Again, the heretical Egyptian king Amenophis IV.
Educated at Leipzig and Berlin, he became extraordinary professor in 1883 and ordinary professor in 1892 of Egyptology in the university of Berlin, and in 1885 he was appointed director of the Egyptian department of the royal museum.
The country was visited by few Europeans before the time of the Egyptian conquest.
Nevertheless, we will not forget that some Egyptian wheat was handed down to us by a mummy.
A first scheme, indicated by him, was immediately drawn out by two French engineers who were in the Egyptian service, MM.
The Egyptian government subscribed for eighty millions' worth of shares.
Sennar, lying between Nubia and Abyssinia, was in ancient times under Egyptian or Ethiopian influence and its inhabitants appear to have embraced Christianity at an early period.
Aided by the Athenians and the Egyptian Hakor (Acoris), Evagoras extended his rule over the greater part of Cyprus, crossed over to Asia Minor, took several cities in Phoenicia, and persuaded the Cilicians to revolt.
Tiberius sent 4000 Jewish and Egyptian freedmen to the island to bring the brigands to submission (Tac. Ann.
Santarosa was killed, apparently because he was too miserable and desperate to care to save his life, when the Egyptian troops attacked the island of Sphacteria, near Navarino, on the 8th of May 1825.
This same way of looking at the origin of the material world is illustrated in the Egyptian notion of a cosmic egg out of which issues the god (Phta) who creates the world.
It was occupied by the Egyptian sultans until 1517, when the Turks under Selim I.
He allied himself to the Mongols against the advance of the Egyptian sultan; but in 1268 he lost Antioch to Bibars, and when he died in 1275 he was only count of Tripoli.
In 1903 the foundations of this temple were discovered close to the Arch of Trajan, and many fragments of fine sculptures in both the Egyptian and the Greco-Roman style belonging to it were found.
The oldest Egyptian or Hindoo philosopher raised a corner of the veil from the statue of the divinity; and still the trembling robe remains raised, and I gaze upon as fresh a glory as he did, since it was I in him that was then so bold, and it is he in me that now reviews the vision.
He strode through the crowded Egyptian street market, the Khan al-Khalili, one of the oldest markets in the world.
A berglauben (Giitersloh, 1903: an interesting list of unlucky days from an old Egyptian calendar on p. 57 seq.); and for post-Biblical literature, F.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
Many inscriptions and ancient fragments may be seen built into the houses; in front of the Madonna delle Grazie is a bull in red Egyptian granite, and in the Piazza Papiniano the fragments of two Egyptian obelisks erected in A.D.
As for the religion and love of art of the builders, it is much the same all the world over, whether the building be an Egyptian temple or the United States Bank.
Egyptian influence is almost absent until the time of Psammetichus, but then becomes predominant for a while.
There were certainly no Egyptian colonies in Sardinia; the Egyptian objects and their imitations found in the island were brought there by the Phoenicians (W.
In cold weather it was no little amusement to bake several small loaves of this in succession, tending and turning them as carefully as an Egyptian his hatching eggs.
Mountain Rescue had him on a litter, all wrapped up like an Egyptian mummy.
The Egyptian government being unwilling to recognize the sovereignty of Beheran over Assab or his right to sell territory to a foreign power, sTisconti-Venosta thought it opportune not then to occupy Assab.
Egyptian inscriptions indicate that the physician-priests sent their prescriptions to be dispensed by the priests of Isis when, accompanied by the chanter of incantations and spells, they visited the sick'.
According to his observations, in the Egyptian wild cat the pads of the toes are wholly black, while the black extends back either continuously or in long stripes as far as the calcaneum or heel-bone.
Cotton growing under European direction began about 1900, with the result that in 1901-1902 over 100,000 lb of cotton grown from native, American and Egyptian seed were shipped to Bremen.
BUBASTIS, the Graecized name of the Egyptian goddess Ubasti, meaning "she of.
After his return from his Egyptian campaign, he was preparing an expedition against Rhodes when he was overtaken by sickness and died, on the 22nd of September 1521, in the ninth year of his reign, near the very spot where he had attacked his father's troops, not far from Adrianople.
This convention was never recognized by the Porte nor by the Egyptian government.
Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
The Egyptian references to it are few, and do not give us much light regarding its early inhabitants.
Akhmim was the Egyptian Apu or Khen-min, in Coptic Shmin, known to the Greeks as Chemmis or Panopolis, capital of the 9th or Chemmite nome of Upper Egypt.
Italy in consequence drew nearer to Great Britain, and at the London conference on the Egyptian financial question sided with Great Britain against Austria and Germany.
Since in all domesticated cats retaining the colouring of the wild species the soles of the hind-feet correspond in this particular with the Egyptian rather than with the European wild cat, the presumption is in favour of their descent from the former rather than from the latter.
In continuance of Cimon's policy, 200 ships were sent to support the Egyptian insurgents against Persia (459),' while detachments operated against Cyprus and Phoenicia.
He was found by Pharaoh's daughter, and his (step-)sister Miriam contrived that he should be nursed by his mother; on growing up he killed an Egyptian who was oppressing an Israelite, and this becoming, known, he sought refuge in flight.
The story of the adoption of Moses by the Egyptian princess appealed to later imagination (Josephus,.
8-10) ascribed the victory to the magic arts of an Egyptian named Arnuphis who prevailed on Mercury and other gods to 2 Aurelius has been severely criticized for sending Verus.
In later times Orphic theology engaged the attention of Greek philosophersEudemus the Peripatetic, Chrysippus the Stoic, and Proclus the Neoplatonist, but it was an especially favourite study of the grammarians of Alexandria, where it became so intermixed with Egyptian elements that Orpheus came to be looked upon as the founder of mysticism.
Anglo-Italian relations, however, regained their norma I cordiality two years later, and found expression in the support lent by Italy to the British proposal at the London conference on the Egyptian question (July 1884).
Having sounded Lord Granville, Mancini received encouragement to seize Beilul and Massawa, in view of the projected restriction of the Egyptian zone of military occupation consequent on the Mahdist rising in the Sudan.
The protocol concluded with Great Britain on the 15th of April 1891, already referred to, contained a clause to the effect that, were Kassala occupied by the Italians, the place should be transferred to the Egyptian government as soon as the latter should be In a position.
It was also in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Egyptian merchant, made several voyages, and afterwards composed his XpUTTcavuxr} Toaoypa(Pia (Christian Topography), containing, in addition to his absurd cosmogony, a tolerable description of India.
8, which is independent of the chronicler's artificial treatment of his material, apparently points to some tradition of Egyptian suzerainty.
He is also the father of dangerous winds (typhoons), and by later writers is identified with the Egyptian Seth.
-- The Egyptian unit was the kat, which varied between 138 and 155 grains (28, 29).
Hultsch refers to Egyptian gold rings of Dynasty XVIII of 125 grains.
1889) came to the conclusion that the domesticated cat has a dual parentage, one stock coming from south-eastern Asia and the other from north-eastern Africa; in other words, from a domesticated Chinese cat (itself derived from a wild Chinese species) on the one hand, and from the Egyptian cat on the other.
He not only refused to join Great Britain in the Egyptian.
Eighteen months later a party of Italian sailors and explorers under Lieutenant Biglieri and Signor Giulietti were massacred in Egyptian.
Herodotus (himself a notable traveller in the 5th century B.C.) relates that the Egyptian king Necho of the XXVIth Dynasty (c. 600 B.C.) built a fleet on the Red Sea, and confided it to Phoenician sailors with the orders to sail southward and return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean sea.
Various Egyptian expeditions added considerably to the knowledge of the district, which between 1854 and 1864 was explored by the Belgian scientist E.
Though the standard gauge is in use in Lower Egypt, the line into the Egyptian Sudan was built on a gauge of 3 ft.
Of Egyptian ritual little is known; our knowledge rests mainly on the evidence of pictures.
In the old Egyptian church order, known as the Canons of Hippolytus, there are numerous directions for the service of the agape, held on Sundays, saints' days or at commemorations of the dead.
(3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.
According to this later tradition Yahweh was unknown till the days of Moses, and under the aegis of His power the Hebrew tribes were delivered from Egyptian thraldom.
Yahweh now becomes the supreme deity of the Hebrew people, and an ark analogous to the Egyptian and Babylonian arks portrayed on the monuments' was constructed as embodiment of the rumen of Yahweh and was borne in front of the Hebrew army when it marched to war.
PHARAOH (Par`oh), the Hebraized title of the king of Egypt, in Egyptian Per-`o; Pheron in Herodotus represents the same.
The political changes involved in the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Persian conquests surely affected it as little as the subsequent waves of Greek, Roman and other European invasions.
Canaan (Palestine and the south Phoenician coast land) and Amor (Lebanon district and beyond) were under the constant supervision of Egypt, and Egyptian officials journeyed round to collect tribute, to attend to complaints, and to assure themselves of the allegiance of the vassals.
This age, with its regular maritime intercourse between the Aegean settlements, Phoenicia and the Delta, and with lines of caravans connecting Babylonia, North Syria, Arabia and Egypt, presents a remarkable picture of life and activity, in the centre of which lies Palestine, with here and there Egyptian colonies and some traces of Egyptian cults.
Towards the close of the 13th century the Egyptian king Merneptah (Mineptah) records a successful campaign in Palestine, and alludes to the defeat of Canaan, Ascalon, Gezer, Yenuam (in Lebanon) and (the people or tribe) Israel.3 Bodies of aliens from the Levantine coast had previously threatened Egypt and Syria, and at the beginning of the 12th century they formed a coalition on land and sea which taxed all the resources of Rameses III.
Psammetichus (Psamtek) I., one of the ablest of Egyptian rulers for many centuries, threw off the Assyrian yoke 1 See G.
The newly formed Chaldean power at once recognized in Necho a dangerous rival and Nabopolassar sent his son Nebuchadrezzar, who overthrew the Egyptian forces at Carchemish (605).
2 In addition to this, the Egyptian story of the priest Uza-hor at the court of Cambyses and Darius reflects a policy of religious tolerance which illustrates the biblical account of Ezra and Nehemiah (Brugsch, Gesch.
xiv.), of the Egyptian conquests in the XVIIIth and following dynasties, or of the period illustrated by the Amarna tablets (§ 3).
- After the death of Alexander Palestine fell in the end to Ptolemy (301 B.C.) and remained an Egyptian province until 198 B.C. For a century the Jews in Palestine and in Alexandria had no history - or none that Josephus knew.
The sequel shows how a Jew might rise to power in the civil service of the Egyptian Empire and yet remain a hero to some of the Jews - provided that he did not intermarry with a Gentile.
From this it appears that the pro-Syrian faction of the Jews had been strong and active enough to bring an Egyptian army upon them (199-198 B.C.).
Josephus adds that an Egyptian garrison was left in Jerusalem.
During his second Egyptian campaign a rumour came that Antiochus was dead, and Jason made a raid upon Jerusalem.
But Antipater found supplies for the army of Gabinius, who, despite Egyptian and Parthian distractions, restored order according to the will of Antipater.
After the defeat and death of Pompey (48 B.C.) Antipater transferred his allegiance to Caesar and demonstrated its value during Caesar's Egyptian campaign.
He carried with him the Arabs and the princes of Syria, and through Hyrcanus he was able to transform the hostility of the Egyptian Jews into active friendliness.
Wizards and impostors persuaded the multitude to follow them into the desert, and an Egyptian, claiming to be a prophet, led his followers to the Mount of Olives to see the walls of Jerusalem fall at his command.
The metal rattle was an ancient Egyptian percussion instrument.
The comparative evidence afforded by the discovery of Egyptian relics shows that the Great Age of the Cretan palaces covers the close of the third and the first half of the second millennium before our era.
But the contents of early tombs and dwellings and indications supplied by such objects as stone vases and seal-stones show that the Cretans had already attained to a considerable degree of culture, and had opened out communication with the Nile valley in the time of the earliest Egyptian dynasties.
There is evidence that the use in Crete of both linear and pictorial signs existed in the Early Minoan period, contemporary with the first Egyptian dynasties.
It is, however, during the Middle Minoan age, the centre point of which corresponds with the XIIth Egyptian dynasty, according to the Sothic system of dating, c. 2000-1850 B.C., that a systematized pictographic or hieroglyphic script makes its appearance which is common both to signets and clay tablets.
Cretan enterprise in the days of the New Egyptian empire is illustrated by repeated finds of Late Minoan pottery on Egyptian sites.
Among the more interesting relics found were ivory figures of Egyptian or strongly Egyptianizing fabric. On an adjacent hill were the remains of what seems to have been in later times a temple of the Dictaean Zeus, and from the occurrence of rich deposits of Minoan vases and sacrificial remains at a lower level, the religious tradition represented by the later temple seems to go back to prehistoric times.
As to the character of the invading elements that hastened its close, and the date of their incursions, contemporary Egyptian monuments afford the best clue.
The Keftiu who represented Minoan culture in Egypt in the concluding period of the Cnossian palace (Late Minoan II.) cease to appear on Egyptian monuments towards the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty (c. 1350 B.C.), and their place is taken by the "Peoples of the Sea."
Industrial relations with Egypt are also marked by the occurrence of a series of finds of pottery and other objects of Minoan fabric among the remains of the XVIIIth, XIIth and even earlier dynasties, while the same seafaring enterprise brought Egyptian fabrics to Crete from the times of the first Pharaohs.
Philopator (51-47) and Cleopatra Philopator, Egyptian history coalesces with the general history of the Roman world, owing to the murder of Pompey off Pelusium in 48 and the Alexandrine War of Julius Caesar (48-47).
In this year he was offered the command of the newly formed Egyptian army, which he accepted.
On his arrival at Cairo, however, the offer was withdrawn and he only obtained the command of the Egyptian police.
He remained in command of the Egyptian police until his death in 1887.
The vegetation of the hot and dry region of the south-west of the continent consists largely of plants which are diffused over Africa, Baluchistan and Sind; many of these extend into the hotter parts of India, and not a few common Egyptian plants are to be met with in the Indian peninsula.
The restored state of Jerusalem lived for about six centuries in partial independence under Persian, Egyptian, Syrian and Roman rule, often showing an aggressively heroic attachment to its national customs, which brought it into collision with its suzerains, until the temple was destroyed by Titus in A.D.
Egyptian influence within the Aegean area seems certain, and the theory that Greek writing and systems for reckoning time are Babylonian in origin has not been disproved, though the history of the alphabet is more complex than was supposed.
Some authorities hold that Egyptian civilization came from Babylonia, and that the so-called Hamitic languages are older and less specialized members of the Semitic family.
He was formerly identified with an Egyptian priest who, after the destruction of the pagan temple at Alexandria (389), fled to Constantinople, where he became the tutor of the ecclesiastical historian Socrates.
This combination of the contemplative life and the life of learning had already developed in the Egyptian monasteries.
Wingate, Mandism and the Egyptian Sudan (1891), Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by Count Gleichen (1905); A.
Keane, Ethnology of the Egyptian Sudan (1884).
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
One Greek writer, Achemachus, identified Proserpine with the Egyptian Isis.'
In the war which followed between Antigonus and the other Macedonian chiefs, Seleucus actively co-operated with Ptolemy and commanded Egyptian squadrons in the Aegean.
His intervention in the west was solicited by Ptolemy, Ceraunus, who, on the accession to the Egyptian throne of his brother Ptolemy II.
Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III., who had just succeeded to the Egyptian throne, at once invaded the Seleucid realm and marched victoriously to the Tigris or beyond, receiving the submission of the eastern provinces, whilst his fleets swept the coasts of Asia Minor.
Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus concluded a secret pact with Philip of Macedonia for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions.
Jerusalem, near the Egyptian frontier, was an important point, and in one of its internal revolutions Antiochus saw, perhaps not without reason, a defection to the Egyptian side.
For an account of the Egyptian and Syrian campaigns see French Revolutionary Wars.
The chief direct result in the life of the Egyptian people was the virtual destruction of the governing caste of the Mamelukes, the Turks finding it easy to rid themselves of their surviving chiefs and to re-establish the authority of the Sultan.
The discovery of the Rosetta Stone furnished the key to Egyptian hieroglyphics; and archaeology, no less than the more practical sciences, acknowledges its debt of gratitude to the man who first brought the valley of the Nile into close touch with the thought of the West.
In order to understand the sharp swing of the political pendulum back from republicanism to autocracy which took place at Brumaire, it is needful to remember that the virtual failure of the Egyptian Expedition was then unknown.
in the XVIIIth Dynasty tomb of Rekhmara at Egyptian Thebes as bearing vases of peculiar forms, were of some Mediterranean race, neither their precise habitat nor the degree of their civilization could be determined while so few actual prehistoric remains were known in the Mediterranean lands.
There have now been recognized in the collections at Cairo, Florence, London, Paris and Bologna several Egyptian imitations of the Aegean style which can be set off against the many debts which the centres of Aegean culture owed to Egypt.
In spite of many comparisons made with Egyptian, Babylonian and "Hittite" plans, both these arrangements remain incongruous with any remains of prior or contemporary structures elsewhere.
Akhenaton at Tell el-Amarna; while in the Aegean area itself we have abundant evidence of a great wave of Egyptian influence beginning with this same Dynasty.
A fragmentary fresco taken from a tomb at Medum was desposited some years ago, though in a decaying condition, in the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo.
This Egyptian picture was said to date from the time of the third or fourth dynasty, some three thousand years before the Christian era.
In later ages the representations of birds of one sort or another in Egyptian paintings and sculptures become countless, and the bassi-rilievi of Assyrian monuments, though mostly belonging of course to a subsequent period, are not without them.
By the side of the sea in the piazzetta, on to which the west facade of the ducal palace faces, stand two ancient columns of Egyptian granite, one red and the other grey.
Thus in the Persian Wars, it deprived Athens of the wisdom of Xanthippus and Aristides, while at the battle of Tanagra and perhaps at the time of the Egyptian expedition the assistance of Cimon was lacking.
of the VIth Dynasty, as well as his pyramid in the necropolis, was named Mn - nfr, and this gradually became the usual designation of the whole city, becoming Menfi, Membi in late Egyptian, i.e.
Egyptian cotton is usually regarded as being derived from the same species.
Watt considers many of the Egyptian cottons to be races or hybrids of G.
Egyptian cotton in length of staple is intermediate between average Sea Island and average Upland.
It has, however, certain characteristics which cause it to be in demand even in the United States, where during recent years Egyptian cotton has comprised about 80% of all the " foreign " cottons imported.
The principal varieties of Egyptian cotton are: Mitafifi, the bestknown and most extensively grown, hardy and but little affected by climatic variation.
It is usually regarded as the standard Egyptian cotton; the lint is yellowish brown, the seeds black and almost smooth, usually with a little tuft of short green hairs at the ends.
Yannovitch, a variety known since about 1897, yields the finest and most silky lint of the white Egyptian cottons.
Nothing definite can be said with regard to a rotation of crops Sea Island Cotton - Carolina Sea Island Florida „ „ Georgia „ Barbados „ „ Egyptian Cottons Yannovitch.
A similar, but larger machine, requiring about horse-power to run it, will turn out 50 to 60 lb of Egyptian or 60 to 80 lb of Sea Island cleaned cotton per hour.
Saw gins are not adapted to long-stapled cottons, such as Sea Island and Egyptian, which are generally ginned by machines of the Macarthy type.
Hull is the principal seat of the industry in Great Britain, and enormous quantities of Indian and Egyptian cotton seed are imported and worked up.
It is easily transported from place to place in seed-cotton, and for this reason the Egyptian government in 1904 prohibited the importation of American cotton seed.
The Egyptian boll worm (Earias insulana) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.
The Egyptian cotton worm is Prodenia littoralis.
The Egyptian cotton seed bug or cotton stainer belongs to another genus, being Oxycarenus hyalinipennis.
Egyptian cotton is also grown.
The Egyptian Sudan.-Egyptian cotton was cultivated in the Sudan to the extent of 21,788 acres in 1906 chiefly on nonirrigated land.
In the lower river lands Egyptian cotton has been the most successful, whilst Upland cotton is more suited to the highlands.
Some of the native cottons are of fair quality, but Egyptian cotton appears likely to be best suited for growing for export.
Bourbon, New Orleans, Upland, Georgia, Sea Island, Pernambuco, Egyptian, &c., were tried but with little permanent success.
Still more recently, however, experiments have been made to grow Egyptian cotton in Sind with the help of irrigation.
Egyptian Deliveries, fully good fair (in 64ths of a penny).
Egyptian futures, it will be observed, run out in single months.
Godfrey's first business was to repel an Egyptian attack, which he accomplished successfully at Ascalon, with the aid of the other crusaders (August 12).
Repeated appeals had been sent to the West from the beginning of the Egyptian affair (1163) onwards; while in 1184-1185 a great mission, on which the patriarch of Jerusalem and the masters of the Templars and the Hospitallers were all present, came to France and England, and offered the crown of Jerusalem to Philip Augustus and Henry II.
After all, there was nothing of the holy war about the Sixth Crusade: there was simply huckstering, as in an Eastern bazaar, between a free-thinking, semi-oriental king of Sicily and an Egyptian sultan.
They consented to ally themselves with the ruler of Damascus against the sultan of Egypt; but in the battle of Gaza they were deserted by their allies and heavily defeated by Bibars, the Egyptian general and future Mameluke sultan of Egypt.
Eventually St Louis was released on surrendering Damietta and paying one-half of his ransom, and by the middle of May 1250 he reached Acre, having abandoned the Egyptian expedition.
From the Egyptian and Assyrio-Babylonian monuments we learn that in ancient times one of the principal exports of Syria was timber; this has now entirely ceased.
At a very early period - as early probably as the 16th century B.C.- Syria became the meeting-place of Egyptian and Babylonian elements, resulting in a type of western Asiatic culture peculiar to itself, which through the commerce of the Phoenicians was carried to the western lands of the Mediterranean basin.
Something about the ancient political and geographical relations of Syria can be gleaned from Egyptian sources, especially in connexion with the campaigns of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.
From these lands the Egyptian kings often derived rich booty, so that in those days Syria must have been civilized and prosperous.
The Tell el-Amarna Letters (15th century B.C.) show Syria held in part by Egyptian viceroys, who are much preoccupied with southward movements in the Buka'a and the rest of the interior beyond their control, due to pressure of Amorite peoples, and of the Mitanni and the Kheta, whose non-Semitic blood was mingled with that of the Aramaeans even in Palestine.
it was centred on the upper Orontes (Kadesh) and had comparatively free access to Palestine and the Egyptian border.
In 1516 the Ottomans took it from the Egyptian Mamelukes.
But it is probable that the horns were primarily ram's horns, 4 and that Astarte the moon-goddess is due to the influence of the Egyptian Isis 1 The vocalization suggests the Heb.
2 Add also the Hittites; for Sutekh, the Egyptian equivalent of the male partner, see W.
The other view traces it to khem or khame, hieroglyph khmi, which denotes black earth as opposed to barren sand, and occurs in Plutarch as XvAda; on this derivation alchemy is explained as meaning the " Egyptian art."
The philosopher's egg, as a symbol of creation, is both Egyptian and Babylonian.
The chemical knowledge of Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers, he holds, was early transmitted to the artisans of Rome, and was preserved throughout the dark ages in the workshops of Italy and France until about the 13th century, when it was mingled with the theories of the Greek alchemists which reached the West by way of the Arabs.
Marash passed with the rest of Syria into Egyptian hands in 1832, and in 1839 received fugitives from the defeat of Nizib, among whom was Moltke.
The columns and capitals were all taken from ancient buildings, Egyptian, Roman and Byzantine, and they carry arches of different forms, semicircular, pointed and horseshoe.
Many substances were employed in ancient medicine: galena was the basis of a valuable Egyptian cosmetic and drug; the arsenic sulphides, realgar and orpiment, litharge, alum, saltpetre, iron rust were also used.
- During 1910-20 advances in Egyptian archaeological knowledge were sure if slow.
Of course, generally speaking, less advance was made than in many previous decades, owing to the interregnum caused by the World War, when all British, French, German, and Austrian work was held up, and only the Americans and to a lesser degree the so-called " Egyptian " Service of Antiquities (manned by French and English) did any digging at all; while in all the European countries the energies of all the archaeologists who were not superannuated were transferred to the field of war, and there was no time left to write little papers, still less big books.
In the years immediately preceding the war we have to chronicle first a great advance in our knowledge of the beginnings of Egyptian history, owing mainly to the excavations of Prof. Flinders Petrie at Tarkhan 1 and of the German, Prof. Junker (working for Austria), at Tura.
The oldest iron weapon known was hitherto supposed to be an Egyptian halbert-head of the time of Rameses III., but Mr. Randall Maclver has recently discovered in a tomb of the XII.
After Egypt proper was overrun by the " dynastic Egyptian " people of " Armenoid " stock, who came from Asia and founded the kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, the old barbarous Nilotic culture continued to exist in Nubia.
We find an illustration of this in the fact that a red and black pottery, obviously akin to the predynastic Egyptian, but of finer make, was manufactured in Nubia in the time of the XII.
dynasty, and introduced into Egypt by Nubian colonists, perhaps soldiers or enslaved prisoners, who preserved also their own native (and really old Egyptian) burial customs, interring their dead in " pan " graves much resembling those of the primitive Egyptians of two and three thousand years before.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
How to equate this foreign civilizing race from Asia with the Semitic elements in the ancient Egyptian speech we do not yet know.
Osiris and Isis are closely connected with Syria and the Lebanon in legend; the Ded or sacred pillar of Osiris is doubtless really a representation of a great cedar with its horizontally outspreading branches; 8 another of the sacred Egyptian trees is obviously a cypress; corn and wine are traditionally associated with Osiris, and it is probable that corn and wine were first domesticated in Syria, and came thence with the gods Osiris and Re (the sun god of Heliopolis) into the Delta.
If they were Semitic speakers, the present facial contours of the northern Semites, which have spread all over the world, are not Semitic at all: for the Egyptian Armenoids in the statues of the Old Kingdom look like Europeans, and must have been of " European " blood.
These new probabilities open up considerable possibilities in research with regard to the relations of the early Minoans and other Aegeans with Syria and Egypt and the undoubted fact of the resemblances of Minoan on the one hand to Syrian and Egyptian religions and funerary practices, and on the other hand to those of the Etruscans.
Celts, of the usual late neolithic type, were generally of green jasper; hoe-blades (looking almost exactly like palaeolithic haches a main) of chert or coarse limestone; hammers of granite; mace-heads, of identical type with the early Egyptian, of diorite and limestone; nails of obsidian or smoky quartz, often beautifully made.
All these stones were of course imported, as the Babylonian had no stone (except a rough coral rag) at hand as the Egyptian had.
We need not even suppose that this Manium was a chief of the Egyptian Red Sea coast or even of Sinai.
The object is of Egyptian workmanship, representing this powerful deity of the foreign sea people with whom the predynastic Nilotes no doubt often fought.
This, by the way, points to the conclusion that Babylonian (Sumerian) culture and art were considerably older than the Egyptian; but we have no definite evidence yet on this point.24 Later points of artistic connexion may be seen when we compare the well-known bronze statues of Pepi I.
We see however the similarity of the metal-working of both countries at approximately the same time; both are in the same style of artistic development, the Egyptian perhaps the more advanced of the two, and (if the published analysis by Mosso is to be relied upon) with the additional technique of the alloy with tin, making the metal bronze, and so easier for the heads to be cast.
The bodies (or so much of them as ever existed, as only the fore parts remained) were hammered and wrought, like the bodies of the Egyptian figures.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
60 An interesting discovery of the late period in Upper Egypt, that of images and other temple objects of precious metals, was also made at Dendera by the diggers for natron (sebakh) and recovered by the Service des Antiquites for the Cairo Museum.61 Outside Egypt proper the work of editing and publishing all the Egyptian inscriptions of Sinai has been begun by Dr. Gardiner and Mr. Peet.62 A worthy completion of the record is the wonderful exhibition of all the finest examples of Egyptian art in Britain outside the British and Ashmolean Museums, held by the Burlington Fine Arts' Club in London in the summer of 1921.63
Newberry, with whom on early Egyptian connexion with Syria the writer agrees.
Anc. Hist.; (27) " The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civilization in the East and in America," Bull.
(1917); (64) Newberry and Hall, Catalogue of an Exhibition of Ancient Egyptian Art; London, Burlington Fine Arts' Club, 1921.
The question was explicitly suggested by the report that the Egyptian priest in the Oasis had hailed him in the god's name as the son of Ammon.
The custom of marriages between brothers and sisters, agreeable to old Persian as to old Egyptian ethics, was instituted in Egypt by the second Ptolemy when he married his full sister Arsinoe Philadelphus.
As these phalangites are distinguished both from the Greek mercenaries and the native Egyptian levies, it looks (although such a fact would be staggering) as if more Macedonians could be raised for military service in Egypt than in Macedonia itself (but see Beloch, p. 353).
It was considered wonderful in the last Cleopatra that she learnt to speak Egyptian (Plut.
Scarcely any specimens of ancient Egyptian cartography have survived.
27 9) that the inhabitants of Colchis whom, like Herodotus (ii., 104) he looks upon as the descendants of Egyptian colonists, preserved, as heirlooms, certain graven tablets (Kbp(€ls) on which land and sea, roads and towns were accurately indicated.
Having determined the difference of latitude between Alexandria and Syene which he erroneously believed to lie on the same meridian, and obtained the distance of those places from each other from the surveys made by Egyptian geometers, he concluded that a degree of the meridan measured 700 stadia.'
This figure, corresponding to the four hundred years of Egyptian bondage, occurs also in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 99a).
About the year 260 an Egyptian bishop, Nepos, in a treatise called 'XEyxos 6,XX yoptarCnv, endeavoured to overthrow the Origenistic theology and vindicate chiliasm by exegetical methods.
Even rood years after this period, the dog was highly esteemed in Egypt for its sagacity and other excellent qualities; for when Pythagoras, after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece, and at Croton in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian philosophers, that at the death of the body the soul entered into that of various animals.
In 1884, in consequence of the revolt of the mandi in the Egyptian Sudan, the khedival garrisons were withdrawn.
For the African slave trade, and Egyptian and Turkish slavery, the Ismailia of Sir S.
Opened in 1895 this museum possesses an important collection of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities, found not only in the city but in all Lower Egypt and the Fayum.
The labouring population is mainly Egyptian; the Greeks and Levantines are usually shopkeepers or petty traders.
If such a city was to be on the Egyptian coast, there was only one possible site, behind the screen of the Pharos island and removed from the silt thrown out by Nile mouths.
An Egyptian townlet, Rhacotis, already stood on the shore and was a resort of fishermen and pirates.
Greek), Jew and Egyptian.
The building of Cairo in 969, and, above all, the discovery of the route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, nearly ruined its commerce; the canal, which supplied it with Nile water, became blocked; and although it remained a principal Egyptian port, at which most European visitors in the Mameluke and Ottoman periods landed, we hear little of it until about the beginning of the 19th century.
[Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's Egyptian expedition of 1798.
There most of the negotiations between the powers and Mehemet Ali were conducted; thence started the Egyptian naval expeditions to Crete, the Morea and Syria; and thither sailed the betrayed Ottoman fleet in 1839.
If the Hebrew Omer (OM also is to be identified with the Egyptian papyrus, something may be said in favour of the tradition that the bulrushes of which the ark was composed in which the infant Moses was laid were in fact papyrus.
Papyrus rolls are represented in ancient Egyptian wall-paintings; and extant examples of the rolls themselves are sufficiently numerous.
The most ancient Egyptian papyrus now known contains accounts of the reign of King Assa (35 80 -3536 B.C.).
At a later period, however, a papyrus was cultivated in Sicily, which has been identified by Parlatore with the Syrian variety (Cyperus syriacus), far exceeding in height the Egyptian plant, and having a more drooping head.
Otherwise, it is not clear why we find him opposing himself to the Egyptian king Necho, since the assumption that he fought as an Assyrian vassal scarcely agrees with the profound reforming policy ascribed to him.
After the close of the Egyptian war of 1882, he entered the khedive's service and was made a pasha.
Relieved of the fear of an immediate attack by the mandists the Egyptian officials at Khartum intrigued against Hicks, who in July tendered his resignation.
The Egyptian ministry, however, did not then believe in the power of the mandi, and the expedition started from Khartum on the 9th of September.
See Mandiism and the Egyptian Sudan, book iv., by Sir F.
From this point, however, nothing is said of wisdom - the rest of the book is a philosophical and imaginative narrative of Israelite affairs from the Egyptian oppression to the.
Section VII., formed of the tributes of dependencies of which the two principal are the Egyptian, ET765,000, and that of Cyprus, T102,590 (assigned to the public, debt) comprises a total revenue of T871,316.
* Exclusive of £T50,000 representing the retrocession of the reftish (Egyptian tax, abolished in 1895) to the regie.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
The Egyptian fleet and disciplined army were now thrown into the scale; and from the moment when Ibrahim Pasha landed at Modon (Feb.
Then, the Russian and French squadrons having joined, it was determined to put further pressure on the Egyptian commander, and the allied fleets, on the morning of the 10th of October, stood into the bay of Navarino.
In July 1828 France had been commissioned to oust Ibrahim from the Morea; and though by a convention, concluded on the 9th of August by Codrington with Mehemet Ali, the principle of evacuation by the Egyptian troops had already been settled before the arrival of the French expedition, the Morea remained for the time in French occupation.
Later, during the Egyptian negotiations, ambassadors were accredited to London, Paris and Vienna.
Egyptian affairs next threatened complications.
(For the subsequent history of the Egyptian question see Egypt: History.) The revolt of Arabi Pasha in 1881 broke up the Anglo-French condominium in Egypt and led to outrages at Alexandria followed by a bombardment on the 11th of July 1882.
encroachments on the hinterland of Aden brought about a dangerous state of tension between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its parallel in 1906 in similar trespasses by the Ottoman authorities on the Egyptian land frontier near Akaba.
These are too numerous for detailed mention, but the following periods may be cited as the most interesting:1833-1841(Egyptian question);1849-1859(Crimean War and the events by which it was preceded and followed);1868-1869(Cretan insurrection);1875-1881(Bosnian and Herzegovinian insurrection, Russo-Turkish War, Berlin treaty and subsequent events);1885-1887(union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria);1889-1890(Cretan disturbances);1892-1899(Armenian and Cretan affairs);1902-1907(Macedonia);1908-1910(revolution and reform).
But he failed to give effectual help to the Egyptian army.
Spencer in his De legibus Hebraeorum saw in the Passover a practical protest against the Egyptian worship of Apis.
Since the beginning of the 19th century they have been bigoted Wahhabis, though previously regarded by their neighbours as very lax Mahommedans; during Mehemet Ali's occupation of Nejd their constant raids on the Egyptian communications compelled him to send several punitive expeditions into the district, which, however, met with little success.
Burckhardt at Taif in 1814 and those of the French officers with the Egyptian expeditions into the country from 1814 to 1837.
In his Practica geometriae plain traces of the use of the Roman agrimensores are met with; in his Liber abaci old Egyptian problems reveal their origin by the reappearance of the very numbers in which the problem is given, though one cannot guess through what channel they came to Leonardo's knowledge.
GIOVANNI BATTISTA BELZONI (1778-1823), Italian explorer of Egyptian antiquities, was born at Padua in 1778.
The exhibition was held at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, London.
But in the same year he was unable to prevent the Egyptian forces from occupying Navarino, though he harassed them with some success.
His efforts to interrupt the sea communications of the Egyptian forces failed, owing to the enormous disproportion of the two squadrons in the siege and strength of the ships.
See EGYPT, section Egyptian Religion.
Admiral de Rigny left for a cruise in the Levant, and Sir Edward Codrington, hearing that an Egyptian armament was on its way from Alexandria, and believing that it was bound for Hydra, steered for that island, which he reached on the 3rd of September, but on the 12th of September found the Egyptians at anchor with a Turkish squadron at Navarino.
On the 19th of September, seeing a movement among the Egyptian and Turkish ships in the bay, Codrington informed the Ottoman admiral, Tahir Pasha, that he had orders to prevent hostile movements against the Greeks.
From the 3rd to the 5th of October Codrington, who had with him only his flagship the "Asia" (84) and some smaller vessels, was engaged in turning back the Egyptian and Turkish vessels, a task in which he was aided by a violent gale.
The admirals, therefore, decided to stand into the bay and anchor among the Egyptian and Turkish ships.
A French officer in the Egyptian service, of the name of Letellier, had anchored the vessels of Ibrahim and the Turkish admiral in a horseshoe formation, of which the points touched the entrance to the bay, and there were forts on the lands at both sides of the entry.
Three-fourths of the Turkish and Egyptian vessels were sunk by the assailants, or fired by their own crews.
It never became popular in Greek lands, and was regarded by Hellenized nations as a barbarous worship. It was at rivalry with the Egyptian religion.
What in the opinion of Albrecht Dieterich (Eine Mithrasliturgie, Leipzig, 1903) is a Mithras liturgy is preserved in a Greek MS. of Egyptian origin of about A.D.
But it is rather a revived than a new capital; Khalep was a very ancient Syrian and probably "Hittite" city of importance, known from Babylonian, Assyrian and Egyptian records.
Aleppo shared, and to some extent headed, the Syrian discontent with Egyptian rule, and was strongly held by troops whose huge barracks are still one of the sights of the city.
This form of algebra was extensively studied in ancient Egypt; but, in accordance with the practical tendency of the Egyptian mind, the study consisted largely in the treatment of particular cases, very few general rules being obtained.
The typical Egyptian obelisk is an upright monolith of nearly square section, generally to diameters in height, the sides slightly convex, tapering upwards very gradually and evenly, and terminated by a pyramidion whose faces are inclined at an angle of 60°.
Gorringe, Egyptian Obelisks (New York, 1882; London, 1885, &c.); F.
Indeed it is at least equally probable that it was the recent translation of some of the poetical books of the Old Testament which fired him with a desire to translate his grandfather's book, and perhaps add the work of a member of the family to the Bible of the Egyptian Jews.
In this connexion verse 10 is particularly appropriate as addressed to an Egyptian princess whose forefathers, though their rule had not on the whole been tyrannical, had been regarded by the Jews as heathen oppressors.
He also recognized the necessity, if agriculture was to be developed, of an extensive system of irrigation, and Sir William Willcocks, formerly of the Egyptian Irrigation Department, was engaged to draw up a comprehensive scheme, having in view also the needs of the gold mines.
18 as a fictitious prophecy in the interests of Onias, the founder of the rival Egyptian temple to Yahweh at Leontopolis in the name of Heliopolis (Josephus, Ant.
Speaking generally, it has been found that the East as opposed to the West has undergone relatively little alteration in the principal constituents of dress among the bulk of the population, and, although it is often difficult to interpret or explain some of the details as represented (one may contrast, for example, worn sculptures or seals with the vivid Egyptian paintings), comparison with later descriptions and even with modern usage is frequently suggestive.
ran and still run about naked, the industrious work man upon the Egyptian monuments is often nude, and the worshipper would even appear before his deity in a state of absolute innocence.
- Egyptian Loin-cloth.
Egyptian women had a tight foldless tunic which exposed the breasts; it was generally kept up by means of braces over the shoulders.
In Egyptian tombs have been found linen bands no less than 30 ft.
- An Egyptian scene depicts the.
Not until the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties does a change come over Egyptian costume.
The old Babylonian hero Gilgamesh and the Egyptian Bes (perhaps of foreign extraction) are nude, and so in general are the figurines of the Ishtar-Astarte type.
The custom of clothing images is well known in the ancient world, and at the restoration of an Egyptian temple care was taken to anoint the divine limbs and to prepare the royal linen for the god.
The Babylonian temples received garments as payment in kind, and the Egyptian lists in the Papyrus Harris (Rameses III.) enumerate an enormous number of skirts, tunics and mantles, dyed and undyed, for the various deities.
Throughout Egyptian history the official costume was conventionalized, and the latest kings and even the Roman emperors are arrayed like their predecessors of the IVth Dynasty.
Young Egyptian princes and youthful kings had 3 Comp. the horns of Bau (" mother of the gods "), Samas (Shamash), (H)adad, and (in Egypt) of the Asiatic god assimilated to Set (so, too, Rameses III.
That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the evolution of ideas.2 The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original religious meaning to be obscured) and among cere= the priests, and it is interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206).
Equally perplexing is the Egyptian style on the Phoenician statue, ib.
On Egyptian costume see especially J.
Erman Life in Ancient Egypt (1894, especially pp. 200-233); for Egyptian evidence, see W.
A fragment of the "sacred marriage" of Zas and Chthonie was found on an Egyptian papyrus at the end of the r9th century.
façade, Louvre; groups for pediments of façade now placed over entrance to Egyptian and Assyrian collections, Louvre.
The Syrian kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad (three of this name are mentioned in Scripture), just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Amon-Ra.
The dissection of the human body, of which some doubtful traces or hints only are found in Greek times, was assiduously carried out, being favoured or even suggested perhaps by the Egyptian custom of disembowelling and embalming the bodies of the dead.
It was cut on the rocks by an Egyptian nobleman named Hannu, who states that he was sent by Pharaoh Sankhkere, Menthotp IV., with a force gathered out of the Thebaid, from Coptos to the Red Sea, there to take command of a naval expedition to the Holy Land of Punt (Puoni), "to bring back odoriferous gums."
It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).
Cleopatra's Needle, an ancient Egyptian monument, was presented to the government by Mehemet Ali in 1819, brought from Alexandria in 1878, and erected on the Victoria embankment on a pedestal of grey granite.
The well-known Egyptian Hall in Piccadilly was taken down in 1906, and the permanent conjuring entertainment for which (besides picture exhibitions) it was noted was removed elsewhere.
The earliest specimens of glass-ware which can be definitely claimed as Egyptian productions, and the glass manufactory discovered by Dr Flinders Petrie at Tell el Amarna, belong to the period of the XVIIIth dynasty.
It is possible that the picture does not represent Egyptian glass-blowers, but is a traveller's record of the process of glass-blowing seen in some foreign or subject country.
This process was no doubt first practised in Egypt, and is never seen in such perfection as in objects of a decidedly Egyptian character.
The exploration of the river followed the ascent of the White Nile by the Egyptian expeditions of 1839-1842.
Under Diocletian (circa 297), Cilicia, with the Syrian and Egyptian provinces, formed the Diocesis Orientis.
It was probably suggested to Ctesibius by the Egyptian Wheel or Noria, which was common at that time, and which was a kind of chain pump, consisting of a number of earthen pots carried round by a wheel.
In the ruins of a building, attached by him to the temple of Nina, terra-cotta bas-reliefs of the king and his sons have been found, as well as the heads of lions in onyx, which remind us of Egyptian work and onyx plates.
A finely executed bas-relief, representing Naram-Sin, and bearing a striking resemblance to early Egyptian art in many of its features, has been found at Diarbekr.
conquerors of Assyria, who carried his arms towards Armenia on the north and Cappadocia on the west; he hunted wild bulls in the Lebanon and was presented with a crocodile by the Egyptian king.
The Egyptian frontier was crossed on the 3rd of Tammuz (June), and Tirhaka, at the head of the Egyptian forces, was driven to Memphis after fifteen days of continuous fighting, during which the Egyptians were thrice defeated with heavy loss and Tirhada himself was wounded.
The legend of Adapa, the first man, a portion of which was found in the record-office of the Egyptian king Amenophis IV.
The forms of Assyrian pottery, however, are graceful; the porcelain, like the glass discovered in the palaces of Nineveh, was derived from Egyptian originals.
At the very time of Nasir's visit to Cairo, the power of the Egyptian Fatimites was in its zenith; Syria, the Hejaz, Africa, and Sicily obeyed Mostansir's sway, and the utmost order, security and prosperity reigned in Egypt.
HITTITES, an ancient people, alluded to frequently in the earlier records of Israel, and also, under slightly variant names, in Egyptian records of the XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties, and in Assyrian from about 1100 to 700 B.C. They appear also in the Vannic cuneiform texts, and are believed to be the authors of a class of monuments bearing inscriptions in a peculiar pictographic character, and widely distributed over Asia Minor and N.
That identification stands, and no earlier Egyptian mention of the race has been found.
Kheta-king), of which we possess an Egyptian copy.
From this point (c. 1150 B.C.) - the point at which (roughly) the monarchic history of Israel in Palestine opens - Egyptian records cease to mention Kheta; and as we know from other sources that the latter continued powerful in Carchemish for some centuries to come, we must presume that the rise of the Israelite state interposed an effective political barrier.
differences in execution and details, all these sculptures show one general type of art, a type which recalls now Babylonian, now Assyrian, now Egyptian, now archaic Ionian, style, but is always individual and easily distinguishable from the actual products of those peoples.
In the sculptures of the Cornmagene and the Tyana districts, the nose has a long curving tip, of very Jewish appearance, but not unlike the outline given to Kheta warriors in Egyptian scenes.
This, however, is a feature common to Mesopotamian and Egyptian, and perhaps to all primitive art.
It has usually been assumed that the incised inscriptions, being the more conventionalized, are all of later date than those in relief; but comparison of Egyptian inscriptions, wherein both incised and cameo characters coexisted back to very early times, suggests that this assumption is not necessarily correct.
A certain number are heads (human and animal) detached from bodies, in a manner not known in the Egyptian hieroglyphic system, with which some of the other symbols show obvious analogies.
Ball (based on Hittite names recorded on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments, and applied to word-groups on the Hittite monuments).
Syrian monuments, holding these of too late a date (judged by their Assyrian analogies) for the flourishing period of the Kheta-Khatti, as known from Egyptian and Assyrian records.
Syria and Asia Minor known to us from Egyptian and Assyrian records, the Kheta-Khatti alone appear frequently as leading to war peoples from far beyond Taurus.
(4) The Kheta certainly had a system of writing and a glyptic art in the time of Rameses II., or else the Egyptian account of their copy of the treaty would be baseless.
(5) The physiognomy given to Kheta warriors by Egyptian artists is fairly representative of the prevailing type shown in the Hittite sculptures.
fought the battle of Kadesh with Rameses II., on at least equal terms. Both now and previously the diplomatic correspondence of the Hatti monarchs shows that they treated on terms of practical equality with both the Babylonian and the Egyptian courts; and that they waged constant wars in Syria, mainly with the Amorite tribes.
See also authorities for Egyptian and Assyrian history.
The Opera del Duomo contains models and pieces of sculpture connected with the cathedral; the Etruscan and Egyptian museum, the gallery of tapestries, the Michelangelo museum, the museum of natural history and other collections are all important in different ways.
It is of interest to note that grape-stones have been found with mummies in Egyptian tombs of not later age than 3000 years.
Herodotus divides them into two main groups, a straight-haired race and a woolly-haired race, dwelling respectively to the East and West, and this distinction is confirmed by the Egyptian monuments.
" Long-lived," "Fish-eaters," "Troglodytes," &c. The bulk of our information is derived from Egyptian monuments, whence it appears that, originally occupied by independent tribes, who were raided (first by Seneferu or Snefru, first king of the IVth or last of the IIIrd Dynasty) and gradually subjected by Egyptian kings (the steps in this process are traced by E.
Budge, The Egyptian Sudan, 1907, i.
The inhabitants frequently rebelled and were as often subdued; records of these repeated conquests were set up by the Egyptian kings in the shape of steles and temples; of the latter the temple of Amenhotep (Amenophis) III.
Merawi) at the foot of Jebel Barkal, "the sacred mountain," which in time became formidable, and in the middle of the 8th century conquered Egypt; an Egyptian campaign is recorded in the famous stele of King Pankhi.
Later, in the Roman period, the type in sculpture changed from the Egyptian.
The royal inscriptions are written in the hieroglyphic character and the Egyptian language, which, however, in the opinion of experts, steadily deteriorate after the separation of Ethiopia from Egypt.
About the time of Ergamenes, or (according to some authorities) before, a vernacular came to be employed in inscriptions, written in a special alphabet of 23 signs in parallel hieroglyphic and cursive forms. The cursive is to be read from right to left, the hieroglyphic, contrary to the Egyptian method, in the direction in which the figures face.
The Egyptian equivalents of six characters have been made out by the aid of bilingual cartouches.
The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?
262), and in India coarse sugar is still called Chinese and fine sugar Cairene or Egyptian.
The disciplined Egyptian army, supported by a well organized fleet, rapidly accomplished what the Turks had failed to do; and by 1826 the Greeks were practically subdued on land, and Ibrahim was preparing to turn his attention to the islands.
Egyptian cigarettes are to a great extent made from Grecian tobacco.
As his explanations were not considered satisfactory, the council deposed him from his priestly office and excommunicated him; but in 449, at a council held in Ephesus convened by Dioscurus of Alexandria and overawed by the presence of a large number of Egyptian monks, not only was Eutyches reinstated in his office, but Eusebius, Domnus and Flavian, his chief opponents, were deposed, and the Alexandrine dcctrine of the "one nature" received the sanction of the church.
Tamisier, Chedufau and Mary, belonging to the Egyptian army in Asir; another Frenchman, a.
Arnaud, formerly in the Egyptian service, was the first to visit the southern Jauf and to report on the rock-cut inscriptions and ruins of Marib, though it was not till 1869 that a competent archaeologist, J.
His original intention had been after visiting Mecca to find his way across the peninsula to Oman, but the time at his disposal (as an Indian officer on leave) was insufficient for so extended a journey; and his further contributions to Arabian geography were not made until twenty-five years later, when he was deputed by the Egyptian government to examine the reported gold deposits of Midian.
Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.
It is, however, to the Egyptian conquest that the first visit of a British traveller to Nejd is due.
Sadlier to congratulate the pasha on the success of the Egyptian arms, and no doubt with the ulterior object of obtaining a first-hand report on the real situation.
The effects of the Egyptian invasion had passed away, and central Arabia had settled down again under its native rulers when W.
At Riad, Fesal, who had been in power since the Egyptian retirement, was still reigning; and the religious tyranny of Wahhabism prevailed, in marked contrast to the liberal regime of Talal in Jebel Shammar.
The Egyptian pilgrim road crosses the peninsula from Suez to Akaba, passing the post of An Nakhl, with a reservoir and a little cultivation, about half way; a steep descent leads down from the edge of the Tih plateau to Akaba.
officers of the Egyptian army in that district, and with that of Halevy, who makes all the drainage from Nejran northward run to the same great wadi.
Until the Egyptian invasion in 1814 the Sharifs of Mecca were the recognized rulers of Hejaz, and though the Turks have attempted to suppress their importance, the Sharif still executes justice according to the Mahommedan law in the holy cities, though, nominally, as a Turkish official.
The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.
The Egyptian rebels managed to gain most influence, and, in accordance with their desire, 'Ali was appointed caliph by the citizens of Medina.
Thus in 966 the name of the caliph Moti was banished from the prayers at Mecca, and an `Alyite took possession of the government of the city and recognized the Egyptian caliph as his master.
Deraiya was razed to the ground and the principal towns of Nejd were compelled to admit Egyptian garrisons; but though the Arabs saw themselves powerless to stand before disciplined troops, the Egyptians, on the other hand, had to confess that without useless sacrifices they could not retain their hold on the interior.
His son, Fesal, succeeded him, but in 1836 on his refusal to pay tribute an Egyptian force was sent to depose him and he was taken prisoner and sent to Cairo, while a rival claimant, Khalid, was established as amir in Riad.
The few remaining Egyptian troops were ejected from Riad, and with them all semblance of Egyptian or Turkish rule disappeared from central Arabia.
As a reward for his services Abdallah was appointed governor of Jebel Shammar, and had already established himself in Hail when the Egyptian expedition of 1836 removed Fesal temporarily from Nejd.
997) a History of Egypt; `Otbi wrote the History of Mahmud of Ghazna, at whose court he lived (printed on the margin of the Egyptian edition of Ibn al-Athir); Tha'labi (d.
That the ascetic ideal was by no means wholly extinct is evident from the Book of Governors written by Thomas, bishop of Marga, in 840 which bears witness to a Syrian monasticism founded by one Awgin of Egyptian descent, who settled in Nisibis about 3 50, and lasting uninterruptedly until the time of Thomas, though it had long been absorbed in the great Nestorian movement that had annexed the church in Mesopotamia.
It was owing to their incessant raids that Diocletian withdrew the Roman garrisons above the cataracts, and called in the warlike Nobatae to protect the Egyptian frontier from their attacks.
Wallis Budge, The Egyptian Sudan (London, 1907); J.
It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art.
112, 118), who got it from Egyptian priests, and by Euripides in the Helena.
Among reptiles the Egyptian cobra seems to be indigenous in the south, where also is found the dreaded horned viper.
The Glyptothek, a building by Klenze in the Ionic style, and adorned with several groups and single statues, contains a valuable series of sculptures, extending from Assyrian and Egyptian monuments down to works by Thorwaldsen and other modern masters.
In addition to the museum of plaster casts, the Antiquarium (a collection of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities under the roof of the new Pinakothek) and the Maillinger collection, connected with the historical museum, Munich also contains several private galleries.
The attempts to connect the name Yahweh with that of an Indo-European deity (Jehovah-Jove, &c.), or to derive it from Egyptian or Chinese, may be passed over.
SAIS (Egyptian Sai), an ancient city of the Egyptian Delta, lying westward of the Thermuthiac or Sebennytic branch of the Nile.
In 1869 he declined the offer made by the khedive of the chief command of the Egyptian army.
ANUBIS (in Egyptian Anup, written Inpw in hieroglyphs), the name of one of the most important of the Egyptian gods.
See Erman, Egyptian Religion; Budge, Gods of the Egyptians; Meyer, in Zeits.
private worship that it had to be suppressed by decree of the Senate in 186 B.C., and later on were established the cults of Ma of Phrygia, introduced by Sulla and identified with Bellona, the Egyptian Isis, and, after Pompey's war with the pirates, even the Persian Mithras.
These Egyptian experiments of 1830 were vitiated by their method, the scryer being asked to see and describe a given person, named.
An Egyptian military post was established at Fashoda in 1865.
Lit., 1904, p. 36), the "field of Abram" occurs among the places mentioned in the list of the Egyptian king Shishak (No.
The contents of the letter were not made known to his officers until he was assured that the army was on Egyptian soil, so that the expedition might be continued under the sanction of Omar's orders.
The key to the mysteries of Egyptian history had indeed been found, thanks to the recent efforts of Thomas Young and Champollion, but the deciphering of inscriptions had not yet progressed far enough to give more than a vague inkling of what was to follow.
For example, the Greek names Ptolemaios and Kleopatra became a part of the Egyptian language and appeared regularly in Egyptian inscriptions after Alexander's general became king of Egypt.
Manetho, it will be recalled, was the Egyptian who wrote the history of Egypt in Greek in the time of the Ptolemies.
These fragments have until recently, however, given us our only clue to the earlier periods of Egyptian history.
Until corroboration was found in the Egyptian inscriptions themselves, not only were Manetho's lists in doubt, but scepticism had been carried to the point of denying that Manetho himself had ever existed.
As to the exact dates of early Egyptian history there is rather more of vagueness than for the corresponding periods of Mesopotamia.
ologyand A fair proportion of the workers who have delved so enthusiastically in the fields of Egyptian and Assyrian exploration would never have taken up the work at all but for the hope that their investigations might substantiate the Hebrew records.
For a long time this hope proved illusory, and in the case of Egyptian archaeology the results have proved disappointing even up to the very present.
Considering the important part played by the Egyptian sojourn of the Hebrews, as narrated in the Scriptures, it was certainly not an overenthusiastic prediction that the Egyptian monuments when fully investigated would divulge important references to Joseph, to Moses, and to the all-important incidents of the Exodus; but half a century of expectant attention in this direction has led only to disappointment.
But, considering the fulness of the contemporary Egyptian records of the XIXth dynasty that are already known, it becomes increasingly doubtful whether the Hebrews in Egypt played so important a part in history, when viewed from the Egyptian standpoint, as their own records had seemed to imply.
If, then, an Egyptian inscription of the XIXth dynasty had come to hand in which the names of Joseph and Moses, and the deeds of the Israelites as a subject people who finally escaped from bondage by crossing the Red Sea, were recorded in hieroglyphic characters, such a monument would have been hailed with enthusiastic delight by every champion of the Pentateuch, and a wave of supreme satisfaction would have passed over all Christendom.
It does not follow that faith in the Bible record is shaken, although in some quarters there has been a pronounced tendency to regard the history of the Egyptian sojourn as mythical; yet it cannot be denied that Egyptian records, corroborating at least some phases of the Bible story, would have been a most welcome addition to our knowledge.
Not only have antiquities been found in Crete that point to Egyptian inspiration, but quite recently Professor Petrie has found at Tel el-Amarna Mycenaean pottery.
of the XVIIIth Egyptian dynasty, who in the latter years of his reign chose to be known as Akhenaton, "the glory of the solar disk."
The chronological reckoning of Julius Africanus formed also the basis of the era of Antioch, which was adopted by the Christians of Syria, at the instance of Panodorus, an Egyptian monk, who flourished about the beginning of the 4th century.
The year was in all respects the same as the ancient Egyptian year.
In the year 136 of our era, the first of Thoth in the ancient Egyptian year corresponded with the 10th of July, between which and the 29th of August there are forty days.
The adoption of the Julian year must therefore have taken place about 160 years before the year 136 of our era (the difference between the Egyptian and Julian years being one day in four years), that is to say, about the year 25 B.C. In fact, the first of Thoth corresponded with the 29th of August in the Julian calendar, in the years 25, 24, 23 and 22 B.C.
Some authors who follow the Macedonian era, use the Egyptian or vague year of 365 days; Albategni adopts the Julian year of 3654 days.
It begins with the 29th of August (the first day of the Egyptian year) of the year 284 of our era, which was the first of the reign of Diocletian.
The ancient Egyptian year consisted of 365 days; but after the introduction of the Julian calendar, the astronomers of Alexandria adopted an intercalary year, and added six additional days instead of five to the end of the last month of every fourth year.
The Egyptian intercalary year, however, does not correspond to the Julian leap year, but is the year immediately preceding; and the intercalation takes place at the end of the year, or on the 29th of August.
Hence the first three years of the Egyptian intercalary period begin on the 29th of our August, and the fourth begins on the 30th of that month.
Before the end of that year the Julian intercalation takes place, and the beginning of the following Egyptian year is restored to the 29th of August.
The Egyptian months, followed by the modern Copts, agree with the above in every respect excepting the names.
One figure called Sarapo appears to be the Egyptian Serapis, and others are perhaps Babylonian deities.
Artaxerxes used his victory with great cruelty; he plundered the Egyptian temples and is said to have killed the Apis.
(d) The Egyptian version is found in two forms, i.e.
In other words, it has been taken over from pre-existing material - either Christian or Jewish - and the materials of which it is composed are ultimately derived from non-Jewish sources - either Babylonian, Greek or Egyptian - and bore therein very different meanings from those which belong to them in their present connexion.
Yet another explanation from Egyptian mythology is given by Bousset (Offenbarung Johannis, 2nd ed., pp. 354, 355) in the birth of the sun-god Horus.
There are obvious points of similarity, possibly of derivation, between the details in our text and the above myths, but the subject cannot be further pursued here, save that we remark that in the sun myth the dragon tries to kill the mother before the child's birth, whereas in our text it is after his birth, and that neither in the Egyptian nor in the Greek myth is there any mention of the flight into the wilderness.
661), Spitta and Erbes, have contended that 616 was the original reading (I'aios Kaivap= 6r6) and that ' On the possibility of other points of contact between the Apocalypse and Egyptian mythology, see Mrs Grenfell's article, "Egyptian Mythology and the Bible," in the Monist (1906), pp. 169 - zoo.
Subsequently he became a pupil of Lepsius and Brugsch, and devoted himself to the study of Egyptian inscriptions.
In 1875 Harrar was occupied by an Egyptian force under Raouf Pasha, by whose orders the amir was strangled.
The Egyptian garrison and many Egyptian civilians, in all 6500 persons, left Harrar between November 1884 and the 25th of April 1885, when a son of the ruler who had been deposed by Egypt was installed as amir, the arrangement being carried out under the superintendence of British officers.
The old Egyptian name of Tentyra was written 'In t (Ant), but the pronunciation of it is unknown: in later days it was 'In t-t-ntr t, "ant of the goddess," pronounced Ni-tentori, whence TEvrupa, TEvrupcs.
The command of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pethor at the junction of the Euphrates and Sajur, and at Arvad he received presents, including a crocodile, from the Egyptian king, and, embarking in a ship, killed a dolphin in the sea.
In the Old World a large number of fossil forms are known, of which the earliest is the Egyptian Eocene Geniohyus.
MAMELUKE (anglicized through the French, from the Arabic mamluk, a slave), the name given to a series of Egyptian sultans, originating (1250) in the usurpation of supreme power by the bodyguard of Turkish slaves first formed in Egypt under the successors of Saladin.
On the defeat of Josiah at Megiddo his younger brother Jehoahaz (or Shallum) was chosen by the Judaeans, but the Egyptian conquerer Necho summoned him to his headquarters at Riblah (south of Hamath on the Orontes) and removed him to Egypt, appointing in his stead Eliakim, whose name ("El[God] raiseth up") was changed to its better-known synonym, Jehoiakim.
These Hamites brought with them a measure of Egyptian civilization, cattle, and the arts of metallurgy, pottery and other adjuncts to neolithic civilization.
In the 'forties and 'fifties Egyptian officials, Austrian missionaries, and British, Dutch, Italian, and German explorers had carried our knowledge of the Nile beyond Khartum as far south as Gondokoro.
In the early 'seventies Sir Samuel Baker (who had discovered Albert Nyanza) extended the rule of the Egyptian Sudan as far south as the Victoria Nile.
General Gordon, who succeeded Baker, and who had Dr Emin Bey (afterwards Emin Pasha) as lieutenant, attempted through Colonel Charles Chaille Long, in 1874, not only to annex Unyoro but also Buganda to the Egyptian dominions, and thoroughly established Egyptian control on Albert Nyanza.
But owing to the indirect influence of the British government, exercised through Sir John Kirk at Zanzibar, the Egyptian dominions were prevented from coming south of the Victoria Nile.
Meanwhile the Zanzibar Arabs had reached Buganda in everincreasing numbers as traders; but many of them were earnest 1 The letter was entrusted to Linant de Bellefonds, a Belgian in the Egyptian service, who had been sent to Buganda by Gordon.
He brought away with him 8000 Sudanese men, women, children and slaves, under Selim Bey (an Egyptian officer).
Felkin, Uganda and the Egyptian Sudan (1882); R.
Under this title are generally included certain strongly marked tendencies in literature, science and art, which took their rise in the ancient Egyptian city of Alexandria.
Philadelphus (285-247), whose librarian was the celebrated Callimachus, bought up all Aristotle's collection of books, and also introduced a number of Jewish and Egyptian works.
A large collection of such curious information is contained in the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, a pupil of Aristarchus who flourished in the and century B.C. Eratosthenes was the first to write on mathematical and physical geography; he also first attempted to draw up a chronological table of the Egyptian kings and of the historical events of Greece.
He returned to his native place and for many years lived as a hermit in the desert by the marshes on the Egyptian border.
The Coptic name, Phelbes, seems to have been derived from Egyptian, but nothing is known of the place before medieval times.
In German universities the townsfolk of Jaffa (Joppa) to the Egyptian desert south of Gaza (on the subsequent extension of the name in its Greek form Palaestina, see Palestine).
The Egyptian monuments represent the Purasati with a very distinctive feather head-dress resembling that of the Lycians and Mycenaeans.
But as the Assyrian power declined Egyptian monarchs formed plans of aggrandizement.
The biblical evidence does not favour any continued Philistine domination since the time of Rameses III., who indeed, later in his reign, made an expedition, not against the Purasati, but into North Syria, and, as appears from the Papyrus Harris, restored Egyptian supremacy over Palestine and Syria.
aKXous), with which has been compared Ikausu, a king of Ekron (7th century) and the " Keftian" name Akashau of the XIXth Egyptian dynasty.
6 By Caphtor the Septuagint has sometimes understood Cappadocia, which indeed may be valid for its age, but the name is to be identified with the Egyptian K(a)ptar, which in later Ptolemaic times seems to mean Phoenicia, although Keftiu had had another connotation.
Of the old Egyptian freshwater canal Dicuil learnt from one "brother Fidelis," probably another Irish monk, who, on his way to Jerusalem, sailed along the "Nile" into the Red Sea-passing on his way the "Barns of Joseph" or Pyramids of Giza, which are well described.
7 a (c. 350) but omitted in a later Egyptian prayer; the form as we have it in The Didache may have passed into Egypt with the authority of tradition which was afterwards weakened.
Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus are historical personages of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, in correct order, and they built the three pyramids attributed to them here.
In Egyptian the name of Cheops (Chemmisor Chembisin Diodorus Siculus, Suphis in Manetho) is spelt Hwfw (Khufu), but the pronunciation, in late times perhaps Khoouf, is uncertain.
Khufu is a leading figure in an ancient Egyptian story (Papyrus Westcar), but it is unfortunately incomplete.
The earliest metallic money did not consist of coins, but of unminted metal in the form of rings and other ornaments or of weapons, which were used for thousands of years by the Egyptian, Chaldean and Assyrian Empires.
The Greeks recognized Hercules in an Egyptian deity Chons and an Indian Dorsanes, not to mention personages of other mythologies.
The principle on which it works is that of the stopped pipe, but it is blown in the same manner as the ancient Egyptian nay or oblique flute.
may be a secondary addition " written from specially intimate acquaintance with the (later ?) Egyptian geography " (J.
It is specially valuable in the portion relating to the history of the text (which up to the middle of the 3rd century he holds to have been current only in a common edition (Kocvi EK60cn), of which recensions were afterwards made by Hesychius, an Egyptian bishop, by Lucian of Antioch, and by Origen) and in its discussion of the ancient versions.
The anarchy which succeeded his death in 1804 was only ended by the Egyptian occupation (1832).