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effected

effected Sentence Examples

  • Could the fact that Howie's brain waves are somehow different after his lengthy coma and all the operations he endured be effected by what you were doing?

  • The Regulating Act, passed by Lord North's ministry in 1773, effected considerable changes in the constitution of the Bengal government.

  • On the 18th of August 1477, by his marriage at Ghent to Mary, who had just inherited Burgundy and the Netherlands from her father Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, he effected a union of great importance in the history of the house of Habsburg.

  • A Persian fleet still held the sea, but it effected little, and presently fresh Graeco-Macedonian squadrons began to hold it in check.

  • The object of all heating apparatus is the transference of heat from the fire to the various parts of the building it is intended to warm, and this transfer may be effected by radiation, by conduction or by convection.

  • Heating may be effected by one of the following systems, or installations may be so arranged as to combine the advantages of more than one method: open fires, closed stoves, hot-air apparatus, hot water circulating in pipes at low or at high pressure, or steam at high or low pressure.

  • Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.

  • For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.

  • On this account he was imprisoned in 1528, but his friends soon effected his release.

  • A city government was organized in December 1859; and continued under a reincorporation effected by the first territorial legislature of 1861.

  • Telegraphic communication with Europe is effected by cables laid along the Uruguayan and Brazilian coasts, and by the Brazilian land lines to connect with transatlantic cables from Pernambuco.

  • Communication with the United States is effected by land lines to Valparaiso, and thence by a cable along the west coast.

  • Regist?ation (enregistrement) duties are charged on the transfer of property in the way of business (fi titre onreux); on changes in ownership effected in the way of donation or succession (a litre gratuit), and 011 a variety of other transactions which must be registered according to law.

  • A consolidation was effected in 1793, but the lavish issue of assignats destroyed whatever advantage might have accrued, and the debt was again dealt with by a law of the pth of Vendmiaire year VI: (27th of September 1797), the annual interest paid yearly to creditors then amounting to 40,216000 francs (~i,6oo,ooo).

  • During Charles's last illness in 1685 she showed great anxiety for his reconciliation with the Romish Church, and it was probably effected largely through her influence.

  • To a Rechabite (the clan is allied to the Kenites) is definitely ascribed a hand in Jehu's sanguinary measures, and, though little is told of the obviously momentous events, one writer clearly alludes to a bloody period when reforms were to be effected by the sword (1 Kings xix.

  • It was he who effected a reconciliation between the king and the dauphin after the revolt of the latter.

  • Elphinstone Dalrymple, with Messrs Hill and Johnstone, finishing in December 1873, effected a valuable survey of the inlets and navigable rivers in the Cape York Peninsula.

  • At this conference a compromise was effected, something was conceded to the claims of New South Wales, but the main principles of the bill remained intact.

  • Provision was made for necessary alteration of the constitution of the Commonwealth, but so that no alteration could be effected unless the question had been directly submitted to, and the change accepted by the electorate in the states.

  • The consolidation of the Burgundian power was effected by Philip the Good, grandson of Philip the Bold, in his long and successful reign of 48 years, 1419-1467.

  • He is not known to have protested against any of the changes effected by his masters; he professed to be no theologian, and was wont, when asked theological questions, to refer his interrogators to the divines.

  • Cromwell used his influence in restraining the more eager who wished to march on London immediately, and in avoiding the use of force by which nothing permanent could be effected, urging that" whatsoever we get by treaty will be firm and durable.

  • The attack on Hispaniola, however, was a disastrous failure, and though a landing at Jamaica and the capture of the capital, Santiago de la Vega, was effected, the expedition was almost annihilated by disease; and Penn and Venables returned to England, when Cromwell threw them into the Tower.

  • Returning to France without having effected anything, Tone served for some months in the French army under Hoche; and in June 17 9 7 he took part in preparations for a Dutch expedition to Ireland, which was to be supported by the French.

  • This brings us to the latest radical change effected in instrumentation, the change from symphonic to dramatic principles.

  • This is effected by slinging the load to an eye or Lifting hook, and elevating the hook vertically.

  • As to cost, one transatlantic cable repair cost 75,000; the repair of the Aden-Bombay cable, broken in a depth of 1900 fathoms, was effected with the expenditure of 176 miles of new cable, and after a lapse of 251 days, 103 being spent in actual work, which for the remainder of the time was interrupted by the monsoon; a repair of the Lisbon-Porthcurnow cable, broken in the Bay of Biscay in 2700 fathoms, eleven years after the cable was laid, took 215 days, with an expenditure of 300 miles of cable.

  • A simple, but important, addition to enable the reading from the instrument to be effected by sound is shown in fig.

  • It was found impossible to make the Morse ink writer so sensitive that it could record signals sent over land lines of several hundred miles in length, if the speed of transmission was very much faster than that which could be effected by hand, and this led to the adoption of automatic methods of transmission.

  • As in some other systems retransmission is effected from the received perforated tape.

  • The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.

  • The reforms which it was to bring about were eagerly and impatiently demanded by the public. This great operation had to be effected without interrupting the public service, and the department had immediately to reduce and to simplify the charges for transmission throughout the kingdom.

  • In 1894 he exhibited apparatus of this kind in which the tapping back of the tube of filings was effected automatically.

  • In March 1899 communication was effected by his system between England (South Foreland lighthouse) and France (Wimereux, near Boulogne), a distance of 30 m.

  • In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.

  • An improvement in this respect has been effected by the insertion of condensers in the cord circuits, coupled with the use of two sets of impedance coils, one set on each.

  • An improvement was effected in this respect by the introduction of the " bridging " system, in which the bells possessing high inductance are placed in parallel between the two wires of the circuit.

  • After the withdrawal of the restriction against the companies erecting trunk wires it became evident that the development of the telephone services throughout the country would be facilitated by complete intercommunication and uniformity of systems, and that economies could be effected by concentration of management.

  • Much, however, is effected towards unification, by compulsory military service, it being the principle that no man shall serve within the military district to which he belongs.

  • With the development of agricultural knowledge, notable improvements have been effected in the manufacture of oil.

  • The lessee, or farmer, tills the soil at his own risk; usually he provides live stock, implements and capital, and has no right to compensation for ordinary improvements, nor for extraordinary improvements effected without the landlords consent.

  • Improvement contracts are granted for uncultivated bush districts, where one fourth of the produce goes to the landlord, and for plantations of fig-trees, olive-trees and vines, half of the produce of which belongs to the landlord, who at the end of ten years reimburses the tenant for a part of the improvements effected.

  • Between 1884 and 1902 no fewer than 220,61 6 sales were effected for failure to pay taxes, while, from 1886 to 1902, 79,208 expropriations were effected for other debts not due to the state.

  • in fact, upon a grand scale what was being slowly and quietly effected in the northern cities.

  • Meanwhile Thiers had given place to Marshal Macmahon, who effected a decided improvement in Franco-Italian relations by recalling from Civitavecchia the cruiser Ornoque, which since 1870 had been stationed in that port at the disposal of the pope in case he should desire to quit Rome.

  • The occupation, effected on the 5th of February, was accelerated by fear lest Italy might be forestalled by France or Russia, both of which powers were suspected of desiring to establish themselves firmly on the Red Sea and to exercise a protectorate over Abyssinia.

  • In the spring of 1908 there were agrarian strikes at Parma; the labor contracts had pressed hardly on the peasantry, who had cause for complaint; but while some improvement had been effected in the new contracts, certain unscrupulous demagogues, of whom Alceste De Ambris, representing the syndacalist wing of the Socialist party, was the chief, organized a widespread agitation.

  • He terminated the war with Holland in 1674, and from that time maintained a friendly correspondence with William; while in 1677, after two years of tedious negotiations, he overcame all obstacles, and in spite of James's opposition, and without the knowledge of Louis XIV., effected the marriage between William and Mary that was the germ of the Revolution and the Act of Settlement.

  • The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.

  • The exact way in which the utilization or fixation of the nitrogen is effected remains undecided.

  • In many cases the digestion of reserve food materials is effected by the direct action of the protoplasm, without the intervention of enzymes.

  • Even their oxidation, however, is effected by the protoplasm acting as an oxygen carrier.

  • It has been ascertained that in many cases this decomposition is effected by the secretion of an enzyme, which has been termed zymase.

  • Fertilization is effected by the union of two nuclei in all those cases which have been carefully investigated.

  • They can also be effected experimentally.

  • The glacial period effected in Europe a wholesale extermination of temperate types accompanied by a southern extension of the arctic flora.

  • The general method by which this is effected in this and other cases is statistical.

  • During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparable to that effected by Bessel in Germany.

  • deep. Propagation is effected by seed or increase of corms; the seed should be sown as soon as it is ripe in June or July.

  • The inclusion of other books in the Canon was gradual, and was effected only after centuries of debate.

  • The investigation that brought about this result was probably the most laborious that had been made up to Airy's time in planetary theory, and represented the first specific improvement in the solar tables effected in England since the establishment of the theory of gravitation.

  • For example, in the Gritti and Orlando processes the ore is charged into retorts and the fusion effected by superheated steam, the sulphur being run off as usual; or as was suggested by R.

  • A second coup d'état was then effected.

  • About that time a thorough reform of the machinery in use was effected whereby the number of hands employed was reduced, but the yearly production doubled or trebled.

  • This junction has been effected not across the main Caucasus range, but at its E.

  • In the case of Kazan and Astrakhan the annexation was effected without any great effort in 1552-54, and two years later the Bashkirs, who had likewise formed part of the great Mongol empire, consented to pay tribute.

  • The change was very dexterously effected by Godunov, with the formal assent of the Eastern Orthodox Church as a whole, and one of his adherents was placed on the patriarchal throne.

  • About education a great deal was spoken and written, and a certain amount of progress was effected.

  • They were well received, and a reconciliation was effected on certain conditions, the first of which was that Prince Ferdinand's eldest son and heir should become a member of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

  • By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.

  • 27 a the wagons is necessary to get them into station order this is effected on the same principle.

  • Distribution of steam is effected by a slide valve, sometimes fitted with a balancing device, and sometimes formed into a piston valve.

  • The general characteristics of the distribution effected by these gears are similar.

  • The distribution of steam to both cylinders is effected by one piston-valve operated by a link motion, so that there is considerable mechanical simplicity in the arrangement.

  • The common form of non-automatic coupler, used in Great Britain for goods wagons, consists of a chain and hook; the chain hangs loosely from a slot in the draw-bar, which terminates in a hook, and coupling is effected by slipping the =chain of one vehicle over the hook of the next.

  • The saving of cost is effected in two ways: (I) Instead of having to incur the expenses of a protracted inquiry before parliament, the promoters of a light railway under the act of 1896 make an application to the light railway commissioners, who then hold a local inquiry, to obtain evidence of the usefulness of the proposed railway, and to hear objections to it, and, if they are satisfied, settle the draft order and hand it over to the Board of Trade for confirmation.

  • They expressed the opinion that an improvement could be effected enabling the construction of many much-needed lines by an amendment of some of the provisions of the Light Railways Act, and by a reconsideration of the conditions under which financial or other assistance should be granted to such lines by the state and by local authorities.

  • Tribes, chiefly of pastoral habits, settled down among others who were so nearly of their own type that a complete amalgamation could be effected, and this without any marked modification of the general characteristics of the earlier inhabitants.

  • - Simultaneously with this massacre the citizens of Caesarea slaughtered the Jews who still remained there; and throughout Syria Jews effected - and suffered - reprisals.

  • The foreign consuls intervened in the hope of bringing about a peaceful settlement, but the Sultan resolved on the employment of force, and an expedition despatched to Vamos effected the relief of that town with a loss of 200 men.

  • This c and common cross fertilization is often effected by the gland g.

  • This last determination was effected through four arcs as follows: I.

  • But while we have yet to wait for that expansion of principal triangulation which will bring Asia into connexion with Europe by the direct process of earth measurement, a topobetween graphical connexion has been effected between Russian Russ/an and Indian surveys which sufficiently proves that the and deductive methods employed by both countries for the Indian determination of the co-ordinate values of fixed points so surveys.

  • We know now for certain that the great Tsanpo of Tibet and the Brahmaputra are one and the same river; that north of the point where the great countermarch of that river from east to west is effected are to be found the sources of the Salween, the Mekong, the Yang-tsze-kiang and the Hwang-ho, or Yellow river, in order, from west to east; and that south of it, thrust in between the extreme eastern edge of the Brahmaputra basin 94 23" 94°48' 94°49' 94° 58' and the Salween, rise the dual sources of the Irrawaddy.

  • A union between the two countries was effected at Vilna on the 18th of January 1401, and was confirmed and extended by subsequent treaties.

  • As an example of the former it has been shown (Beddard) that a large median sac in Lybiodrilus is at first freely open to the coelom, that it later becomes shut off from the same, that it then acquires an external orifice, and, finally, that it encloses the ovary or ovaries, between which and the exterior a passage is thus effected.

  • And, moreover, the instincts of Jordanes, as a subject of the Eastern Empire, predisposed him to flatter the sacred majesty of Justinian, by whose victorious arms the overthrow of the barbarian kingdom in Italy had been effected.

  • This, after long and serious labour, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.

  • The rude symmetry of the feudal system had been long ago destroyed by partial and unskilful adaptations to modern commercial life, effected at various dates and in accordance with various theories.

  • This is effected by raising up a small mound of rich compost around it, a contrivance which induces the graft to emit roots into the surface soil.

  • Bakewell's fame as a breeder was for a time enhanced by the improvement which he effected on the Long-horned cattle, then the prevailing breed of the midland counties of England.

  • In 1883 the veterinary department of the Privy Council - which had been constituted in 1865 when the country was ravaged by cattle plague - was abolished by order in council, and the " Agricultural Department " was substituted, but no alteration was effected in the work of the department, so far as it related to animals.

  • The Light Railways Act and the Locomotives on Highways Act were added to the statute book in 1896, and various clauses in the Finance Act effected reforms in respect of the death duties, the land-tax, farmers' income-tax and the beer duty.

  • They are effected chiefly by some alteration in the description of the root-crop, and perhaps by the introduction of the potato crop; by growing a different cereal, or it may be more than one cereal consecutively; by the growth of some other leguminous crop than clover, since " clover-sickness " may result if that crop is grown at too short intervals, or the intermixture of grass seeds with the clover, and perhaps by the extension by one or more years of the period allotted to this member of the rotation.

  • The society has carried on a work of high national importance, and has effected a marked improvement in the character and quality of the Shire horse.

  • About this work he said little in the Autobiography, probably because his main concern there was to expound the influences that effected his moral and mental development.

  • This wise moderation of the Elizabethan settlement, which had been effected before his appointment, was obviously not due to him; and Elizabeth could have placed Knox or Bonner in the chair of St Augustine had she been so minded.

  • In 1309 a truce scarcely kept was effected by Pope Clement V.

  • When the shell is taken away (best effected by immersion in hot water) the surface of the visceral dome is found to be covered by a black-coloured epithelium, which may be removed, enabling the observer to note the posi.

  • As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ.

  • His action in the matters just named, as also in the complex affair of the secularizations of clerical domains in Germany (February 1803), belongs properly to the history of those countries; but we may here note that, even before the signature of the peace of Amiens (27th of March 1802), he had effected changes in the constitution of the Batavian (Dutch) republic, which placed power in the hands of the French party and enabled him to keep French troops in the chief Dutch fortresses, despite the recently signed treaty of Luneville which guaranteed the independence of that republic. His treatment of the Italians was equally high-handed.

  • In the autumn of 1911, to the surprise of the public, an exchange of offices was effected between him and Mr. McKenna, and he became First Lord of the Admiralty.

  • More than this, he seems to be the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called a " type " - though such_a term does not occur in his work; and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera - all this being effected by the skilful use of names.

  • 4 These are the forms which composed the family previously termed Cursores by De Blainville; but L'Herminier was able to distinguish no fewer than thirty-four families of " Oiseaux normaux," and the judgment with which their separation and definition were effected must be deemed on the whole to be most creditable to him.

  • 3 Neither Lamarck nor Robert Chambers (the now acknowledged author of Vestiges of Creation), though thorough evolutionists, rationally indicated any means whereby, to use the old phrase, " the transmutation of species " could be effected.

  • The first enlargement of the square was effected by Doge Sebastiano Ziani in 1176, when he filled up the canal and rebuilt the church on a new site at D, thus nearly doubling the size of the square.

  • The most striking of these modern buildings are the new wing of the Hotel d'Italie, San Moise, and the very successful fish market at Rialto, designed by Laurenti and carried out by Rupolo, in which a happy return to early Venetian Gothic has been effected in conjunction with a skilful adaptation of one of the most famous of the old houses of Venice, the Stalon, or palace of the Quirini family.

  • The Kaffir chief who had accompanied him to England joined the enemy; and many of his converts showed that his efforts on their behalf had effected no change in their character.

  • Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.

  • A complete alteration of the government has indeed been effected since 1885.

  • This is effected by the so-called habit of "ballooning" practised by very young spiders, which float through the air, often at great altitudes, in the direction of the prevalent winds.

  • Owing to the smaller size of the male and the greater voracity of the female, the male makes his advances to his mate at the risk of his life and is not infrequently killed and eaten by her either before or after pairing has been effected.

  • Compensation was given to market gardeners for unexhausted improvements by the Market Gardeners' Compensation Act 1895 and by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 for improvements effected before the commencement of that act on a holding cultivated to the knowledge of the landlord as a market garden, if the landlord had not dissented in writing to the improvements.

  • Catulus vigorously opposed this, and a temporary compromise was effected.

  • The two conceptions, once common in the Christian church, that on the one hand miracles involved an interference with the forces and a suspension of the laws of nature, and that, on the other hand, as this could be effected only by divine power, they served as credentials of a divine revelation, are now generally abandoned.

  • In 39 6 he fought in Greece against the Visigoths, but an arrangement was effected whereby their chieftain Alaric was appointed master of the soldiery in Illyricum (397).

  • This treatment with acid and alkali is usually effected by agitation with compressed air.

  • In Saybolt's Electric Tester (1879) ignition is effected by a spark from an induction-coil passing between platinum points placed at a fixed distance above the oil.

  • If a religious union had been effected between Egypt and northern Syria, political disunion still remained; and the Franks were safe as long as it lasted.

  • Improvements in the breed have been effected by the introduction of Arab stallions.

  • Derivation is effected by infixes, prefixes, affixes and reduplication.

  • Comparison is effected by the use of particles.

  • In the second classification (2) is typical of the " cold " process, whilst (I), (3), (4) are effected by the, boiling " process.

  • The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.

  • Being thus soluble in salt water it cannot, of course, be salted out like common soaps; but if a very concentrated salt solution is used precipitation is effected, and a curd soap is separated so hard and refractory as to be practically useless.

  • The port and the capital are now connected by railway with Corinth and the principal towns of the Morea; the line opening up communication with northern Greece and Thessaly, when its proposed connexion with the Continental railway system has been effected, will greatly enhance the importance of the Peiraeus, already one of the most flourishing commercial towns in the Levant.

  • They are broken up into almost countless tribes and clans, many of which number only a few hundred individuals, and their language consequently presents a variety of dialects, of which no classification has yet been effected: in the district of Posia alone a member of the Presbyterian mission distinguished eight different mutually unintelligible dialects.

  • The Japanese were thus left to take possession as best they could, and some four months elapsed before they effected a landing on the south of the island.

  • Another cavalry raid effected but slight damage to the line, and Sherman now decided to take his whole force to the south side.

  • For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.

  • be recovered by adding phlogiston, and experiment showed that this could generally be effected by the action of coal or carbon, which was therefore regarded as practically pure phlogiston; the other constituent being regarded as an acid.

  • The first step in this direction was effected by the co-ordination of Gay Lussac's observations on the combining volumes of gases.

  • A further generalization was effected by August Kekule, who rejected the hydrochloric acid type as unnecessary, and introduced the methane type and condensed mixed types.

  • On the other hand, if substitution be effected in the one ring, and the affinities in that ring become attracted inwards, as apparently happens in the case of benzene, the adjoining ring should become relatively more active because the common affinities would act less into it.

  • Typical formulae are (R denoting 0, S or NH): Isomers are possible, for the condensation may be effected on the two carbon atoms symmetrically placed to the hetero-atom; these isomers, however, are more of the nature of internal anhydrides.

  • The oxidation, which is effected by chromic acid and sulphuric acid, is conducted in a flask provided with a funnel and escape tube, and the carbon dioxide formed is swept by a current of dry air, previously freed from carbon dioxide, through a drying tube to a set of potash bulbs and a tube containing soda-lime; if halogens are present, a small wash bottle containing potassium iodide, and a U tube containing glass wool moistened with silver nitrate on one side and strong sulphuric acid on the other, must be inserted between the flask and the drying tube.

  • Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid.

  • 38, p. 1 434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens,phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation.

  • 81° 123° 112° 83° 42° - II° - 29° The replacement of one negative group by another is accompanied by a change in the boiling-point, which is independent of the compound in which the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the nature of the replaced and replacing groups.

  • He also showed how changes in constitution effected dispersions to a far greater extent than they did refractions; thus, while the atomic dispersion of carbon is 0.039, the dispersions due to a double and treble linkage is 0.23 and 0.19 respectively.

  • Many instances have been recorded where substitution has effected a deformation in one particular direction, the crystals of homologous compounds often exhibiting the same angles between faces situated in certain zones.

  • This points to the conclusion that substitution has been effected in one of the cube faces.

  • It will be seen that (1) the increase in equivalent volume is about 6.6; (2) all the topic parameters are increased; (3) the greatest increase is effected in the parameters x and tG, which are equally lengthened.

  • When we listen to the free declamation of the singers at the outset of Der fliegende Hollander - a declamation which is accompanied by 1 The subsequent division into three acts, as given in all the published editions, has been effected in the crudest way by inserting a full close in the orchestral interludes at the changes of scene, and then beginning the next scene by taking up the interludes again.

  • Wagner effected vast changes in almost every branch of his all-embracing art, from theatrebuilding and stage-lighting to the musical declamation of words.

  • Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.

  • The Measurement of Areas is easily effected if the map at our disposal is drawn on an equal area projection.

  • Charles was regarded with much favour in France, and the states-general demanded his release, which, however, was effected by a surprise.

  • In 1905 the Italians effected an arrangement apparently satisfactory to all parties (see § Italian Somaliland).

  • A partial reconciliation was effected, but the princess soon afterwards retired from court.

  • The work was virulently assailed by Dr Gilbert Stuart (1742-1786), who appeared anxious to damage the sale of the book; but the injury thus effected was only slight, as Henry received £3300 for the volumes published during his lifetime.

  • It is a hilly island, with rocky cliffs; North Haven, on the east coast, being almost the only place where landing can be safely effected.

  • The zinc plates are then drawn close together by means of straps, and suspended before a fire until the drying is effected.

  • (8) The commutation of the twenty-two letters is effected by the last letter of the alphabet taking the place of the first, the last but one the place of the second, and so forth.

  • But the government has always opposed this unconstitutional measure, holding that the suppression could only be effected by an organic law, and that it would necessarily involve a remodelling of the administrative organization.

  • The bridle road up the mountain leaves Glen Nevis at Achintee; it has a gradient nowhere exceeding 1 in 5, and the ascent is commonly effected in two to three hours.

  • This may be effected by burning phosphorus in a confined volume of air, by the action of an alkaline solution of pyrogallol on air, by passing air over heated copper, or by the action of copper on air in the presence of ammoniacal solutions.

  • The combination of nitrogen with oxygen was first effected by Cavendish in 1785, who employed a spark discharge.

  • Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.

  • 23 and 26), was not easily effected; and, owing to the difficulty of military operations among the mountains, it was necessary to employ a force of 200,000 men.

  • The Turkish historian, Kutchi Bey, attributes the origin of the decline of the empire to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), when the conversion of many emiriye lands into vakufs was effected, and the system of farming out revenues first introduced.

  • By financial expedients of this kind payments were effected by the treasury ill fifteen years (1881-1896) amounting to £T11,666,000 or at the rate of nearly £T800,000 per annum.

  • The debts of the former are stated in the preface to the budget to be very large, and as payments are effected fresh creditors present themselves with undeniable vouchers in their hands, causing much embarrassment to the minister of finance: no figures, however, are given.

  • The rate at which the exchange was effected was par with a cash bonus of 6%.

  • After1905-1906extra-budgetary receipts relating to expenditure previously effected have been deducted from " General Expenses."

  • If the clearance is effected without the necessary permit, the land is nevertheless granted on application, and on the payment of the tapu or sum paid by the proprietor to the state for the value of the land.

  • Infirmity had compelled him towards the end of his life to depute the chief command to his younger son Orkhan, by whom in 1326 the conquest of Brusa was at last effected after a long siege.

  • Mustafa 1., The war in Persia was terminated by the renewal 1617-1618 in 1618 of the treaty of 1611, whereby all the con- and quests effected by Murad III.

  • Reforms were effected in The reforms introduced by Sultan Mahmud and by the Tanzimat necessitated the remodelling of nearly all the departments of state.

  • The codification of the civil law, which soon became necessary, was effected by the promulgation in 1859 of the Mejelle, or civil code.

  • A reform not unworthy of notice was effected by the law promulgated on the 18th of June 1867 whereby foreigners were for the first time allowed to hold landed property throughout the Ottoman Empire (save in the Hejaz) on condition of their being assimilated to Ottoman subjects, i.e.

  • The repression of these revolts in the Sassun district in the autumn of 1894 was effected under circumstances of great severity by Turkish troops and Kurdish irregulars.

  • Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.

  • The main body were between Weimar and Apolda during the 12th, and the Saxons duly effected their junction with Hohenlohe in the vicinity of Vierzehnheiligen, whilst the latter had withdrawn his troops all but some outposts from Jena to the plateau about Capellendorf, some 4 m.

  • Meanwhile the archduke and Hiller, both now unmolested, effected their junction in the vicinity of Wagram, picketing the whole line of the Danube with their outposts and collecting all the boats.

  • His concentration was effected with his usual sureness and celerity, but whilst the French moved on Wittenberg, Blucher was marching to his right, indifferent to his communications as all Prussia lay behind him.

  • Smaller vessels they were able to beat off and so, in spite of the activity of the British cruisers and of many sharp encounters, the concentration was effected at Boulogne, where an army of 130,000 was encamped and was incessantly practised in embarking and disembarking.

  • Mme de Stael was accused of extravagance, and latterly an amicable separation of goods had to be effected between the pair.

  • Since the reconquest of Yemen by the Turks, they have made repeated attempts to subjugate Asir, but beyond occupying Kanfuda, and holding one or two isolated points in the interior, of which Ibha and Manadir are the principal, they have effected nothing.

  • Respiration is effected by means of external gills placed along both sides of the dorsum of the abdomen and hinder segments of the thorax.

  • Joly, the very young larvae have no breathing organs, and respiration is effected through the skin.

  • This final moult is effected soon after the insect's appearance in the winged form; the creature seeks a temporary resting-place, the pellicle splits down the back, and the now perfect insect comes forth, often differing very greatly in colours and markings from the condition in which it was only a few moments before.

  • In some few genera of very low type it appears probable that, at any rate in the female, this final change is never effected and that the creature dies a sub-imago.

  • This is mainly effected, in the sea, by the phyto-plankton.

  • By the waves of contraction executed by the proboscis accompanied by inflation of the collar, progression is effected, sometimes with marvellous rapidity.

  • Now commenced a series of celebrated river passages, which had to be effected prior to the further invasion of France.

  • Therefore, on the 9th of December 1813, after making a demonstration elsewhere, he effected the passage with Passage of a portion of his force only under Hill and Beresford, the Nive, near Ustaritz and Cambo, his loss being slight, and Dec. 9, thence pushed down the river towards Villefranque, 1813.

  • On the 27th of February Wellington, having with little loss effected the passage of the Pau below Orthes, attacked Soult.

  • With many others he was carried to the castle of Doune in Perthshire, but soon effected his escape.

  • He had shown previously that decomposition of water could be effected although the two poles were placed in separate vessels connected by moistened threads.

  • This separation can be rapidly effected with some latices by the use of a centrifugal machine, but this method has not yet been applied to any extent commercially.

  • The coagulated rubber separates as a mass of spongy caoutchouc. If the coagulation has been effected in shallow dishes, the rubber is obtained in a thin cake of similar shape known as a " biscuit."

  • When this volatile liquid hydrocarbon (isoprene) is allowed ro stand for some time in a closed bottle, it gradually passes into a substance having the principal properties of natural caoutchouc. The same change of isoprene into caoutchouc may also be effected by the action of certain chemical agents.

  • Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.

  • Rubber mixed in the usual way with about WA of sulphur is now softened by heat, forced into the mould, and retained there by pressure during the operation of curing, which is usually effected in an iron box heated over a gas burner to 140° C.

  • Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.

  • Vulcanization is then effected by steam heat, and, the preparation on the cloth being softened by water, the sheet of rubber is readily removed.

  • Pollination is effected by aid of insects.

  • This can only be effected if the surface of the metal on which the deposit is to be made is chemically clean.

  • All this could not have been effected before Howel had subjected Wales to his own rule, therefore not before 943.

  • This transformation was confirmed, rather than effected, by the ordonnance of 1439.

  • The proboscis, passing down this groove to the spur, becomes dusted with pollen; as it is drawn back, it presses up the lip-like valve of the stigma so that no pollen can enter the stigmatic chamber; but as it enters the next flower it leaves some pollen on the upper surface of the valve, and thus cross-fertilization is effected.

  • The actual magnetizing force H is of course less than that due to the coil; the corrections required are effected automatically by the use of a set of demagnetization lines drawn on a sheet of celluloid which is supplied with the instrument.

  • Another was the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarization of light, which was effected in 1845, and for the first time established a relation between light and magnetism.

  • Thomson in 1897 and 1898 4 resulted in the establishment of the electron theory, which has already effected developments of an almost revolutionary character in more than one branch of science.

  • Two insertions of the sting are effected and the fly is instantly paralysed by the poison so introduced into its body.

  • This double cultivation of his scientific powers had the happiest effect on his subsequent work; for the greatest achievements of Riemann were effected by the application in pure mathematics generally of a method (theory of potential) which had up to this time been used solely in the solution of certain problems that arise in mathematical physics.

  • He was evidently the prime mover in the various changes effected in the law by the novels of Justinian (Novellae constitutiones), which became much less frequent and less important after death had removed the great jurist.

  • After the sale of Upper California to the United States, effected by the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo (1848), the Mexican government refused to pay the proportion of the interest to which Upper California was entitled.

  • The revolution of 1889 and the constitution adopted in 1891 not only effected a radical change in the form of government, but also brought about the separation of church and state.

  • The moral character of churchmen in Brazil has been severely criticized by many observers, and the ease with which disestablishment was effected is probably largely due to their failings.

  • A grand social reform was effected in the law passed in September 1871, which enacted that from that date every child born of slave parents should be free, and also declared all the slaves belonging to the state or to the imperial household free from that time.

  • Owing to the great changes effected during the latter part of the 19th century, some of the old markets were demolished and the system of centralizing trade was not wholly revived.

  • Ordination is to be effected by imposition of hands.

  • Reunion in spiritual matters has, however, been practically effected.

  • The annexation of the Transvaal to Great Britain, effected by Sir Theophilus Shepstone in April 1877, would, it was hoped, put a period to the disorders in that country.

  • The increase of the arable land has been effected partly by the reclamation of the marshes, but mostly by the transformation of large tracts of puszta (waste prairie land) into arable land.

  • Although great improvements have been effected in the educational system of the country since 1867, Hungary is still backward in the matter of general education, as in 1900 only a little over 50% of the population could read and write.

  • Legendre, in 1783, extended Maclaurin's theorem concerning ellipsoids of revolution to the case of any spheroid of revolution where the attracted point, instead of being limited to the axis or equator, occupied any position in space; and Laplace, in his treatise Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (published in 1784), effected a still further generalization by proving, what had been suspected by Legendre, that the theorem was equally true for any confocal ellipsoids.

  • (iii.) The multiplication and division of monomials is effected by means of the law of indices.

  • (ii.) The solution of equations is effected by transformation, which may be either arithmetical or algebraical.

  • The renaissance of mathematics was thus effected in Italy, and it is to that country that the leading developments of the following century were due.

  • So far the development of algebra and geometry had been mutually independent, except for a few isolated applications of geometrical constructions to the solution of algebraical problems. Certain minds had long suspected the advantages which would accrue from the unrestricted application of algebra to geometry, but it was not until the advent of the philosopher Rene Descartes that the co-ordination was effected.

  • A natural selection would thus be effected.

  • 15, p. 315) to determine the absolute intensity of a secondary wave, may be at once effected by means of the known formula isin 2 u f sin u du = du =7-.

  • The integrations may also be effected by means of polar coordinates, taking first the integration with respect to 4) so as to obtain the result for an infinitely thin annular aperture.

  • The integration can be effected without much difficulty.

  • The integration of the several terms may then be effected by the formula e y dy =r(4+2)=(4 - i)(4-2)...

  • Imagine a flexible lamina to be introduced so as to coincide with the plane at which resolution is to be effected.

  • Heinze, 1899), in which he lays down the principle that union with Christ is effected by the three great mysteries of baptism, confirmation and the eucharist.

  • Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favourite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Poppaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine.

  • The concentration effected, Cronje still believed that the relief of Kimberley was the object of the gathering behind Modder River, and therefore held on to his Magersfontein kopje.

  • But the increase of size which constitutes growth is the result of a process of molecular intussusception, and therefore differs altogether from the process of growth by accretion, which may be observed in crystals and is effected purely by the external addition of new matter - so that, in the well-known aphorism of Linnaeus, the word "grow" as applied to stones signifies a totally different process from what is called "growth" in plants and animals.

  • The calcination is preferably effected in mechanical roasters, it being especially necessary to agitate the ore continually, otherwise it cakes.

  • Tinning wrought iron is effected by immersion.

  • Its disintegration for analytical purposes can be effected by fusion with caustic alkali in silver basins, with the formation of soluble stannate, or by fusion with sulphur and sodium carbonate, with the formation of a soluble thiostannate.

  • A mysterious conversion had been effected in him by an austere Cistercian abbot.

  • Above Ciudad Bolivar transportation is effected by two or three small river steamers and a great number of small craft (lauchas, bungos, balandras, &c.), using sails, oars and punting poles.

  • This settlement was followed by an adjustment of all other claims, payment to be effected through the same channels.

  • The regulation is effected by locks and movable dams, the latter so designed that in times of flood or frost they can be dropped flat on the bottom of the river.

  • While the occupation of Corsica was being effected, the French at Toulon had so far recovered that they were able to send a fleet to sea.

  • The 7th and 8th corps now at last effected their junction about Wurzburg, whither the army of the Main marched from Frankfurt to meet them.

  • The building would be much improved by isolation, which it is hoped may be effected.

  • Madame de Stael was dead; Chateaubriand, though alive, was something of a classic, and had not effected a full revolution.

  • The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.

  • Forbes also translated the works of Laennec and Auenbrugger, and an entire revolution was soon effected in the knowledge of diseases of the chest.

  • how important improvements were to be effected in its construction, he was largely instrumental in converting it from a clumsy and wasteful appliance into one of the most efficient known to the engineer.

  • The amalgamations mentioned were effected subsequently to 1860, and there are now three principal companies within the county, the Gas Light & Coke, South Metropolitan and Commercial, though certain other companies supply some of the outlying districts.

  • The majority of the banks are members of the Clearing House, Post Office Court, where a daily exchange of drafts representing millions of pounds sterling is effected.

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