETB (Egyptian Set, Stb or StI), by the Greeks called Typhon, was depicted as an animal that has been compared with the jerboa by some, and with t e okapi by others, but which the Egyptians themselves occasionally conceived to be nothing but a sadly drawn ass.
The Divine Cult.In the midst of every town rose the temple of the local god, a stately building of stone, strongly :ontrasting with the mud and plaster houses in which even the wealthiest Egyptians dwelt.
the Egyptians stand alone among the nations of the world in the elaborate precautions which they took to secure their own welfare beyond the tomb.
Tombs of brick with a single chamber were succeeded by tombs of stone with several chambers, until they really merited the name of houses of eternity that the Egyptians gave to them.
That portion of a mans individuality which required, even after death, food and drink, and the satisfaction of sensuous needs, was called by the Egyptians the ka, and represented in hieroglyphs by the uplifted hands U.
The conception of this psychical entity is too vaguely formulated by the Egyptians and too foreign to modern thought to admit of exact translation: of the many renderings that have been proposed, perhaps double is the most suitable.
In spite of all the precautions they took and the contracts they made, the Egyptians could never quite rid themselves of the dread that their tombs might decay and their cult be neglected; and they sought therefore to obtain by prayers and threats what they feared they might lose altogether.
But just as the Egyptians found no contradiction between.
that persisted in the imagination of the Egyptians longer than.
the part of the Egyptians that they should desire to place their tombs near the traditional burying-place of Osiris.
It was but natural that the Egyptians should wish to employ magic for their own benefit or self-gratification, and since religion put no veto on the practice so long as it was exercised within legal bounds, it was put to a widespread use among them.
Among the Egyptians, as in other lands,, llnesses were supposed to be due to evil spirits or the ghosts of lead men who had taken up their abode in the body of the fufferer, and they could only be driven thence by charms and;pells.
At other times the gods are threatened with privations or even destruction if they refuse to aid the magician: the Egyptians seem to have found little impiety in such a use of the divine name, though to us it would seem the utmost degree of ptofanity when, for instance, a magician declares that ifhis spell prove ineffective, he will cast fire into Mendes and burn up Osiris.
Early in the 2nd century AD., pagan Egyptians, or perhaps foreigners settled in Egypt, essayed, as yet unskilfully, to write the native language in Greek letters.
The Egyptians proper are not, and so far as we can.
Very probably the Egyptians never constructed a really systematic list of hieroglyphs.
No enamelling was ever done by Egyptians, and the few rare examples are all of Roman age due to foreign work.
Technical.The standard year of the Ancient Egyptians consisted of twelve months of thirty days i each, with five epagomenal days, in all 365 days.
Ultimately the Egyptians gave names to the months taken from festivals celebrated in them, in order as follows:Thoth, Paophi, Athyr, Choiak, Tobi, Mechir, PhamenOth, Pharmuthi, Pachons, Payni, Epiphi, Mesore, the epagomenal days being then called the short year.
This fleet joined the Libyan invaders, but was overthrown with heavy loss by the Egyptians, in whose ranks there actually served many Sherden and Kehaka, Sardinian and Libyan mercenaries.
Ihe development of trade in the Mediterranean and contact with new peoples and new civilizations in peace and war had given birth to new ideas among the Egyptians and at the same time to a loss of confidence in their own powers.
In other than religious matters, however, the Egyptians were inventing and perhaps borrowing.
Cambyses at first conciliated the Egyptians and respected their religion; but, perhaps after the failure of his expedition into Ethiopia, he enti~ely changed his policy, and his The memory was generally execrated.
Xerxes, 486467 B.C., who put down the revolt with severity, and his successor Artaxerxes, 466425 B.C., like Cambyses, were hateful to the Egyptians.
After the Egyptians had experienced a reverse, Iphicrates counselled an immediate advance on.
Breasted, A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest (New York and London, 1905); A History of the Ancient Egyptians (New York and London, 1908); Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, collected, edited and translated (5 vols., Chicago, 1906-1907); \V.
Ultimately the new religion spread to the Egyptians; their own creed was worn out, and they found in Christianity a doctrine of the future life for which their old belief had made them not unready; while the social teaching of Christianity came with special fitness to a subject race.
His granting of the Roman citizenship to all Egyptians in common with the other provincials was only to extort more taxes.
The vigorous measures of the authorities at Bagdad speedily quelled this rebellion, and the Tulunid palace at Kati was then destroyed in order that there might be nothing to remind the Egyptians of the dynasty.
In 1374 the Egyptians raided Cilicia and captured Leo VI., prince of Lesser Armenia, which now became an Egyptian province with a Moslem governor.
In I49I, however, after the Egyptians had repeatedly defeated the Ottoman troops, Kait Bey made proposals of peace which were accepted, the keys of the towns which the Ottomans had seized being restored to the Egyptian sultan.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.