The changes had an immediate effect.
Its effect was immediate.
The overall effect was surprising.
Still, that wasn't the only lingering side effect of her weekend with Brandon.
Her statement had a surprising effect on Dean.
She did, however, celebrate the deterrent effect of the new law that was passed.
His deep voice had the usual effect on her pulse.
His deep voice had the usual effect on her pulse.
The study also examined the effect of Head Start programs that use a different educational approach.
The effect of the battle on the rest of the war is profound.
In small quantities, it may even have a beneficial effect on health.
The jury remained out on the effect of Julie's injury on her speech.
The sounds, which he had not heard for so long, had an even more pleasurable and exhilarating effect on Rostov than the previous sounds of firing.
The effect on her pulse was electrifying.
The possible adverse effect on humans from eating chicken are limited.
The only effect of this incident on Tikhon was that after being wounded he seldom brought in prisoners.
He knew the effect he had on her; he did it on purpose to mess with her.
When subjects slept longer, this had a positive effect on their health.
When he lighted the oil a hundred tongues of flame shot up, and the effect was really imposing.
The agitation had no immediate effect, but the indignation which he aroused against Russian policy had much to do with the strong anti-Russian feeling which made the Crimean War possible.
The department closures are already having a knock-on effect.
The Monterey mists were in full effect, filtering the sunlight.
"He has that effect on people," Sofia said dryly.
"He has that effect on people," Sofia said dryly.
Too fast, he felt the buffers' effect on his powers lessen, and magic exploded through him.
Let's consider examples of how the effect is positive for some, negative for some, but the net is a gain in the overall wealth of the system.
The report concluded that high volume along Church Street was having a detrimental effect on air quality.
She knew milkshakes had a bad effect on her digestion, but she couldn’t resist the creamy, chocolatey goodness.
She exhaled happiness and love from the time Nicholas returned, and the faithful, unalterable love of this girl had a gladdening effect on him.
Carefully compare the new unsigned master with the old one, to make sure that the changes achieve the desired effect.
The lecture explains the greenhouse effect and the percentage of each of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
This is like the effect of the slow dwelling on long words, not quite well managed, that one notices in a child who is telling a solemn story.
But such was not the effect on Walden that year, for she had soon got a thick new garment to take the place of the old.
But when he had gone into another room, to which the countess hurriedly followed him, he assumed a grave air and thoughtfully shaking his head said that though there was danger, he had hopes of the effect of this last medicine and one must wait and see, that the malady was chiefly mental, but...
What can ordinary people do to make a difference and effect changes in the law?
The special effect they used to create the monster in the movie was laughable.
It was before 6:30 so the early bird special was in effect, making the meal a tad cheaper than he'd figured.
It was before 6:30 so the early bird special was in effect, making the meal a tad cheaper than he'd figured.
We have established that outsourcing, free trade, and technological advance all have the same effect on the system: They lower prices and increase net wealth.
You can yourself imagine the effect this news has had on me, and your silence increases my astonishment.
This is the effect of putting it all in a summary.
Her breath caught at the direct contact of their bodies and the effect it had on hers.
"I must also inform you," said the Rhetor, "that our Order delivers its teaching not in words only but also by other means, which may perhaps have a stronger effect on the sincere seeker after wisdom and virtue than mere words.
He reveled in the effect he had on people.
Around 1600, the Elizabethan Poor Law came into effect and lasted more than two centuries.
It had a peculiarly strong effect on him because at the sight of the fire he felt himself suddenly freed from the ideas that had weighed him down.
He painted all the walls with a bright white paint, and the effect was to make the room seem much bigger than it was.
His voice had a calming effect on Cynthia.
Today he is cheerful and in good spirits, but that is the effect of your visit--he is not often like that.
The repugnance to animal food is not the effect of experience, but is an instinct.
The southern spring, the comfortable rapid traveling in a Vienna carriage, and the solitude of the road, all had a gladdening effect on Pierre.
She glanced up, unhappy at how little of an effect her magic had on him.
From time to time she smoothed the folds of her dress, and whenever the story produced an effect she glanced at Anna Pavlovna, at once adopted just the expression she saw on the maid of honor's face, and again relapsed into her radiant smile.
Her presence would have the same calming effect on Dusty, who was the most wound-up man Jule knew.
But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
I thought I would try the effect of a little belated discipline.
The Indians had advanced so far as to regulate the effect of the wind by a mat suspended over the hole in the roof and moved by a string.
And second, people are really bad at connecting cause and effect in their lives when it comes to things like this.
These sights and sounds had no depressing or intimidating effect on him; on the contrary, they stimulated his energy and determination.
The imposing figure of Nesvitski followed by his Cossack, and the determination of Denisov who flourished his sword and shouted frantically, had such an effect that they managed to squeeze through to the farther side of the bridge and stopped the infantry.
To the Polish general he replied to the same effect, informing him that he was already under the command of the German.
The effect slammed her downwards, and the pod spun out of control, head over tail, shaking as it fought gravity.
Natasha set to work to effect a reconciliation, and so far succeeded that Nicholas received a promise from his mother that Sonya should not be troubled, while he on his side promised not to undertake anything without his parents' knowledge.
The way he moved, his healing power, the effect he had on others, his fascination with people, the fangs and eyes … There was nothing normal about him.
Soon after the Rostovs came to Moscow the effect Natasha had on him made him hasten to carry out his intention.
Napoleon had assented and had given orders that news should be brought to him of the effect those batteries produced.
And this embrace too, owing to a long-standing impression related to his innermost feelings, had its usual effect on Kutuzov and he gave a sob.
Dictating it had certainly had that effect on him.
As Mr. Anagnos was the head of a great institution, what he said had much more effect than the facts in Miss Sullivan's account on which he based his statements.
We tend to notice every time the expected effect is triggered by the cause, but may not notice all the times it isn't.
My purpose is to explain the net effect of free trade, technological advance, and outsourcing on the overall economic system of the planet.
The best works of art are the expression of man's struggle to free himself from this condition, but the effect of our art is merely to make this low state comfortable and that higher state to be forgotten.
Technological advances that displace human workers are similar in effect to two other concepts with which we are very familiar in the modern age: outsourcing and free trade.
From the habit of fifty years all this had a physically agitating effect on the old general.
The rise of smart appliances in the home will have an interesting effect on our relationship with technology.
Dean had a good buzz going and could only imagine the effect of the booze on the five-foot frame of his dinner partner—a frame without food most of the day.
During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.
Xander knew the effect he had on women; they tended to be compelled towards him then melted when he touched them.
If we have a large range of examples, if our observation is constantly directed to seeking the correlation of cause and effect in people's actions, their actions appear to us more under compulsion and less free the more correctly we connect the effects with the causes.
"Anybody can shove," said the footman, and also began working his elbows to such effect that he pushed Petya into a very filthy corner of the gateway.
To effect this some of the nutrient gelatin containing yeast cells is placed on the under-surface of the cover-glass of the moist chamber.
Her breathing was ragged, her body shaking from the effect of his bite as well as her effort to fight his spell.
As an outcome of this alchemical doctrine the process of fermentation was supposed to have a purifying and elevating effect on the bodies which had been submitted to its influence.
This will create a cascading effect; once energy, for instance, is free, it will make precious metals free.
The first army, with which was the Emperor, occupied the fortified camp at Drissa; the second army was retreating, trying to effect a junction with the first one from which it was said to be cut off by large French forces.
Like some sort of special effect on a horror movie.
They say that characters were engraven on the bathing tub of King Tchingthang to this effect: "Renew thyself completely each day; do it again, and again, and forever again."
A comely, fresh-looking old man was conducting the service with that mild solemnity which has so elevating and soothing an effect on the souls of the worshipers.
There is undoubtedly a cause and effect between what we eat and our health, but I believe it is still poorly understood.
Let's address that by looking at two phenomena: the changing definitions of poverty over time, and the effect of a large gap between the incomes of the rich and poor.
There is a hiatus of several months in the letters, caused by the depressing effect on Helen and Miss Sullivan of the "Frost King" episode.
The hauntingly sad music coming from next door had a profound effect on Julie.
The explanation of this strange fact given by Russian military historians (to the effect that Kutuzov hindered an attack) is unfounded, for we know that he could not restrain the troops from attacking at Vyazma and Tarutino.
The gay triumphant shouting of the enemy army had a stimulating effect on him.
But plundering by the Russians, with which the reoccupation of the city began, had an opposite effect: the longer it continued and the greater the number of people taking part in it the more rapidly was the wealth of the city and its regular life restored.
She laughed, a contagious sound, and he saw her effect even on Darian, who had relaxed and sat in a chair nearby.
The mention of his predecessor had the opposite effect of mentioning the Original Vamp.
So our ability to find cause and effect in that—and to really discern fact from fallacy, what's good from what's bad for us—is highly suspect.
But though comparatively disregarded now, when his day comes, laws unsuspected by most will take effect, and masters of families and rulers will come to him for advice.
The countess, who heard at once from the maids what had happened at the lodge, was calmed by the thought that now their affairs would certainly improve, but on the other hand felt anxious as to the effect this excitement might have on her son.
At the time of that meeting it had not produced an effect upon him--he had not even once recalled it.
We have seen the negative effect of hubris in individuals and nations throughout history.
They were the only words that came to her mind a few seconds before she gave up trying to resist the effect he had on her.
Why was she immune to the effect he clearly had on every other woman he ran across?
She suspected he was dangerous, but right now, she felt the danger radiating off him in a similar charged energy to Jonny's, except that Xander's had the same effect as adrenaline on her.
First, let's consider the macroeconomic impact of this change—the effect it will have on the net economic status of the planet.
The net effect is positive, but the laid-off workers will probably have a hard time appreciating it.
In the corporal's changed face, in the sound of his voice, in the stirring and deafening noise of the drums, he recognized that mysterious, callous force which compelled people against their will to kill their fellow men--that force the effect of which he had witnessed during the executions.
The lesson of the Tarutino battle and of the day before it, which Kutuzov remembered with pain, must, he thought, have some effect on others too.
On the other hand, even if we admitted that words could be the cause of events, history shows that the expression of the will of historical personages does not in most cases produce any effect, that is to say, their commands are often not executed, and sometimes the very opposite of what they order occurs.
(3) The connection between cause and effect has no beginning and can have no end.
He saw the effect these words had produced on his daughter.
It had the effect they desired of convincing the Others he had crushed the gem and was unleashing hell on earth in his quest for revenge for them taking Jessi.
Just her little fangs and the odd presence she found subtle but which apparently had a staggering effect on men.
His bite had the effect of enhancing anything he did to a woman.
The effect of the first brief speech was so overwhelming that Hortensius refused to reply, and recommended his client to leave the country.
He listened to her erratic breathing, beyond satisfied at the effect he had on her.
The fast-growing activity of the port of Trieste and the new and shorter railway line constructed between it and Vienna also contribute to the same effect.
The episode had a deadening effect on Helen Keller and on Miss Sullivan, who feared that she had allowed the habit of imitation, which has in truth made Miss Keller a writer, to go too far.
She released her cool power into him, but to no effect.
Katie paused for effect.
You will be drinking a lot once you feel the effect.
There was nothing new on the Byrne case—just a comment to that effect.
White days and Philadelphia had that effect.
At long last, Eden's power took effect.
The light actually emitted laterally is thus the same as would be caused by forces exactly the opposite of these acting on the medium otherwise free from disturbance, and it only remains to see what the effect of such force would be.
A strength such that there is a delay of 4 or 5 minutes before any effect is apparent will be found suitable, but no great nicety of adjustment is necessary.
In winter the varying depth of snow may exert an appreciable effect.
A sensible effect remained, however, after the influence of splashing was eliminated.
Simpson found no certain temperature effect on the value of q.
No act takes effect until ninety days after its passage unless two-thirds of the members of each house specifically order otherwise.
At Magdalen College, Oxford, is one which is perforated, and has a most beautiful effect.
m.) was incorporated with the rest of Transylvania; and in 1871 effect was given to the imperial decree of 1869 by which the districts of the Warasdin regiments (St George and the Cross) and the towns of Zengg, B elovar, Ivanic, &c., were "provincialized" or incorporated with the Croatian-Slavonian crown-land.
The whole effect of the grim castle, the silvery stream and the verdant woods makes one of the most striking scenes in Belgium.
His first care was to carry out the instructions received from home, and effect a radical reform in the system of government.
Now, if CD is pressed by its weight or by a spring on the surface AB, the effect of wear will be to produce a symmetrical grinding away of both surfaces, which may be represented thus, fig.
He had no artistic appreciation of the subject he discussed, and he mistook cause for effect in asserting that the decline in public morality was due to the flagrant indecency of the stage.
Patterson was withdrawn, the disputed territory was erected into the new county of Luzerne (1786), the land titles were confirmed (1787), and Colonel Timothy Pickering was commissioned to organize the new county and to effect a reconciliation.
Hyphear is useful for fattening cattle if they are hardy enough to withstand the purgative effect it produces at first; viscum is medicinally of value as an emollient, and in cases of tumour, ulcers and the like.
At the Council of Salisbury in 1116 the English king ordered Thurstan to submit, but instead he resigned his archbishopric, although this did not take effect.
In the youthful Dutch universities the effect of the essays was greater.
Voet now issued, under the name of Martin Schoock, one of his pupils, a pamphlet with the title of Methodus novae philosophiae Renati Descartes, in which atheism and infidelity were openly declared to be the effect of the new teaching.
The presentation of some object of dread, for example, to the eye has or may have a double effect.
On his return the Athenians sued for peace, though without success, and a speech by Pericles had little effect on their spirits.
After Cimon's death he renounced the war against Persia, and the collapse of 447-445 had the effect of completing his change ' The general impression in Greece was that this decree was the proximate cause of the war.
The latter moves in a world of cause and effect.
He leapt from the wall with only three companions into the hostile town, and, before the army behind him could effect an entrance, lay wounded almost to death.'
In the spring of 323 he moved down to Babylon, receiving on the way embassies from lands as far as the confines of the known world, for the eyes of all nations were now turned with fear or wonder to the figure which had appeared with so superhuman an effect upon the world's stage.
The only difference to be reckoned with may be in recent tendencies of solo vocalists to sing for effect, and so to extend the compass of the voice upwards.
With the improvements in wind instruments this continued, as a more brilliant effect was gained.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
Windows have a chilling effect on a room, and in calculations extra allowance should be made for window areas.
The best form of stove is that with which perfect combustion is most nearly attained, and to which a pan of water is affixed to supply a desirable humidity to the air, the gas having the effect of drying the atmosphere.
Pedantry was an inevitable effect of the early Renaissance.
An important effect of these books was the grecizing of Roman religion by the introduction of foreign deities and rites (worshipped and practised in the Troad) and the amalgamation of national Italian deities with the corresponding Greek ones (fully discussed in J.
As early as 1839 Stanley had joined with Tait, the future archbishop, in advocating certain university reforms. From 1846 onwards Jowett threw himself into this movement, which in 1848 became general amongst the younger and more thoughtful fellows, until it took effect in the commission of 1850 and the act of 1854.
Other literary schemes of larger scope and deeper interest were long in contemplation, but were not destined to take effect - an Essay on the Religions of the World, a Commentary on the Gospels, a Life of Christ, a volume on Moral Ideas.
Lucas brought in a bill in his first session to effect this reform, but was defeated on the motion to have the bill sent to England for approval by the privy council; and he insisted upon the independent.
The test of religion is its effect on conduct.
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
This act, which was only decided upon after much hesitation, had a most deleterious effect upon the national credit.
and baldacchini, choir-screens, paschal candlesticks, ambones, tombs and the like, all enriched with sculpture and glass mosaic of great brilliance and decorative effect.
He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.
The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century B.C. is to the following effect.
Wallace, this author is of opinion that marsupials did not effect an entrance into Australia till about the middle of the Tertiary period, their ancestors being probably opossums of the American type.
In 1816 he visited the continent, and first at Geneva and afterwards in Montauban (1817) he lectured and interviewed large numbers of theological students with remarkable effect; among them were Malan, Monod and Merle d'Aubigne.
The low quotations which ruled for a number Copper of years had a depressing effect upon the industry, and many mines once profitably worked were temporarily closed, but in 1906 there was a general revival.
On the 23rd of February 1861 they commenced the return journey, having in effect accomplished the feat of crossing the Australian continent.
In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.
The first noticeable effect of the crisis was a great scarcity of employment.
Another effect of the Great Strike was in a more practical direction.
The act contained stringent provisions forbidding strikes; but in this respect it failed to effect its purpose, several strikes occurring in the years following its enactment, in which there were direct refusals to obey awards.
The phenomenon is due to very fine particles of dust suspended in the high regions of the atmosphere that produce a scattering effect upon the component parts of white light.
He issued an order to that effect (August 18, 1564), and it was sent to the duchess of Parma for publication.
The effect of the outbreak was in every way disastrous.
In 1585 Lord Deputy Sir John Perrot undertook the shiring of Ulster (excluding the counties Antrim and Down, which had already taken shape); and his work, though of little immediate effect owing to the rising of Hugh O'Neill, served as a basis for the division of the territory at the plantation of Ulster in the reign of James I.
But its effect is to make whole the mind, and, so far as it is expedient, the body as well."
Every operation in which mind and matter are both concerned is an effect of neither, but the direct act of God.
He in effect turned his country into a province of the Greek see of Cappadocia.
In the South Atlantic the narrow land surfaces of Africa and South America produce comparatively little effect in disturbing the normal planetary circulation.
The net effect of the surrounding land is, in fact, to reverse the seasonal variations of the planetary circulation, but without destroying its type.
Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure or suction is measured against the air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are carefully closed and a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be produced equal to a wind of io m.
This leads up to the fundamental distinction, introduced by Lord Kelvin, between "available energy," which we can turn to mechanical effect, and "diffuse energy," which is useless for that purpose.
He immediately brought forward a scheme for improving the condi - tion of the poorer clergy by equalizing the incomes of the bishops, the reception of which at the time may be imagined, though it was substantially the same as that carried into effect by Lord Melbourne's government fifty years later.
And as there is no branch of art in which mechanical improvements, and the consequent change in the nature of technical difficulties, bear so directly upon the possibilities and methods of external effect, it follows that an exclusive preponderance of this view is not without serious disadvantage from the standpoint of general musical culture.
Practically every law of harmony in 16th-century music may be equally well regarded as a law of vocal effect.
The effect is magnificent, and admirably suited to the dignity of the trombone.
Imagination boggles at the vileness of this effect.
But, when we look at the many passages in which the violas double the basses, we shall do well to consider whether there is room in the harmonic scheme for the violas to do anything else, and whether the effect would not be thin without them.
There is not room for one together with an independent violoncello part; the wonderful use of muted solo violoncellos in the slow movement of the Pastoral Symphony being a special effect, like the earlier instance in Haydn's 12th Salomon Symphony.
But it is equally certain that the pure violoncello tone in large masses belongs to a distinctly different region of orchestral effect.
In this key the trumpets blaze out with an effect which entirely depends upon their restricted part hitherto.
But the greatness of Wagner is shown in the fact that with all the effect his additions have in revolutionizing the resources of orchestration, he never regards his novelties as substitutes for the natural principles of instrumental effect.
Finally it must be remembered that musical euphony and emotional effect are inseparable from considerations of harmony and polyphony.
The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
It became in effect the principal feast of the Church, the procession of the Sacrament a gorgeous pageant, in which not only the members of the trade and craft gilds, with the magistrates of the cities, took part, but princes and sovereigns.
The same effect can be produced by shortening the back leg by a screw placed in the direction of its length.
The advantage of the high conducting power which copper possesses Over- is of especial value in moist climates (like that of the United Kingdom), since the effect of leakage over the surface of the damp insulators is much less noticeable when the conducting power of the wire is high than when it is low, especially when the line is a long one.
Total insulation resistance of looped lines = 2 R(D/d - 1); in which R is the total resistance of the looped wires, including the resistance of the two coils of the galvanometer, of the battery, and of the two resistance coils r and r' (inserted for the purpose of causing the leakage on the lines to have a maximum effect on the galvanometer.
Normally a switch attached to the key cuts the battery off, and connects the line direct through the receiving relay; this switch is turned to " send " when transmission commences, and is moved back to " receive " when it ceases: this movement is done quite mechanically by the telegraphist, and as it is practically never forgotten, automatic devices (which have often been suggested) to effect the turning are wholly unnecessary.
the product of the total capacity and the total resistance, both the capacity and the resistance having a retarding effect on the signals.
Within a few years several methods had been proposed by different inventors, but none was at first very successful, not from any fault in the principle, but because the effect of electrostatic capacity of the line was left out of account in the early arrangements.
Now if the values of the rheostat and condenser are adjusted so as to make the rise and fall of the outgoing current through both windings of the relay exactly equal, then no effect is produced on the armature of the relay, as the two currents neutralize each other's magnetizing effect.
When the key is in the middle position, that is, not making connexion with either the front or back contacts, the received currents pass through both coils of the relay and the rheostat; no interference is, however, felt from this extra resistance because, although the current is halved, it has double the effect on the relay, because it passes through two coils instead of one.
Thus for a dot, first a negative and then a positive current is sent to the line, the effect of the current continuing during the time required for the paper to travel the space between two holes.
By this method of transmission the battery is always to the line for the same interval of time, and alternately with opposite poles, so that the effect of electrostatic induction is reduced to a minimum.
The armature of the electromagnet is normally attracted by the effect of the permanent magnet, but it is furnished with two antagonistic springs tending to throw it upwards.
Either a weight or a motor is used for making the movements of the mechanism required to effect the printing of the signals.
In the Rowland multiple method of telegraphic working, the transmitter consists of a mechanical keyboard provided with a series of levers, which effect certain combinations of positive and negative currents for each letter.
For working long submarine cables the apparatus ordinarily employed on land lines cannot be used, as the retarding effect of the electrostatic capacity of the cable is so marked that signals fail to be recorded except at a very slow speed of working.
The automatic curb sender was originally designed by Lord Kelvin for the purpose of diminishing the effect of inductive re- Au tardation in long cables.
34 shows the effect of the interpolator in dissecting the consecutive elements of any letter combination.
The use of the iron core renders it possible to produce a high inductive effect with a low resistance coil.
The action of this bridge resembles the magnetic shunt in its effect on the received signals, as the direction of the winding is the same throughout its length, and thus the full inductive action is produced for curbing purposes.
To the sending currents, however, the bridge offers only apparent ohmic resistance due to the fact that the current entering the mid-point of the winding flows through the two halves or arms in opposite direction, and, owing to the winding being on the same iron core, the mutual inductive effect of the two arms on one another neutralizes the self-induction to the sending currents.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
This involved a large extension of wires to cope with increased traffic. The reduced rate took effect as from the 1st of October 1886.
There is no evidence, however, that the method proposed could or did effect the transmission of speech or signals between stations separated by any distance.
of a condenser produces an electric spark which under proper conditions creates an effect propagated out into space as an electric wave.
Henry in the United States in 1842 and 1850 investigated the effect.
Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
When the current passed, the friction was felt to increase, and the effect of sending a rapidly undulating current through the arrangement was to produce a sound.
It was originally the practice to place the calling apparatus in series in the line circuit, but the effect of the large impedance introduced by the electromagnets of the call XXVI.
The government contracted to buy the company's plant in 1911, thus in effect annulling the act of 1899 which had failed to accomplish its object of establishing all-round competition.
The effect of the unsettled policy of the Post Office until 1905 and of the difficulties created by the local authorities was that the National Telephone Company was never able to do its best to develop the enterprise on the most efficient lines.
The effect of their preaching, and their example and their work among the poor, made itself felt throughout Umbria and brought about a great religious revival.
The proportion of evergreens is large, and has a marked effect on the landscape in winter.
If the available water-power of Italy, already very considerable, be harnessed, converted into electric power (which is already being done in some districts), and further increased by reafforestation, the effect upon the industries of Italy will be incalculable, and the importation of coal will be very materially diminished.
Its effect, however, has been comparatively small.
Notwithstanding the construction of new prisons and the transformation of old ones, the number of cells for solitary confinement is still insufficient for a complete application of the penal system established by the code of 1890, and the moral effect of the association of the prisoners is not good, though the system of solitary confinement as practised in Italy is little better.
When the 1907 scheme takes full effect, however, the Active Army and the Mobile Militia will each be augmented by about one-third.
We may reckon these measures among the earliest advantages extended to the cities, which still contained the bulk of the old Roman population, and which were destined to intervene with decisive effect two centuries later in Italian history.
Their appointment, according to notions which defined themselves within the church at this epoch, was simoniacal; and during the long minority of Henry IV., who succeeded his father in 1056, the terrible Tuscan monk, Hildebrand of Soana, forged weapons which he used with deadly effect against the presumption of the empire.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
By the consolidation of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily into a powerful kingdom, by checking the growth of the maritime republics and by recognizing the over-lordship of the papal see, the house of Hauteville influenced the destinies of Italy with more effect than any of the princes who had previously dealt with any portion of the peninsula.
It was with the Swiss that he hoped to effect this revolution; but the Swiss, now interfering for the first time as principals in Italian affairs, were incapable of more than adding to the already maddening distractions of the people.
Mazzini, now openly hostile to the monarchy, was seized with a perfect monomania for insurrections, and promoted various small risings, the only effect of which was to show how completely his influence was gone.
and Russia, and Germany, Austria and Great Britain, he scarcely seemed alive to the possible effect of such agreements upon Italy.
After the general election of 1880, however, the Ministerialists, aided by a number of factious Conservatives, passed a third bill repealing the grist tax on wheat (10th July 1880), the repeal to take effect from the 1st of January 1884 onwards.
both army and navy, but advocated cordial relations with Berlin and Vienna as a guarantee against French domineering, and as a pledge that Italy would be vouchsafed time to effect her armaments without disturbing financial equilibrium.
Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
These mancnuvres produced their effect upon Italian public opinion.
But the effect of the German press campaign could not be effaced in a day.
The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.
Their tactics, however, produced a contrary effect, for Rudini, accepting proposals from Berlin, renewed the alliance in June 1891 for a period of twelve years.
The effect of the incident was rather to increase detestation of Giolitti than to damage Crispi.
The protocol concluded with Great Britain on the 15th of April 1891, already referred to, contained a clause to the effect that, were Kassala occupied by the Italians, the place should be transferred to the Egyptian government as soon as the latter should be In a position.
The effect was seen in May 1898, when, in consequence of a rise in the price of bread, disturbances occurred in southern Italy.
This had the desired effect, and although the Sindacato dci ferrovieri (railway servants union) threatened a general railway strike if the dismissed men were not reinstated, there was no further trouble.
The Franco-Italian understanding had the effect of raising Italys credit, and the Italian rente, which had been shut out of the French bourses, resumed its place there once more, a fact which contributed to increase its price and to reduce the unfavourable rate of exchange.
Every circumstance now conspired to effect his fall.
The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.
Hence the enormous effect of Cranmer's recovery at the final scene.
It is a mental " impotence " that makes us believe in such a law as Cause and Effect.
Again, in the scheme of mechanism, everything is determined by everything else - in 5 Aristotle and the schoolmen meant by a proof a priori reasoning from cause to effect.
The effect of this point of view in regard to moral perceptions is that they represent an important relative truth, but that philosophy " passes " beyond them " into a higher region, where imputation of guilt is " absolutely " meaningless " 2 - enseits des Guten and Bosen.
Bradley's Logic: " If " or " As often as you have the cause working unimpeded, you get the effect."
Really, he urged, there could be only one substance - Descartes himself had dropped a passing hint to that effect - and the bold deductive reasoning of Spinoza's Ethics, in process if not in result, betrays its kinship to the ontological argument, with its affirmation of what must be.
You call it unjust, he says in effect, that you should be punished.
Trace out the clue of causation to the end, says Hegel in effect, and it introduces you, not to a single first cause beyond nature, but to the totality of natural process - a substance, as it were, in which all causes inhere.
Ultimately, he argues, if not immediately, there must be a rational cause to account for so rational an effect.
If this tendency is to take effect, a certain part of Kant's rational scepticism must be accepted.
For some time sickness and mortality were excessively large, but the reclamation of swamp and clearance of jungle on an extensive scale by Colonel Henry Man when in charge (1868-1870), had a most beneficial effect, and the health of the settlement has since been notable.
The system of Plotinus, Zellar remarks, is not strictly speaking one of emanation, since there is no communication of the divine essence to the created world; yet it resembles emanation inasmuch as the genesis of the world is conceived as a necessary physical effect, and not as the result of volition.
In Proclus we find this conception of an emanation of the world out of the Deity, or the absolute, made more exact, the process being regarded as threefold-0) persistence of cause in effect, (2) the departure of effect from cause, and (3) the tendency of effect to revert to its cause.
Nevertheless, doubleedged as is the argument from rudimentary organs, there is probably none which has produced a greater effect in promoting the general acceptance of the theory of evolution.
Deposition of a bishop by a synod, or of a priest or deacon by his bishop, is to take effect even pending an appeal, and a cleric continuing his functions after sentence in first instance is to lose all right of appeal.
These - proceedings at Basel were regarded at Rome as of no effect.
The parlements registered the - Sanction and the effect was permanent in France.
A result followed somewhat similar to the effect, on the German language, of the Lutheran reformation.
The statute, however, would not seem to have had much effect; for in spite of a proclamation of Queen Elizabeth in 1560 imposing a fine of £ 20 for each offence on butchers slaughtering animals during Lent, in 1563 Sir William Cecil, in Notes upon an Act for the Increase of the Navy, says that "in old times no flesh at all was eaten on fish days; even the king himself could not have license; which was occasion of eating so much fish as now is eaten in flesh upon fish days."
At about this date Ayala passed over from the Moderates to the Progressives, and this political manoeuvre had its effect upon the fate of his plays.
This has had a most important effect on the development in recent years of morphological anatomy.
The explicit adoption of this point of view has had the effect of clearing up and rendering definite the older morphological doctrines, which for the most part had no fixed criterion by which they could be tested.
The amount of watery vapour in the air passing through a stoma has no effect upon it, as the surfaces of the guard cells abutting on the air chamber are strongly cuticularized, and therefore impermeable.
It is customary to speak of the disastrous effect, of cold winds, snow, hail and frost, lightning, &c., under the heading of atmospheric influences, which only shows once more how impossible it is to separate causes individually.
In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.
For instance, suppose the effect of a falling temperature is to so modify the metabolism of the cells that they fill up more and more with watery sap; as the freezing-point is reached this may result in destructive changes, and death from cold may result.
When the nature and effect of ecological factors have become more fully understood, it will be possible to dispense with the above artificial classification of factors, and to frame one depending on the action of the various factors; but such a classification is not possible in the present state of knowledge.
In the present state of knowledge, however, this can only be done in a very meagre fashion; as the effect of habitat factors on plants is but little understood as yet either by physiologists or ecologists.
The effect of common salt on the metabolism of plants is not understood.
Warming (1909: 220) quotes Griffon (1898), to the effect that the assimilatory activity is less in the halophytic form than in the ordinary form of the same species.
The effect of lime on plants is less understood even than the effect of common salt.
In order to effect this the individual chromosomes must become associated in some way, for there is no diminution in the actual amount of nuclear substance, and this leads to certain modifications in the division which are not seen in the vegetative nuclei.
The effect of the phylogenetic factor in homology may be illustrated in the following cases.
Another effect is that different degrees of homology have to be recognized, just as there are different degrees of relationship or affinity between individual plants.
This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
The effect can also be demonstrated experimentally: thus it has been observed that a xerophyte grown in moist air will lose its characteristic adaptive features, and may even assume those of a hygrophyte.
the effect must be to produce a sort of furrowed surface.
There has been in effect a successive shifting of zones of vegetation southwards from the pole.
Humboldt's concrete illustrations and the remarkable power of his personality enabled him to enforce these principles in a way that produced an immediate and lasting effect.
The treatises on physical geography by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the lattewritten for the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work.
In 1644 Tasman made a second voyage to effect a fuller discovery of New Guinea.
His monument bore an inscription written by himself, to the effect that he had always fully repaid the kindnesses of his friends and the wrongs done him by his enemies.
It was his advice which led the king to choose all his ministers from one political party, to adopt the modern system, and he managed to effect a reconciliation between William and his sister-in-law, the princess Anne.
Such were some of the methods that Torquemada introduced into the Spanish Inquisition, which was to have so baneful an effect upon the whole country.
The nobles, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, now immediately united to effect his destruction.
(3) That after the said limitation shall take effect as aforesaid, judges' commissions be made quamdiu se bene gesserint and their salaries ascertained and established; but upon,the address of both houses of parliament it may be lawful to remove them.
E Here, as over so large a portion of the Australian region, we find birds constituting the supreme class - the scarcity of mammals being accounted for in some measure as a normal effect of insularity.
Further on this subject we must not go; we can only state that Godman has shown good reason for declaring that the avifauna of all these islands is the effect of colonization extending over a long period of years, and going on now.
A favourite contrast for which there is more to be said is that drawn between the m k agico-religious spell-ritual, that says in effect, "My will be done," and the spirit of "Thy will be done" that breathes through the highest forms of worship. Such resignation in the face of the divine will and providence is, however, not altogether beyond the horizon of primitive faith, as witness the following prayer of the Khonds of Orissa: "We are ignorant of what it is good to ask for.
Meanwhile the literary activity of the Jews in Spain had its effect on those of France.
After this short ministry he represented his country with dignity and effect at the Hague peace congress, and in 1903 was nominated a member of the permanent court of arbitration.
In the autumn of 1786 there was an encounter near the village of East Lee between about 250 adherents of Daniel Shays (many of them from Lee township) and a body of state troops under General John Paterson, wherein the Shays contingent paraded a bogus cannon (made of a yarn beam) with such effect that the state troops fled.
But the effect of real, though unacknowledged, kindred had none the less an important practical effect.
But, as far as outward circumstances are concerned, we may say that the same effect has been brought about by different and almost opposite causes.
Still the tradition had its effect.
Powdered, it has little effect upon the skin, but in ointment or used by fumigation it has local therapeutic properties.
Sulphur and sulphur waters such as those of Harrogate, Aix-la-Chapelle and Aix-les-Bains, have a powerful effect in congested conditions of the liver and intestines, haemorrhoids, gout and gravel.
The two ambones in the cathedral of Salerno, which are different in design, are magnificent in effect and are enriched with sculpture as well as with mosaic. In the gospel ambo in the cathedral of Ravello (1272), and also in that of the convent of the Trinita della Cava near Salerno, the spiral columns inlaid with mosaic stand on the backs of lions.
This very popularity had the effect of attracting into their ranks charlatans of the worst type.
Many trees offer magnificent displays of flowers at certain seasons of the year; perhaps the loveliest effect is derived from the bushes and trailing creepers of the Combretum genus, which, during the "winter" months from December to March, cover the scrub and the forest with mantles of rose colour.
In some cases this may prove to be true, but in most evidence to that effect is wanting.
Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
Since, however, the emperor has the power of proroguing or dissolving the Duma as often as he pleases, it is clear that these temporary ordinances might in effect be made permanent.
The effect of this, craftily calculated beforehand, was to compel the peasants to rent pasture lands from the landlord at any price.
The remedy they proposed was that the labourers should be prohibited from migrating from one estate to another, and an order to that effect was issued, with the result that the peasants, being no longer able to change their domicile and seek new employers, fell practically under the unlimited power of the proprietors on whose land they resided.
In a secret article of the treaty the sultan undertook in the event of a casus foederis arising, and in consideration of being relieved of his obligations under the articles of the public treaty, to close the Dardanelles to the warships of all nations " au besoin," which meant in effect that in the event of Russia being threatened with an attack from the Mediterranean he would close the Dardanelles against the invader.
As these acts of terrorism had quite the opposite of the desired effect, repeated attempts were made on the life of the emperor, and at last the carefully laid plans of the conspirators were successful.
War of To effect this, he embarked on the Turkish War of 1877-78.
Similar, too, was the revelation, when freedom of speech was at last allowed, of the unhappy effect of the long divorce of the intellect of the country from any experience of practical politics.
A commission of inquiry, under the emperor's presidency, was now established to elaborate the means for carrying this promise into effect.
Finally, the legislation of 1888 put into the hands of a reorganized Railway Commission and of the Board of Trade powers none the less important in principle because their action has been less in its practical effect than the advocates of active control demanded.
Well trained as was the civil service of France, the effect of this supervision in deadening activity was sometimes more marked than in its effect in preventing abuse.
The moral effect of the report, with the criticisms of the company's methods and recommendations appended thereto, is great, and it rarely happens that a company refuses to adopt, or at any rate to test, the recommendations so made.
The effect of this latitude is to give the company ample discretion in the matter, and to enable the act to be administered and the object of it to be attained without undue interference.
Although the administration of the above-mentioned acts of parliament has had a beneficial effect upon the safety of the public, and has enabled an enormous volume of traffic Safety to be handled with celerity, punctuality and absence Y?
Orders of the Commission became effective within such time, not less than thirty days, as the Commission should prescribe, and penalties began to take effect from the date fixed by the Commission, unless the carrier secured an injunction from the Court suspending the order.
The growth of railways has been accompanied by a world-wide tendency toward the consolidation of small independent ventures into large groups of lines able to aid one another in the exchange of traffic and to effect economies in administration and in tl-_e purchase of supplies.
The practical effect of this opposite couple is slightly to tilt the frame and thus to redistribute slightly the weights on the wheels carrying the vehicle.
Therefore the horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders to effect this change of speed is from (21) H.P.280X2240X0 113X59 = _237 55 0 X 32 The rate of working is negative when the train is retarded; for instance, if the train had changed its speed from 41 to 40 m.
These considerations also indicate what a difficult matter it is to find the exact rate of working against the resistances, because of the difficulty of securing conditions which eliminate the effect both of the gradient and of acceleration.
To get the best effect the area of the blast-nozzle must be properly proportioned to the size of the cylinders and be properly set with regard to the base of the chimney.
This action had the effect, through the necessities of competition, of causing travellers in the cheaper classes to be better treated on other railways, and the condition of the third-class passenger was still further improved when Parliament, by the Cheap Trains Act of 1883, required the railways to provide " due and sufficient " train accommodation at fares not exceeding id.
To effect this result required many years of discussion and experiment.
But once the order is confirmed by the Board, with or without modifications, it has effect as if it had been enacted by parliament, and it cannot afterwards be upset on the ground of any alleged irregularity in the proceedings.
To these curves, which were also applied to effect some quadratures, Evangelista Torricelli gave the name of "Robervallian lines."
We again find Elisha intervening with effect on behalf of Israel in the wars against Syria, so that his fame spread to Syria itself (2 Kings v.-viii.
9-10) in the dark days of Ahaz (735-734 B.C.) were among the oracles which God commanded Isaiah " to seal up among his disciples " (verse 16), and that they were quoted once more with effect as the armies of Sennacherib closed around Jerusalem.
That reformation failed to effect its purifying mission.
He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period.
The continual attacks of sickness which had retarded his progress induced his aunt, by medical advice, to take him to Bath; but the mineral waters had no effect.
But little time was lost by the elder Gibbon in the formation of a new plan of education for his son, and in devising some method which if possible might effect the cure of his "spiritual malady."
It was discovered, however, that no statute had ever been passed to carry this provision into effect, and the votes were rejected.
The mosaics of the 5th century, in the dome, are the earliest and perhaps the finest at Ravenna for their splendid decorative effect and rich colouring, and are less stiff and conventional than the later mosaics.
classical forms, variety of treatment and freedom of colouring, while the processions are monotonous and inferior in execution, intended rather to produce a decorative effect than beauty of form.
On this tour he visited Japan, and on the 2nd of October, at Tokyo, made a speech which had an important effect in quieting the apprehensions of the Japanese on the score of the treatment of their people on the Pacific coast.
Their effect was supplemented by the division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy.
The effect of such contraction would be to draw the materials of the ring into a single mass, and thus we would have a planet formed, while the satellites of that planet would be developed from the still nascent planet in the same way as the planet itself originated from the sun.
For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
There is some evidence that arsenic has a prophylactic effect.
Koch has suggested that the disinfection of malarial persons by quinine would have the desired effect, but other authorities of greater experience do not consider it practicable.
zinc with solutions of copper salts), the thermal effect is practically independent of the nature of the acid radical in the salt employed.
This affords an example of a principle which had been stated by Hess in a very general form under the name of the Law of Constant Heat Sums - namely, that the thermal effect of a given chemical action is the same, independently of the character and number of the stages in which it takes place.
Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.
Whilst this principle is undoubtedly applicable to the great majority of chemical actions under ordinary conditions, it is subject to numerous exceptions, and cannot therefore be taken (as its authors originally intended) as a secure basis for theoretical reasoning on the connexion between thermal effect and chemical affinity.
The total thermal effect, too, which is associated with the transformation, must be the same, whether the transformation is conducted directly or indirectly (Hess's Law of Constant Heat Sums), since the thermal effect depends only on the intrinsic energies of the initial and final systems.
Here we have a different final system with a different amount of intrinsic energy, so that the thermal effect of the action is altogether different.
(3) The effect of change of volume against external pressure (due to production or consumption of mechanical energy) may be neglected in the case of solids, liquids or solutions, but must usually be taken into account when gases are dealt with.
(5) The influence of temperature on the thermal effect of a chemical action is sometimes considerable, but.
since the initial and final temperatures, which alone determine the variation in the thermal effect, are in almost all cases within the ordinary laboratory range of a few degrees, this influence may in general be neglected without serious error.
When the solutions employed are dilute, no water is placed in the calorimeter, the temperature-change of the solutions themselves being used to estimate the thermal effect brought about by mixing them.
With knowledge then of the heats of formation of the substances involved in any chemical action, we can at once calculate the thermal effect of the action, by placing for each compound in the energy-equation its heat of formation with the sign reversed, i.e.
Thus if we wish to ascertain the thermal effect of the action Mg+CaO =MgO+Ca, we may write, knowing the heats of formation of CaO and Mg0 to be 131000 and 146000 respectively, 0-131000 = 0-146000+x x =15000 cal.
The following examples show the effect of hydration on heat of solution in a large quantity of water: § io.
The momentary effect was immense; for some of the halo of the Holy Empire still clung round the head of the house of Habsburg, and Francis Joseph was welcomed to the ancient free city with enthusiasm.
Even during the temporary Hellenization in the second great period the character of the people as a whole was untouched by the various external influences which produced so great an effect on the upper classes.
It is at least necessary to distinguish provisionally between a possibly historical framework and narratives which may be of later growth - between the general outlines which only external evidence can test and details which cannot be tested and appear isolated without any cause or devoid of any effect.
But if Josiah carried out the reforms ascribed to him they were of no lasting effect.
xvi., xxiii.), the religious revival was a practical failure, and it was not until a century later that the opportunity again came to put any new teaching into effect (§ 20).
Precepts such as these could hardly fail to effect some modification of the reckless zeal of the Galileans in the pupils of the synagogue.
Jerusalem was rebuilt by Hadrian, orders to this effect being given during the emperor's first journey through Syria in 130, the date of his foundations at.
Effect of the French Revolution.
Rightly or wrongly, he was held personally responsible for the rapprochement with France and Russia and the opposition to the Powers of the Triple Alliance; and this attitude had its effect on his career when Leo XIII.
It was not till 1645 that the Turks made any serious attempt to effect the conquest of the island; but in that year they landed with an army of 50,000 men, and speedily reduced the important city of Canea.
But far from this having a favourable effect upon the condition of the population, the result was just the contrary, and according to R.
Discouraged by his failure to effect this, he returned to his diocese of Cambrai at the beginning of 1408.
The convict lease system was abolished by the constitution of 1890 (the provision to take effect on the 31st of December 1894), and state farms were purchased in Rankin, Hinds and Holmes counties.
On the 26th of May 1908 the people of the state voted " against the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors " in the state; the prohibition act thus approved went into effect on the 1st of January 1909.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
Another beautiful grotto has green instead of blue refractions; the effect in both cases is due to the light entering by a small entrance.
Such visitors are clearly prejudicial to the flower, and so we meet with arrangements which are calculated to repel the intruders, or at least to force them to enter the flower in such a way as not to effect mischief.
The object of these movements will be appreciated when it is remembered that, if the pollen-masses retained the original direction they had in the anther in which they were formed, they would, when transported by the insect to another flower, merely come in contact with the anther of that flower, where of course they would be of no use; but, owing to the divergences and flexions above alluded to, the pollen-masses come to be so placed that, when transplanted to another flower of the same species, they come in contact with the stigma and so effect the fertilization of that flower.
He was severe, but just and impartial, and strove to effect necessary reforms by reducing the numbers of the Janissaries, improving the coinage, and checking the state expenditure.
The moderating effect of the proximity of the ocean is felt in an important degree along the southern and eastern parts of Asia, where the land is broken up into islands or peninsulas.
In the winter similar consequences ensue, in a negative direction, from the prolonged loss of heat by radiation in the long and clear nights - an effect which is intensified wherever the surface is covered with snow, or the air little charged with vapour.
The winter cold produces an effect of just an opposite nature, and Winds.
Jenghiz Khan and Timur covered more ground than Napoleon, and no European has had such an effect on the world as Mahomet.
Bactria soon became independent under an IndoGreek dynasty, and the blending of Greek, Persian, central Asiatic and Hindu influences had an important effect on the art and religion of India, and through India on all eastern Asia.
The Japanese have produced few books of importance, and their compositions are chiefly remarkable as being lighter and more secular than is usual in Asia, but the older Chinese works take high rank both for their merits and the effect they have had.
Though Europeans may be indebted to China for some mechanical inventions, she was too distant to produce much direct effect, and the influence of India has been mainly directed towards the East.
There has been great difference of opinion as to the extent to which Alexander's conquests influenced Asia, and it is equally hard to say what is the effect now being produced by Europe.
Such, at least, was the thought of later writers, who have given effect to the belief in chap. viii.
The unit of knowledge is not an isolated impression but a judgment; and in such a judgment is contained, even initially, the reference both to a permanent subject and to a permanent world of thought, and, implied in these, such judgments, for example, as those of existence, substance, cause and effect.
Although at times he states his principles with a wonderful degree of breadth and insight, he mars the effect by looseness of statement, and by the incorporation of irrelevant psychological matter.
Further, they had the effect of sobering the culprit, and the more creditable part of his life did not begin till he left Vincennes.
He first thought of becoming a minister at a very early date, if we may believe a story contained in the Memoires of the duchesse d'Abrantes, to the effect that in May 1789 the queen tried to bribe him, but that he refused this and expressed his wish to be a minister.
This promise he brilliantly fulfilled by routing the forces of the Argive confederacy at the battle of Mantinea (418), the moral effect of which was out of all proportion to the losses inflicted on the enemy.
The abolition of debts was carried into effect, but the land distribution was put off by Agesilaus on various pretexts.
It was reluctantly accepted by Lord Sandwich, then First Lord, but before it could take effect France declared war, and a powerful French squadron was sent to America under the count d'Estaing.
There is general truth in what was once said by a high authority to the effect that, while there will be something dignified in the humblest Rajput, there will be something mean in the highest Mahratta.
This commercial policy had indeed a deeper and more fatal effect than the alienation of the towns; it secularized still further the brethren of the Order, and made them financiers instead of soldiers.
Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten ?
The lesson shocked the king, but its effect soon wore off.
As wife of Pluto, she sent spectres, ruled the ghosts, and carried into effect the curses of men.
An Act passed in 1770, which relaxed the rigour of strict entails and afforded power to landlords to grant leases and otherwise improve their estates, had a beneficial effect on Scottish agriculture.
The Agricultural Rates Act 1896 gave effect to this recommendation.
manures), manufactured or imported, to state the percentage of the nitrogen, of the soluble and insoluble phosphates, and of the potash in each article sold, and this statement was to have the effect of a warranty.
The Copyhold Consolidation Act 1894 supersedes six previous copyhold statutes, but does not effect any alteration in the law concerning enfranchisement.
The average results show that, under all conditions of manuring - excepting with farmyard manure - the produce was less over the later than over the earlier periods of the experiments, an effect partly due to the seasons.
The fact that the growth of a leguminous crop, such as red clover, leaves the soil in a higher condition for the subsequent growth of a grain crop - that, indeed, the growth of such a leguminous crop is to a great extent equivalent to the application of a nitrogenous manure for the cereal crop - was in effect known ages ago.
So much, indeed, does the character of the herbage vary from plot to plot that the effect may fairly be described as kaleidoscopic. Repeated analyses have shown how greatly both the botanical constitution and the chemical composition of the mixed herbage vary according to the description of manure applied.
Such, moreover, is the effect of different manures that the gross produce of the mixed herbage is totally different on the respective plots according to the manure employed, both as to the proportion of the various species composing it and as to their condition of development and maturity.
The effect was to reduce to a minimum the risk of the introduction of disease amongst the herds and flocks of the country, and at the same time to confine the trade in store stock exclusively to the breeders of Great Britain and Ireland.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
In studying, therefore, such an apparently simple question as the effect of an act of parliament on wages in a small group of trades we want a general theory which we can use as a kind of index of the factors we have to consider.
During Kett's rebellion he was allowed to preach in the rebels' camp on Mousehold Hill, but without much effect; and later on he encouraged his chaplain, Alexander Neville, to write his history of the rising.
The last part of Bruce's life, from 1315 to 1329, began with an attempt which was the most striking testimony that could have been given to the effect of Bannockburn, and which, had it succeeded, might have altered the future of the British Isles.
to effect a truce, or, failing that, to renew the excommunication of Bruce.
Nasir Lek's message and the urgent representations of Firdousi's friends had the desired effect; and Mahmud not only expressed his intention of offering full reparation to the poet, but put his enemy Maimandi to death.
- Sketch of a model designed so as to show the effect of torsion or rotation of the visceral hump in Streptoneurous Gastropoda.
The characteristic torsion attains its maximum effect among the majority of the Streptoneura.
The only man who tried to shake off the theological influence of Origen was Marcellus of Ancyra, who did not succeed in producing any lasting effect on theology.
On his first entry into Milan (15th of May 1796) he received a rapturous welcome as the liberator of Italy from the Austrian yoke; but the instructions of the Directory allowed him at the outset to do little more than effect the organization of consultative committees and national guards in the chief towns of Lombardy.
The Council of State, acting on a suggestion made by Cambaceres, now intervened with telling effect.
The effect of these extraordinary changes, then, was the carrying out of Napoleonic satrapies in the north and centre of Italy in a way utterly inconsistent with the treaty of Luneville; and the weakness with which the courts of London and Vienna looked on at these singular events confirmed Bonaparte in the belief that he could do what he would with neighbouring states.
It is worthy of note that Josephine then won a triumph over Joseph Bonaparte and his sisters, who had been intriguing to effect a divorce.
After imposing these harsh terms on his enemy, the conqueror might naturally have shown clemency to the Tirolese leader, Andreas Hofer; but that brave mountaineer, when betrayed by a friend, was sentenced to death at Mantua owing to the arrival of a special message to that effect from Napoleon.
The move not only failed, but it had the fatal effect of uncovering Paris to the northern forces of the allies.
Their recollection of his conduct during the congress of Chatillon was the determining fact at this crisis; his professions at Lyons or Paris had not the slightest effect; his efforts to detach Austria from the coalition, as also the feelers put forth tentatively by Fouche at Vienna, were fruitless.
In the first months of his tenure of office he had to deal with the furious opposition to Wood's halfpence, and to counteract the effect of Swift's Draper's Letters.
The manufacture, modelling and painting of faience objects, and the making of inlays in many materials were also familiar to Aegean craftsmen, who show in all their best work a strong sense of natural form and an appreciation of ideal balance and decorative effect, such as are seen in the best products of later Hellenic art.
The timidity of the Danish admiral Ulrik C. Gyldenldve, and the daring of Charles, who forced his nervous and protesting admiral to attempt the passage of the eastern channel of the Sound, the dangerous flinterend, hitherto reputed to be unnavigable, enabled the Swedish king to effect a landing at Humleback in Sjaelland (Zealand), a few miles north of Copenhagen (Aug.
Here there is only space to name Bontius, Clusius, Hernandez (or Fernandez), Marcgrave, Nieremberg and Piso, 6 whose several works describing the natural products of both the Indies - whether the result of their own observation or compilation - together with those of Olina and Worm, produced a marked effect, since they led up to what may be deemed the foundation of scientific ornithology.'
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
5 It had no effect on Lacepbde, who in the following year added a Tableau methodique containing a classification of birds to his Discours d'ouverture (Mdm.
Moreover, whatever the lovers of the fine arts may say, it is nearly certain that the " Bewick Collector " is mistaken in attaching so high a value to these old editions, for owing to the want of skill in printing - indifferent ink being especially assigned as one cause - many of the earlier issues fail to show the most delicate touches of the engraver, which the increased care bestowed upon the edition of 1847 (published under the supervision of John Hancock) has revealed - though it must be admitted that certain blocks have suffered from wear of the press so as to be incapable of any more producing the effect intended.
A similar series of works was projected and begun about the same time as that of Le Vaillant by Audebert and Vieillot, though the former, who was by profession a painter and illustrated the work, was already dead more than a year before the appearance of the two volumes, bearing date 2802, and entitled Oiseaux dores ou a reflets metalliques, the effect of the plates in which he sought to heighten by the lavish use of gilding.
Its line to some extent may be partly made out - very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its details have been published in the series of papers to which reference has been given - and some traces of its features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the specimens of birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849; but, from the time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously continuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect on the views of systematisers generally.
He states that Gould suspected the alliance of these two forms " from external structure and habits alone "; otherwise one might suppose that he had obtained an intimation to that effect on one of his Continental journeys.
The attempt of Des Murs was praiseworthy, but in effect it has utterly failed, notwithstanding the encomiums passed upon it by friendly critics (Rev. de Zoologie, 1860, pp. 176-183,313-325,370-373).2 Until about this time systematists, almost without exception, may be said to have been wandering with no definite purpose.
3 Here there is no need to enter into details of the history of evolution; but there was possibly no branch of zoology in which so many of the best informed and consequently the most advanced of its workers sooner accepted the principles of evolution than ornithology, and of course the effect upon its study was very marked.
How little effect this had, however, is shown by the fact that in 1265 Odo, archbishop of Sens, could do no more than prohibit the obscene excesses of the feast, without abolishing the feast itself; that in 1444 the university of Paris, at the request of certain bishops, addressed a letter condemning it to all cathedral chapters; and that King Charles VII.
In exterior elevation the chief effect is produced by the grouping of the domes.
In the interior the effect is gained by broad masses of chromatic decoration in marble-veneer and mosaics on a gold ground to cover the walls and vaults, and by elaborate pavements of opus sectile and opus Alexandrinum.
On the other hand, the plastic quality of terracotta suggested an abundance of delicate ornamentation on a small scale, which produced its effect by its own individual beauty without broad reference to the general scheme.
Polo, a late central Gothic building (1380-1400) which Ruskin describes as "of the finest kind and superb in its effect of colour when seen from the side.
Taken as a whole, after the ducal palace this is the noblest effect of all in Venice."
Special notes of the style are the central grouping of the windows, leaving comparatively solid spaces on each side, which gives the effect of FIG.
a main building with wings; the large amount of window space; the comparative flatness of the façades; the employment of a cornice to each storey; the effect of light and shade given by the balconies; and in churches by the circular pediments on the facades.
San Salvadore, the work of Tullio Lombardo (1530), is severer and less highly ornamented than the preceding examples, but its plan is singularly impressive, giving the effect of great space in a comparatively small area.
The volute buttresses, each crowned with a statue, add quaintly but happily to the general effect.
The latter façade was completely reconstructed upon 2200 piles driven to great depths, with the result that the general harmony of the monument - the effect of time and of atmospheric conditions - was completely lost.
The effect of the final Lombard invasion is shown by the resolve to quit the mainland and the rapid building of churches which is recorded by the Cronaca altinate.
See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions existing in the smaller cities.
Germann, National Legislation concerning Education, its Influence and Effect in the Public Lands east of the Mississippi River, admitted prior to 1820 (New York, 1899); J.
Its effect was to remove from Athens for a period of ten years any person who threatened the harmony and tranquillity of the body politic. A similar device existed at various times in Argos, Miletus, Syracuse and Megara, but in these cities it appears to have been introduced under Athenian influence.
As in the case of other privilegia, ostracism did not take effect unless six thousand votes in all were recorded.
On the whole, the history of its effect in Athens, Argos, Miletus, Megara and Syracuse (where it was called Petalismus), furnishes no sufficient defence against its admitted disadvantages.
A new charter went into effect in 1910.
It gave its name to a treaty with the Mahrattas, signed in 1776 but never carried into effect.
The subsequent decline of Athenian land-power had the effect of weakening this new connexion; at the time of the Peloponnesian War Phocis was nominally an ally and dependent of Sparta, and had lost control of Delphi.
Xnyviaicos, ribbon), a quartic curve invented by Jacques Bernoulli (Acta Eruditorum, 1694) and afterwards investigated by Giulio Carlo Fagnano, who gave its principal properties and applied it to effect the division of a quadrant into 2 2 m, 3.2 m and 5.2 m equal parts.
Sometimes the shape of the spider combines with the colour to produce the same effect, as in the species of Uloborus, which as they hang in thin shabby-looking webs exactly resemble fragments of wind-blown rubbish.
A lease under the Settled Land Act 1882 must be by deed and must be made to take effect in possession not later than 12 months after its date; the best rent that can reasonably be obtained must be reserved and the lease must contain a covenant by the lessee for payment of the rent, and a condition of re-entry on nonpayment within a specified time not exceeding 30 days.
Where there is no express stipulation creating a yearly tenancy, if the parties have contracted that the tenant may be dispossessed by a notice given at any time, effect will be given to this provision.
In the absence of a date, it will take effect from the day of delivery.
Where the agreement provides for the insertion in the lease of " proper " covenants, such covenants only are pointed at as are calculated to secure the full effect of the contract, and a covenant against assignment or under-letting would not ordinarily be included.
The effect of partial destruction has given rise to some uncertainty.
holograph or duly tested, do not exceed 31 years, or, except as regards leases of mines and minerals, and of lands held by burgage tenure, relate to an extent of land exceeding 50 acres, and contain provisions for renewal, they may be recorded for publication in the Register of Sasines, and such publication has the effect of possession (Registration of Leases [Scotland] Act 1857).
The evaporation from this large basin exercises a certain influence on the climate of the surrounding country, while the absorption of heat for the thawing of the ice has a notable cooling effect in early summer.
Now, supposing dealing to be confined to experts, what effects upon the course of prices would one expect from the specialism of the cotton market and improved facilities Effect specula= for dealing, on the assumption that dealers were governed wholly in their actions by the course of prices and never tried to manipulate them?
In consequence of this tampering with the market no certainty can be felt about the effect even of expert dealing.
has been collected, but the reader must bear in mind that if improvement can be traced it cannot logically be attributed unhesitatingly to the perfecting of the machinery of speculation, whereby a larger use has been made of " futures," since many other economic changes have taken place concomitantly and they may have wrought the major effect.
And it is immediately evident that the deliberate "bear" works by selling "futures," and that the effect of his sales is propagated to "spot."
But nothing has yet been proved from these facts as to the effect "futures" are having upon the steadiness of prices.
The outcome of the whole matter is that the investigator is still baffled in his attempt to discover what effect the use of "futures" is having upon prices to-day.
As regards the theory, it may be pointed out: (I) that the nature or cosmical miracles - feeding of the five thousand, stilling of the storm, withering of the fig-tree - are as wellattested as the miracles of healing; (2) that many of the diseases, the cure of which is reported, are of a kind with which moral therapeutics could not effect anything; 1 (3) that Christ's own insight regarding the power by which he wrought His works is directly challenged by this explanation, for He never failed to ascribe His power to the Father dwelling in Him.
The great political events which occurred during his boyhood and youth seem to have had less effect on him than on many of his contemporaries, and he was not carried away either by enthusiastic admiration for Napoleon or by the patriotic fervour of 1813.
These slight differences in level, however, are found to have a most powerful effect in the direction already mentioned.
pipe from Burning Springs to Parkersburg, West Virginia, a distance of 36 m.; but his proposal was never carried into effect.
But it was finally by the treachery of one of Yagi-sian's commanders, the amir Firuz, that Bohemund was able to effect its capture.
Till 1243 the party of Frederick had been successful in retaining Tyre, and the baronial demand for a regency had remained without effect; but in that year the opposition, headed by the great family of Ibelin, succeeded, under cover of asserting the rights of Alice of Cyprus to the regency, in securing possession of Tyre, and the kingdom of Jerusalem thus fell back into the power of the baronage.
Partly as a result of this trade, ever pushing its way farther east, and partly as a result of the Asiatic missions, which were themselves an accompaniment and effect of the Crusades, a third great result of the Crusades came to light in the 13th century - the discovery of the interior of Asia, and an immense accession to the sphere of geography.
The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.
In winter the effect is heightened by the snow which caps all the higher peaks.
It is, however, requisite to make provision for the effect of changes in atmospheric temperature.
All this, however, must necessarily be of the nature of the purest speculation, and the only facts which we are able to deduce in the present state of our knowledge of the subject may be summed up as follows: (a) That the Malays ethnologically belong to a race which is allied to the Polynesians; (b) that the theory formerly current to the effect that the Sakai and other similar races of the peninsula and archipelago belonged to the Malayan stock cannot be maintained, since recent investigations tend to identify them with the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer family of races; (c) that the Malays are, comparatively speaking, newcomers in the lands which they now inhabit; (d) that it is almost certain that their emigration took place from the south; (e) and that, at some remote period of their history, they came into close contact with the Polynesian race, probably before its dispersion over the extensive area which it now occupies.
Lucius, Die Therapeuten and ihre Stellung), and accepted in England, to the effect that the De Vita Contemplativa is not a work of Philo's at all, but a forgery put forward about the end of the 3rd century and intended to procure the authority of Philo's name for the then rising monasticism of the Church.
It is of consequence that they should, as far as possible, be free from excess of alkali and all other salts and foreign ingredients which may have an injurious effect on the skin.
The effect upon the permanent level of the lakes of the withdrawal of water through this artificial outlet is receiving much attention.
17: Survey of Northern and North-western Lakes, U.S. Lake Survey Office (Detroit, Michigan, 1907); St Lawrence Pilot, 7th ed., Hydrographic Office Admiralty (London, 1906); Effect of Withdrawal of Water from Lake Michigan by the Sanitary District of Chicago, U.S. House of Representatives' Document No.
The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.
This was the problem that faced Ignatius, and in his endeavour to effect a needed reformation in the individual and in society his work and the success that crowned it place him among the moral heroes of humanity.
in 1254, misled him into wild schemes which never took effect but caused immense expense.
As in his active career he had wrought organic changes in the ordering, direction and control of fleets, so by his historic studies, pursued after his retirement, he helped greatly to effect, if he did not exclusively initiate, an equally momentous change in the popular, and even the professional, way of regarding sea-power and its conditions.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.