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efficiency

efficiency

efficiency Sentence Examples

  • In order to operate at maximum efficiency, we must integrate our plans with theirs.

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  • Hence assuming the mechanical efficiency of the engine to be and substituting !

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  • We have seen that the efficiency of an electromagnetic engine is greatest when the current is indefinitely small, and then the rate at which it works is also indefinitely small.

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  • Whether the intelligence and efficiency of the officials charged by the state with the handling of its railway system will be sufficient to make them act in the interest of the public as fully as do the managers of private corporations, is a question whose answer can only be determined by actual experience in each case.

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  • - Engine Efficiency Curves.

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  • - Engine Efficiency Curves.

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  • The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.

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  • The lime deposit or " fur " is a poor conductor of heat, and it is therefore most detrimental to the efficiency of the system to allow the interior of the boiler or any other portion to become furred up. Further, if not removed, the fur will in a short time bring about a fracture in the boiler.

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  • To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.

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  • During the Russo-Japanese War he served in the Red Cross and in the Municipal Union for the organization of hospitals; he was left to take care of the Russian wounded after the battle of Moukden, and showed much dignity and efficiency in the performance of his arduous duties.

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  • per pound, the maximum indicated horse-power is given by the expression I.H.P. maximum - CcA X778 1980000 where A is the area of the grate in square feet, and is the combined efficiency of the engine and boiler.

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  • Lowering the cost of something is an increase in efficiency and an increase in the wealth of the overall system.

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  • In the choice of a boiler of this description it should be remembered that rapid heating, economical combustion of fuel, and facilities for cleaning, are requisites, the absence of any of which considerably lowers the efficiency of the apparatus.

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  • The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.

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  • I branched off into this discussion of robots and nanites to give an idea of the kinds of massive gains in efficiency with declining costs.

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  • While these assets upgraded our efficiency, the LeBlanc house continued to be inadequate.

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  • But the food would not only be produced with maximum efficiency; it would be extremely fresh and very healthy.

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  • There are also directors of stores, of naval construction, of the medical service, and of the submarine defences (which are concerned with torpedoes, mines and torpedo-boats), as well as of naval ordnance and works, The prefect directs the operations of the arsenal, and is responsible for its efficiency and for that of the ships which are there in reserve.

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  • The thermal efficiency is therefore 185/1013 =0.183.

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  • It is not economical to force the boiler to work at too high a rate, because it has been practically demonstrated that the boiler efficiency decreases after a certain point, as the rate of combustion increases.

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  • influence on the efficiency of the instrument, and it was ultimately ascertained that a small central opening, with a thin air space extending across the face of the membrane, was best.

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  • But in the end the superior military efficiency of the Swedes and Poles invariably prevailed.

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  • The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.

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  • Lines representing efficiency ratios of o 6, 0.5 and 0.4 are plotted on the diagram, so that the efficiency ratios corresponding to the various experiments plotted may be readily read off.

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  • The whole social and political fabric of the British Empire depends upon the efficiency of its industrial system.

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  • Some idea of the business efficiency of the C.R.B., as it was familiarly called, may be gained from the fact that although almost $1,000,000,000 was expended on food and transportation, only about one-half of one per cent was required for overhead expenses.

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  • A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.

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  • General Efficiency of Steam Locomotive.

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  • And in this efficiency that is generated by specialization, wealth is created.

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  • Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.

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  • When a line has once been inspected and passed, it lies with the company to maintain it in accordance with the standard of efficiency it originally possessed, but no express statutory obligation to do so is imposed upon the company, and whether it does so or not, the Board of Trade cannot interfere.

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  • The relative merit of the two systems depends upon the question how we can secure the best efficiency and equity in the application of the principles thus far laid down.

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  • A very convenient rule is to allow one brake horse-power of motor for every to foottons of work done at the hook; this is equivalent to an efficiency of 661%, and is well on the safe side.

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  • Food is authentically prepared with ultra-fresh ingredients and served with friendly efficiency.

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  • When the initial pressure is 100 lb per square inch by the gauge the thermal efficiency drops to about nearly 15% with the same back pressure.

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  • A very convenient rule is to allow one brake horse-power of motor for every to foottons of work done at the hook; this is equivalent to an efficiency of 661%, and is well on the safe side.

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  • However, there are limits to how much prosperity and efficiency the division of labor can create.

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  • Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.

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  • Worm wheel gearing is of very high efficiency if made very quick in pitch, with properly formed teeth perfectly lubricated, and with the end thrust of the worm taken on ball bearings.

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  • Worm wheel gearing is of very high efficiency if made very quick in pitch, with properly formed teeth perfectly lubricated, and with the end thrust of the worm taken on ball bearings.

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  • The Conseil .suprieur devotes its attention to all questions touching the fighting efficiency of the fleet, naval bases and arsenals and- coast defence.

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  • Collisions, on the other hand, are preventable, and derailments nearly so, and the records of deaths and injuries in this class in successive years are therefore justly taken as an index to the efficiency with which the railways are managed.

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  • The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.

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  • The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.

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  • Collisions, on the other hand, are preventable, and derailments nearly so, and the records of deaths and injuries in this class in successive years are therefore justly taken as an index to the efficiency with which the railways are managed.

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  • This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.

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  • It is adapted for light, high-speed service, and noted for its simplicity, excellent riding qualities, low cost of maintenance, and high mechanical efficiency; but having limited adhesive weight it is unsuitable for starting and accelerating heavy trains.

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  • This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.

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  • And you could feel good about it; after all, you would be increasing efficiency, not merely acting as a leech to the system.

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  • This, besides reducing the efficiency of the furnace, introduces the danger of fire to crops and buildings near the line.

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  • This position he held for thirteen years, during which period the highest efficiency of his men was reached, and outside the regiment he did good service to his arm by his writings.

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  • Operating at basically 5 percent efficiency, they are less than half as efficient as solar panels now on the market.

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  • - The combined engine and boiler efficiency has hitherto been taken to be o 06; actual values of the boiler efficiencies are given in Table XX.

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  • 22 represents the thermal efficiency actually obtained in one of Adams and Pettigrew's experiments, namely, 0-I I, the pressure in the steam-pipe being 167 lb per square inch.

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  • The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.

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  • For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.

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  • From the diagram it will be seen that the corresponding efficiency of the ideal engine is about 0.18.

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  • The electric transmission of energy can be performed with an efficiency not reached by any other method, and the electric motor readily adapts itself to cranes.

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  • The ratio of this to the whole work done by the battery is (C - C')/C, so that the efficiency is increased by diminishing C'.

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  • Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.

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  • A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.

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  • The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.

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  • The state, in taking over the Failways, did not exercise sufficient care to see that the lines and the rolling stock were kept up to a proper state of efficiency and adequacy for the work they had t,o perform; while the step itself was taken somewhat hastily.

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  • The state, in taking over the Failways, did not exercise sufficient care to see that the lines and the rolling stock were kept up to a proper state of efficiency and adequacy for the work they had t,o perform; while the step itself was taken somewhat hastily.

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  • 18 a bells was such that not more than two or three persons could be connected without seriously impairing the efficiency of the circuit for speech transmission.

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  • Taran moved closer to her, watching her clean and bandage her forearm with practiced efficiency.

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  • It is the oldest school of engineering in the country, and has always maintained a high rank of efficiency.

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  • The guardian or his servant must not take from the ward's property more than a reasonable amount for his expenses and the like; on the contrary he must maintain the houses, estates and other belongings in a proper state of efficiency.

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  • per hour, the tractive force falls to 7400 lb, and this cannot be increased except by increasing the rate of combustion (neglecting any small changes due to a change in the efficiency 7 Knowing the magnitude of R, the draw-bar pull, and hence the weight of vehicle the engine can haul at this speed, can be estimated if the resistances are known.

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  • Engine Efficiency.

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  • Combined Engine and Boiler Efficiency.

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  • In 1826, in his Memoire sur les roues hydrauliques a aubes courbes, he brought forward improvements in the construction of water-wheels, which more than doubled their efficiency.

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  • It should form part of the training of educated men of all classes, on grounds of public policy and administrative and business efficiency.

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  • The narrow streets and the traffic congestion of the business district presented difficult problems of urban transit, but the system is of exceptional efficiency.

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  • Various elements in the Republican party, nevertheless, had stoutly opposed their appointment, so that the President's choice showed that he was prepared to exert his independence of party managers and to insist upon administrative efficiency.

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  • Indeed the spread of democracy elsewhere increased the prestige of the Athenian administration, which had now reached a high pitch of efficiency.

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  • It is under his wise guidance that the survey has attained its present efficiency.

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  • Under the new regime this system, which had greatly cramped the military strength and efficiency of the Ottoman Empire, has been changed, and all " Ottomans " are now subject to military service.

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  • There were also two Nordenfeldt submarine boats of doubtful efficiency.

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  • With these numbers it was impossible to attain the high degree of individual efficiency required for the old line tactics, hence they were compelled to adopt the French methods of skirmishers and columns, but as yet they had hardly realized the increased density necessary to be given to a line of battle to enable it to endure the prolonged nervous strain the new system of tactics entailed.

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  • Though he had control of what remained of the navies of Holland and Spain, as well as of the French, he was outnumbered at every point, while the efficiency of the British fleet gave it a mobility which doubled its material superiority.

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  • Any reversible cell can theoretically be employed as an accumulator, though, in practice, conditions of general convenience are more sought after than thermodynamic efficiency.

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  • He took up the question of lighthouses and harbours; in the former he secured greater efficiency, in the latter he prevented useless expenditure.

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  • The less the Church could expect from its penitents, the more it was driven to trust to the miraculous efficiency of sacramental grace.

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  • L.) compared is difficult when we introduce, as seems inevitable, the question of efficiency and power, and do not confine the question to the perfection of morphological development.

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  • Morphologically, the spiders are remarkable for the concentration and specialization of their structure, which is accompanied with high physiological efficiency.

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  • This army was provided with a regular commissariat, cannon' and ballistic machines, and, being constantly on active service, was always in a high state of efficiency.

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  • The army of Matthias was not only a military machine of first-rate efficiency, but an indispensable civilizing medium.

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  • In their efforts to establish Hungarian independence on the firm basis of national efficiency they had succeeded in changing their country from one of very backward economic conditions into one which promised to be in a position to hold its own on equal terms with any in the world.

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  • The efficiency of a telescope is of course intimately connected with the size of the disk by which it represents a mathematical point.

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  • The limiting efficiency of the microscope is attained when the angular aperture amounts to 180°; and it is evident that a lateral displacement of the point under observation through -IX entails (at the old image) a phase-discrepancy B Q' of a whole period, one extreme ray FIG.

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  • With this broader and more accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the circulation a corresponding efficiency has been gained in the manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises.

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  • Charges were reduced and efficiency benefited by this movement.

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  • This has a serious effect on the health and efficiency of the workmen employed, and in extreme cases may even result in increased cost of mining operations.

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  • The efficiency of such ventilating furnaces is low, and they cannot safely be used in mines producing fire-damp. They are sometimes the cause of underground fires, and they are always a source of danger when by any chance the ventilating current becomes reversed, in which case the products of combustion, containing large quantities of carbon dioxide, will be drawn into the mine to the serious danger of the men.

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  • The climbing of ladders from deep mines not only lessens the efficiency of the men by reason of fatigue, but often tends to increase the mortality from diseases of the heart.

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  • In spite of the discouraging conditions in which they found themselves, and of the constant annoyance suffered from hostile artillery fire, the troops were in fair heart, while the tactical efficiency of the recently created divisions, which had not been of a high standard when they arrived in the theatre of war, had appreciably progressed.

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  • The final night was provisionally fixed as that of the 18th - 19th, and thanks to favourable weather and to the efficiency of the arrangements, the very critical operation was carried out with triumphant success, just as had been laid down by programme ten days before.

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  • Antenna has several important parameters: resonant frequency,gain, impedance, aperture or radiation pattern, efficiency and bandwidth, polarization.

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  • The Max Kohl pumps are based on the same principle, but are constructed with more elaborate detail, leading to a greater efficiency, an exhaust of o 0008 mm.

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  • Meyer in a pamphlet Ueber das geschichtete electrische Licht surpassed all previous forms in both simplicity and efficiency.

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  • The process originally suggested by Mansfield is generally followed, the success of the operation being principally conditioned by the efficiency of the dephlegmator, in which various improvements have been made.

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  • The quantity of the juice is the test to which recourse must be had in judging the efficiency of the extraction, while the quality is the main factor to be taken into account with regard to the results of subsequent manufacture.

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  • Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.

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  • Earthy matter and other matter precipitated and fallen on the copper double bottom may be dislodged by a slowly revolving scraper - say every twelve hours - and ejected through the bottom discharge cock; and thus the heating surface of the copper bottom will be kept in full efficiency.

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  • Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (London, 1906); and Jorde, Filhrer durch Elberfeld and seine Umgebung (1902).

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  • The efficiency of many substances, such as farm-yard manure,.

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  • The current efficiency was about 83 per cent.

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  • Although this primitive furnace could be made to act, its efficiency was low, and the use of a separate fire was disadvantageous.

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  • His interest and efficiency in financial legislation in the House led to his appointment on the Senate Committee of Finance, and after 1867 he was chairman of this influential committee.

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  • For efficiency the operation must be conducted with small quantities; caking may be prevented by mixing the substance with sand or powdered pumice, or, better, with iron filings, which also renders the decomposition more regular by increasing the conductivity of the mass.

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  • In proportion as the original chloride is thus reproduced, the efficiency of the process is of course diminished.

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  • With high current-density, heating the solution tended to increase the proportion of chlorate to hypochlorite, but as the proportion of water decomposed is then higher, the amount of chlorine produced must be less and the total chlorine efficiency lower.

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  • During his first expedition (622) he failed to secure a footing in Armenia, whence he had hoped to take the Persians in flank, but by his unwearied energy he restored the discipline and efficiency of the army.

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  • and the great Frederick had fully realized; the army had been their first care, and its efficiency had been maintained by their constant personal supervision.

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  • The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

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  • This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.

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  • - Carnot adopted as the analytical expression of his principle the statement that the efficiency W/H, or the work obtainable per unit of heat by means of a perfect engine taking in heat at a temperature t° C. and rejecting heat at o° C., must be some function F(t) of the temperature t, the lower limit o° C. being supposed constant.

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  • It simply asserts that the efficiency function F'(t), which is known as Carnot's function, is the same for all substances at the same temperature.

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  • In all such cases there is necessarily, by Carnot's principle, a loss of efficiency or available energy, accompanied by an increase of entropy, which serves as a convenient measure or criterion of the loss.

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  • The tyranny was succeeded by an oligarchy based upon a graduated money qualification, which ruled with a consistency equalling that of the Venetian Council, but pursued a policy too purely commercial to the neglect of military efficiency.

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  • He repeatedly failed in business, notably as manager of a malt-house, largely because of his incessant attention to politics; but in the Boston townmeeting he became a conspicuous example of the efficiency of that institution for training in statecraft.

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  • Abdur Rahman and his successor Habibullah steadfastly refused the offer of British engineers to strengthen its defences; and though the Afghans themselves have occasionally undertaken repairs, it is doubtful whether the old walls of Herat are maintained in a state of efficiency.

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  • The method differed from Regnault's inasmuch as the flask was exhausted to an almost complete vacuum,a performance rendered possible by the high efficiency of the modern air-pump. The actual experiment necessitates the most elaborate precautions, for which reference must be made to Morley's original papers in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge (1895), or to M.

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  • The Germans in addition had the inestimable advantage of having been in commission over two years and being in a state of prime gunnery efficiency, whereas the " Good Hope " and " Monmouth " were both 3rd Fleet ships, which had been lying idle in the dockyards, manned entirely with reserve men on the outbreak of war.

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  • He was still felt by many of his clergy and by candidates for ordination to be a rather terrifying person, and to enforce almost impossible standards of diligence, accuracy and preaching efficiency, but his manifest devotion to his work and his zeal for the good of the people rooted him deeply in the general confidence.

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  • By the adoption of more refined methods of construction, especially in the shape of the intake and discharge passages for the air and the forms of the fan blades, the efficiency of the ventilating fan has been greatly increased so that the dimensions can be much reduced and a higher rate of speed adopted.

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  • In this way the effective horse-power and also the mechanical efficiency of a number of large marine engines, each of several thousand horse-power, have been determined.

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  • In 1753 he and William Hunter were put in charge of the post service of the colonies, which he brought in the next ten years to a high state of efficiency and made a financial success; this position he held until 1774.

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  • The work of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, of the Bureau of Health, of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, and of the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration, and the progress of civil service, have been remarkable for value and efficiency.

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  • Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.

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  • The first test of the efficiency and permanence of this law came with the shifting of political power at Washington.

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  • He had about the same time begun to buy up leading German newspapers, one of his main objects being to organize a solid and powerful bloc of opinion in Germany in support of law and order and the promotion of the highest industrial and commercial efficiency.

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  • On each occasion new areas had to be brought within the sphere of enumeration, whilst the necessity for the use in the wilder tracts of a schedule simpler in its demands than the standard, grew less as the country got more accustomed to the inquiry, and the efficiency of the administrative agency increased.

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  • Crawford, was engaged to reorganize the customs; a number of German officers, selected by General von der Goltz, were brought in to reform the army; and the work of restoring the navy to efficiency was entrusted to a British adviser, Rear-Admiral Gamble, and a small British staff.

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  • For a given jet tube there is _ a position of maximum efficiency easily obtained by trial.

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  • It turned, therefore, principally upon the efficiency of the Trans-Siberian railway and in calculating this the Japanese made a serious underestimate.

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  • His record in the war for efficiency and personal gallantry no doubt contributed largely to his nomination and election as governor of the state of New York; but he attained the governorship not on this ground alone.

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  • He not only hated corruption per se, but he clearly saw that as efficiency has a greater power for good, so corruption has a greater power for evil in a strongly centralized government.

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  • No American president has done so much to discredit and destroy the old Jacksonian theory of party government that "to the victors belong the spoils," and to create confidence in the practical success as well as the moral desirability of a system of appointments to office which rests upon efficiency and merit only.

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  • He determined that Cuba should not be taken over by the United States, as all Europe expected it would be, and an influential section of his own party hoped it would be, but should be given every opportunity to govern itself as an independent republic; by assuming supervision of the finances of San Domingo, he put an end to controversies in that unstable republic, which threatened to disturb the peace of Europe; and he personally inspired the body of administrative officials in the Philippines, in Porto Rico and (during American occupancy) in Cuba, who for efficiency and unselfish devotion to duty compare favourably with any similar body in the world.

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  • In addition, numerous other researches stand to Joule's credit - the work done in compressing gases and the thermal changes they undergo when forced under pressure through small apertures (with Lord Kelvin), the change of volume on solution, the change of temperature produced by the longitudinal extension and compression of solids, &c. It was during the experiments involved by the first of these inquiries that Joule was incidentally led to appreciate the value of surface condensation in increasing the efficiency of the steam engine.

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  • This factor was the rupture of communications with foreign countries, due in the earlier stages of the war to the limitation, and at one time the prohibition, of exports by neutral countries, the passing over of some of these countries to the enemy, and lastly the blockade by the enemy Powers, which increased in efficiency and made it more and more difficult to import the most essential commodities, until in the end it was almost impossible to obtain from abroad anything, needed either for the soldiers or the civilians.

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  • In 1853 he described the employment of the condenser as a means for increasing the efficiency of the inductioncoil.

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  • But since the death of Witowt (1430) the military efficiency of Lithuania had sensibly declined; single-handed she was no longer a match for her ancient rival.

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  • Complications with the Turk were avoided by the adroit diplomacy of the king, while the superior discipline and efficiency of the Polish armies under the great Tarnowski (q.v.) and his pupils overawed the Tatars and extruded the Muscovites, neither of whom were so troublesome as they had been during the last reign.

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  • In 1254 he was made provincial of his order, and fulfilled the arduous duties of the office with great care and efficiency.

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  • Incidentally, the question of " compulsory Greek " has stimulated a desire for greater efficiency in classical teaching.

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  • Further efficiency in classical education has been the aim of the movement in favour of the reform of Latin pronunciation.

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  • Ramsay's " Address on Efficiency in Education " (Glasgow, 1902, 17-20), from the Transactions of the Amer.

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  • C. Buell in Kentucky had likewise drilled his troops to a high state of efficiency and was preparing to move against the Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston, whose reputation was that of being the foremost soldier on either side.

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  • The technical services, in which the mechanical skill and ingenuity of the American had full play, developed remarkable efficiency.

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  • To say that he was Machiavellian is meaningless, for every statesman is so more or less; especially in the 16th century men preferred efficiency to principle.

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  • He raised the English system of secret intelligence to a high degree of efficiency.

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    0
  • The national government, whose revenue powers are only limited by: (a) the provision of the constitution which prohibits all duties on exports, and (b) the provision that all direct taxes must be levied in proportion to populationa provision which deprives direct taxes of nearly all their efficiency for revenue purposes.

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    0
  • In this all able-bodied citizens between the ages of 18 and 6!o are nominally enrolled, but the active militia consists of about 45, 00 0 men of all ranks, in a varying state of efficiency.

    0
    0
  • While the older universities have increased greatly in influence and efficiency, the following new foundations have been made since confederation: - University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1877; Presbyterian College, Winnipeg, 1870; Methodist College, Winnipeg, 1888; Wesleyan College, Montreal, 1873; Presbyterian College, Montreal, 1868; School of Practical Science, Toronto, 1877; Royal Military College, Kingston, 1875; M`Master University, Toronto, 1888.

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    0
  • The feudal system again was a system of offence and defence, and its object was efficiency for war, not the organized regulation of peace.

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  • German statesmen, under the powerful stimulus of the emperor William II., have, in the eyes of some critics, carried this secondary object of conscript training to such excess as to be detrimental to military efficiency.

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    0
  • The utility of the diplomatic service has been considerably diminished through the increasing efficiency of the public press as a medium of information.

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  • But the efficiency of this preventive stops short at the point of saving human life.

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  • His successors, Caracalla and Severus Alexander (211-235), accepted the position, and many inscriptions refer to building or rebuilding executed by them for the greater efficiency of the frontier defences.

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  • They rendered good service at Syracuse and Arginusae; but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at Delium over the flower of the Athenian army (424), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency.

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  • When at length he found his memory failing and his mental powers declining, he gave up, without ostentation or complaint, whatever parts of his work he could no longer carry on according to his own standard of efficiency.

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  • Philopoemen's great merit lies in his having restored to his compatriots that military efficiency without which the Achaean League for all its skilful diplomacy could never stand.

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    0
  • The wind, which had died away, shifted to the southward, greatly reducing the efficiency of the screen.

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    0
  • Its electrical conductivity, determined on 99.6% metal, is 60.5% that of copper for equal volumes, or double that of copper for equal weights, and when chemically pure it exhibits a somewhat higher relative efficiency.

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    0
  • Morgan's staff, and afterwards became successively acting quartermaster-general, inspector-general, and quartermaster-general of the state troops, in which capacities he showed much administrative efficiency.

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    0
  • Solid as it looks, its weight is inconsiderable, and the perfect hinge by which the maxilla is articulated adds to its efficiency as an instrument of prehension.

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    0
  • The efficiency of drainage, digging, hoeing and like operations is accounted for by the manner in which they promote aeration of the soil, raise its temperature and remove its stagnant water.

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    0
  • The action and efficiency of influence machines have been investigated by F.

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  • also examined the efficiency and current producing power of influence machines.

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  • - The combined fluxing and abrading action of the descending charge tends to wear away the lining of the furnace where it is hottest, which of course is near its lower end, thus changing its shape materially, lessening its efficiency, and in particular increasing its consumption of fuel.

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    0
  • The composition of the special service corps was much criticized at the time; but as it was not called upon for fighting purposes, no inferences as to its efficiency are possible.

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    0
  • On a test one of these engines gave an efficiency or duty of 80%.

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    0
  • The theoretical efficiency of the wheel would then be Ioo %.

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    0
  • The actual efficiency of these wheels when used with high falls is from 80 to 86%; when used in connexion with high-pressure water in London an efficiency 1 This engine was fully described in Engineering, vol.

    0
    0
  • 2 The following statistics of turbine construction in Switzerland are taken from Schweizerische Bauzeitung (1901), p. 128, which, in the same volume at p. 53, contains a valuable article on the most important improvements in turbines and their regulation shown in the Paris Exhibition of 1901: - of one of these, which gave an efficiency of 87% at full load and 70% at about three-fifths full load.

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  • efficiency of the Francis turbine being in this case 86% at full load and 77% at half load.

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  • and an efficiency of 77%.

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    0
  • Tests of a turbine of this slow-moving type showed an efficiency of 82% at full gate, and one of 75% when half of the passages in the guide-blades were closed by the shutters, as described above.

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  • These are preserved to us in a body of biographical writing, the efficiency of which is unequalled in the whole range of literature.

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  • He so organized all branches of the public service that they ~ were brought to a point of high efficiency, and his army was one of the largest, best appointed and best trained in Europe (see PRUSSIA: History).

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    0
  • In the rural districts an attempt is being made to increase efficiency by the consolidation of several small schools and the conveyance of the children to one central building.

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    0
  • The collection of milk by the creameries and cheese-factories is carried on with great efficiency.

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  • It enabled him to create and remunerate adequately a capable official class, which proved its efficiency under the strictest supervision, and ultimately produced a whole series of great statesmen and admirals like Johan Friis, Peder Oxe, Herluf Trolle and Peder Skram.

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  • In 1886 he was elected chairman of committees in the House of Commons, and his efficiency in this office seemed to mark him out for the speakership in 1895.

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  • Besides these there is a fever hospital, erected by Lord John George Beresford; a college, which Primate Robinson was anxious to raise to the rank of a university; a public library founded by him, an observatory, which has become famous from the efficiency of its astronomers; a number of churches and schools, and barracks.

    0
    0
  • But he had a passion for efficiency, and for the greatness of England and himself.

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  • Since that date the most important changes effected in the elementary education system were the abolition, in 1886, of individual inspection of the lower standards - afterwards extended to the whole of the standards, the inspectors applying a collective test, the " block-grant " system, to the efficiency of a school - and the abolition of school fees (1889) for the compulsory standards, the loss being made up principally by a parliamentary grant, and partly by a proportion, earmarked for the purpose, of the proceeds of the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act 1890, and the Education and Local Taxation Account (Scotland) Act 1892.

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  • Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (London, 1906).

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  • The fact may be stated in this way: - the general efficiency of the test being granted, it is true to say that the large majority of those who pass an examination will be superior in efficiency to those who fail; but a few of those who fail ma .y be superior to a few of those who pass.

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    0
  • In pass examinations of a well-known character there is a maximum just beyond the pass mark, this being the point of efficiency at which many students aim.

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    0
  • In order to estimate the efficiency of an examination as a test, the precise question should be asked in each case - what is it intended to test ?

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  • (At Oxford and Cambridge many fellowships are now awarded on the results of examination; it is sometimes stated, in defence of this system, that young men cannot be expected to carry out research in classics or philosophy.) On the other hand, the defenders of examinations reply that (xiii.) examinations are necessary in order to test the efficiency of schools to which grants of public money are given (this argument has become somewhat out of date owing to the recent substitution of " inspection " for examination as a test of the efficiency of schools; a combination of inspection and examination is also sometimes used); (xiv.) they serve as a necessary incentive to steady and concentrated work 1 (the reply made to this is that the incentive is a bad one, and that with efficient teachers it is unnecessary); (xv.) they show both student and teacher where they have failed (unnecessary for efficient teachers); (xvi.) though possibly harmful to the highest class of men, they are good for the mass (reply: no system which damages the highest class of men is tolerable); (xvii.) they are indispensable as an impartial means of selecting men for the civil service; (xviii.) in a difficult examination like the first class civil service examination the qualities of quickness of comprehension, industry, concentration, power of rapidly passing 1 The Oxford commissioners of 1852 reported that " the examinations have become the chief instruments not only for testing the proficiency of the students but also for stimulating and directing the studies of the place " (Report, p. 61).

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  • Loftus, who had an important share in the administration of Ireland under successive lords deputy, and whose zeal and efficiency were commended by James I.

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    0
  • All alike receive some measure of pecuniary support, which is justified by the guarantee of regular inspection; and a series of scholarships at once stimulates efficiency and opens a path to the university for children of the poor.

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  • its efficiency.

    0
    0
  • The military forces otherwise maintained by the several native states are estimated to number about ioo,000 men, of varying degrees of efficiency.

    0
    0
  • If the Hindu village system may be praised for its justice, the Mogul farming system had at least the merit of efficiency.

    0
    0
  • The proposal was widely accepted, and the Imperial Service troops, as they are called, amount at present to some 20,000 cavalry, infantry and transport, whose efficiency is very highly thought of.

    0
    0
  • The importance of these acts cannot be over-estimated as supplying a legal standard of efficiency by which all prisons could be measured.

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  • On April 2 1 at Cadorna's request Brusati sent a report upon the defensive system between the Val Lagarina and the Val Sugana, accompanied by a map showing the various lines, stating that the conditions were " re-assuring," and that the third line of defence upon which Cadorna had laid special emphasis could be considered as being in a satisfactory state of efficiency.

    0
    0
  • Much more serious was Brusati's report that these lines were in a satisfactory state of efficiency, 'when in fact they were largely untouched.

    0
    0
  • Bacon's Logic, then, like Galilei's, intended as a contribution to scientific method, a systematization of discovery by which, given the fact of knowledge, new items of knowledge may be acquired, failed to convince contemporaries and successors alike of its efficiency as an instrument.

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  • The highest thermodynamic efficiency will be reached when the working substance is at the top of its temperature range while any heat is being received and at the bottom while any heat is being rejected - as is the case in the cycle of operations of the theoretically imagined engine of Carnot.

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  • 1851), who did much to increase the efficiency of the work of the Institute, became director.

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    0
  • Combined harvesters (which enter a field of standing grain and leave this grain piled in sacks ready for shipment), steam gang-ploughs, and other farm machinery are of truly extraordinary size and efficiency.

    0
    0
  • But she possessed the homely virtues; she was deeply religious, attached to the Church of England and concerned for the efficiency of the ministry.

    0
    0
  • About Liszt's pianoforte technique in general it may be said that it derives its efficiency from the teaching of Czerny, who brought up his pupil on Mozart, a little Bach and Beethoven, a good deal of Clementi and Hummel, and a good deal of his (Czerny's) own work.

    0
    0
  • The relation between the effort and the resistance in a machine to include the effect of friction at the joints has been investigated in a paper by Professor Fleeming Jenkin, On the application of graphrc methods to the determination of the efficiency of machinery (Trans.

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  • EfficiencyThe efficiency of a machine is the ratio of the useful work to the total workthat is, to the energy exertedand is represented by 1~.

    0
    0
  • The more nearly the efficiency of a machine approaches to unity the better is the machine.

    0
    0
  • The efficiency corresponding to the last equation is U I

    0
    0
  • C. Oman, Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India, p. 273) remarks:" Sadlzuism, whether perpetuating the peculiar idea of the efficiency of austerities for the acquisition of far-reaching powers over natural phenomena, or bearing its testimony to the belief in the indispensableness of detachment from the world as a preparation for the ineffable joy of ecstatic communion with the Divine Being, has undoubtedly tended to keep before men's eyes, as the highest ideal, a life of purity, self-restraint, and contempt of the world and human affairs.

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  • Macaulay, while admitting the accuracy of the process, denied its efficiency, on the ground that an operation performed naturally was not rendered more easy or efficacious by being subjected to analysis.'

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  • And so far as they are made the vehicle of reasoning, their efficiency is seriously hampered by their poetic form.

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    0
  • The Chilean post-office is administered by a director-general at Santiago, and has a high degree of efficiency and liberality, compared with those of other South American states.

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  • Fenelon is on firmer ground when he leads a reaction against the "mercantile system" of Colbert, with its crushing restrictions on trade; or when he sings the praises of agriculture, in the hope of bringing back labour to the land, and thereby ensuring the physical efficiency of the race.

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    0
  • The degree of instability, as measured by q, is not to be determined from statical considerations only; otherwise there would be no limit to the increasing efficiency of the longer wavelengths.

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    0
  • and to Greek raids from the sea,' was of no high technical efficiency in any 1 The possession of one modern ship, the" Averof, "gave to the Greeks material superiority over the Turks at sea, and the maritime traditions and aptitudes of their race a certain moral advantage.

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  • So small an allotment on the Thessaly front can only be explained on the assumption that the Turks supposed the Greeks to be at the same level of efficiency as in 1897.

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    0
  • Shadwell (Industrial Efficiency, London, 1906) describes it as representing " the most complete application of science, order and method of public life," adding it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is."

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    0
  • Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (London, 1906); Berliner Jahrbuch fur Handel and Industrie (1905); and O.

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  • Mainly through the efficiency of this board the assessed value of the taxable property of the state was increased from $968,189,087 in 1899 to $1,418,251,858 in 1902, or 46.4%, and the taxes levied on railways, which had hitherto been assessed on their gross earnings, were increased from $1,483,907 in 1901 to $3,288,162 in 1902, or 121 6%.

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  • Struck with the great improvements then recently introduced into such apparatus by William Sturgeon of Woolwich, he had still further extended their efficiency, with considerable reduction of batterypower, by adopting in all the experimental circuits (where applicable) the principle of J.

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    0
  • His diligent investigations into the efficiency of various illuminants in differing circumstances, and into the best conditions for developing their several maximum powers of brilliancy, while greatly improving the usefulness of the line of beacons along the extensive coast of the United States, effected at the same time a great economy of administration.

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    0
  • Edwards, however, proved a skilful pilot, and his hold on the affection of the Welsh people enabled him to raise the college to a high level of efficiency.

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    0
  • The great bent of his energies was ceaselessly directed to the better organization of his diocese and to the furtherance of schemes for increasing the influence and efficiency of the church.

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    0
  • Similarly and conversely, when the wing ascends, it creates an upward current, which, being met by the wing when it descends, powerfully contributes to the efficiency of the down stroke.

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    0
  • Each of them was independently governed, and furnished together 363 horse-power in actual effect, an amount which, considering that their total weight was only 600 lb, gave the extraordinary efficiency of over i horsepower for every 2 lb weight.

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    0
  • Mencius says that he undertook such mean offices because of his poverty, and distinguished himself by the efficiency with which he discharged them, without any attempt to become rich.

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    0
  • The Indian government failed to take sufficient account of the social and religious feelings of their native soldiers, whilst a rigid insistence on the principle of seniority had greatly diminished the efficiency of the British regimental officers.

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    0
  • The experiments given by Professor Burr indicate that a closed column is stronger than an open one, but practice does not always support theory, and many other questions besides mere form arise in connexion with the choice of a section; special considerations in the use of columns in buildings sometimes call for a form very different from the circular section, and such include the transfer of loads to the centre of the section, the maximum efficiency under loading, and the requirements for pipe space around or included in the column form.

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    0
  • The government was directly interested in maintaining their efficiency and in preventing migrations and desertions which led to a weakening of the taxpaying communities.

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    0
  • Its efficiency as an instrument of producing revenue was, however, so great as to lead to its revival in 1842, when Sir Robert Peel inaugurated his great free-trade reform and swept away duties on exports, duties on imported raw material, and other imposts hampering the trade of the country.

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  • These gratings consist of pieces of metal or glass ruled by means of a diamond point with a very large number of parallel lines, on the extreme accuracy of which their efficiency depends.

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    0
  • The arrangements for mobilization are otherwise very complete, and the field army is maintained in a high state of efficiency.

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    0
  • He ruled the province with economy and efficiency, but was defeated in December 1871 by the Liberals, resigned the premiership, and died on the 1st of June 1872.

    0
    0
  • The substitution of cylindrical pipes for the original horse-shoe tiles has still further lowered the cost and increased the efficiency and permanency of drainage works.

    0
    0
  • If, however, an artificial resistance can be introduced, to come into action only when the effort is removed, it is possible to obtain a tackle of greater efficiency.

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    0
  • Equation (I) becomes E/R= (I - b - c - M/R)/(i - a), and hence b+c +M /R is equal to or greater than unity when the load is self-sustained, and we thus obtain a relation between R and E in the form i - a/2 - c, which shows to a first approximation, that as c approaches unity a high efficiency is obtainable, while the self-sustaining power of the tackle is retained.

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  • The efficiency of.

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  • In order to obtain a self-sustaining pulley tackle, which will have an efficiency of more than 50%, various arrangements are adopted, which during lifting automatically throw out of action a brake and cause it to come into action again when the effort is removed.

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    0
  • Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (1906), for a good description of the industrial aspect.

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    0
  • The efficiency of the state military organization, as well as that of the civil administration during the trying years of the war, was largely due to the extraordinary ability and energy of Governor Oliver P. Morton, one of the greatest of the " war governors " of the North.

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    0
  • The test of the efficiency of his work was that it held firm when, in his later years, the Danish storm once more began to beat against the shores of Wessex.

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    0
  • The chief applications are found in the analysis of flue gases (in which much information is gained as to the completeness and efficiency of combustion), and of coal gas (where it is necessary to have a product of a definite composition within certain limits).

    0
    0
  • Since the advent of the incandescent mantle, the efficiency of which is dependent upon the heating power of the gas more than on its illuminating power, the manu facture of coal gas has undergone considerable modifications.

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  • ft., it is usual to divide the works into units, there being an efficiency limit to the size of apparatus employed.

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  • The main difficulty which the condenser ought to overcome and upon which its efficiency should depend is the removal of naphthalene; this compound, which is present in the gas, condenses on cooling to a solid which crystallizes out in the form of white flakes, and the trouble caused by pipe stoppages in the works as well as in the district supplied is very considerable.

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    0
  • The process is termed washing or scrubbing, and is carried out in various forms of apparatus, the efficiency of which is dependent upon the amount of contact the apparatus allows between the finely divided gas and water in a unit area and the facility with which it may be cleared out.

    0
    0
  • His services throughout the war were of great value to the American cause; he was one of General Washington's most trusted advisers, and he brought the artillery to a high degree of efficiency.

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    0
  • Township government, owing to the abolition of the committee on general business and the consequent confusion of handling so many and minute details, and to the addition to the population of a large Irish element and a large New Hampshire element, both workmen in the quarries, reached the minimum of efficiency in 1840-1870; in 1870, however, the town-meetings were reformed, and in 1874 a committee to consider business details was again appointed.

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  • loyalty and sympathy, which may have been of great service to the tribe in its primitive struggle for existence, may become a positive hindrance to physical efficiency (leading as they do to the preservation of the unfit) at a later stage.

    0
    0
  • For the enforcement of such laws and for administrative efficiency in general it was necessary that the council should have judicial power.

    0
    0
  • The progressive improvement which raised the navy to the high state of efficiency it attained in later years dates from Anson's presence at the admiralty.

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    0
  • Shortly after birth the child was brought before the elders of the tribe, who decided whether it was to be reared: if defective or weakly, it was exposed in the so-called Thus was secured, as far as could be, the maintenance of a high standard of physical efficiency, and thus from the earliest days of the Spartan the absolute claim of the state to his life and service was indicated and enforced.

    0
    0
  • One generation D ~t of military efficiency and of comparative honesty the Mahom- in administration was followed by sloth and cormedan ruption as bad as that of the Arabs.

    0
    0
  • The British Bee- keepers' keepers' Association (instituted in 1874) has been associa- untiring in its efforts to raise the standard of efficiency bons.

    0
    0
  • In efficiency and devotion to duty the Egyptian officials under the new regime also earned high praise.

    0
    0
  • He protected the Catholic as well as the orthodox clergy, encouraging them both to civilize his subjects; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses; and built numerous towns including Vilna, the capital (c. 1321).

    0
    0
  • \°' layer as in an ordinary ?..,r simple tooth, shows in addition a second inner ring of the same hard substance surrounding the pit, which adds greatly to the efficiency of the tooth as an organ for biting tough, fibrous substances.

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    0
  • The hackney should also possess good hock action, as distinguished from mere fetlock action, the propelling power depending upon the efficiency of the former.

    0
    0
  • But aridity is a matter of the efficiency rather than of the mere quantity of rainfall, and in this regard Nebraska is very fortunately situated.

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  • by bounties paid from surplus revenues amassed by tariff duties) - a famous report that has served ever since as a storehouse of arguments for a national protective policy; 7 a report favouring the establishment of a national bank, the argument being based on the doctrine of " implied powers " in the Constitution, and on the application that Congress may do anything that can be made, through the medium of money, to subserve the " general welfare " of the United States - doctrines that, through judicial interpretation, have revolutionized the Constitution; and, finally, a vast mass of detailed work by which order and efficiency were given to the national finances.

    0
    0
  • The relation then between the work expended and the actual cooling work performed denotes the efficiency of the process, and this is expressed by Qt/(Q2-Q1); but as in a perfect refrigerating machine it is understood that the whole of the heat Q i is taken in at the absolute temperature T 11 and the whole of the heat Q2, is rejected at the absolute temperature T2, the heat quantities are proportional to the temperatures, and the expression T,/(T 2 -T,) gives the ideal coefficient of performance for any stated temperature range, whatever working substance is used.

    0
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  • The expanded vapour enters the refrigerator at a temperature below that of the substance to be cooled, and whatever cooling effect is produced is brought about by the superheating of the vapour, the result being that above the critical point of carbonic acid the difference T2-T2 is increased and the efficiency of the machine is reduced.

    0
    0
  • The increase in the prestige of Brandenburg was due chiefly to his army, which was gradually brought to a high state of efficiency.

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  • m.; its revenue had multiplied sevenfold; and its small army was unsurpassed for efficiency.

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  • His oceanographical work, however, received recognition in all parts of the civilized world, and in 1855 it was proposed in the senate to remunerate him, but in the same year the Naval Retiring Board, erected under an act to promote the efficiency of the navy, placed him on the retired list.

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  • While these assets upgraded our efficiency, the LeBlanc house continued to be inadequate.

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    0
  • Dean had been wrong about the efficiency of the Norfolk police.

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    0
  • Alex ate the same way he approached any task – with enthusiasm, efficiency and a certain amount of style.

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  • The Tiyan warrior fought with efficiency, skill, and determination.

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  • Taran moved closer to her, watching her clean and bandage her forearm with practiced efficiency.

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    0
  • We received a lot of advice on all aspects of water efficiency.

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  • The optimum pH 6.0 to 6.5 range is also critical to feed efficiency.

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    0
  • Martin has always possessed the unique ability to combine innovation and efficiency in lighting product development with quality and value.

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    0
  • absorption chiller raises the overall efficiency figure to around 80% .

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  • accent correction function, and specialized terms database will help you communicate with utmost efficiency.

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    0
  • In freshwater aquaculture, the farms achieve a mean efficiency level of 83% .

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  • aura of calm and efficiency which inspires those around her.

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  • office automation The use of computers to improve efficiency in the office by removing anyone you would want to talk to over coffee.

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  • The project also organizes energy efficiency installations on behalf of other organizations and can arrange installations on behalf of landlords and property managers.

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  • How fortunate are Hong Kong to have Heather Dayton - her welcome, efficiency and general bonhomie are much to be admired.

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  • brome infestations are known to increase cereal lodging problems and interfere with harvesting efficiency.

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    0
  • Use of the otherwise waste heat to produce hot water or power an absorption chiller raises the overall efficiency figure to around 80% .

    0
    0
  • The ROM, RAM, and CPU were kept external for reasons of efficiency, and analog circuitry of course.

    0
    0
  • condensew boilers must have an efficiency rating of A or B, and at the moment only condensing boilers achieve this.

    0
    0
  • Keeping areas contiguous with district areas would, however, lose the operational efficiency of common destinations.

    0
    0
  • Selection on a single trait correlated with feed efficiency would not result in a greater response than direct selection on feed efficiency.

    0
    0
  • cortisone acetate must be converted by the body into an active steroid, and the efficiency of conversion may vary between patients.

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    0
  • dam genotype on efficiency of production, focussing on the development of an easy care production system.

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    0
  • desertification control, poverty alleviation and energy efficiency.

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  • desorb water vapor without compromising its thermal efficiency.

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  • Honda's 140PS 2.2-litre i-CTDi diesel continues; but as aerodynamic efficiency is improved by 12 per cent, fuel economy should improve.

    0
    0
  • diffraction grating made from a high quality high efficiency blazed master.

    0
    0
  • The Star Analyzer 100 is a high efficiency 100 lines/mm transmission diffraction grating, blazed in the first order.

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    0
  • The increase in efficiency and cost savings on removing the need for hardcopy documentation distribution from a medium-to-large sized organization can be enormous.

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  • Compassionate Conservatism It is easy to have a neat dualism between head and heart, efficiency and compassion, or Conservative and Labor.

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    0
  • We're spending nearly £ 600 million to improve the efficiency of the planning system.

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    0
  • All production and printing lines are now centrally located to maximize efficiency and reliability.

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    0
  • This information can then be used to optimize the efficiency of physically plausible models.

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    0
  • To increase energy efficiency of buildings by 5% by 31 December 06.

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    0
  • In order maximize efficiency, one of these steps should be eliminated for most frequent operations.

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    0
  • enhancing spectrum efficiency, for example looking at options for improving the use of spectrum by existing radar systems.

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    0
  • CRM can help you with: 1. operational efficiency - to be more productive.

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    0
  • Improved fuel efficiency would also help to reduce his transport footprint.

    0
    0
  • All properties have gas fired central heating, cavity wall insulation and uPVC windows to give a high level of thermal efficiency.

    0
    0
  • These engines tend to run at high piston speeds to achieve maximum efficiency.

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    0
  • We also have to balance allocative efficiency with productive efficiency.

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    0
  • efficiency savings will have a huge effect on pay.

    0
    0
  • efficiency gains worth at least £ 830 million a year.

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    0
  • efficiency improvements at discounted, lower costs.

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    0
  • efficiency measures.

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    0
  • The energy efficiency of much of the UK's housing is, thus, poor or very poor.

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    0
  • The answer to these problems lies in better fuel efficiency.

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  • Results have been used to perform quantum efficiency and escape intensity analysis for various detector sizes over a wide energy range.

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  • The industry most company's operating efficiency louisiana says the your pen and.

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  • They act to increase the efficiency of internal mixer mastication of natural rubber and unsaturated synthetic elastomers where reduction of viscosity is required.

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  • High efficiency electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters can reduce particulate emissions to low concentrations.

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  • employeecentrate on solutions that improve employe productivity and maximize the overall efficiency of the organization.

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  • energy efficiency of much of the UK's housing is, thus, poor or very poor.

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    0
  • entropy production and maximum efficiency?

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  • established to promote resource efficiency.

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  • coherent excitations The energy efficiency of living systems can be adequately accounted for by the thermodynamic considerations I have outlined so far.

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  • Both these products are remarkable in their efficiency in eliminating fleas.

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  • fuel cell systems are not seconded to this limit; so how do we give a measure of their efficiency?

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  • In addition, using a dome shaped air filter creates the same effect and efficiency as a larger funnel.

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  • That is fine for one-off remedies, sometimes badly needed, tho short-term efficiency gains are of course very valuable.

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    0
  • The Forward Looks show that councils expect to achieve around £ 1.2 billion of efficiency gains in 2005/06.

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    0
  • The study has also produced a model to help glassmakers optimize furnace efficiency at any combination of production level and cullet ratio.

    0
    0
  • To optimize energy efficiency, triple glazing has been used.

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  • Lu, T.J. Heat transfer efficiency of metal honeycombs.

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    0
  • The American hustler in my opinion does not represent the highest type of human efficiency.

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    0
  • improve the efficiency of using foreign investment " .

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    0
  • EEC provides the opportunity to install energy efficiency improvements at discounted, lower costs.

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    0
  • improvements in spectrum efficiency.

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    0
  • improvements in productivity and efficiency.

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  • infinity fryer uses a unique method of mixing gas with air to give 86% energy efficiency.

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  • insulation between joists to improve its lagging efficiency.

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    0
  • The effect of finite efficiency for the quantum interrogation is delineated for the various schemes.

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    0
  • In standard efficiency boilers, the flue gases leave the boiler at high enough temperatures for the water vapor to appear invisible.

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    0
  • Rayner 1979 b) that efficiency can depend on flight speed owing to changes in wingbeat kinematics and therefore in muscle kinetics.

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  • These meters have excellent linearity in larger sizes but as the pipe bore reduces the efficiency of the meter also reduces.

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  • Conventional storage solutions include liquefaction or compression, however there are energy efficiency and major safety concerns associated with both these options.

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  • The drug is metabolized by the liver but the efficiency of this process has little bearing on the anesthetic duration of action.

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  • Energy efficiency in steam railroad locomotives was always a problem.

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  • luminaire efficiency while offering a smooth outer surface for ease of cleaning.

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  • After all, a higher level of output is not necessarily a sign of efficiency if it takes far more man-hours to produce.

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  • Putin rose rapidly to become deputy mayor, where he gained a reputation for silent, chilly efficiency.

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    0
  • Various options are possible but there would be no government funding; costs would have to be met through efficiency measures.

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    0
  • The same situation exists with the production of organic methanol, where pyrolysis reduces the efficiency to 40% energy positive.

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  • Usually one uses mu in cm-1 and R in cm. mu in cm-1 and R in cm. mu should be corrected for the packing efficiency which is typically 50% .

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  • dual slash-cut mufflers are joined with two balance pipes for high efficiency and a great sound.

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  • For measuring explosive power & efficiency in the lower limb extensor muscles.

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  • nippy result was a miracle of ' package efficiency ' which carried four adults in a smaller, nippier car.

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  • Also included are expression data relating to the efficiency of splicing relative to other processes in strains of yeast lacking nonessential splicing factors.

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    0
  • nucleusby their optical properties, their efficiency to act as condensation nuclei and their lifetime with respect to deposition processes can be affected.

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    0
  • Nature of problem: The accurate calibration of electron-capture nuclides by liquid- scintillation counting requires a knowledge of the counting efficiency.

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    0
  • The counting efficiency computation for electron capture nuclides is not considered.

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    0
  • operational efficiency - to be more productive.

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  • It will reduce administration time, remove paper trails and increase efficiency.

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  • Loading with speed and efficiency The Shooting It is normal to shoot Spanish partridges with double guns.

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  • The costs of efficiency options have to provide real economic payback in a sensible timeframe.

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    0
  • In fact, the image of this venerable charity seems to have skipped an era, jumping from 19th century philanthropy to 21st efficiency.

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    0
  • We therefore decided to investigate possible MCP efficiency enhancements for beta particles using similar photocathodes.

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    0
  • NEAT schemes feature litter picking, flower planting in public places, graffiti removal, wildlife protection, recycling and energy efficiency schemes.

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    0
  • We found no significant increase in the detection efficiency for either radioisotope with the MCP bias polarity reversed.

    0
    0
  • In addition, to achieve a high efficiency, it is desirable to recovery synchronization from received data signals without using preambles.

    0
    0
  • Net loss in efficiency of diesel electric propulsion at normal cruising speeds = 14% .

    0
    0
  • ramjet (engine)onation wave engine offers a marked increase in efficiency and a simplification of design over current rocket and ramjet engines.

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    0
  • The UK welcomes the change which will improve efficiency and allow appropriate redress.

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    0
  • Moreover, they have high electrical efficiency and they can use any fuel, as long as they include fuel reformers.

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  • renowned for the warmth of its welcome, the friendliness of its staff and the level of its efficiency.

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    0
  • We are faced with further retrenchment (efficiency gains) or finding new, non-governmental sources of income.

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  • Right up to the 1950s their boasted efficiency remained more rhetorical than real.

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    0
  • The efficiency savings will have a huge effect on pay.

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  • Nature of problem: In liquid scintillation counting it is often required to know the counting efficiency.

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  • In contrast, chain scission efficiency passed tho a minimum at about 20 mole% of the methacrylate.

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  • For efficiency, buy the biggest shredder you can afford - shared between friends perhaps.

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    0
  • High-power module (80W) using 125mm square multi - crystal silicon solar cells with 12.6% module conversion efficiency.

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    0
  • This is intended to reach a greater understanding of the current constraints facing smallholders and to improve the efficiency of markets for them.

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    0
  • Ken Cole, the key-note speaker, gave a briefing on how the LCE was driving the efficiency agenda.

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    0
  • A. It is, but it is actually referring to a police efficiency regulation, which will mean that it is actually statutory based.

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  • steelwork design led to awards for its efficiency but sadly toward the end of the century the cladding was failing.

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  • stipulates a deadline for delivery for each possible type of agent efficiency.

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  • stocktaking operation in house, cutting cost, due to increased efficiency.

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  • The critical angles between the blocks subspace and the treatments subspace of the data space give the canonical efficiency factors.

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  • supercritical boilers, have an efficiency level of around 42% .

    0
    0
  • Thermal efficiency overall thermal efficiency overall thermal efficiency is around 30% .

    0
    0
  • Their enquiries were designed to describe the devices used to achieve efficiencies, in the process exploring trade-offs between efficiency and effectiveness.

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  • trade-offs Between efficiency And Equity There is often a trade-off between economic efficiency and equity.

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  • trait correlated with feed efficiency would not result in a greater response than direct selection on feed efficiency.

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    0
  • transduce various cell types in vitro and in vivo with significant efficiency leading to stable gene expression.

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  • transfection efficiency.

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  • Adenovirus could be used to improve the efficiency of gene therapy that has been achieved using DNA transfection.

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    0
  • To the extent that outcomes are not efficient, could improved pre-and /or post-trade transparency improve bond market efficiency?

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    0
  • transpiration efficiency of individual plants.

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  • By finding over 20 mines in Exercise Blue Harrier, we also clinched the squadron efficiency trophy.

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  • Virulence is complex and involves a number of features, including host adaptation, transmissibility, tissue tropism and virus replication efficiency.

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  • The efficiency of rail and its ability to operate on grid electricity will give rail a big advantage over long distance trucking.

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  • Abstract Within inverted optical tweezers we measure both the lateral and axial trapping efficiency obtained with Gaussian and high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

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  • Studies support Prelief's efficiency in reducing bladder pain and urinary urgency when used in the diets of interstitial cystitis (IC) sufferers.

    0
    0
  • volumetric efficiency of well over 100% can be achieved.

    0
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  • wasted energy at the heart of government Friday, August 26, 2005 Improving energy efficiency could be the best hope we have.

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    0
  • Hempel pointed out that the efficiency would be increased by inverting this arrangement, since water vapour is lighter than air and consequently rises.

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  • But in the end the superior military efficiency of the Swedes and Poles invariably prevailed.

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  • We must, then, admit that Pericles sincerely contemplated the good of his fellow-countrymen, and we may believe that he endeavoured to realize that ideal Athens which Thucydides sketches in the Funeral Speech - an Athens where free and intelligent obedience is rendered to an equitable code of laws, where merit finds its way to the front, where military efficiency is found along with a free development in other directions and strangles neither commerce nor art.

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  • Taylor's theology was distinctively infra-lapsarian; it disagreed with Samuel Hopkins and Emmons in rejecting the theory of "divine efficiency" and in arguing that man can choose the right "even if he won't" - distinguishing like Edwards between natural ability and moral inability; it distinguished sensibility or susceptibility as something different from will or understanding, without moral qualities, to which the appeal for right choice may be made; and it made selflove (a term borrowed from Dugald Stewart, connoting the innocent love of happiness and distinct from selfishness) the particular feeling appealed to by the influences of the law and gospel.

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  • The object of the art of heating is to secure this required warmth with the greatest economy and efficiency.

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  • Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.

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    0
  • In the choice of a boiler of this description it should be remembered that rapid heating, economical combustion of fuel, and facilities for cleaning, are requisites, the absence of any of which considerably lowers the efficiency of the apparatus.

    0
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  • The lime deposit or " fur " is a poor conductor of heat, and it is therefore most detrimental to the efficiency of the system to allow the interior of the boiler or any other portion to become furred up. Further, if not removed, the fur will in a short time bring about a fracture in the boiler.

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  • It is the oldest school of engineering in the country, and has always maintained a high rank of efficiency.

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  • The Conseil .suprieur devotes its attention to all questions touching the fighting efficiency of the fleet, naval bases and arsenals and- coast defence.

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  • There are also directors of stores, of naval construction, of the medical service, and of the submarine defences (which are concerned with torpedoes, mines and torpedo-boats), as well as of naval ordnance and works, The prefect directs the operations of the arsenal, and is responsible for its efficiency and for that of the ships which are there in reserve.

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  • The ratio of this to the whole work done by the battery is (C - C')/C, so that the efficiency is increased by diminishing C'.

    0
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  • We have seen that the efficiency of an electromagnetic engine is greatest when the current is indefinitely small, and then the rate at which it works is also indefinitely small.

    0
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  • The electric transmission of energy can be performed with an efficiency not reached by any other method, and the electric motor readily adapts itself to cranes.

    0
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  • The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.

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  • In well-designed, quick-running cranes the mechanical efficiency of the lifting gear may be taken as about 85%; a good electric jib crane will give an efficiency of 72%, i.e.

    0
    0
  • Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.

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  • It involves many novel features: the receiving electromagnet is of peculiar construction and remarkable efficiency and the transmitting apparatus has a contrivance to prevent unintentional repetitions of a letter through the operator holding his finger too long on a key.

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  • influence on the efficiency of the instrument, and it was ultimately ascertained that a small central opening, with a thin air space extending across the face of the membrane, was best.

    0
    0
  • 18 a bells was such that not more than two or three persons could be connected without seriously impairing the efficiency of the circuit for speech transmission.

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    0
  • A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.

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  • To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.

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  • The guardian or his servant must not take from the ward's property more than a reasonable amount for his expenses and the like; on the contrary he must maintain the houses, estates and other belongings in a proper state of efficiency.

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  • The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.

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  • Of these features, the blast-pipe had been employed by Trevithick on his engine of 1804, and direct driving, without intermediate gearing, had been adopted in several previous engines; but the use of a number (25) of small tubes in place of one or two large flues was an innovation which in conjunction with the blast-pipe contributed greatly to the efficiency of the engine.

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  • The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.

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    0
  • The relative merit of the two systems depends upon the question how we can secure the best efficiency and equity in the application of the principles thus far laid down.

    0
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  • Whether the intelligence and efficiency of the officials charged by the state with the handling of its railway system will be sufficient to make them act in the interest of the public as fully as do the managers of private corporations, is a question whose answer can only be determined by actual experience in each case.

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  • When a line has once been inspected and passed, it lies with the company to maintain it in accordance with the standard of efficiency it originally possessed, but no express statutory obligation to do so is imposed upon the company, and whether it does so or not, the Board of Trade cannot interfere.

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  • The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.

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  • General Efficiency of Steam Locomotive.

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  • The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.

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  • This, besides reducing the efficiency of the furnace, introduces the danger of fire to crops and buildings near the line.

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    0
  • It is not economical to force the boiler to work at too high a rate, because it has been practically demonstrated that the boiler efficiency decreases after a certain point, as the rate of combustion increases.

    0
    0
  • A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.

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    0
  • Hence assuming the mechanical efficiency of the engine to be and substituting !

    0
    0
  • per pound, the maximum indicated horse-power is given by the expression I.H.P. maximum - CcA X778 1980000 where A is the area of the grate in square feet, and is the combined efficiency of the engine and boiler.

    0
    0
  • per hour, the tractive force falls to 7400 lb, and this cannot be increased except by increasing the rate of combustion (neglecting any small changes due to a change in the efficiency 7 Knowing the magnitude of R, the draw-bar pull, and hence the weight of vehicle the engine can haul at this speed, can be estimated if the resistances are known.

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  • Engine Efficiency.

    0
    0
  • Combined Engine and Boiler Efficiency.

    0
    0
  • - The combined engine and boiler efficiency has hitherto been taken to be o 06; actual values of the boiler efficiencies are given in Table XX.

    0
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  • Engine efficiency depends upon many variable factors, such as the cut-off, the piston speed, the initial temperature of the steam, the final temperature of the steam, the quality of the steam, the sizes of the steam-pipes, ports and passages, the arrangement of the cylinders and its effect on condensation, the mechanical perfection of the steam-distributing gear, the tightness of the piston, &c. A few values of the thermal efficiency obtained from experiments are given in Table XXI.

    0
    0
  • in the second column, the first column being added to give some idea of the rate at which the engine was working when the data from which the efficiency has been deduced were observed.

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    0
  • Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.

    0
    0
  • The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.

    0
    0
  • The thermal efficiency is therefore 185/1013 =0.183.

    0
    0
  • When the initial pressure is 100 lb per square inch by the gauge the thermal efficiency drops to about nearly 15% with the same back pressure.

    0
    0
  • The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.

    0
    0
  • The curve was drawn by calculating the thermal efficiency from the above expression for various values of the initial temperature, keeping the final temperature constant at 673°, and then plotting these efficiencies against the corresponding values of the gauge pressures.

    0
    0
  • 22 represents the thermal efficiency actually obtained in one of Adams and Pettigrew's experiments, namely, 0-I I, the pressure in the steam-pipe being 167 lb per square inch.

    0
    0
  • From the diagram it will be seen that the corresponding efficiency of the ideal engine is about 0.18.

    0
    0
  • The efficiency ratio is therefore o 11 /o.

    0
    0
  • Lines representing efficiency ratios of o 6, 0.5 and 0.4 are plotted on the diagram, so that the efficiency ratios corresponding to the various experiments plotted may be readily read off.

    0
    0
  • For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.

    0
    0
  • The thermal efficiency of a steam-engine is in general increased by carrying out the expansion of the steam in two, three or even more stages in separate cylinders, notwithstanding the inevitable drop of pressure which must occur when the steam is transferred from one cylinder to the other during the process of expansion.

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  • It is adapted for light, high-speed service, and noted for its simplicity, excellent riding qualities, low cost of maintenance, and high mechanical efficiency; but having limited adhesive weight it is unsuitable for starting and accelerating heavy trains.

    0
    0
  • In 1826, in his Memoire sur les roues hydrauliques a aubes courbes, he brought forward improvements in the construction of water-wheels, which more than doubled their efficiency.

    0
    0
  • Some idea of the business efficiency of the C.R.B., as it was familiarly called, may be gained from the fact that although almost $1,000,000,000 was expended on food and transportation, only about one-half of one per cent was required for overhead expenses.

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    0
  • This position he held for thirteen years, during which period the highest efficiency of his men was reached, and outside the regiment he did good service to his arm by his writings.

    0
    0
  • During the Russo-Japanese War he served in the Red Cross and in the Municipal Union for the organization of hospitals; he was left to take care of the Russian wounded after the battle of Moukden, and showed much dignity and efficiency in the performance of his arduous duties.

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  • Those condi- of tions are: (i.) the life of the state or other community or communities we are studying must be so differen tiated that we can isolate those functions which are wholly or predominantly economic. The " separation of employments " is not only a condition of economic efficiency; it was necessary before we could have an economic science.

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    0
  • It should form part of the training of educated men of all classes, on grounds of public policy and administrative and business efficiency.

    0
    0
  • The whole social and political fabric of the British Empire depends upon the efficiency of its industrial system.

    0
    0
  • Rowntree's Poverty, Sidney and Beatrice Webb's History of Trade Unionism and Industrial Democracy, and Dr Arthur Shadwell's Industrial Efficiency (1906).

    0
    0
  • The narrow streets and the traffic congestion of the business district presented difficult problems of urban transit, but the system is of exceptional efficiency.

    0
    0
  • Various elements in the Republican party, nevertheless, had stoutly opposed their appointment, so that the President's choice showed that he was prepared to exert his independence of party managers and to insist upon administrative efficiency.

    0
    0
  • Though the traditional account of this war exaggerates the services of Athens as compared with the other champions of Greek independence, there can be no doubt that the ultimate victory was chiefly due to the numbers and efficiency of the Athenian fleet, and to the wise policy of her great statesman Themistocles (see Salamis, Plataea).

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    0
  • Indeed the spread of democracy elsewhere increased the prestige of the Athenian administration, which had now reached a high pitch of efficiency.

    0
    0
  • It is under his wise guidance that the survey has attained its present efficiency.

    0
    0
  • Under the new regime this system, which had greatly cramped the military strength and efficiency of the Ottoman Empire, has been changed, and all " Ottomans " are now subject to military service.

    0
    0
  • There were also two Nordenfeldt submarine boats of doubtful efficiency.

    0
    0
  • With these numbers it was impossible to attain the high degree of individual efficiency required for the old line tactics, hence they were compelled to adopt the French methods of skirmishers and columns, but as yet they had hardly realized the increased density necessary to be given to a line of battle to enable it to endure the prolonged nervous strain the new system of tactics entailed.

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  • Though he had control of what remained of the navies of Holland and Spain, as well as of the French, he was outnumbered at every point, while the efficiency of the British fleet gave it a mobility which doubled its material superiority.

    0
    0
  • Any reversible cell can theoretically be employed as an accumulator, though, in practice, conditions of general convenience are more sought after than thermodynamic efficiency.

    0
    0
  • He took up the question of lighthouses and harbours; in the former he secured greater efficiency, in the latter he prevented useless expenditure.

    0
    0
  • The less the Church could expect from its penitents, the more it was driven to trust to the miraculous efficiency of sacramental grace.

    0
    0
  • The spiders are specialized and reduced in apparent complexity, as compared with the scorpions, but they cannot be regarded as degenerate since the concentration of structure which occurs in them results in greater efficiency and power than are exhibited by the scorpion.

    0
    0
  • L.) compared is difficult when we introduce, as seems inevitable, the question of efficiency and power, and do not confine the question to the perfection of morphological development.

    0
    0
  • Morphologically, the spiders are remarkable for the concentration and specialization of their structure, which is accompanied with high physiological efficiency.

    0
    0
  • This army was provided with a regular commissariat, cannon' and ballistic machines, and, being constantly on active service, was always in a high state of efficiency.

    0
    0
  • The army of Matthias was not only a military machine of first-rate efficiency, but an indispensable civilizing medium.

    0
    0
  • Yet their military efficiency must have been small, for their allies the Swedes invariably allude to them as wild and ragged semi-barbarians.

    0
    0
  • In their efforts to establish Hungarian independence on the firm basis of national efficiency they had succeeded in changing their country from one of very backward economic conditions into one which promised to be in a position to hold its own on equal terms with any in the world.

    0
    0
  • Though always a strenuous worker in Congress, he was not the originator of any great legislative measures, and his efficiency as a law-maker is thought to have been much impaired by his personal animosities.

    0
    0
  • The efficiency of a telescope is of course intimately connected with the size of the disk by which it represents a mathematical point.

    0
    0
  • The limiting efficiency of the microscope is attained when the angular aperture amounts to 180°; and it is evident that a lateral displacement of the point under observation through -IX entails (at the old image) a phase-discrepancy B Q' of a whole period, one extreme ray FIG.

    0
    0
  • We may infer that the limits of efficiency in the two methods are the same when the length of the pointer is equal to the width of the mirror.

    0
    0
  • With this broader and more accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the circulation a corresponding efficiency has been gained in the manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises.

    0
    0
  • Charges were reduced and efficiency benefited by this movement.

    0
    0
  • This has a serious effect on the health and efficiency of the workmen employed, and in extreme cases may even result in increased cost of mining operations.

    0
    0
  • The efficiency of such ventilating furnaces is low, and they cannot safely be used in mines producing fire-damp. They are sometimes the cause of underground fires, and they are always a source of danger when by any chance the ventilating current becomes reversed, in which case the products of combustion, containing large quantities of carbon dioxide, will be drawn into the mine to the serious danger of the men.

    0
    0
  • This splitting of the air not only lessens the cost of ventilating, but greatly increases its efficiency by permitting the circulation of much larger volumes, and has the added advantage that the effect of an explosion or other accident vitiating the air current is often confined to a single division of the mine, and affects but a small part of the working force.

    0
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  • The climbing of ladders from deep mines not only lessens the efficiency of the men by reason of fatigue, but often tends to increase the mortality from diseases of the heart.

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