How to use Effect in a sentence
The changes had an immediate effect.
Its effect was immediate.
The overall effect was surprising.
Her statement had a surprising effect on Dean.
Still, that wasn't the only lingering side effect of her weekend with Brandon.Advertisement
His deep voice had the usual effect on her pulse.
The effect of the battle on the rest of the war is profound.
The study also examined the effect of Head Start programs that use a different educational approach.
She did, however, celebrate the deterrent effect of the new law that was passed.
The only effect of this incident on Tikhon was that after being wounded he seldom brought in prisoners.Advertisement
In small quantities, it may even have a beneficial effect on health.
He knew the effect he had on her; he did it on purpose to mess with her.
But such was not the effect on Walden that year, for she had soon got a thick new garment to take the place of the old.
The special effect they used to create the monster in the movie was laughable.
This is like the effect of the slow dwelling on long words, not quite well managed, that one notices in a child who is telling a solemn story.Advertisement
But when he had gone into another room, to which the countess hurriedly followed him, he assumed a grave air and thoughtfully shaking his head said that though there was danger, he had hopes of the effect of this last medicine and one must wait and see, that the malady was chiefly mental, but...
She exhaled happiness and love from the time Nicholas returned, and the faithful, unalterable love of this girl had a gladdening effect on him.
The sounds, which he had not heard for so long, had an even more pleasurable and exhilarating effect on Rostov than the previous sounds of firing.
The effect on her pulse was electrifying.
She glanced up, unhappy at how little of an effect her magic had on him.Advertisement
When he lighted the oil a hundred tongues of flame shot up, and the effect was really imposing.
It had a peculiarly strong effect on him because at the sight of the fire he felt himself suddenly freed from the ideas that had weighed him down.
Too fast, he felt the buffers' effect on his powers lessen, and magic exploded through him.
Let's consider examples of how the effect is positive for some, negative for some, but the net is a gain in the overall wealth of the system.
The Monterey mists were in full effect, filtering the sunlight.Advertisement
When subjects slept longer, this had a positive effect on their health.
Around 1600, the Elizabethan Poor Law came into effect and lasted more than two centuries.
This is the effect of putting it all in a summary.
She knew milkshakes had a bad effect on her digestion, but she couldn’t resist the creamy, chocolatey goodness.
What can ordinary people do to make a difference and effect changes in the law?
And second, people are really bad at connecting cause and effect in their lives when it comes to things like this.
You can yourself imagine the effect this news has had on me, and your silence increases my astonishment.
He painted all the walls with a bright white paint, and the effect was to make the room seem much bigger than it was.
The jury remained out on the effect of Julie's injury on her speech.
The southern spring, the comfortable rapid traveling in a Vienna carriage, and the solitude of the road, all had a gladdening effect on Pierre.
Her presence would have the same calming effect on Dusty, who was the most wound-up man Jule knew.
From time to time she smoothed the folds of her dress, and whenever the story produced an effect she glanced at Anna Pavlovna, at once adopted just the expression she saw on the maid of honor's face, and again relapsed into her radiant smile.
Today he is cheerful and in good spirits, but that is the effect of your visit--he is not often like that.
These sights and sounds had no depressing or intimidating effect on him; on the contrary, they stimulated his energy and determination.
The lecture explains the greenhouse effect and the percentage of each of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The repugnance to animal food is not the effect of experience, but is an instinct.
Napoleon had assented and had given orders that news should be brought to him of the effect those batteries produced.
You will be drinking a lot once you feel the effect.
The possible adverse effect on humans from eating chicken are limited.
As Mr. Anagnos was the head of a great institution, what he said had much more effect than the facts in Miss Sullivan's account on which he based his statements.
The imposing figure of Nesvitski followed by his Cossack, and the determination of Denisov who flourished his sword and shouted frantically, had such an effect that they managed to squeeze through to the farther side of the bridge and stopped the infantry.
From the habit of fifty years all this had a physically agitating effect on the old general.
The lesson shocked the king, but its effect soon wore off.
Any suggestions as to improvements in institutions must be approved by the majority of the governing body of that institution before they may be put into effect.
I thought I would try the effect of a little belated discipline.
Natasha set to work to effect a reconciliation, and so far succeeded that Nicholas received a promise from his mother that Sonya should not be troubled, while he on his side promised not to undertake anything without his parents' knowledge.
To the Polish general he replied to the same effect, informing him that he was already under the command of the German.
If we have a large range of examples, if our observation is constantly directed to seeking the correlation of cause and effect in people's actions, their actions appear to us more under compulsion and less free the more correctly we connect the effects with the causes.
He reveled in the effect he had on people.
He had for a time to put up with the presence of old servants of the electoral house, but after 1738 he was in effect sole minister.
The nitro group behaves very similarly to the hydroxyl group. The effect of varying the position of the nitro group in the molecule is well marked, and conclusions may be drawn as to the orientation of the groups from a knowledge of the crystal form; a change in the symmetry of the chemical molecule being often attended by a loss in the symmetry of the crystal.
It is no exaggeration to say that a parallel condition in literature would be produced by a strong public opinion to the effect that any Enelish style was hopelessly out of date unless it consisted exclusively of the most difficult types of phrase to be found in the works of Browning and Meredith.
The best works of art are the expression of man's struggle to free himself from this condition, but the effect of our art is merely to make this low state comfortable and that higher state to be forgotten.
She released her cool power into him, but to no effect.
Simpson found no certain temperature effect on the value of q.
His first care was to carry out the instructions received from home, and effect a radical reform in the system of government.
Now, if CD is pressed by its weight or by a spring on the surface AB, the effect of wear will be to produce a symmetrical grinding away of both surfaces, which may be represented thus, fig.
He had no artistic appreciation of the subject he discussed, and he mistook cause for effect in asserting that the decline in public morality was due to the flagrant indecency of the stage.
Hyphear is useful for fattening cattle if they are hardy enough to withstand the purgative effect it produces at first; viscum is medicinally of value as an emollient, and in cases of tumour, ulcers and the like.
At the Council of Salisbury in 1116 the English king ordered Thurstan to submit, but instead he resigned his archbishopric, although this did not take effect.
On his return the Athenians sued for peace, though without success, and a speech by Pericles had little effect on their spirits.
After Cimon's death he renounced the war against Persia, and the collapse of 447-445 had the effect of completing his change ' The general impression in Greece was that this decree was the proximate cause of the war.
Pedantry was an inevitable effect of the early Renaissance.
The first noticeable effect of the crisis was a great scarcity of employment.
The advantage of the high conducting power which copper possesses Over- is of especial value in moist climates (like that of the United Kingdom), since the effect of leakage over the surface of the damp insulators is much less noticeable when the conducting power of the wire is high than when it is low, especially when the line is a long one.
The effect of their preaching, and their example and their work among the poor, made itself felt throughout Umbria and brought about a great religious revival.
The proportion of evergreens is large, and has a marked effect on the landscape in winter.
If the available water-power of Italy, already very considerable, be harnessed, converted into electric power (which is already being done in some districts), and further increased by reafforestation, the effect upon the industries of Italy will be incalculable, and the importation of coal will be very materially diminished.
Its effect, however, has been comparatively small.
Still the tradition had its effect.
As these acts of terrorism had quite the opposite of the desired effect, repeated attempts were made on the life of the emperor, and at last the carefully laid plans of the conspirators were successful.
War of To effect this, he embarked on the Turkish War of 1877-78.
That reformation failed to effect its purifying mission.
The latter façade was completely reconstructed upon 2200 piles driven to great depths, with the result that the general harmony of the monument - the effect of time and of atmospheric conditions - was completely lost.
His Christliche Dogmatik (3 vols., 1849-1852, new edition, 1870) "contains many fruitful and suggestive thoughts, which, however, are hidden under such a mass of bold figures and strange fancies, and suffer so much from want of clearness of presentation, that they did not produce any lasting effect" (Otto Pfleiderer).
His last achievements were the bombardment of Algiers (1682-1683), in order to effect the deliverance of the Christian captives, and the bombardment of Genoa in 1684.
White days and Philadelphia had that effect.
The light actually emitted laterally is thus the same as would be caused by forces exactly the opposite of these acting on the medium otherwise free from disturbance, and it only remains to see what the effect of such force would be.
In winter the varying depth of snow may exert an appreciable effect.
A sensible effect remained, however, after the influence of splashing was eliminated.
The whole effect of the grim castle, the silvery stream and the verdant woods makes one of the most striking scenes in Belgium.
Patterson was withdrawn, the disputed territory was erected into the new county of Luzerne (1786), the land titles were confirmed (1787), and Colonel Timothy Pickering was commissioned to organize the new county and to effect a reconciliation.
The armature of the electromagnet is normally attracted by the effect of the permanent magnet, but it is furnished with two antagonistic springs tending to throw it upwards.
Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.
It has had, however, a marked effect on weaker musical individualities.
There was nothing new on the Byrne case—just a comment to that effect.
At Magdalen College, Oxford, is one which is perforated, and has a most beautiful effect.
In the youthful Dutch universities the effect of the essays was greater.
Voet now issued, under the name of Martin Schoock, one of his pupils, a pamphlet with the title of Methodus novae philosophiae Renati Descartes, in which atheism and infidelity were openly declared to be the effect of the new teaching.
The presentation of some object of dread, for example, to the eye has or may have a double effect.
He leapt from the wall with only three companions into the hostile town, and, before the army behind him could effect an entrance, lay wounded almost to death.'
With the improvements in wind instruments this continued, as a more brilliant effect was gained.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
Every operation in which mind and matter are both concerned is an effect of neither, but the direct act of God.
Finally it must be remembered that musical euphony and emotional effect are inseparable from considerations of harmony and polyphony.
The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.
If this tendency is to take effect, a certain part of Kant's rational scepticism must be accepted.
Since, however, the emperor has the power of proroguing or dissolving the Duma as often as he pleases, it is clear that these temporary ordinances might in effect be made permanent.
The remedy they proposed was that the labourers should be prohibited from migrating from one estate to another, and an order to that effect was issued, with the result that the peasants, being no longer able to change their domicile and seek new employers, fell practically under the unlimited power of the proprietors on whose land they resided.
But once the order is confirmed by the Board, with or without modifications, it has effect as if it had been enacted by parliament, and it cannot afterwards be upset on the ground of any alleged irregularity in the proceedings.
To these curves, which were also applied to effect some quadratures, Evangelista Torricelli gave the name of "Robervallian lines."
The mosaics of the 5th century, in the dome, are the earliest and perhaps the finest at Ravenna for their splendid decorative effect and rich colouring, and are less stiff and conventional than the later mosaics.
Their effect was supplemented by the division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy.
This affords an example of a principle which had been stated by Hess in a very general form under the name of the Law of Constant Heat Sums - namely, that the thermal effect of a given chemical action is the same, independently of the character and number of the stages in which it takes place.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
He states that Gould suspected the alliance of these two forms " from external structure and habits alone "; otherwise one might suppose that he had obtained an intimation to that effect on one of his Continental journeys.
How little effect this had, however, is shown by the fact that in 1265 Odo, archbishop of Sens, could do no more than prohibit the obscene excesses of the feast, without abolishing the feast itself; that in 1444 the university of Paris, at the request of certain bishops, addressed a letter condemning it to all cathedral chapters; and that King Charles VII.
The effect upon the permanent level of the lakes of the withdrawal of water through this artificial outlet is receiving much attention.
In 1910 the coffee industry had not yet recovered from the effect of the cyclone of 1899 and the unfortunate mortgage system that prevailed under the Spanish regime.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
By experiment it is found that the thermal effect of a double bond is much less than the effect of two single bonds, while a triple bond has a much smaller effect than three single bonds.
Canning carried against Buxton and his friends a motion to the effect that the desired ameliorations in the condition and treatment of the slaves should be recommended by the home government to the colonial legislatures, and enforced only in case of their resistance, direct action being taken in the single instance of Trinidad, which, being a crown colony, had no legislature of its own.
Macaulay, James Stephen, and others, continued the struggle, only suspending it during a period allowed to the local legislatures for carrying into effect the measures expected from them.
It must not be forgotten that either before or soon after the formation of the Union the Northern States - beginning with Vermont in 1777, and ending with New Jersey in 1804 - either abolished slavery or adopted measures to effect its gradual abolition within their boundaries.
A clause was inserted to the effect that a certain sum should be annually set aside from fines to aid each province in emancipating slaves by purchase.
Of these emigrants some return the following spring, and are recognizable by the more advanced state of their plumage, the effect presumably of having wintered in countries enjoying a brighter and hotter sun.
His sermons produced a great effect, and he was protected by several barons of the English faction.
The death of Wishart produced a deep effect on the Scottish people, and the cardinal became an object of general dislike, which encouraged his enemies to proceed with the design they had formed against him.
Besides the incomparable Journal, his Appeals to Men of Reason and Religion also produced an extraordinary effect in allaying prejudice and winning respect.
Arriving in Dublin at the end of October he received information to the effect that seventeen counties were ready to take up arms if a successful effort were made in Dublin.
The Epistle to Egbert, though not historical in form, may be mentioned here, because of the valuable information which it contains as to the state of the Northumbrian Church, on which the disorders and revolutions of the Northumbrian kingdom had told with disastrous effect.
They represent the Early English style at its best, and the view across the great transept is unsurpassed for architectural effect.
Individual experience is a condition which without the innate capacity cannot take effect.
The effect of this pronouncement was great, and it alarmed the Afrikanders, who at this time viewed with apprehension the virtual resumption by Cecil Rhodes of his leadership of the Progressive (British) party at the Cape.
Attempts to carry into effect the law of 1850 aroused much bitterness.
The assignats had now become totally valueless - the abolition of the "maximum" the previous year (1795) had produced no effect, and, though, by various payments into the treasury, the total number had been reduced to about 24,000,000,000 francs, their face-value was about 3 o to I of coin.
A general primary election law for the selection, by the voters, of candidates for state office came into effect in 1906.
A provisional code of judicial procedure, prepared by Edward Livingston, was in effect in 1805 to 1825.
The last two had a pernicious effect on Cuba, draining it of horses, money and of men.
This theory' is in effect a theory of the use of classes and relations, and does not decide the philosophic question as to the sense (if any) in which a class in extension is one entity.
A bibliography of such references would be in effect a bibliography of metaphysics, or rather of epistemology.
Probably the abolition of the slave-trade in 1834 was not without its effect upon the fortunes of the landed'.
The former year naturally felt the effect of this, and the tithes which should have been encashed in the last months of the year were discounted and spent several months in advance.
The effect of the original system was that a vakuf property became the inalienable property of the state, and the original proprietor a mere tenant.
All fundamental repairs thus fell to the charge of the state, which could not afford to effect them, and the vakuf revenues decreased so rapidly that already in the reign of Selim I.
Instructions to this effect were sent to the admirals commanding in the Levant.
Meanwhile the other powers had taken advantage of the reverses of the Russian arms to discount the effect of their ultimate victory by attempting to settle the Greek question.
These stipulations of the treaty, which were in effect a confirmation of the firman granted in 1620 by Murad IV.
The sums payable by the different countries were to be fixed by the powers; but no effect has so far been given to this reasonable stipulation, which may now be looked upon as null and void.
The action of missionaries, who cared only about nominal Christianizing, had no better effect.
The sedative effect of lead lotion in pruritus is well known.
The fast-growing activity of the port of Trieste and the new and shorter railway line constructed between it and Vienna also contribute to the same effect.
The report concluded that high volume along Church Street was having a detrimental effect on air quality.
My purpose is to explain the net effect of free trade, technological advance, and outsourcing on the overall economic system of the planet.
But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
We tend to notice every time the expected effect is triggered by the cause, but may not notice all the times it isn't.
There is a hiatus of several months in the letters, caused by the depressing effect on Helen and Miss Sullivan of the "Frost King" episode.
The rise of smart appliances in the home will have an interesting effect on our relationship with technology.
Windows have a chilling effect on a room, and in calculations extra allowance should be made for window areas.
The best form of stove is that with which perfect combustion is most nearly attained, and to which a pan of water is affixed to supply a desirable humidity to the air, the gas having the effect of drying the atmosphere.
As early as 1839 Stanley had joined with Tait, the future archbishop, in advocating certain university reforms. From 1846 onwards Jowett threw himself into this movement, which in 1848 became general amongst the younger and more thoughtful fellows, until it took effect in the commission of 1850 and the act of 1854.
Lucas brought in a bill in his first session to effect this reform, but was defeated on the motion to have the bill sent to England for approval by the privy council; and he insisted upon the independent.
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.
The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century B.C. is to the following effect.
In 1816 he visited the continent, and first at Geneva and afterwards in Montauban (1817) he lectured and interviewed large numbers of theological students with remarkable effect; among them were Malan, Monod and Merle d'Aubigne.
The low quotations which ruled for a number Copper of years had a depressing effect upon the industry, and many mines once profitably worked were temporarily closed, but in 1906 there was a general revival.
On the 23rd of February 1861 they commenced the return journey, having in effect accomplished the feat of crossing the Australian continent.
In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.
Another effect of the Great Strike was in a more practical direction.
The act contained stringent provisions forbidding strikes; but in this respect it failed to effect its purpose, several strikes occurring in the years following its enactment, in which there were direct refusals to obey awards.
The phenomenon is due to very fine particles of dust suspended in the high regions of the atmosphere that produce a scattering effect upon the component parts of white light.
He issued an order to that effect (August 18, 1564), and it was sent to the duchess of Parma for publication.
The effect of the outbreak was in every way disastrous.
In 1585 Lord Deputy Sir John Perrot undertook the shiring of Ulster (excluding the counties Antrim and Down, which had already taken shape); and his work, though of little immediate effect owing to the rising of Hugh O'Neill, served as a basis for the division of the territory at the plantation of Ulster in the reign of James I.
But its effect is to make whole the mind, and, so far as it is expedient, the body as well."
He in effect turned his country into a province of the Greek see of Cappadocia.
In the South Atlantic the narrow land surfaces of Africa and South America produce comparatively little effect in disturbing the normal planetary circulation.
The net effect of the surrounding land is, in fact, to reverse the seasonal variations of the planetary circulation, but without destroying its type.
But, when we look at the many passages in which the violas double the basses, we shall do well to consider whether there is room in the harmonic scheme for the violas to do anything else, and whether the effect would not be thin without them.
There is not room for one together with an independent violoncello part; the wonderful use of muted solo violoncellos in the slow movement of the Pastoral Symphony being a special effect, like the earlier instance in Haydn's 12th Salomon Symphony.
But it is equally certain that the pure violoncello tone in large masses belongs to a distinctly different region of orchestral effect.
In this key the trumpets blaze out with an effect which entirely depends upon their restricted part hitherto.
The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
It became in effect the principal feast of the Church, the procession of the Sacrament a gorgeous pageant, in which not only the members of the trade and craft gilds, with the magistrates of the cities, took part, but princes and sovereigns.
The same effect can be produced by shortening the back leg by a screw placed in the direction of its length.
Now if the values of the rheostat and condenser are adjusted so as to make the rise and fall of the outgoing current through both windings of the relay exactly equal, then no effect is produced on the armature of the relay, as the two currents neutralize each other's magnetizing effect.
When the key is in the middle position, that is, not making connexion with either the front or back contacts, the received currents pass through both coils of the relay and the rheostat; no interference is, however, felt from this extra resistance because, although the current is halved, it has double the effect on the relay, because it passes through two coils instead of one.
Thus for a dot, first a negative and then a positive current is sent to the line, the effect of the current continuing during the time required for the paper to travel the space between two holes.
By this method of transmission the battery is always to the line for the same interval of time, and alternately with opposite poles, so that the effect of electrostatic induction is reduced to a minimum.
Either a weight or a motor is used for making the movements of the mechanism required to effect the printing of the signals.
In the Rowland multiple method of telegraphic working, the transmitter consists of a mechanical keyboard provided with a series of levers, which effect certain combinations of positive and negative currents for each letter.
The automatic curb sender was originally designed by Lord Kelvin for the purpose of diminishing the effect of inductive re- Au tardation in long cables.
The use of the iron core renders it possible to produce a high inductive effect with a low resistance coil.
The action of this bridge resembles the magnetic shunt in its effect on the received signals, as the direction of the winding is the same throughout its length, and thus the full inductive action is produced for curbing purposes.
To the sending currents, however, the bridge offers only apparent ohmic resistance due to the fact that the current entering the mid-point of the winding flows through the two halves or arms in opposite direction, and, owing to the winding being on the same iron core, the mutual inductive effect of the two arms on one another neutralizes the self-induction to the sending currents.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
This involved a large extension of wires to cope with increased traffic. The reduced rate took effect as from the 1st of October 1886.
There is no evidence, however, that the method proposed could or did effect the transmission of speech or signals between stations separated by any distance.
Henry in the United States in 1842 and 1850 investigated the effect.
Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
When the current passed, the friction was felt to increase, and the effect of sending a rapidly undulating current through the arrangement was to produce a sound.
It was originally the practice to place the calling apparatus in series in the line circuit, but the effect of the large impedance introduced by the electromagnets of the call XXVI.
Notwithstanding the construction of new prisons and the transformation of old ones, the number of cells for solitary confinement is still insufficient for a complete application of the penal system established by the code of 1890, and the moral effect of the association of the prisoners is not good, though the system of solitary confinement as practised in Italy is little better.
When the 1907 scheme takes full effect, however, the Active Army and the Mobile Militia will each be augmented by about one-third.
We may reckon these measures among the earliest advantages extended to the cities, which still contained the bulk of the old Roman population, and which were destined to intervene with decisive effect two centuries later in Italian history.
Their appointment, according to notions which defined themselves within the church at this epoch, was simoniacal; and during the long minority of Henry IV., who succeeded his father in 1056, the terrible Tuscan monk, Hildebrand of Soana, forged weapons which he used with deadly effect against the presumption of the empire.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
By the consolidation of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily into a powerful kingdom, by checking the growth of the maritime republics and by recognizing the over-lordship of the papal see, the house of Hauteville influenced the destinies of Italy with more effect than any of the princes who had previously dealt with any portion of the peninsula.
It was with the Swiss that he hoped to effect this revolution; but the Swiss, now interfering for the first time as principals in Italian affairs, were incapable of more than adding to the already maddening distractions of the people.
Mazzini, now openly hostile to the monarchy, was seized with a perfect monomania for insurrections, and promoted various small risings, the only effect of which was to show how completely his influence was gone.
After the general election of 1880, however, the Ministerialists, aided by a number of factious Conservatives, passed a third bill repealing the grist tax on wheat (10th July 1880), the repeal to take effect from the 1st of January 1884 onwards.
Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
These mancnuvres produced their effect upon Italian public opinion.
But the effect of the German press campaign could not be effaced in a day.
Their tactics, however, produced a contrary effect, for Rudini, accepting proposals from Berlin, renewed the alliance in June 1891 for a period of twelve years.
This had the desired effect, and although the Sindacato dci ferrovieri (railway servants union) threatened a general railway strike if the dismissed men were not reinstated, there was no further trouble.
Every circumstance now conspired to effect his fall.
The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.
It is a mental " impotence " that makes us believe in such a law as Cause and Effect.
Again, in the scheme of mechanism, everything is determined by everything else - in 5 Aristotle and the schoolmen meant by a proof a priori reasoning from cause to effect.
Really, he urged, there could be only one substance - Descartes himself had dropped a passing hint to that effect - and the bold deductive reasoning of Spinoza's Ethics, in process if not in result, betrays its kinship to the ontological argument, with its affirmation of what must be.
You call it unjust, he says in effect, that you should be punished.
Trace out the clue of causation to the end, says Hegel in effect, and it introduces you, not to a single first cause beyond nature, but to the totality of natural process - a substance, as it were, in which all causes inhere.
Ultimately, he argues, if not immediately, there must be a rational cause to account for so rational an effect.
For some time sickness and mortality were excessively large, but the reclamation of swamp and clearance of jungle on an extensive scale by Colonel Henry Man when in charge (1868-1870), had a most beneficial effect, and the health of the settlement has since been notable.
The system of Plotinus, Zellar remarks, is not strictly speaking one of emanation, since there is no communication of the divine essence to the created world; yet it resembles emanation inasmuch as the genesis of the world is conceived as a necessary physical effect, and not as the result of volition.
Nevertheless, doubleedged as is the argument from rudimentary organs, there is probably none which has produced a greater effect in promoting the general acceptance of the theory of evolution.
Deposition of a bishop by a synod, or of a priest or deacon by his bishop, is to take effect even pending an appeal, and a cleric continuing his functions after sentence in first instance is to lose all right of appeal.
These - proceedings at Basel were regarded at Rome as of no effect.
The parlements registered the - Sanction and the effect was permanent in France.
A result followed somewhat similar to the effect, on the German language, of the Lutheran reformation.
The statute, however, would not seem to have had much effect; for in spite of a proclamation of Queen Elizabeth in 1560 imposing a fine of £ 20 for each offence on butchers slaughtering animals during Lent, in 1563 Sir William Cecil, in Notes upon an Act for the Increase of the Navy, says that "in old times no flesh at all was eaten on fish days; even the king himself could not have license; which was occasion of eating so much fish as now is eaten in flesh upon fish days."
At about this date Ayala passed over from the Moderates to the Progressives, and this political manoeuvre had its effect upon the fate of his plays.
This has had a most important effect on the development in recent years of morphological anatomy.
The explicit adoption of this point of view has had the effect of clearing up and rendering definite the older morphological doctrines, which for the most part had no fixed criterion by which they could be tested.
The amount of watery vapour in the air passing through a stoma has no effect upon it, as the surfaces of the guard cells abutting on the air chamber are strongly cuticularized, and therefore impermeable.
It is customary to speak of the disastrous effect, of cold winds, snow, hail and frost, lightning, &c., under the heading of atmospheric influences, which only shows once more how impossible it is to separate causes individually.
In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.
For instance, suppose the effect of a falling temperature is to so modify the metabolism of the cells that they fill up more and more with watery sap; as the freezing-point is reached this may result in destructive changes, and death from cold may result.
When the nature and effect of ecological factors have become more fully understood, it will be possible to dispense with the above artificial classification of factors, and to frame one depending on the action of the various factors; but such a classification is not possible in the present state of knowledge.
In the present state of knowledge, however, this can only be done in a very meagre fashion; as the effect of habitat factors on plants is but little understood as yet either by physiologists or ecologists.
The effect of common salt on the metabolism of plants is not understood.
The effect of lime on plants is less understood even than the effect of common salt.
In order to effect this the individual chromosomes must become associated in some way, for there is no diminution in the actual amount of nuclear substance, and this leads to certain modifications in the division which are not seen in the vegetative nuclei.
The effect of the phylogenetic factor in homology may be illustrated in the following cases.
Another effect is that different degrees of homology have to be recognized, just as there are different degrees of relationship or affinity between individual plants.
This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
There has been in effect a successive shifting of zones of vegetation southwards from the pole.
Humboldt's concrete illustrations and the remarkable power of his personality enabled him to enforce these principles in a way that produced an immediate and lasting effect.
The treatises on physical geography by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the lattewritten for the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work.
In 1644 Tasman made a second voyage to effect a fuller discovery of New Guinea.
His monument bore an inscription written by himself, to the effect that he had always fully repaid the kindnesses of his friends and the wrongs done him by his enemies.
It was his advice which led the king to choose all his ministers from one political party, to adopt the modern system, and he managed to effect a reconciliation between William and his sister-in-law, the princess Anne.
Such were some of the methods that Torquemada introduced into the Spanish Inquisition, which was to have so baneful an effect upon the whole country.
E Here, as over so large a portion of the Australian region, we find birds constituting the supreme class - the scarcity of mammals being accounted for in some measure as a normal effect of insularity.
Further on this subject we must not go; we can only state that Godman has shown good reason for declaring that the avifauna of all these islands is the effect of colonization extending over a long period of years, and going on now.
Meanwhile the literary activity of the Jews in Spain had its effect on those of France.
After this short ministry he represented his country with dignity and effect at the Hague peace congress, and in 1903 was nominated a member of the permanent court of arbitration.
In the autumn of 1786 there was an encounter near the village of East Lee between about 250 adherents of Daniel Shays (many of them from Lee township) and a body of state troops under General John Paterson, wherein the Shays contingent paraded a bogus cannon (made of a yarn beam) with such effect that the state troops fled.
But the effect of real, though unacknowledged, kindred had none the less an important practical effect.
But, as far as outward circumstances are concerned, we may say that the same effect has been brought about by different and almost opposite causes.
Powdered, it has little effect upon the skin, but in ointment or used by fumigation it has local therapeutic properties.
Sulphur and sulphur waters such as those of Harrogate, Aix-la-Chapelle and Aix-les-Bains, have a powerful effect in congested conditions of the liver and intestines, haemorrhoids, gout and gravel.
The two ambones in the cathedral of Salerno, which are different in design, are magnificent in effect and are enriched with sculpture as well as with mosaic. In the gospel ambo in the cathedral of Ravello (1272), and also in that of the convent of the Trinita della Cava near Salerno, the spiral columns inlaid with mosaic stand on the backs of lions.
This very popularity had the effect of attracting into their ranks charlatans of the worst type.
Many trees offer magnificent displays of flowers at certain seasons of the year; perhaps the loveliest effect is derived from the bushes and trailing creepers of the Combretum genus, which, during the "winter" months from December to March, cover the scrub and the forest with mantles of rose colour.
In some cases this may prove to be true, but in most evidence to that effect is wanting.
Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
The effect of this, craftily calculated beforehand, was to compel the peasants to rent pasture lands from the landlord at any price.
In a secret article of the treaty the sultan undertook in the event of a casus foederis arising, and in consideration of being relieved of his obligations under the articles of the public treaty, to close the Dardanelles to the warships of all nations " au besoin," which meant in effect that in the event of Russia being threatened with an attack from the Mediterranean he would close the Dardanelles against the invader.
Finally, the legislation of 1888 put into the hands of a reorganized Railway Commission and of the Board of Trade powers none the less important in principle because their action has been less in its practical effect than the advocates of active control demanded.
Well trained as was the civil service of France, the effect of this supervision in deadening activity was sometimes more marked than in its effect in preventing abuse.
The moral effect of the report, with the criticisms of the company's methods and recommendations appended thereto, is great, and it rarely happens that a company refuses to adopt, or at any rate to test, the recommendations so made.
The effect of this latitude is to give the company ample discretion in the matter, and to enable the act to be administered and the object of it to be attained without undue interference.
Although the administration of the above-mentioned acts of parliament has had a beneficial effect upon the safety of the public, and has enabled an enormous volume of traffic Safety to be handled with celerity, punctuality and absence Y?
Orders of the Commission became effective within such time, not less than thirty days, as the Commission should prescribe, and penalties began to take effect from the date fixed by the Commission, unless the carrier secured an injunction from the Court suspending the order.
The growth of railways has been accompanied by a world-wide tendency toward the consolidation of small independent ventures into large groups of lines able to aid one another in the exchange of traffic and to effect economies in administration and in tl-_e purchase of supplies.
The practical effect of this opposite couple is slightly to tilt the frame and thus to redistribute slightly the weights on the wheels carrying the vehicle.
Therefore the horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders to effect this change of speed is from (21) H.P.280X2240X0 113X59 = _237 55 0 X 32 The rate of working is negative when the train is retarded; for instance, if the train had changed its speed from 41 to 40 m.
These considerations also indicate what a difficult matter it is to find the exact rate of working against the resistances, because of the difficulty of securing conditions which eliminate the effect both of the gradient and of acceleration.
To get the best effect the area of the blast-nozzle must be properly proportioned to the size of the cylinders and be properly set with regard to the base of the chimney.
To effect this result required many years of discussion and experiment.
The continual attacks of sickness which had retarded his progress induced his aunt, by medical advice, to take him to Bath; but the mineral waters had no effect.
But little time was lost by the elder Gibbon in the formation of a new plan of education for his son, and in devising some method which if possible might effect the cure of his "spiritual malady."
It was discovered, however, that no statute had ever been passed to carry this provision into effect, and the votes were rejected.
On this tour he visited Japan, and on the 2nd of October, at Tokyo, made a speech which had an important effect in quieting the apprehensions of the Japanese on the score of the treatment of their people on the Pacific coast.
The effect of such contraction would be to draw the materials of the ring into a single mass, and thus we would have a planet formed, while the satellites of that planet would be developed from the still nascent planet in the same way as the planet itself originated from the sun.
For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
There is some evidence that arsenic has a prophylactic effect.
Koch has suggested that the disinfection of malarial persons by quinine would have the desired effect, but other authorities of greater experience do not consider it practicable.
Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.
Whilst this principle is undoubtedly applicable to the great majority of chemical actions under ordinary conditions, it is subject to numerous exceptions, and cannot therefore be taken (as its authors originally intended) as a secure basis for theoretical reasoning on the connexion between thermal effect and chemical affinity.
The total thermal effect, too, which is associated with the transformation, must be the same, whether the transformation is conducted directly or indirectly (Hess's Law of Constant Heat Sums), since the thermal effect depends only on the intrinsic energies of the initial and final systems.
Here we have a different final system with a different amount of intrinsic energy, so that the thermal effect of the action is altogether different.
When the solutions employed are dilute, no water is placed in the calorimeter, the temperature-change of the solutions themselves being used to estimate the thermal effect brought about by mixing them.
With knowledge then of the heats of formation of the substances involved in any chemical action, we can at once calculate the thermal effect of the action, by placing for each compound in the energy-equation its heat of formation with the sign reversed, i.e.
Thus if we wish to ascertain the thermal effect of the action Mg+CaO =MgO+Ca, we may write, knowing the heats of formation of CaO and Mg0 to be 131000 and 146000 respectively, 0-131000 = 0-146000+x x =15000 cal.
The momentary effect was immense; for some of the halo of the Holy Empire still clung round the head of the house of Habsburg, and Francis Joseph was welcomed to the ancient free city with enthusiasm.
Even during the temporary Hellenization in the second great period the character of the people as a whole was untouched by the various external influences which produced so great an effect on the upper classes.
It is at least necessary to distinguish provisionally between a possibly historical framework and narratives which may be of later growth - between the general outlines which only external evidence can test and details which cannot be tested and appear isolated without any cause or devoid of any effect.
But if Josiah carried out the reforms ascribed to him they were of no lasting effect.
Precepts such as these could hardly fail to effect some modification of the reckless zeal of the Galileans in the pupils of the synagogue.
Jerusalem was rebuilt by Hadrian, orders to this effect being given during the emperor's first journey through Syria in 130, the date of his foundations at.
Rightly or wrongly, he was held personally responsible for the rapprochement with France and Russia and the opposition to the Powers of the Triple Alliance; and this attitude had its effect on his career when Leo XIII.
It was not till 1645 that the Turks made any serious attempt to effect the conquest of the island; but in that year they landed with an army of 50,000 men, and speedily reduced the important city of Canea.
Discouraged by his failure to effect this, he returned to his diocese of Cambrai at the beginning of 1408.
The convict lease system was abolished by the constitution of 1890 (the provision to take effect on the 31st of December 1894), and state farms were purchased in Rankin, Hinds and Holmes counties.
On the 26th of May 1908 the people of the state voted " against the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors " in the state; the prohibition act thus approved went into effect on the 1st of January 1909.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
Another beautiful grotto has green instead of blue refractions; the effect in both cases is due to the light entering by a small entrance.
Such visitors are clearly prejudicial to the flower, and so we meet with arrangements which are calculated to repel the intruders, or at least to force them to enter the flower in such a way as not to effect mischief.
The object of these movements will be appreciated when it is remembered that, if the pollen-masses retained the original direction they had in the anther in which they were formed, they would, when transported by the insect to another flower, merely come in contact with the anther of that flower, where of course they would be of no use; but, owing to the divergences and flexions above alluded to, the pollen-masses come to be so placed that, when transplanted to another flower of the same species, they come in contact with the stigma and so effect the fertilization of that flower.
He was severe, but just and impartial, and strove to effect necessary reforms by reducing the numbers of the Janissaries, improving the coinage, and checking the state expenditure.
In the winter similar consequences ensue, in a negative direction, from the prolonged loss of heat by radiation in the long and clear nights - an effect which is intensified wherever the surface is covered with snow, or the air little charged with vapour.
The winter cold produces an effect of just an opposite nature, and Winds.
Jenghiz Khan and Timur covered more ground than Napoleon, and no European has had such an effect on the world as Mahomet.
Bactria soon became independent under an IndoGreek dynasty, and the blending of Greek, Persian, central Asiatic and Hindu influences had an important effect on the art and religion of India, and through India on all eastern Asia.
The Japanese have produced few books of importance, and their compositions are chiefly remarkable as being lighter and more secular than is usual in Asia, but the older Chinese works take high rank both for their merits and the effect they have had.
Though Europeans may be indebted to China for some mechanical inventions, she was too distant to produce much direct effect, and the influence of India has been mainly directed towards the East.
There has been great difference of opinion as to the extent to which Alexander's conquests influenced Asia, and it is equally hard to say what is the effect now being produced by Europe.
Such, at least, was the thought of later writers, who have given effect to the belief in chap. viii.
The unit of knowledge is not an isolated impression but a judgment; and in such a judgment is contained, even initially, the reference both to a permanent subject and to a permanent world of thought, and, implied in these, such judgments, for example, as those of existence, substance, cause and effect.
Although at times he states his principles with a wonderful degree of breadth and insight, he mars the effect by looseness of statement, and by the incorporation of irrelevant psychological matter.
Further, they had the effect of sobering the culprit, and the more creditable part of his life did not begin till he left Vincennes.
He first thought of becoming a minister at a very early date, if we may believe a story contained in the Memoires of the duchesse d'Abrantes, to the effect that in May 1789 the queen tried to bribe him, but that he refused this and expressed his wish to be a minister.
This promise he brilliantly fulfilled by routing the forces of the Argive confederacy at the battle of Mantinea (418), the moral effect of which was out of all proportion to the losses inflicted on the enemy.
The abolition of debts was carried into effect, but the land distribution was put off by Agesilaus on various pretexts.
It was reluctantly accepted by Lord Sandwich, then First Lord, but before it could take effect France declared war, and a powerful French squadron was sent to America under the count d'Estaing.
There is general truth in what was once said by a high authority to the effect that, while there will be something dignified in the humblest Rajput, there will be something mean in the highest Mahratta.
This commercial policy had indeed a deeper and more fatal effect than the alienation of the towns; it secularized still further the brethren of the Order, and made them financiers instead of soldiers.
Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten ?
As wife of Pluto, she sent spectres, ruled the ghosts, and carried into effect the curses of men.
An Act passed in 1770, which relaxed the rigour of strict entails and afforded power to landlords to grant leases and otherwise improve their estates, had a beneficial effect on Scottish agriculture.
The Copyhold Consolidation Act 1894 supersedes six previous copyhold statutes, but does not effect any alteration in the law concerning enfranchisement.
The average results show that, under all conditions of manuring - excepting with farmyard manure - the produce was less over the later than over the earlier periods of the experiments, an effect partly due to the seasons.
The fact that the growth of a leguminous crop, such as red clover, leaves the soil in a higher condition for the subsequent growth of a grain crop - that, indeed, the growth of such a leguminous crop is to a great extent equivalent to the application of a nitrogenous manure for the cereal crop - was in effect known ages ago.
So much, indeed, does the character of the herbage vary from plot to plot that the effect may fairly be described as kaleidoscopic. Repeated analyses have shown how greatly both the botanical constitution and the chemical composition of the mixed herbage vary according to the description of manure applied.