A broad spectrum of lighting effects allows them to offer the most competitive value for lighting in the industry.
The effects of the alcohol are increased by taking medicine.
Maybe her personal effects are in another bag.
So did the effects of the odium theologicum, for the meanwhile at least, die away.
The side effects can be seen in the topical steroids section.
All these traveling effects of Prince Andrew's were in very good order: new, clean, and in cloth covers carefully tied with tapes.
A school needs to approach allegations practically to minimize the negative effects as much as possible.
Rhyn grunted and rolled onto his stomach. The stone floor beneath him was cool but not cool enough to soothe the hot fury of his magic. The effects of whatever Toby had injected into him were almost gone.
Darkyn gave her the power to seduce without the knowledge on how to turn off its effects, if it was even possible.
Over a dozen studies have investigated the effects of exposure on lymphocytes.
The study will need to last three years in order to provide a detailed understanding of the full effects of the national minimum wage.
Assoc. Report), when he drew attention to the considerable distance over which inductive effects occurred between parallel wires forming portions of telephonic and telegraphic circuits.
Damian's own head was fuzzy from the effects of the drink he'd been force fed.
In the upper part of the river the reservoirs are partially protected by curtains of verdure from the effects of the evaporation which makes itself so severely felt on the treeless seaboard.
Many people are concerned about the possible side effects of the anti-epileptic drugs.
It was pleasant to see my whole household effects out on the grass, making a little pile like a gypsy's pack, and my three-legged table, from which I did not remove the books and pen and ink, standing amid the pines and hickories.
It's like we try to do good and theses unintended side effects occur; the deputy sheriff in Alabama, that Youngblood jerk in California, plus the parents murdered just so the discovery of their child's abduction would be delayed.
The effects of the crisis were mainly felt in the three eastern states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia being affected chiefly by reason of the fact of their intimate financial connexion with the eastern states.
The effects of the crisis were mainly felt in the three eastern states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia being affected chiefly by reason of the fact of their intimate financial connexion with the eastern states.
But the effects of the trip had taken their toll.
She squinted through her fingers and braced herself against one wall to counter the effects the drugs had on her equilibrium as she moved down the long hallway.
In Italy the effects were more permanent.
Yet in most parts of the world, emancipation came peacefully as the civilizing effects of culture transformed society.
I see a force producing effects beyond the scope of ordinary human agencies; I do not understand why this occurs and I talk of genius.
Still feeling the sobering effects of that cool regard, she forced a smile.
But a careful study of the seventh poem of the last book, in which Propertius gives an account of a dream of her which he had after her death, leads us to the belief that they were once more reconciled, and that in her last illness Cynthia left to her former lover the duty of carrying out her wishes with regard to the disposal of her effects and the arrangements of her funeral.
As generally happens, Pierre did not feel the full effects of the physical privation and strain he had suffered as prisoner until after they were over.
It required the chastening of adversity to teach it a salutary lesson, and a few years after, when the first effects of the crisis had passed away, business was on a much sounder footing than had been the case for very many years.
On the 17th of June 1806 General William Beresford landed with a body of Effects of troo s from a British fleet under the command of Sir p Home Popham, and obtained possession of Buenos Aires.
The Alps and Pyrenees are in large part deforested, but reafforestation with a view to minimizing the effects of avalanches and sudden floods is continually in progress.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
In the types of cable that were first used, the wires, usually with a cotton insulation, were drawn into lead tubes, and the tubes filled with paraffin or other similar compound, which kept the wires from the injurious effects of any moisture which might penetrate the lead tube.
An illness with no serious effects on humans, cowpox caused lesions on cows' udders which then could spread to dairymaids' hands.
In its ultimate effects the crisis was by no means evil.
The duchess Mary, died from the effects of a fall from her horse (March 1482), and Maximilian became regent (mambourg) for his son.
Cromwell expected more results from the effects of education and culture.
The very fact that we have debated in recent years whether we can use torture to get information that will save lives is a sign of the effects of civilization.
Maybe the effects of the liquor would wear off by morning.
He retreated to the corner and sobbed while she fought the effects of the drug.
Her body jerked, but its effects were immediate.
She straightened her skirt and surveyed the overall effects in the mirror.
Nowhere was the call responded to with greater zeal than in the Netherlands, and nowhere had the spirit of adventure and the stimulus to enterprise, which was one of the chief fruits of the crusades, more permanent effects for good.
the absolute freedom of the derived co-ordinates from the effects of wear of the screws in the mean of measures made in reversed positions of the plate.
Heating by warmed air, one of the oldest methods in use, has been much improved by attention to the construction of the apparatus, and if properly installed will give as good effects as it is ossible to obtain.
It required the chastening of adversity to teach it a salutary lesson, and a few years after, when the first effects of the crisis had passed away, business was on a much sounder footing than had been the case for very many years.
Agriculture everywhere expanded, the mining industry revived, and, if it had not been for the low prices of staple products, the visible effects of the crisis would have passed away within a very few years.
Gockel observed similar effects at Freiburg-though he seems doubtful whether the relationship is direct-but the influence of temperature on I + seemed reduced when the ground was covered with snow.
Externalities are the external effects an action has on society.
It was still dark, and the moons of the underworld hadn't moved far across the sky. He sat, uneasy with the dream exchange with Death. A small fire burned between him and Katie, whose pale features and shadowed eyes were showing the effects of both her pregnancy and the toll the underworld took on mortals.
"Must be the effects of the underworld on you," the death-dealer said and rose.
Related to abnormalities of colour we may expect to find corresponding polarization effects.
315-558), and of the vine and olive; he was the protector of herdsmen and hunters; he warded off the evil effects of the dog-star; he possessed the arts of healing and prophecy.
These instruments thus produced, in Haydn's and Beethoven's times, a very remarkable but closely limited series of effects, which, as Sir George Macfarren pointed out in the article "Music" in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, gave them a peculiar character and function in strongly asserting the main notes of the key.
Wind instruments produce very special effects in chamber-music, and need an exceedingly adroit technique on the part of the composer.
The dowry might include real estate, but generally consisted of personal effects and household furniture.
This, with proper apparatus for originating electric currents at one end and for discovering the effects produced by them at the other end, constitutes an electric telegraph.
The apparatus used at the other end of the line to render the effects of this action perceptible to the eye or ear, is called the receiving apparatus or instrument.
If the looped lines are both in good condition and free from leakage, the current sent out on line r will be exactly equal to the current received back on line 2; and as these currents will have equal but opposite effects on the galvanometer needle, no deflection of the latter will be produced.
The actual number of sets of apparatus it was possible to work multiplex depended upon the length of the line, for if the latter were long, retardation effects modified the working conditions.
On the question of how far the effects are due to conduction between the earth plates, and how far to true electromagnetic induction, authorities differ, some being of opinion that the two effects are in operation together.
He discovered a fact subsequently rediscovered by others, that a tube of metallic filings, loosely packed, was sensitive to electric sparks made in its vicinity, its electrical resistance being reduced, and he was able to detect effects on such a tube connected to a battery and telephone at a distance of 500 yds.'
These distance effects were not understood at the time, or else were referred simply to ordinary induction.
Dolbear, 2 the effects were produced by electrostatic instead of electromagnetic forces, as in con- the Bell telephone.
It is obvious that this apparatus might be used either as a transmitter or as a receiver, but that the effects must under ordinary circumstances be in either case extremely feeble.
An idea of the effects of the survey may be gathered from the fact that the assessments in the four provinces of Mantua, Ancona, Cremona and Milan, which formerly amounted to a total of I,454,696~ are now 2,788,080, an increase of 91%.
The Mobile Militia will not, however, at that date have felt the effects of the scheme, and the Territonial Militia (setting the drain of emigration against the increased population) will probably remain at about the same figure as in 1901.
This decline of vigour was felt, with the customary effects of discord and bad government, in Lower Italy.
The effects of this were soon felt.
The Lombard campaign had produced important effects throughout the rest of Italy.
himself earnestly to the task of recreating the fleet, which had never recovered from the effects of the disaster of Lissa.
The effects of these parasites have been mistaken for those of disease.
The parasite effects a lodgment in the host either by invading it as a free-swimming planula, or, apparently, in other cases, as a spore-embryo which is captured and swallowed as food by the host.
The observation of the effects of varying conditions in modifying living organisms.
But a little consideration showed that, though Lamarck had seized what, as far as it goes, is a true cause of modification, it is a cause the actual effects of which are wholly inadequate to account for any considerable modification in animals, and which can have no influence at all in the vegetable world; and probably nothing contributed so much to discredit evolution, in the early part of the 29th century, as the floods of easy ridicule which were poured upon this part of Lamarck's speculation.
It is impossible here to give even a list of the names of the many observers who in recent times have made empirical study of the effects of growth-forces and of the symmetrical limitations and definitions of growth.
An electuary of opium, known as Mithradatum, was invented by Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, who lived in constant fear of being poisoned, and tested the effects of poisons on criminals, and is said to have taken poisons and their antidotes every day in the year.
Thus passed several years; he was still young, but his new mode of life produced its effects on a man of his imagination and saintly piety.
The indirect effects of temperature are also important.
These enenlies are as a rule so conspicuous that we do not look on their depredations as diseases, though the gradual deterioration of hay under the exhausting effects of root-parasites like Rhinanthus, and the onslaught of Cuscuta when unduly abundant, should teach us how unimportant to the definition the question of size may be.
In such cases the immediate damage done may be slight; but the effects of prolonged action and the summation of numerous attacks at numerous points are often enormotis, certain of these leafdiseases costing millions sterling annually to some planting and agricultural communities.
Many Fungi, in themselves not very aggressive, slowly bring about important ~nd far-reaching secondary effects.
The effects of frost and of sunburn are frequently quite local.
This is equally true of the phenomena of apogamy and apospory in the light of recent researches into the effects of external conditions on reproduction.
However, until more is known of the exact chemical composition of naturalas contrasted with agriculturalsoils, and until more is known of the physiological effects of lime, it is impossible to decide the vexed question of the relation of limeloving and lime-shunning plants to the presence or absence of calcium carbonate in the soil.
The method included a recognition of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical relief of the land was fairly recognized.
The constant stream of petitions to Rome opened the eyes of the pope to the effects of Torquemada's severity.
Unable to bear up against the Dominican's fiery denunciations, the sovereigns, three months after the fall of Granada, issued a decree ordering every Jew either to embrace Christianity or to leave the country, four months being given to make up their minds; and those who refused to become Christians to order had leave to sell their property and carry off their effects.
Like as the Norman still is to the Northman, the effects of a settlement of Normans are utterly different from the effects of a settlement of Northmen.
"Just as a steamengine," he says in Kraft and Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), "produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a unity, are called by us mind, soul, thought."
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the 21st of December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects upon the rural economy of Russia.
D.) Rolling Stock The rolling stock of a railway comprises those vehicles by means of which it effects the transportation of persons and things over its lines.
SPIRITUALISM, a term used by philosophical writers to denote the opposite of materialism, and also used in a narrower sense to describe the belief that the spiritual world manifests itself by producing in the physical world effects inexplicable by the known laws of nature.
the effects of Babylonian culture in western Asia on Israel and Israel's religion in early times even preceding the advent of Moses.
It is well known that in after years he had doubts whether he should not compose his great work in French; and it is certain that his familiarity with that language, in spite of considerable efforts to counteract its effects, tinged his style to the last.
In chronic cases the eventual effects are anaemia, melanosis, enlargement of the spleen and liver, and general cachexia.
64) explains it as a contest of the physical powers of nature, and the mythical expression of the terrible effects of swollen waters.
Hess (18 4 o) were the first who systematically investigated thermochemical effects in solution, and arrived at conclusions from their experimental data which still possess validity.
Moreover, a spiritual revival mitigated the crushing effects of material ruin.
Economically and socially the crusades had disastrous effects upon the Jews.
The chief effects of the change were not felt till the 18th century.
Holdheim (q.v.) and Geiger (q.v.) led the reform movement in Germany and at the present day the effects of the movement are widely felt in America on the Liberal side and on the opposite side in the work of the neo-orthodox school founded by S.
The rains are quickly absorbed by the light porous soil and leave only temporary effects on the surface, where arboreal growth is stunted and grasses are commonly thin and harsh.
boundaries, from following lines on which the continuity of the land is interrupted, often necessarily indicate important differences in the conditions of adjoining countries, and of their political and physical relations, yet variations of the elevation of the surface above the sea-level frequently produce effects not less marked.
The statute of 1685, conferring on landlords a power to entail their estates, was indeed of a very different tendency in regard to its effects on agriculture.
He was one of the first to use oil-cake and bone-manure, to distinguish the feeding values of grasses, to appreciate to the full the beneficial effects of stock on light lands and to realize the value of long leases as an incentive to good farming.
This continued for several years, and the mortality was so great that its adverse effects upon the ovine population of the country were still perceptible ten years afterwards.
Its worst effects were seen upon the light land farms of England, and so deplorable was the position that a royal commission on agricultural depression was appointed in September of that year under the chairmanship of Mr Shaw Lefevre (afterwards Lord Eversley).
The year 1903 was memorable for a very heavy rainfall, comparable though not equal in its disastrous effects to that of 1879.
The Finance Act of 1894, with its great changes in the death duties, overshadowed all other acts of that year both in its immediate effects and in its far-reaching consequences.
The effects of a prolonged [[Table Ix]].-Estimated Annual Average Yield per Acre of Crops in spring and summer drought, like that of 1893, are exemplified in the circumstance that four corn crops and the two hay crops all registered very low average yields that year, viz.
The effects of a prolonged autumn drought, as distinguished from spring and summer drought, are shown in the very low yield of turnips in 1899.
The effects of the expedition in the sphere of world-politics were equally remarkable and more immediate.
The campaign of 1812 may, therefore, be considered as resulting, fi-stly, from the complex and cramping effects of the Continental System on a northern land which could not deprive itself of colonial goods; secondly, from Napoleon's refusal to mitigate the anxiety of Alexander on the Polish question; and thirdly, from tie annoyance felt by the tsar at the family matters noticed above.
The good effects of " Faunal " works such as those named in the foregoing rapid survey none can doubt, but important as they are, they do not of themselves constitute ornithology as a science; and an inquiry, no less wide and far more recondite, still remains.
He then draws a positive demonstration of the truth of his religion from the effects of the new faith, and especially from the excellence of its moral teaching, and concludes with a comparison of Christian and Pagan doctrines, in which the latter are set down with naïve confidence as the work of demons.
It is rich, ornate, yet hardly florid, distinguished by splendid effects of light and shade, obtained by a far bolder use of projections than had hitherto been found in the somewhat fiat design of Venetian façades.
Now, supposing dealing to be confined to experts, what effects upon the course of prices would one expect from the specialism of the cotton market and improved facilities Effect specula= for dealing, on the assumption that dealers were governed wholly in their actions by the course of prices and never tried to manipulate them?
Now, turning to the actual effects, we discover somewhat remarkable facts.
Though the association brought about an extension and improvement of the Indian crop, in which result it was enormously assisted by the high prices consequent upon the American Civil War, it sank after a few years into obscurity, and soon passed out of existence altogether, while the effects of its work dwindled finally into insignificance.
The only effects of this great movement were effects prejudicial to the ends towards which it was directed.
When we turn from the sphere of politics to the history of civilization and culture, we find the effects of the Crusades as deeply impressed, if not so definitely marked.
Rey's Les Colonies franques en Syrie contains many interesting details; and Prutz's Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige contains both an account of the Latin East and an attempt to sketch the effects of the Crusades on the progress of civilization.
The Christians constitute the educated portion of the Syrian people; but the spirit of rivalry has produced stimulative effects on the Mahommedans, who had greatly fallen away from that zeal for knowledge which characterized the earlier centuries of their faith.
Irrigation, introduced in 1888 by the orange growers, has been adapted by other farmers, especially the tobacco-growers of Gadsden county, and so the evil effects of the droughts, so common from February to June, are avoided.
Increasing attention was paid to the investigation of the properties of substances and of their effects on the human body, and chemistry profited by the fact that it passed into the hands of men who possessed the highest scientific culture of the time, Still, belief in the possibility of transmutation long remained orthodox, even among the most distinguished men of science.
and, always serving as the boundary between the departments of Vaucluse (N.) and of theBouches-du-Rhone (S.), passes Cavaillon before it effects its junction with the Rhone.
He therefore put the finances in the best order he could, and set himself to mitigate the evil effects of the war by obtaining an early peace.
Ignatius was constantly adding to his work as his own personal experience increased, and as he watched the effects of his method on the souls of those to whom he gave the exercises.
The population in 1901 was 882,084, showing a decrease of 4% in the decade due to the effects of famine.
Hittorf, who carefully investigated the effects produced by heat; crystalline selenium possesses a very striking property, viz.
It follows that the thermal effects stated above must be equal, i.e.
The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group C. OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the alcohol and subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining linkages in the molecule.
The thermal effects increase as one passes from primary to tertiary alcohols, the values deduced from propyl and isopropyl alcohols and trimethyl carbinol being: - primary =45 08, secondary = 50.39, tertiary = 60.98.
it is equal to the sum of the thermal effects of the aldehyde and carbonyl groups.
The thermal effects of the halogens are: chlorine =15.13 calories, bromine = 7.68; iodine = - 4.25 calories.
Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.
To Jaeger is due the determination of the topic parameters of certain haloid-derivatives, and, while showing that the morphotropic effects closely resemble those occasioned by methyl, he established the important fact that, in general, the crystal form depended upon the orientation of the substituents in the benzene complex.
The hydroxyl group also resembles the methyl group in its morphotropic effects, producing, in many cases, no change in symmetry but a dimensional increase in one direction.
It has been shown that certain elements and groups exercise morphotropic effects when substituted in a compound; it may happen that the effects due to two or more groups are nearly equivalent, and consequently the resulting crystal forms are nearly identical.
In 1901 the population was 631,058, showing a decrease of 11% in the decade, due to the effects of famine.
It is used in medicine under the names aspirin, acetysal, aletodin, saletin, xaxa, &c. It has the same action as salicylic acid and salicylates, but is said to be much freer from objectionable secondary effects.
Edmond Becquerel was associated with his father in much of his work, but he himself paid special attention to the study of light, investigating the photochemical effects and spectroscopic characters of solar radiation and the electric light, and the phenomena of phosphorescence, particularly as displayed by the sulphides and by compounds of uranium.
It was in connexion with these latter inquiries that he devised his phosphoroscope, an apparatus which enabled the interval between exposure to the source of light and observation of the resulting effects to be varied at will and accurately measured.
The Hussites, it was said, would think that the Church was afraid to face them; the laity would accuse the clergy of shirking reform; in short, this failure of the councils would produce disastrous effects.
When we consider its moral effects, whilst endeavouring to avoid exaggeration, we must yet pronounce its influence to have been profoundly detrimental.
In its action on the slave it marred in a great measure the happy effects of habitual industry by preventing the development of the sense of human dignity which lies at the foundation of morals.
On the morality of the masters - whether personal, domestic, or social - the effects of the institution were disastrous.
For its economic effects, when it is regarded as an organization of labour, reference may be had to Smith's Wealth of Nations, book iii.
It supplied a want which has always been felt by certain types, and it became a movement which had mischievous effects upon ill-balanced minds.
In 1794 Spain, hard pressed by Great Britain and France, turned to the United States, and by the treaty of 1794 the Mississippi river was recognized by Spain as the western boundary of the United States, separating it from Louisiana, and free navigation of the Mississippi was granted to citizens of the United States, to whom was granted for three years the right " to deposit their merchandise and effects in the port of New Orleans, and to export them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the stores."
The bite of the scorpion and of the numerous spiders produces no serious effects.
After pointing out the immense difficulties which he had had to encounter owing to the absence of any regular accounts, and above all of any of " those statistics which constitute the soul, indeed the very life of a public administration," and that it was therefore impossible for him to pretend that he had been able to free himself altogether from the effects of the past, the minister continues, " every time we have endeavoured to have recourse to the previous elements of appreciation, we found ourselves faced by the chaos which characterized former years.
Depending on coloured tiles and gorgeous fabrics for their rich effects, nothing of the buildings of the times of Harun al-Rashid or Mamun, once counted so magnificent, have come down to us.
Sir Leslie Stephen speaks of him as a curious example of "the effects of an exploded metaphysics on a feeble though ingenious intellect."
The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
An interesting example is the discussion, by Otto Pettersson, of the effects of long-range fluctuations in the tidegenerating force: this memoir was published about 1914, but has only recently become available to English readers.
It is shown to be probable that such effects actually occurred about the time of the last maximum (A.D.
(Similar effects can be seen on a small scale, even in our own times, as the result of exceptionally big tides.) Severe winters were experienced and the Baltic was frequently frozen over so that there was solid ice communication between Sweden and Denmark across the Belts and Sound: this happened in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries but not in the 16th.
Daly estimates that the maximum lowering of ocean level due to this cause would only amount to 36 fathoms, but even that would be the cause of very marked geological effects.
When the passage of an electric current through a substance is accompanied by definite chemical changes which are independent of the heating effects of the current, the process is known as electrolysis, and the substance is called an electrolyte.
Immediately on its discovery intense interest was aroused in the new invention, and the chemical effects of electric currents were speedily detected.
Arrhenius pointed out that these exceptions would be brought into line if the ions of electrolytes were imagined to be separate entities each capable of producing its own pressure effects just as would an ordinary dissolved molecule.
(I) In very dilute solutions of simple substances, where only one kind of dissociation is possible and the dissociation of the ions is complete, the number of pressure-producing particles necessary to produce the observed osmotic effects should be equal to the number of ions given by a molecule of the salt as shown by its electrical properties.
It' would be possible for a body in solution to be dissociated into non-electrical parts, which would give osmotic pressure effects twice or three times the normal value, but, being uncharged, would not act as ions and impart electrical conductivity to the solution.
It is probable that the electrical effects constitute the strongest arguments in favour of the theory.
Since the salts, both before and after mixture, exist mainly as dissociated ions, it is obvious that large thermal effects can only appear when the state of dissociation of the products is very different from that of the reagents.
If secondary effects are eliminated, the deposition of metals also is a reversible process; the decomposition voltage is equal to the electromotive force which the metal itself gives when going into solution.
Since zinc goes into solution and copper comes out, the electromotive force of the cell will be the difference between the two effects.
By both these methods the single potential-differences found at the surfaces of the zinc and copper have opposite signs, and the effective electromotive force of a Daniell's cell is the sum of the two effects.
In its effects on the international situation Navarino may be reckoned one of the decisive battles of the world.
In other cases the injurious effects of free sulphur are obviated by using instead of it a metallic sulphide, - generally the orange sulphide of antimony; but, for the best results, it is necessary that this should contain from 20 to 30% of uncombined sulphur.
An authority on precious stones, and especially the diamond, he succeeded in artificially making some minute specimens of the latter gem; and on the discovery of radium he was one of the first to take up the study of its properties, in particular inventing the spinthariscope, an instrument in which the effects of a trace of radium salt are manifested by the phosphorescence produced on a zinc sulphide screen.
These are effects of pedantry, and seem rather to be founded on a cold-blooded analysis of celebrated sermons than on any instinctive sense of the duty of the preacher.
Hence the disastrous effects supposed to follow a breach of taboo; the offender has thrust his hand into the divine fire, which shrivels up and consumes him on the spot" (Frazer, The Golden Bough, i.
The effects of his Italian sojourn upon the nascent ideas of Copernicus may be profitably studied in Domenico Berti's Copernico e le vicende del sistema Copernicano in Italia (Roma, 1876), and in G.
Effects of Mechanical Stress on Magnetization.
Effects of Temperature on Magnetism.
Miscellaneous Effects of Magnetization: Electric Conductivity - Hall Effect - Electro-Thermal Relations - Thermoelectric Quality - Elasticity - Chemical and Voltaic Effects.
The regions of greatest attraction have received the name of poles, and the line joining them is called the axis of the magnet; the space around a magnet in which magnetic effects are exhibited is called the field of magnetic force, or the magnetic field.
An account of some of these effects will be found in another section.'
Demagnetization by Reversals.-In the course of an experiment it is often desired to eliminate the effects of previous magnetization, and, as far as possible, wipe out the magnetic history of a specimen.
If it is desired to annihilate the hysteretic effects of previous magnetization and restore the metal to its original condition; it may be demagnetized by reversals.
The ballistic method is largely employed for determining the relation of induction to magnetizing force in samples of the iron and steel used in the manufacture of electrical machinery, and especially for the observation of hysteresis effects.
The method has been employed by the authors themselves in studying the effects of tension, torsion and circular magnetization, while R.
Wills 1 has made successful use of it in a research on the effects of temperature, a matter of great industrial importance.
With this arrangement it is possible to find the actual value of the magnetizing force, corrected for the effects of joints and other sources of error.
Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.
Magnetization In Very Weak Fields Some interesting, observations have been made of the effects produced by very small magnetic forces.
The effects of tension upon the behaviour of a nickel wire are of a less simple character.
The complicated hysteresis effects which attend magnetic elongation and retraction have been studied by H.
Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.
Effects Of Mechanical Stress Upon Magnetization The effects of traction, compression and torsion in relation to magnetism have formed the subject of much patient investigation, especially at the hands of J.
The following table shows the values of I and H corresponding to the Villari critical point in some of Ewing's experiments: The effects of pulling stress may be observed either when the wire is stretched by a constant load while the magnetizing force is varied, or when the magnetizing force is kept constant while the load is varied.
The effects of longitudinal pressure are opposite to those of traction; when the cyclic condition has been reached, pressure reduces the magnetization of iron in weak fields and increases it in strong fields (Ewing, Magnetic Induction, 1900, 223).
Ewing has also examined the effects produced by longitudinal compression upon the susceptibility and retentiveness of nickel, and found, as was to be expected, that both were greatly increased by pressure.
The effects of longitudinal pressure upon the magnetization of cast cobalt have been examined by C. Chree, 3 and also by J.
Both observers noticed analogous effects in the residual magnetization.
The complete reciprocity of the effects of magnetization upon length and of stretching upon magnetization is shown by the following parallel statements: Iron.
Mag., 1898, 46, 261) have investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure upon magnetization, using the same pieces of iron and nickel as were employed in their experiments upon magnetic change of volume.
It would hardly be safe to generalize from these observations; the effects may possibly be dependent upon the physical condition of the metals.
There are then three remarkable effects of torsion: A.
Each of these five effects may occur in two opposite senses.
Let each of the effects A, B, C, D and E be called positive when it is such as is exhibited by moderately magnetized iron, and negative when its sense is opposite.
A, D, E Several gaps remain to be filled, but the results so far recorded can leave no doubt that the five effects, varied as they may at first sight appear, are intimately connected with one another.
For each of the metals tabulated in the first column all the effects hitherto observed have the same sign; there is no single instance in which some are positive and others negative.
The effects of magnetization upon the torsion of a previously twisted wire, which were first noticed by Wiedemann, have been further studied by F.
Effects Of Temperature Upon Magnetism High Temperature.
An exhaustive research into the effects of heating on the magnetic properties of iron has been carried out by D.
Some preliminary experiments showed the striking difference in the effects of annealing at a red heat (840° C.) and at a low white heat (1'50° C.).
The effects of temperature upon hysteresis were also care fully studied, and many hysteresis loops were plotted.
[[[Magnetization: Miscellaneous Effects]] to the publications cited below.'
He invented magnets that could withstand the effects of percussion and ordinary temperature variations.
Electro-Thermal Relations.-The Hall electromotive force is only one of several so-called " galvano-magnetic effects " which are observed when a magnetic field acts normally upon a thin plate of metal traversed by an electric current.
It is remarkable that if a flow of heat be substituted for a current of electricity a closely allied group of " thermo-magnetic effects " is presented.
Sci., 1901, 12, 57), as follows: Galvano-Magnetic Effects.
thermal) is reversed, but the longitudinal effects are independent of the direction of the field.
Attempts have been made to explain these various effects by the electron theory.4 Thermo-electric Quality.-The earliest observations of the effect of magnetization upon thermo-electric power were those of W.
The results of experiments as to the effect of magnetization were for long discordant and inconclusive, sufficient care not having been taken to avoid sources of error, while the effects of hysteresis were altogether disregarded.
Mag., 1901, I, 642) has found similar effects in nickel and cobalt.
There are strong reasons for believing that magnetism is a phenomenon involving rotation, and as early as 1876 Rowland, carrying out an experiment which had been proposed by Maxwell, showed that a revolving electric charge produced the same magnetic effects as a current.
If the structure of the molecule is so perfectly symmetrical that, in the absence of any external field, the resultant magnetic moment of the circulating electrons is zero, then the application of a field, by accelerating the right-handed (negative) revolutions, and retarding those which are left-handed, will induce in the substance a resultant magnetization opposite in direction to the field itself; a body composed of such symmetrical molecules is therefore diamagnetic. If however the structure of the molecule is such that the electrons revolving around its atoms do not exactly cancel one another's effects, the molecule constitutes a little magnet, which under the influence of an external field will tend to set itself with its axis parallel to the field.
He also carried out some new experiments on the effects of heat, and of screening by magnetic substances, and investigated the influence of shape upon the magnetization of iron.
Effects of the World War.-The losses suffered by Latvia from evacuation, war, occupation, invasion and Bolshevik rule almost ruined her beyond hope; the official statistician Skuieneeks estimated in 1920 that it would take 50 years to bring her back to the pre-war level.
What the war and revolution had left of the large farms, subsequent agrarian legislation further damaged; and in 1921 the Latvian state was still struggling against the dislocating effects of war and revolution, and its finance and commerce were seeking new methods of reconstruction.
Christ takes Andrew and his disciples with Him, and effects the rescue of Matthew.
They relate almost entirely to electrical phenomena, such as the magnetic rotation of light, the action of gas batteries, the effects of torsion on magnetism, the polarization of electrodes, &c., sufficiently complete accounts of which are given in Wiedemann's Galvanismus.
These exploits, however, were transient in their effects.
In the Sala dei Nove or della Pace above are the noble allegorical frescoes of Ambrogio Lorenzetti representing the effects of just and unjust government; the Sala delle Balestre or del Mappamondo is painted by Simone di Martino (Memmi) and others, the Cappella della Signoria by Taddeo di Bartolo, and the Sala del Consistorio by Beccafumi.
The first effects of this immense acquisition of new material were markedly unsettling on the doctrinal orthodoxy of the time.
The apocryphal Neoplatonic treatises and the First views of the Arabian commentators obscured for the effects of first students the genuine doctrine of Aristotle, and the the new 13th century opens with quite a crop of mystical knowledge.
In these and other dramatic writings, more remarkable perhaps for poetic than for stage effects, Doczi still maintains his brilliancy of diction and the delicacy of his poetic touch.
From the Dorah eastwards the crest of the Hindu Kush again becomes the boundary till it effects a junction with the Murtagh and Sarikol ranges, which shut off China from Russia and India.
Thus not only did Darwin's theory give a new basis to the study of organic 'structure, but, whilst rendering the general theory of organic evolution equally acceptable and Effects of necessary, it explained the existence of low and simple forms of life as survivals of the earliest ancestry of theory more highly complex forms, and revealed the classifications of the systematist as unconscious attempts to construct the genealogical tree or pedigree of plants and animals.
Later investigations by Fraunhofer, Airy and others have greatly widened the field, and under the head of " diffraction " are now usually treated all the effects dependent upon the limitation of a beam of light, as well as those which arise from irregularities of any kind at surfaces through which it is transmitted, or at which it is reflected.
By the principle of superposition the whole effect may be found by integration of the partial effects due to each element of the surface, the other elements remaining at rest.
All that it is necessary to assume is that the effects of the successive zones gradually diminish, whether from the increasing obliquity of the secondary ray or because (on account of the limitation of the region of integration) the zones become at last more and more incomplete.
The effects due to each of these rings are equal in amplitude and of phase ranging uniformly over half a complete period.
If on the other hand the number of zones be odd, the effects conspire; and the illumination (proportional to the square of the amplitude) is four times as great as if there were no obstruction at all.
When the original light is white, the presence of some components and the absence of others will usually give rise to coloured effects, variable with the precise circumstances of the case.
Although the matter can be fully treated only upon the basis of a dynamical theory, it is proper to point out at once that there is an element of assumption in the application of Huygens's principle to the calculation of the effects produced by opaque screens of limited extent.
If the wave-length remains unchanged, similar effects are produced by an increase in the scale of the aperture.
In directions other than these it is a more delicate question how the partial effects should be compounded.
If the change of temperature progressed uniformly from one side to the other, the result would be a lateral displacement of the image without loss of definition; but in general both effects would be observable.
The general nature of the effects to be expected in such a case may be made clear by means of an illustration already employed for another purpose.
According to this view the chromatic effects depend entirely upon atmospheric dispersion.
The occurrence of factors such as sin 4), or 2 (1cos 0), in the expression of the secondary wave has no influence upon the result of the integration, the effects of all the elements for which the factors differ appreciably from unity being destroyed by mutual interference.
In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.
Rome is indeed to be honoured as the mother of the churches; nor would Gerbert oppose her judgments except in two cases - (I) where she enjoins something that is contrary to the decrees of a universal council, such as that of Nice, or (2) where, after having been once appealed to in a matter of ecclesiastical discipline and having refused to give a plain and speedy decision, she should, at a later date, attempt to call in question the provisions of the metropolitan synod called to remedy the effects of her negligence.
Its form, place and powers are the effects of certain causes.
He urged that history is not to be treated as an exact science, and that the effects of individual character and the operations of the human will necessarily render generalizations vague and consequently useless.
The insurrection was crushed, but in one of the final skirmishes a chance bullet struck General Crespo, who was in command of the government troops, and he died from the effects of the wound.
A part deprived of its natural nerve-supply sooner or later suffers from the effects of malnutrition.
Thus workers in lead suffer from the effects of this substance as a poison, those who work in phosphorus are liable to necrosis of bone and fatty degeneration of the blood vessels and organs, and the many occupations in which dust is inhaled (coalmining, stone-dressing, steel-polishing, &c.; fig.
Repair Of Injuries In the process of inflammation we have a series of reactions on the part of the tissues, and fluids of the body, to counteract the ill effects of irritation or injury, to get rid of the cause, and to repair its results.
There is thus brought into play a series of processes on the part of the tissues - the vascular inflammatory changes - which is really the first move to neutralize the malign effects.
Then they develop .definite fibrils which differentiate into fibrous laminae forming a zone which shuts off the abscess from the healthy tissue and so prevents the further invasion and injurious effects of the microorganism.
His Mechanical Account of Poisons, in the first edition (1702), gave an explanation of the effects of poisons, as acting only on the blood.
In the effects of simpler poisons the recognition of unity in diversity, as in the affiliation of a peripheral neuritis to arsenic, illustrated more definitely this serial or etiological method of classifying diseases.
Now, what is remarkable in these and many other reactions is not only that effects apparently very opposite may result from minute differences of molecular construction, but also that, whatever the construction, agents, not wholly indifferent to the body or part, tend to anchor themselves to organic molecules in some way akin to them.
Its briefest equivalent may be given as "persecuting and privileged orthodoxy" in general, and, more particularly, it is the particular system which Voltaire saw around him, of which he had felt the effects in his own exiles and the confiscations of his books, and of which he saw the still worse effects in the hideous sufferings of Calas and La Barre.
In course of an investigation in 1822-1823 on the effects of heat and pressure on certain liquids he found that for each there was a certain temperature above which it refused to remain liquid but passedintothegaseous state, no matter what the amount of pressure to which it was subjected, and in the case of water he determined this critical temperature, with a remarkable approach to accuracy, to be 362° C. He also studied the nature of yeast and the influence of extreme cold upon its life.
The terrible effects of fire-damp have led to the adoption of elaborate systems of ventilation, as the most effective safeguard against these explosions is the dilution and removal of the fire-damp as promptly and completely as possible.
As a hanger-on in great houses he had little time for systematic work, and he wrote the "Lives" in the early morning while his hosts were sleeping off the effects of the dissipation of the night before.
They pass through a viscous stage in cooling from a state of fluidity; they develop effects of colour when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic oxides; they are, when cold, bad conductors both of electricity and heat, they are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary solvents, but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric acid.
Little is known about the actual cause of colour in glass beyond the fact that certain materials added to and melted with certain glass-mixtures will in favourable circumstances produce effects of colour.
the power of resisting the disintegrating effects of atmospheric moisture and carbonic acid, depends largely upon the quantity of alkalis contained in the glass and their proportion to the lead, lime or barium present, the stability being generally less the higher the proportion of alkali.
If the glass is very badly annealed, the lenses made from it may fly to pieces during or of ter manufacture, but apart from such extreme cases the optical effects of internal strain are not readily observed except in large optical apparatus.
Cutting and engraving are mechanical processes for producing decorative effects by abrading the surface of the glass when cold.
In many specimens there were three or more layers of differently coloured glass, and curious effects of blended colour were obtained by cutting through, or partly through, the different layers.
The temperature required in the fusion of sheet-glass and of other glasses produced in tank furnaces is much lower than that attained in steel furnaces, and it is consequently pos Since the discovery of the Rntgen rays, experiments have been made to ascertain the effects of the different constituents of glass on the transparency of glass to X-rays.
The general nature of the colouring ingredients employed, and the colour effects produced by them, have already been mentioned.
In these every colour and every shade of colour seem to have been tried in groat variety of combination with effects more or less pleasing, but transparent violet or purple appears to have been the most common ground colour.
The French philosopher, therefore, regarded these obstructions as the effects of friction.
In this way the medium velocity of the current may be diminished, and consequently the quantity of water discharged in a given time must, from the effects of friction, be considerably less than that which is computed from theory.
The effects of friction and viscosity in diminishing the velocity of running water were noticed in the Principia of Sir Isaac Newton, who threw much light upon several branches of hydromechanics.
8 In 1897 Rost followed up Peiser's suggestion by reducing the figure still further, but he counteracted to some extent the effects of this additional reduction by emending Sennacherib's date for Marduknadin-akhe's defeat of Tiglath-pileser I.
of Hanover, on the line to Altenbeken, which here effects a junction with railways to Lohne and Brunswick.
John's activity indeed had far-reaching effects.
Ruff effects the same change by oxidizing the sugar to the oxy-acid, ' See Fermentation; and for the relation of this property to structure see Stereoisomerism.
The Effects of Cestodes on their Hosts (Shipley and Fearnsides .
(1894); (4) Shipley and Fearnsides, " Effects of Parasites," Journ.
The sandstone has not resisted the effects of weather, and much of the external decorative work has perished.
Experiments have shown that excellent effects can be obtained by applying 5 or 6 cwt.
The beneficial effects of marls may also be partially due to the presence in them of available potash.
Moreover the beneficial effects are seen in the first crop and last for many years.
In 1901 the population was 171,227, showing a decrease of 4 2% due to the effects of famine.
The specific effects of different impurities on the physical properties of zinc have only been imperfectly studied.
The effects of the Egyptian invasion had passed away, and central Arabia had settled down again under its native rulers when W.
His last years were embittered by remorse, by gloomy forebodings, and by constant suspicion, for he had always been in the habit of employing a system of espionage, and only then experienced its evil effects.
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
In an Italian translation of Euclid's Optica, with commentary, Egnacio Danti (1573), after discussing the effects of plane, convex and concave reflectors, fully describes the method of showing reversed images passing through an aperture in a darkened room, and shows how, by placing a mirror behind the aperture, unreversed images might be obtained, both effects being illustrated by diagrams. F.
Opposite stands the new Pinakothek, built 1846-1853, the frescoes on which, designed by Kaulbach, show the effects of wind and weather.
(30Xis, a missile) comes next in order from its size and conspicuous effects.
Probably all of them secrete an active poison by the aid of their glands, but the effects of these substances are not readily perceptible.
Perhaps the most remarkable of these effects is that produced by the larvae of Gasterostomum.
Wet summers are followed by an acute outbreak of liver-rot amongst sheep and this, together with the effects of other diseases that accompany wet seasons, cause the death of vast numbers of sheep, the numbers from both sources being estimated in bad years at from 12 to 3 millions in England alone.
The signory tried to conciliate the pope by relating the wonderful spiritual effects of their preacher's words, but Alexander was obdurate.
Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science - his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" - he had an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system.
This would account for its transitory effects, and the speedy recovery of the Romans from the blow.
The height of the mountain varies from time to time within limits of several hundred feet, according to the effects of successive eruptions, but averages about 4000 ft.
&KTis, ray, p rpov, measure), an instrument for measuring the heating and chemical effects of light.
Even in 1910 the province had not wholly recovered from the effects of that struggle and the barbarity with which it was stamped out.
And thus, close student of natures processes, methods, and effects as the Japanese art workman is, he ever seeks to produce humble replicas from his only art master.
The oldest existiog work of this period is a mural decoration in the hail of the temple of Horyu-ji, Nara, attributed to a Korean priest named Donchfl, who lived in Japan in the 6th century; and this painting, in spite of the destructive effects of time and exposure, shows traces of the same power of line, color and composition that stamps the best of the later examples of Buddhist art.
He was an artist of eccentric originality, who achieved wonders in bold decorative effects in spite of a studied contempt for detail.
In color-printing, the colors, which are much the same as those in use in Europe, are mixed, with rice-paste as a medium, on the block for each operation, and the power of regulating the result given by this custom to an intelligent craftsman (who, again, is neither the artist nor the engraver) was productive in the best period of very beautiful and artistic effects, such as could never have been obtained by any mechanical device.
Very beautiful effects are thus produced, for the design seems to have grown up to the surface of the metal field rather than to have been planted in it.
So perfectly does the modern Japanese embroiderer elaborate his scheme of values that all the essential elements of pictorial effects chiaroscuro, aerial perspective and atmosphere are present in his work.
Taking the renowned yao-pien-yao, or transmutation ware of China as a model, the Takatori potters endeavoured, by skilful mixing of coloring materials, to reproduce the wonderful effects of oxidization seen in the Chinese ware.
It is this, that whereas the latter produce their chromatic effects by mixing the coloring matter with the glaze, Seif 6 paints the biscuit with a pigment over which he runs a translucid colorless glaze.
A majority of the artists are content to copy old pictures of Buddhas sixteen disciples, the seven gods of happiness, and other similar assemblages of mythical or historical personages, not only because such work offers large opportunity for the use of striking colors and the production of meretricious effects, dear to the eye of the average Western householder and tourist, but also because a complicated design, as compared with a simple one, has the advantage of hiding the technical imperfections of the ware.
The glossy surface of a porcelain glaze is ill fitted for rendering artistic effects with ordinary colors.
Very beautiful effects of,broken E ~
Meanwhile the dispute had produced important effects.
This result he achieved in spite of the Decian persecution (250251), during which he had felt it to be his duty to absent himself from his diocese, and notwithstanding the demoralizing effects of an irruption of barbarians (Goths and Boranians) who laid waste the diocese in A.D.
Spencer recognizes successively likenesses and unlikenesses among phenomena (the effects of the Unknowable), which are segregated into manifestations, vivid (object, nonego) or faint (subject, ego), and then into space and time, matter and motion and force, of which the last is symbolized for us by the experience of resistance, and is that out of which our ideas of matter and motion are built.
And though Spencer's general position - that it is absurd to suppose that organisms after being modified by their life should give birth to offspring showing no traces of such modifications - seems the more philosophic, yet it does not dispose of the facts which go to show that most of the evidence for the direct transmission of adaptations is illusory, and that beings are organised to minimize the effects of life on the reproductive tissues, so that the transmission of the effects of use and disuse, if it occurs, must be both difficult and rare - far more so than is convenient for Spencer's psychology.
The final ends of all things are in the Divine Mind, the causes of all things in the spiritual world, and their effects in the natural world.
On the one hand there were during the middle ages sects, like the Catharists and Albigenses, whose "opposition as a rule developed itself from dualistic or pantheistic premises (surviving effects of old Gnostic or Manichaean views)" and who "stood outside of ordinary Christendom, and while no doubt affecting many individual members within it, had no influence on church doctrine."
War was already declared in 1702, but William, who had long been ailing, died from the combined effects of a fall from his horse and a chill on the 8th of March 1702.
The effects of a bite by a poisonous snake upon a small mammal or bird are almost instantaneous, preventing its escape; and the snake swallows its victim at its leisure, sometimes hours after it has been killed.
Therefore it will not be out of place to add here a chapter on snake poison and on the best means (ineffectual though they be in numerous cases) of counteracting its deleterious effects.
When introduced directly into a vein, the effects are instantaneous.
Within a few days recovery usually occurs somewhat suddenly, but death may occur from the severe depression, or from the secondary effects of suppuration.
The symptoms of the bite from the Daboia or Vipera russeli resemble the effects of rattlesnake poison, but sanious discharges from the rectum, &c., are an additional and prominent feature.
Fortunately the majority are of small size, and their bites are not followed by more severe effects than those from the sting of a hornet.
When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.
But it is still capable of producing men of original force; it still maintains the traditions of a happier time; it is still alive to the value of literary culture, and endeavours by minute attention to style to produce new effects.
But though the line of great lawyers had ceased, the effects of their work remained and are clearly visible long after in the "codes" - the code of Theodosius (438) and the still more famous code of Justinian (529 and 533), with which is associated the name of Tribonianus.
Therefore, even though Athenian domination may have been highly salutary in its effects, there can be no doubt that the allies did not regard it with affection.
He undertook the journey in spite of failing health, and seems never to have recovered from its effects.
The desirable effects produced by alcohol on the stomach are worth obtaining only in cases of acute diseases.
In chronic disease and in health the use of alcohol as an aid to digestion is without the support of clinical or laboratory experience, the beneficial action being at least neutralized by undesirable effects produced elsewhere.
brandy) produces very valuable reflex effects, the heart beating more rapidly and forcibly, and the blood-pressure rising.
The effects of this policy of blind obscurantism far outweighed any good that resulted from the king's well-meant efforts at economic and financial reform; and seven this reform was but spasmodic and partial, and awoke ultimately more discontent than it allayed.
In the case of imperfect gases, all the available experimental evidence shows that the specific volume tends towards its ideal value, V =Re/p, in the limit, when the pressure is indefinitely reduced and the molecules are widely separated so as to eliminate the effects of their mutual actions.
In experiments with magnifying glasses, and through spars, the ordinary effects of magnifying and of alteration of view are sometimes produced; sometimes they are not.
His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Huns; but it seems more probable that he was murdered by the soldiers, who were averse from further campaigns against Persia, at the instigation of Arrius Aper, prefect of the praetorian guard.
This accusation appears to have originated in his superior skill in natural philosophy, by which he produced effects that the ignorant attributed to magic.
Effects of Emigration.-There are two views with regard to emigration: one unfavourable, viz., that it is a drain on population, reducing its economic strength and disturbing social and political relations; the second looking upon it as a relief from over-population and a congested labour market.
The same remark would hold true in regard to the social and political effects of emigration.
Effects of Immigration.-The effects of emigration are negative in character; those of immigration are positive.
(b) Economic effects: The economic gain of immigration to new countries is evident.
Social and Political Effects of Immigration.-The influx of millions of persons of different nationality, often of a foreign language and generally of the lower classes, would seem to be a danger to the homogeneity of a community.
He died on the 5th of November 1370 from the effects of an injury received while hunting.
Here on the 28th of December 1825 he succumbed to the combined effects of climate and of opium.
The cloud and thunder and lightning effects are spoken of as very impres'Eve, and the scenery of the lake and its shores has been much extolled by travellers.
On the other hand, if the effects arose from balanced stresses set up inside the globe by the radiation, the effects on the vanes and on the case would be of the nature of action and reaction, so that the establishment of motion of the vanes in one direction would involve impulsion of the case in the opposite direction; but when the motion became steady there would no longer be any torque either on the vanes or on the case, and the latter would therefore come back to its previous position of equilibrium; finally, when the light was turned off, the decay of the motion of the vanes would involve impulsion of the case in the direction of their motion until the moment of the restoring torque arising from the suspension of the case had absorbed the angular momentum in the system.
Warburg in 1875 on the viscosity of gases; its effects would be corrected for, in general, by a slight effective addition to the thickness of the gaseous layer.
Poynting has separated the two effects experimentally on the principle that the radiometer pressure acts along the normal, while the radiation pressure acts along the ray which may be directed obliquely.
But they were now destined to feel the full effects of them.
In June she followed the king to England (after distributing all her effects in Edinburgh among her ladies) with the prince and the coffin containing the body of her dead infant, and reached Windsor on the 2nd of July, where amidst other forms of good fortune she entered into the possession of Queen Elizabeth's 6000 dresses.
Waves and tidal currents produce their full effects in that region, and in high latitudes the effect of transport of materials by ice is very important; while in the warm water of the tropics the reefbuilding animals and plants (corals and calcareous algae) carry on their work most effectively there.
Similar effects are produced along the boulder-clay cliffs of the Baltic. Where the force of the waves on the beach produces its full effect the coarser material gets worn down to gravel, sand and silt, the finest particles remaining long suspended in the water to be finally deposited as mud in quiet bays.
Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
Similar effects are produced in narrow waters by the action of tidal currents, and the influence of a steady wind blowing onor off-shore has a powerful effect in mixing the water.
The delusion was dissipated slowly, and even after the great Tatar invasion and devastation of eastern Europe its effects still influenced the mind of Christendom and caused popes and kings to send missions to the Tatar hordes with a lingering feeling that their khans, if not already Christians, were at least always on the verge of conversion.
and a total population (1901) of 1,308,326, showing a decrease of 13% in the decade, due to the effects of famine.
This appoinment had a deep influence on the already vigorous religious life of Huss himself; and one of the effects of the earnest and independent study of Scripture into which it led him was a profound conviction of the great value not only of the philosophical but also of the theological writings of Wycliffe.
In the denser jungles malaria prevails for months after the cessation of the rains, but the Gonds do not appear to suffer much from its effects.
Of Franklin's examination, in February 1766, by the House in Committee of the Whole, as to the effects of the Stamp Act, Burke said that the scene reminded him of a master examined by a parcel of schoolboys, and George Whitefield said: " Dr Franklin has gained immortal honour by his behaviour at the bar of the House.
Nothing is said as to the nature and effects of excommunication.
The civil power (the duke of Wurttemberg was a Roman Catholic) was disposed to have recourse to measures of repression, while the members of the consistory, recognizing the good effects of such meetings, were inclined to concede considerable liberty.
Sporozoa differ greatly as regards the effects which they produce upon their hosts.
p. 119) the following definition is given of sacramentalia: " Sacramentals are certain things or actions instituted or consecrated by the Church for the production of certain spiritual effects, and sometimes for the obtaining of a temporal effect."
Some of the older authorities, like Caietanus and Soto, taught that sacramentals as above defined have power to produce their effects ex opere operato, i.e.
Belmont, what is the use of the prayers offered up over the substances; and how account for the differences of effects which by the testimony of the faithful are respectively caused by water duly blessed and by water falsely blessed?
He therefore inclines to the opinion that there is no inherent virtue in sacramentals, but that God is moved by the prayers uttered in their consecration to produce salutary effects in those who use them.
But Marsiglio's logical and elaborate justification for a revolt against the medieval Church produced no perceptible effects.
The effects of the Protestant secession on the doctrines, organization and practices of the Roman Catholic Church are difficult to estimate, still more so to substantiate.
It was against his advice that the great battle of Warsaw was fought, and his subsequent strategy neutralized the ill effects of that national disaster.
It is interesting in this connexion to study also first contact in its lists of articles, and the effects produced upon aboriginal minds and methods.
In northern Mexico net-work, rude lace-work in twine, are followed farther south, where finer material existed, by figured weaving of most intricate type and pattern; warps were crossed and wrapped, wefts were omitted and texture changed, so as to produce marvellous effects upon the surface.
Meteorological phenomena seated more directly in the atmosphere obtained early recognition; thus Hesiod, in his Works and Days, speculated on the origin of winds, ascribing them to the heating effects of the sun on the air.
Chandler ascertained in 1888 the compensatory nature of these disturbances; 3 and he afterwards found the most important among several which probably conspire to produce the observed effects, to be comprised in a period of 15,000 light-cycles, equivalent to 118 years.
He had a seat in the Constituent Assembly of 1867, and while he joined the National Liberals he distinguished himself by his opposition to the introduction of universal suffrage, the effects of which he, as did many other Liberals, much distrusted.
Having at his disposal a band of picked virtuosi he could produce effects as different from the tentative experiments of C. P. E.
(i) The Logos-Life brings Lazarus to life; effects of the act (x.
44), a drawing which effects a hunger and thirst for Christ and God (iv.
Some curious effects were observed in the formation of harmonics in the rear of the primary tone used.
Experiments may be made with plane and curved mirrors to verify these laws, but it is necessary to use short waves, in order to diminish diffraction effects.
These effects have been explained by Lord Rayleigh (Sound, i.
II) he examines the beats due to these combination tones and their effects in producing dissonance.
Having recovered from the worst effects of the war the Boers, both in the Transvaal and Orange Colony, began in 1904 to make organized efforts to regain their political ascendancy, and to bring pressure on the government in respect to compensation, repatriation, the position of the Dutch language, education and other subjects on which they alleged unfair treatment.
A good many years later he was entrusted by the committee of the British Association on standards of electric resist ance with the task of deducing the mechanical equivalent of heat from the thermal effects of electric currents.
13a law was probably as short-lived in its effects as preceding ones had been, but a more lasting reform was the maintenance at the public cost of the children of poor parents in the towns of Italy (Aur.
For, true to its nature, it has itself drawn up no complete programme of its objects, and, in addition to its avowed aims, its subsidiary effects claim attention.
But, even within the pale of the Roman Church, this identification provokes emphatic dissent, and is repudiated by all who are shocked by the effects of a onesided accentuation of political Catholicism on the inner life of the church, and are reluctant to see the priest playing the part of a political agitator.
How far such adaptations are produced afresh in each generation, whether or no their effects are transmitted to descendants and so directly modify the stock, to what extent adaptations characteristic of a species or variety have come about by selection of individuals capable, in each generation, of responding favourably, or how far by the selection of individuals fortuitously suitable to the environment, or, how far, possibly by the inheritance of the responses to the environment, are problems of biology not yet definitely solved.
8 Alternately admitted into or rejected from the series, it was finally, some six or seven centuries ago, eliminated by the effects of precession in reversing the order of culmination of its limiting stars.
On the other hand, those who imagined aethers in order to explain phenomena could not specify the nature of the motion of these media, and could not prove that the media, as imagined by them, would produce the effects they were meant to explain.
It must be a medium which can be effective for transmitting all the types of physical action known to us; it would be worse than no solution to have one medium to transmit gravitation, another to transmit electric effects, another to transmit light, and so on.
Another powerful reason for taking the aether to be stationary is afforded by the character of the equations of electrodynamics; they are all of linear type, and superposition of effects is possible.
The analytical equations which represent the propagation of light in free aether, and also in aether modified by the presence of matter, were originally developed on the analogy of the equations of propagation of elastic effects in solid media.
In the present case the total dielectric contribution to this current works out to be the change per unit time in the electric separation in the molecules of the element of volume, as it moves uniformly with the matter, all other effects being compensated molecularly without affecting the propagation.
In 1794 the effects of the French Revolution were shown in the more liberal constitution granted by the city government.
The effects of these changes made themselves felt on all sides, in no case more strongly than in that of the papal claims to the supreme government of the world.
It has in more than one instance already exercised its power as a checking and restraining authority with good effects - its amendments even on substantial points having been several times accepted by the Lower Chamber.
At the beginning of the 17th century some 90% of the Bohemians were Protestant, but the loss of independence and the effects of religious persecution (the Counter-Reformation) under the aegis of the Habsburg dynasty, caused the position to be reversed, and up to 1918 almost 90°o of the Czechoslovak population was entered in the official statistics as belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.
It did so with relation not only to the United Kingdom, but, in its after effects, to the world at large.
The devastating effects of these civil wars were most disastrous to the trade and the prosperity of Kwei-chow.
The best effects are produced in formal beds by planting the same variety in each, to secure the plants being of the same height and in flower simultaneously.
An account of the work he did with this instrument was published in 1660 under the title New Experiments PhysicoMechanical touching the spring of air and its effects.
Such stocks, however, usually fail in time, partly from too close interbreeding, partly from the ordinary chances of mortality, and partly from the cumulative effects of strange conditions.
In many cases pollen has no effect on the stigma of the same flower, the plants are selfsterile, in other cases external pollen is more effective (pre-potent) than pollen from the same flower; but in a very large number of cases experiment has shown that there is little or no difference between the effects of external pollen and that from the same flower.
- McClellan, after the battle of the Antietam, paused for some time to reorganize his forces, some of which had barely recovered from the effects of Pope's unlucky campaign.
Internally: Dilate solutions of potash, like other alkalis, are used to neutralize the poisonous effects of strong acids.
It might well be believed that the change in the so-called Epistles of the Imprisonment from the earlier epistles was due in part to the physical effects of prolonged confinement, as compared with the free, varied and open life and exciting controversies of earlier years.
KUCHAN, the capital of the district, has suffered much from the effects of earthquakes, notably in 1875, 1894 and 1895.
He, his immediate follower, Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764), other clergymen, such as James Davenport, and many untrained laymen who took up the work, agreed in the emotional and dramatic character of their preaching, in rousing their hearers to a high pitch of excitement, often amounting to frenzy, in the undue stress they put upon "bodily effects" (the physical manifestations of an abnormal psychic state) as proofs of conversion, and in their unrestrained attacks upon the many clergymen who did not join them and whom they called "dead men," unconverted, unregenerate and careless of the spiritual condition of their parishes.
As regards the effects of his subsequent remorse and the use to which his ill-gotten gains were put, the strikingly apparent discrepancies between the narratives of Matt.
The wars of this nation with the Tepanecs, which went on into the 15th century, were merely destructive, but larger effects arose from the expeditions under the Culhua king Acamapichtli, where the Aztec warriors were prominent, and which extended far outside the valley of Anahuac. Especially a foray southward to Quauhnahuac, now Cuernavaca, on the watershed between the Atlantic and Pacific, brought goldsmiths and other craftsmen to Tenochtitlan, which now began to rise in arts, the Aztecs laying aside their rude garments of aloe-fibre for more costly clothing, and going out as traders for foreign merchandise.
Christiansen found, in an investigation of this kind, that the refractivity of the liquid could only be got to match that of the powder for mono-chromatic light, and that, if white light were used, brilliant colour effects were obtained, which varied in a remarkable manner when small changes occurred in the refractive index of the liquid.
These effects are due to the difference in dispersive power of the powder and the liquid.
Kundt found that similar effects occur with a large number of substances, in particular with all those which possess the property of "surface colour," i.e., which strongly reflect light of a definite colour, as do many of the aniline dyes.
It can be shown mathematically that the velocity of propagation will be greatly increased if the frequency of the light-wave is slightly greater, and greatly diminished if it is slightly less than the natural frequency of the molecules; also that these effects become less and less marked as the difference in the two frequencies increases.
A Trypanosome usually produces markedly harmful effects upon gaining an entry into animals which have never been, by their distribution, liable to its invasion previously.
This was attributable to the lingering yet potent influence of an unhappy past was held by some; while others attributed the weakness to the viceregal office and the effects of a sham court.
An inventory of his effects showed him to have been possessed of no inconsiderable property at the time of his death.
Their pharmacological action is as obscure as their effects in certain diseased conditions are consistently brilliant and unexampled.
Both in its inner nature then and outward effects the Eucharist was the Christian counterpart of these two other forms of communion of which one, the heathen, was excluded from the first, and the other, the Jewish, soon to disappear.
The deformation of the Appalachianswas accomplished in two chief periods of compressive deformation, one in early Palaeozoic, the other about the close of Palaeozoic time, and both undoubtedly of long duration; the second one extended its effects farther northwest than the first.
A curious feature appears in northern Pennsylvania: here the lateral pressure of the Palaeozoic mountain-making forces extended its effects through a belt about fifty miles wider than the folded belt of the Hudson Valley, thus compressing into great rock waves a part of the heavy stratified series which in New York lies horizontal and forms the Catskills; hence one sees, in passing south-west from the horizontal to the folded strata, a beautiful illustration of the manner in which land sculpture is controlled by land structure.
Farther north in Montana, in spite of a decrease of height, there are to-day a few small glaciers with snowfields of good size; and, here the effects of sculpture by the much larger Pleistocene glaciers are seen in forms of almost alpine strength.
The effects of the continent are already visible in the mean annual temperatures, in which the poleward temperature gradient is about twice as strong as it is on the neighboring oceans; this being a natural effect of the immobility of the land surface, in contrast to the circulatory movement of the ocean currents, which thus lessen the temperature differences due to latitude: on the continent such differences are developed in full force.
Closely associated with the effect of continental immobility are the effects dependent on the low specific heat and the opacity of the lands, in contrast with the high specific heat and partial transparence of the ocean waters.
In January the northern water areas of the continent are frozen and snow-covered; Hudson Bay becomes unduly cold, and the greatest southward bending of the isotherms is somewhat east of the continental axis, with an extension of its effects out upon the Atlantic; but the southward bending isotherms are somewhat looped back about the unfrozen waters of the lower Great Lakes.
The equalizing effects of a conservative ocean are brought upon the Pacific coast, where the climate is truly temperate, the mean annual range being only 10 or 12, thus resembling western Europe; while the exaggerating effects of the continental interior are carried eastward to the Atlantic coast, where the mean annual range is 40 or 50.
The climatic effects of relief are seen directly in the ascent of the higher mountain ranges to altitudes where low temperatures prevail, thus preserving snow patches through the summer on the high summits (over 12,000 ft.) in the south, and maintaining snowfields and moderate-sized glaciers on the ranges in the north.
The Pacific ranges, standing transverse to the course of the prevailing westerlies near the Pacific Ocean, are of the greatest importance in this respect; it is largely by reason of the barrier that they form that the tempering effects of the Pacific winds are felt for so short a distance inland in winter, and that the heat centre is displaced in summer so far towards the western coast.
The superintendent of the Ninth Census, 1870, presented a computation 01 the effects of this causefirst, through direct losses, by wounds or disease, either in actual service of the army or navy, or in a brief term following discharge; secondly, through the retardation of the rate of increase in the colored element, due to the privations, exposures and excesses attendant upon emancipation; thirdly, through the check given to immigration by the existence of war, the fear of conscription, and the apprehension abroad of results prejudicial to the national welfare.
old settled region: a fact possibly due to the effects of the emancipation of the slaves.
The decades 1840-1850,1880-1890and1860-1870have shown much the ~reatest decreases in the percentage of children; and some have attri~uted this to the alleged heavier immigration of foreigners (largely adults)- in the case of the two former decades, and the effects of the Civil War in the third.
The population in 1901 was 795,967, showing a decrease of 14% in the decade, due to the effects of famine.
In medicine antipyrine ("phenazonum") has been used as an analgesic and antipyretic. The dose is 5-20 grs., but on account of its depressant action on the heart, and the toxic effects to which it occasionally gives rise, it is now but little used.
a nitrogenous substance which forms salts with acids; now, however, it is usual to restrict the term to bases of vegetable origin and characterized by remarkable toxicological effects.
There has been no successful attempt to introduce the "wild cat " banking, which had such disastrous effects in the early days of the western states.
If, on opening the abdomen to find out what serious effects some severe injury has caused, the gall-bladder be found torn, the rent may be sewn up, or, if thought better, the gall-bladder may be removed.
During an attack of fever he made observations on himself with reference to the action of quickened circulation upon thought, which led him to the conclusion that psychical phenomena were to be accounted for as the effects of organic changes in the brain and nervous system.
The charm of the Orkneys does not lie in their ordinary physical features, so much as in beautiful atmospheric effects, extraordinary examples of light and shade, and rich coloration of cliff and sea.
By this it is brought into contact with the fin of a fish, such as perch, stickleback or others, and effects a hold thereon by means of the toothed edge of its shells.
The textual critic has occasionally to deal with the effects of oral transmission.
Philosophic differences are best felt by their practical effects: philosophically, Platonism is a philosophy of universal forms, Aristotelianism a philosophy of individual substances: practically, Plato makes us think first of the supernatural and the kingdom of heaven, Aristotle of the natural and.
number in arithmetic, magnitude in geometry, stars in astronomy, a man's good in ethics; concentrates itself on the causes and appropriate principles of its subject, especially the definition of the subject and its species by their essences or formal causes; and after an inductive intelligence of those principles proceeds by a deductive demonstration from definitions to consequences: philosophy is simply a desire of this definite knowledge of causes and effects.
For even nature does nothing in vain, but aims at final causes, which she uniformly realizes, except so far as matter by its spontaneity (Cure?) Tow atrop arov) causes accidental effects; and the ends of nature are no form of good, nor even the good of man, but the essences of natural substances themselves, and, above them all, the good God Himself.
But it is by a different process of sense, memory, experience, induction, intelligence, syllogism, that science becomes knowledge of real causes, of real effects, and especially of real essences from which follow real consequences, not beyond, but belonging to real substances.
It is not always a true apprehension of essence, but often, especially in physical matter, such as sound or heat or light, takes superficial effects to be the essence of the thing.
On the other hand, again, Hodson died a poor man, his effects were sold for £170, his widow was dependent on charity for her passage home, was given apartments by the queen at Hampton Court, and left only £400 at her death.
Circumcision is traceable on all the male bodies which are in a state to show its effects.
Admiral Porter's three brothers were in the service of the United States: William David Porter (1809-1864) entered the navy in 1823, commanded the "Essex" on the Tennessee and the Mississippi in the Civil War, and became commodore in July 1862; Theodoric Henry Porter (1817-1846) was the first officer of the American army killed in the Mexican War; and Henry Ogden Porter (1823-1872) resigned from the United States navy in 1847, after seven years' service, fought under William Walker in Central America, returned to the American navy, was executive officer of the "Hatteras" when she was sunk by the "Alabama," and received wounds in the action from the effects of which he died several years later.
The noils are also in great demand for mixing with wool to make fancy effects in wool cloths for the dress goods trade.
Legislative interference with agricultural operations or with the distribution of food-supplies, currency restrictions and failure of transport, which have all caused famines in the past, are unlikely thus to operate again; nor is it probable that the modern speculators who attempt to make "corners" in wheat could produce the evil effects contemplated in the old statutes against forestallers and regrators.
For the period preceding British rule the records have not been so well preserved, but there is ample evidence to show that famine was just as frequent in its incidence and infinitely more deadly in its effects under the native rulers of India.
The effects may be varied by altering the capacity and self-induction of the circuit which contains the spark gap. The insertion of self-induction has the advantage of avoiding the lines due to the gas through which the spark is taken, but it introduces other changes in the nature of the spark, so that the results obtained with and without self-induction are not directly comparable.
For our immediate purpose these considerations are of importance inasmuch as they bear on the question how far the spectra emitted by gases are thermal effects only.
If a negative value of the frequency is admitted, more complicated effects may be predicted.
Effects of Varying Physical Conditions.
The main effects we have to discuss are (I) a symmetrical widening, (2) a shift of wave-length, which when it accompanies expansion in both directions may appear as an unsymmetrical widening, (3) a change in the relative intensities of the lines.
In investigating the effects of mixture on the widening of lines in absorption spectrum, R.
Wood discovered some interesting effects.
When we compare together electric discharges the intensity of which is altered by varying, the capacity, we are unable to form an opinion as to whether the effects observed are due to changes in the density of the luminous material or changes of temperature, but the experiments of Sir William and Lady Huggins 1 with the spectrum of calcium are significant in suggesting that it is really the density which is also the determining factor in cases where different concentrations and different spark discharges produce a change in the relative intensities of different lines.
It is found to be appreciable but smaller than the observed effects.
If the medium which contains the vibration is divided into a sphere equal to k times the molecular vibration outside of which the effects of these molecules may be averaged up, so that its Roy.
The effects of resonance were studied by the music students.
C. C. Schenck 2 subsequently conducted similar experiments, using a rotating mirror, and though he put a different interpretation on the effects, the main conclusions of Schuster and Hemsalech were not affected.
Preston that all the lines of the same series show identical effects when measured on the frequency scale, arfrl the fact recently announced by Runge 3 that even in the more complicated cases mentioned some simple relation between the distances of the components exists.
To explain this great variability of spectroscopic effects we may either adopt the view that molecular aggregates of semi-stable nature may be found in vacuum tubes, or that a molecule may gain or lose one or more additional electrons and thus form new vibrating systems. It seemed that an important guide to clear our notions in this direction could be obtained through the discovery of J.
The detection of the presence of chlorine or bromine or iodine in a compound is at present undecided, and it may be well that we may have to look for its effects in a different part of the spectrum.
This conversion, which took place in 1374, appears to have been due partly to the effects of a dangerous illness and partly to the influence of henry de Calcar, the learned and pious prior of the Carthusian monastery at Munnikhuizen near Arnhem, who had remonstrated with him on the vanity of his life.
Although thus highly poisonous, the bean has nothing in external aspect, taste or smell to distinguish it from any harmless leguminous seed, and very disastrous effects have resulted from its being incautiously left in the way of children.
The beans were first introduced into England in the year 1840; but the plant was not accurately described till 1861, and its physiological effects were investigated in 1863 by Sir Thomas R.
The superiority in physique of the nobles to the common people may have been due in part to a system of massage, the lomi-lomi; it is certainly contrary to the belief in the bad effects of inbreeding - among the upper classes marriage was almost entirely between near relatives.
Of all the mixed motives that went to the evolution of church architecture in the middle ages, this rivalry in ostentation was probably the most fertile in the creation of new forms. A volume might be written on the economic effects of this locking up of vast capital in unproductive buildings.
He believed in reciprocal action; and the very essence of his metaphysics consists in sublimating the interaction of bodies into the interaction of immaterial elements, which produce effects on one another and on the soul as one of them.
In his Metaphysik (1879), as in his earlier Mikrokosmus (1856-1864), Lotze vindicated the contingency of freedom by assigning to God a miraculous power of unconditional commencement, whereby not only at the very beginning but in the course of nature there may be new beginnings, which are not effects of previous causes, though once started they produce effects according to law.
By the rules of induction from concomitant variations, we are logically bound to infer the realistic conclusion that outer physical stimuli cause inner sensations of sensible effects.
(d) Hence, first inductively and then deductively, the third law was originally discovered only as a law of collision or impact between bodies of ascertained weights and therefore masses, impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum, and always reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity to begin with, apart from the subsequent effects of elasticity.
He uses this psychical causality to carry out his voluntarism into detail, regarding it as an agency of will directed to ends, causing association and understanding, and further acting on a principle which he calls the heterogony of ends; remarking very truly that each particular will is directed to particular ends, but that beyond these ends effects follow as unexpected consequences, and that this heterogony produces social effects which we call custom.
(3) His Sacrifice, then, is definitive in its effects (r67-EXE, KE), and supersedes all others (x.
Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.
in which the ship is steering and the north point of the compass or course is at once seen; and if the magnetic variation and the disturbing effects of the ship's iron are known, the desired angle between the ships's course and the geographical meridian can be computed.
The effects of the iron and steel used in the construction of ships upon the compass occupied the attention of the ablest physicists of the i 9th century, with results which enable navigators to conduct their ships with perfect safety.
The renewed vigour which this internal reformation had infused into the Church was now manifest in its external effects; and Pius V., the pope of reform, was followed by the popes of the Catholic restoration.
It gave no effects when the same magnetic poles or the contrary poles were on opposite sides (as respects the course of the polarized ray), nor when the same poles were on the same side either with the constant or intermitting current.
conditions of their occurrence may be by balancing their several effects in producing motion; thus avoiding in the first instance both the choice of a base and the consideration of mass.
Electrical and chemical effects afford similar examples.
Apart from the disturbing effects of recent events in Persia, an exposition of present conditions would show progress.
The climate is mild and the rainfall more abundant than at the northern part of the valley, and the effects of this are to be seen in the better pasturage.
Certain solids also consist of two or more components which are united so as to show similar effects.
In a very dilute solution no appreciable heat is evolved or absorbed when solvent is added, but such heat effects are generally found with more concentrated solutions.
The older observers, noticing the heat effects which often accompany dissolution, regarded solutions as chemical compounds of varying composition.
The specific effects of the drug, however, are upon the central nervous system.
Idiosyncrasy plays a considerable part in determining the effects, some people being particularly susceptible; death has occurred in five minutes from the appearance of the first symptoms, but when a narcotic has been administered at the same time as the poison the development is proportionately slow.
In the curious poem in the Sallier papyrus (II.), written about 1800 B.C., Duan, son of Khertu, expatiates on the effects of divers handicrafts on the workmen as compared with the elevating influences of a literary life.
It was found that the resistance of albinoes towards the coagulative effects of injected nucleo-proteids was to that of pigmented individuals as.
Somewhat later the adoption of hereditary surnames and armorial bearings marked the existence of a large and noble class who either from the subdivision of fiefs or from the effects of the custom of primogeniture were very insufficiently provided for.
With this fall the river enters the "Grand Canyon," which in many scenic effects is unequalled.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.