The Roman arms were not very successful, and King Aretas retained his whole possessions, including Damascus, as a Roman ' See Edom, and (for the view that Mal.
The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
IDUMAEA ('160v saia), the Greek equivalent of Edom (aip), a territory which, in the works of the Biblical writers, is considered to lie S.E.
10) shows that Edom is the name of a divinity.
The early history of Edom is hidden in darkness.
The occupants of Edom during practically the whole period of Biblical history were the Bedouin tribes which claimed 1 A curious etymological speculation connects the name with the story of Esau's begging for Jacob's pottage, Gen.
There was a king in Edom (Num.
I I, 13), occupied Edom for six months and devastated it; it was garrisoned and permanently held by David (2 Sam.
20, 22), Edom was a dependency of Judah, ruled by a viceroy (i Kings xxii..
The later history of Edom is curious.
Both Moab and Ammon, as well as Edom, had their separate tribal deities.
Chemosh (Moab) and Milk (Milcom), the god of Ammon, and in the case of Edom a deity known from the inscriptions as KOs (in Assyrian Kaus).
p. 11 (Edom); and cf.
Close relationship was recognized with the Aramaeans, with Edom, Moab and Ammon.
Judah had natural connexions with Edom and southern Palestine; Israel was more closely associated with Gilead and the Aramaeans of the north.
It is interesting to find that Hadad-nirari claims tribute from Tyre, Sidon and Beth-Omri (Israel), also from Edom and Palastu (Philistia).
Moab was probably tributary; the position of Judah and Edom is involved with the chronological problems. According to the Judaean annals, the " people of Judah " set Azariah (Uzziah) upon his father's throne; and to his long reign of fifty-two years are ascribed conquests over Philistia and Edom, the fortification of Jerusalem and the reorganization of the army.
It was at the holy well of Kadesh, in the sacred mounts of Sinai and Horeb, and in the field of Edom that the 1 Cf.
In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.
But the proud Israelites did not remain submissive for long; Damascus had indeed fallen, but neither Philistia nor Edom had yet been crushed.
At Sennacherib's approach, Ashdod, Ammon, Moab and Edom submitted; Ekron, Ascalon, Lachish and Jerusalem held out strenuously.
Both Esar-haddon (681-668) and Assur-bani-pal (668 - c. 626) number among their tributaries Tyre, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Ascalon, Gaza and Manasseh himself,' and cuneiform dockets unearthed at Gezer suggest the presence of Assyrian garrisons there (and no doubt also elsewhere) to ensure allegiance.
The land had not been devastated, and many gladly returned from their hiding-places in Moab, Edom and Ammon.
presupposes the desolation after that disaster, and some traces of these families are found in Nehemiah's time; and while the traditions know of a separation from Edom (viz.
When Edom is renowned for wisdom and a small Judaean family boasts of sages whose names have south Palestinian affinity (1 Chron.
A definite series knows of an invasion and occupation by Edom (q.v.
The Chaldeans alone destroyed Jerusalem (2 Kings xxv.); Edom was friendly or at least neutral (Jer.
The glory of this victory was increased by the complete subjugation of Edom in a war conducted by Joab with characteristic severity (2 Sam.
Some misunderstanding has been caused by the confusion of Edom (cis) and Aram (o,·) in viii.
Moab, Ammon and Edom would appear to have been merely tributary, whilst in the north among his allies David could number the king of Hamath.
12, see Edom), and appear to have numbered among their divisions the Kenites.
4 seq., 19), pointing to the revolt of Edom under Joram (2 Kings viii.
Edom's hostility to Judah was incessant, but the feud reached its full intensity only after the time of Deuteronomy (xxiii.
In the time of Amos the slaves collected by Philistines and Tyr'ans were sold en masse to Edom, and presumably went to Egypt or Arabia,.
Egypt and Edom, on the other hand, shall be desolate, because they have shed the blood of Yahweh's innocents.
Compare the similar predictions against Edom, Isa.
lx., with its ideal description of Jehovah's kingdom as including Gilead, Samaria, Moab, Edom and Philistia, though the ideal was not realized till the days of John Hyrcanus, would be quite appropriate in the mouth of a Maccabaean patriot.
These two oracles agree in the elaborateness of their description of the fearful fate of the enemies of Yahweh (Babylon and Edom are merely representatives of a class), and also in their view of the deliverance and restoration of Israel as an epoch for the whole human race.
He recovered Elath at the head of the Aelanitic Gulf, evidently in the course of a successful campaign against Edom (a possible reference in Isa.
The internal disorders of the realm depicted by Micah are also prominent in Isaiah's prophecies; they were closely connected, not only with the foreign complications due to the approach of the Assyrians, but with the break-up of the old agrarian system within Israel, and with the rapid and uncompensated aggrandisement of the nobles during those prosperous years when the conquest of Edom by Amaziah and the occupation of the port of Elath by his son (2 Kings xiv.
These apply, in various ways, the truth emphasized at the outset: Yahweh's love for Israel in contrast with his treatment of Edom (i.
2); and he superintended the campaign against Ammon and Edom (2 Sam.
Nothing certain is known of the marauding bands sent against Jehoiakim; for Syrians (Aram) one would expect Edomites (Edom), but see Jer.
47) is followed by the revolt of Libnah (near Lachish) and Edom against his son Jehoram (2 Kings viii.
In like manner, the conquests of Uzziah over Edom and allied tribes (2 Kings xiv.
6) find their sequel in the alliance of Samaria and Damascus against Ahaz, when Edom recovered its independence (so read for " Syria " in 2 Kings xvi.
Its king Hanun had fled to Musri, but was pursued and captured; Ascalon, Judah and Edom appear in a list of tributaries.
Judah, Edom and Moab were also involved, but submitted (711 B.C.).
Gaza and Edom against Judah in Amos i.
In the 7th century Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod and Ekron were Assyrian vassals, together with Judah, Moab and Edom - in all, twenty-two kings of the " Hittites " - and the discovery of Assyrian contract-tablets at Gezer (c. 650) may indicate the presence of Assyrian garrisons.
2 In the prophetical writings the Philistines are denounced (with Ammon, Moab and Edom) for their vengeance upon Judah (Ezek.
7), and the Caphtorim drove out the aboriginal Avva from Gaza and district, as the Horites and Rephaim were displaced by Edom and Ammon (Deut.
It is often supposed that the name of the king of Edom,4 Bela, son of Beor, is a corruption of Balaam, and that, therefore, one form of the tradition made him a king of Edom.
14-19, announces the coming of a king, possibly David, who shall conquer Edom and Moab.
Amaziah, after defeating Edom (2 Chron.
If these situations can with difficulty find a place in our picture of Solomon's might, it is clear that some of them form the natural introduction to the subsequent history, when his death brought internal discontent to a head, when the north under Jeroboam refused allegiance to the south, and when the divided monarchy enters upon its eventful career by the side of the independent states of Edom, Damascus and Phoenicia.
Ammon, Moab, Edom and the queen of Sheba sent tribute, and Teima in northern Arabia was captured by the Assyrian troops.
are on various foreign nations, Edom, Tyre, Egypt, &c. Prophecies of Israel's future restoration follow in chs.
22 seq., and on the Talmudic custom of applying to the Romans the references to Edom or Esau, see Jewish Ency.
The popular view regarding Israel and Edom is expressed when the story makes Jacob a tent-dweller, and Esau a hunter, a man of the field.
40-45), an endeavour to pass Edom failed, and the people turned back to the Yam Suph (here at the head of the Gulf of Akabah) and proceeded up to the east of Edom and Moab.
Two such still remain hard by the ruins of the royal sanctuary of Edom, overlooking Petra, and are obelisks in form, 18 ft.
6 the city is denounced for giving up Hebrew slaves to Edom.
of Edom and S.
The national traditions of Israel recognize a close relationship between Moab and Ammon, "sons" of Lot, and the "brothers" Esau (Edom) and Jacob (Israel), and Moab is represented as already a powerful people when Israel fled from Egypt (Exod.
14-18), or Israel was met by Edom with force (v.
19 seq.); consequently a great detour was made from Kadesh round by the south of Edom (Num.
even seems to assume that the journey was made from Kadesh across the northern end of Edom.
To the first great kings, Saul and David, are ascribed conquests over Moab, Ammon and Edom.
At length he roused Mesha; and Moab, which had evidently retreated southwards towards Edom, now began to take reprisals.
The king of Edom appears as an ally of Israel and Judah (contrast i Kings xxii.
But the king of Moab's attempt to break through unto him suggests that in the original story (there are several signs of revision) Moab and Edom were in alliance.
Singularly enough, Jehoram of Judah suffered some defeat from Edom at Zair, an unknown name for which Ewald suggested (the Moabite) Zoar (2 Kings viii.
In fact, during the reign of Assur-bani-pal Moab played the vassal's part in helping to repulse the invasion of the Nabayati and nomads of Kedar, a movement which made itself felt from Edom nearly as far as Damascus.
The relationship felt between Israel and the external states (Moab, Edom, and Ammon) is entirely justified.
The numbers are comparatively large and possibly include forces from Tyre, Judah, Edom and Moab.
Bib., s.v., and the articles EDOM, MIDIAN.
I) began an intrigue with Moab, Edom, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon, which the prophet Jeremiah vigorously denounced (Jer.
From the end of October 1861 to the beginning of March 1862 was spent by him in Egypt, from which he went over the desert of Sinai and of Edom to Syria, reaching Jerusalem on the 19th of April 1862.
They are generally concealed by later deposits, but are exposed to view along the eastern margin of the Wadi Araba, at the foot of the plateau of Edom.
In the midst of this series there is an inconstant band of fossiliferous limestone, which has been found in the Wadi Nasb and at other places on the southern border of et-Tih, and also along the western escarpment of the Edom plateau.
It covers by far the greater part of Palestine, capping the table-lands of Moab and Edom, and forming most of the high land between the Jordan and the Mediterranean.
Its stability and the necessary furtherance of commerce, usual among Oriental kings, depended upon the attitude of the maritime coast (Philistia and Phoenicia), Edom, Moab, Ammon, Gilead and the Syrian states; and the biblical and external records for the next four centuries (to 586) frequently illustrate situations growing out of this interrelation.
(812-783) claims as tributary the land of Hatti, Amor, Tyre, Sidon, " the land of Omri " (Israel), Edom and Philistia.
Judah itself was next involved in an anti-Assyrian league (with Edom, Moab and Philistia), but apparently submitted in time; nevertheless a decade later (70r), after the change of dynasty in Assyria, it participated in a great but unsuccessful effort from Phoenicia to Philistia to shake off the yoke, and suffered disastrously.3 With the crushing blows upon Syria and Samaria the centre of interest moves southwards and the history is influenced by Assyria's rival Babylonia (under Marduk-baladan and his successors), by north Arabia and by Egypt.
in references to Ammon, Damascus and Hamath, and in Judaean relations with Philistia, Moab and Edom.
(For the Edomite gods, see Edom.) The name is known in the form Ya'u in north Syria (8th century), and, so far as the Israelite kings are concerned, appears first in the family of Ahab.
During the 7th century new movements were coming from Arabia, and tribes growing ever more restless made an invasion east of the Jordan through Edom, Moab and Ammon.
iii.);"(b) the gaps in the history between the fall of Samaria (722) and Jerusalem (586) to the rise of the hierocracy, and (c) the relation between the hints of renewed political activity in Zerubbabel's time, when the Temple was rebuilt (c. 520-516), and the mysterious catastrophe (with perhaps another disaster to the Temple), probably due to Edom, which is implied in the book of Nehemiah (c. 444).
5 It has long been agreed that biblical religion and history are indebted in some way to groups connected with Edom and North Arabia, and repeated endeavours have been made to explain the evidence in its bearing upon this lengthy period.
of `Amr. 7 In the Old Testament popular feeling knows of two phases: Edom, the more powerful brother of Jacob (or Israel) - both could share in the traditions of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - and the hatred of the treacherous Edom in the prophetical writings.
Briinnow's great survey of Petra, with part of Moab and Edom.
Hor; the latter is an unidentified site on the border of Edom (Num.
EDOM, the district situated to the south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of `Akaba (Aelanitic Gulf), the inhabitants of which were regarded by the Israelites as a "brother" people (see EsAU).
south of Beersheba (the southern end of Israel as opposed to Dan in the north), and the precise borders must always have been determined by political conditions: by the relations between Edom and its neighbours, Judah, the Philistine states, Moab, and the restless desert tribes with which Edom was always very closely allied.
The northern part of Edom became known by a separate name as Gebalene (Gebal in Ps.
Seir, a synonym for Edom, not to be confused with the Judaean locality (Josh.
10), has been identified with the modern es-Sarah, the hilly region to the south of Petra; though its use probably varied in ancient times as much as that of Edom certainly did.
The sites of Teman and Dedan, which also were closely associated with Edom (Jer.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.