Saul, whose chief herdsman, Doeg, was an Edomite (I Sam.
Naphtali and Dan are "brothers," perhaps partly on geographical grounds, but Dan also had a seat in the south (south-west of Ephraim), and the name of the "mother" Bilhah is apparently connected with Bilhan, an Edomite and also a Benjamite name (Gen.
Hence it is noteworthy that the late editor of Judges has given the first place to Othniel, a Kenizzite, and therefore of Edomite affinity, though subsequently reckoned as a Judaean (Judg i.
To a certain extent it would seem that even as Chronicles (q.v.) has passed through the hands of one who was keenly interested in the Temple service, so the other historical books have been shaped not only by the late priestly writers (symbolized in literary criticism by P), but also by rather earlier writers, also of priestly sympathies, but of " southern " or half-Edomite affinity.
Edomite) unceasingly opposed him.
Recent discoveries near Tell Sandahannah (or Mareshah) have revealed the presence of North Arabian (Edomite) names about the 2nd century B.C.'
If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Edomite, in another as an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Judah or' possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite.
The chronicler's account of his war against Moab, Ammon and Edomite tribes (2 Chron.
The Edomite revolt under Jehoram of Judah becomes the penalty for the king's apostasy (2 Chron.
We learn, also, that Hadad, a young Edomite prince, had escaped the sanguinary campaign in the reign of David (2 Sam.
8); he appears to have been represented as a Horite or Edomite (cp. the name Lotan, Gen.
Israel at the death of Jeroboam was rent by divided factions, whereas Judah (under Uzziah) has now become a powerful kingdom, controlling both Philistia and the Edomite port of Elath on the gulf of `Akaba.
(For the Edomite gods, see Edom.) The name is known in the form Ya'u in north Syria (8th century), and, so far as the Israelite kings are concerned, appears first in the family of Ahab.
But the Judaean historians have successfully concealed the course of events, although, as has long been recognized, there was some movement upwards from the south of Judah of groups closely tion of related to Edomite and kindred peoples of South New Palestine and Northern Arabia.
To be largely of half-Edomite blood.
14, 20-24), a Judah consisting of fragments of an older stock replenished with families of South Palestinian, Edomite and North Arabian affinity.
This half-Edomite population, recognizable also in Benjamin, manifests its presence in the official lists, and more especially in the ecclesiastical bodies inaugurated by David, from whose time the supremacy of this Judah is dated.
This retrospect of the Judaean kingdom must be taken with the following books, where the crucial features are (a) the presence (c. 444) of an aristocracy, partly (at all events) of half-Edomite affinity, before the return of any important body of exiles (Neh.
Accord with certain details in 1 Samuel, and appear to refer to a half-Edomite Judah in David's time (c. 1000 B.e.).
Meyer, on the basis of a larger induction, has pointed out the relation of this Judah to a large group of Edomite or Edomite-Ishmaelite tribes.
When the whole body of evidence is viewed comprehensively, it would seem that there was some movement northwards of semi-Edomite blood, tradition and literature, the date of which may be placed during the internal disorganization of Palestine, and presumably in the 6th century.
Note also the view that the grand book of Job has an Edomite background.
For an Edomite invasion between 586 and the Greek period, see also H.
The oldest nucleus of historical tradition appears to belong to Samaria, but it has been adjusted to other standpoints or interests, which are apparently connected partly with the half-Edomite and partly with the old indigenous Judaean stock.'
Unfortunately the events of his age are shrouded in obscurity, but one can recognize the return of exiles from Babylon to Jerusalem and its environs - now half-Edomite - and various internal rivalries which culminate in the Samaritan schism.'
Its standpoint, too, varies, the phases being now northern or wider Israelite, now half -Edomite or Judaean, and now anti-Samarian.
Of the escape of the Edomite prince Hadad, and of his residence in Egypt, a twofold account is 1 See further, E.
The account of the ferocious slaughter of the priests of Nob at Saul's command by Doeg the Edomite is a secondary tradition and probably of late origin (1 Sam.
6 sqq.), and at this stage Edomite history becomes more prominent.
25-30), but it is uncertain whether the Edomite occupation was earlier (a fusion being assumed) or later, or whether the passage may be untrustworthy.
39 seq.), as foretold, obviously alludes to some successful Edomite revolt.
It should be added, however, that the Edomite names and other evidence point to the cult of other gods, viz.
Both are "sons" of Kenaz, and Kenaz is an Edomite clan (Gen.
Above the Dead Sea) in the Edomite Mountains on the east side of the JordanArabah valley.
We know that the rites at Mozdalifa were originally connected with a holy hill bearing the name of the god Quzah (the Edomite Koze) whose bow is the rainbow, and there is reason to think that the ifadas from Arafa and Quzah, which were not made as now after sunset and before sunrise, but when the sun rested on the tops of the mountains, were ceremonies of farewell and salutation to the sun-god.
2, and note the Benjamite and Judahite names which find analogies in the Edomite genealogies.
A summary of Edomite kings is ascribed to the period before the Israelite monarchy (vv.
Lotan, an Edomite name), of Isaac from Hagar-Ishmael, or of Jacob from Esau-Edom scarcely points to the relative antiquity of the origin of these nonIsraelite peoples who, to judge from the evidence, were closely related.
The Edomite genealogies (xxxvi.) represent a more extensive people than the references in the popular stories suggest, and the latter by no means indicate that Edom had so important a career as we actually gather from a few allusions to its kings (xxxvi.
Particular attention is paid to Edom and Jacob, and there is good evidence for a close relationship between Edomite and allied names and those of South Palestine (including Simeon and Judah).
Names related to those of Edomite and kindred groups are found in the late genealogies of both Judah and Benjamin, and recur even among families of the time of Nehemiah.
That the actual murderer was an Edomite may perhaps be associated with other traditions of Edomite hostility.