Edom sentence example
The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
The early history of Edom is hidden in darkness.
The occupants of Edom during practically the whole period of Biblical history were the Bedouin tribes which claimed 1 A curious etymological speculation connects the name with the story of Esau's begging for Jacob's pottage, Gen.
I I, 13), occupied Edom for six months and devastated it; it was garrisoned and permanently held by David (2 Sam.
The later history of Edom is curious.Advertisement
Both Moab and Ammon, as well as Edom, had their separate tribal deities.
Chemosh (Moab) and Milk (Milcom), the god of Ammon, and in the case of Edom a deity known from the inscriptions as KOs (in Assyrian Kaus).
Close relationship was recognized with the Aramaeans, with Edom, Moab and Ammon.
Judah had natural connexions with Edom and southern Palestine; Israel was more closely associated with Gilead and the Aramaeans of the north.
It is interesting to find that Hadad-nirari claims tribute from Tyre, Sidon and Beth-Omri (Israel), also from Edom and Palastu (Philistia).Advertisement
Moab was probably tributary; the position of Judah and Edom is involved with the chronological problems. According to the Judaean annals, the " people of Judah " set Azariah (Uzziah) upon his father's throne; and to his long reign of fifty-two years are ascribed conquests over Philistia and Edom, the fortification of Jerusalem and the reorganization of the army.
It was at the holy well of Kadesh, in the sacred mounts of Sinai and Horeb, and in the field of Edom that the 1 Cf.
In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.
But the proud Israelites did not remain submissive for long; Damascus had indeed fallen, but neither Philistia nor Edom had yet been crushed.
At Sennacherib's approach, Ashdod, Ammon, Moab and Edom submitted; Ekron, Ascalon, Lachish and Jerusalem held out strenuously.Advertisement
Both Esar-haddon (681-668) and Assur-bani-pal (668 - c. 626) number among their tributaries Tyre, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Ascalon, Gaza and Manasseh himself,' and cuneiform dockets unearthed at Gezer suggest the presence of Assyrian garrisons there (and no doubt also elsewhere) to ensure allegiance.
The land had not been devastated, and many gladly returned from their hiding-places in Moab, Edom and Ammon.
Some misunderstanding has been caused by the confusion of Edom (cis) and Aram (o,·) in viii.
Moab, Ammon and Edom would appear to have been merely tributary, whilst in the north among his allies David could number the king of Hamath.
In the time of Amos the slaves collected by Philistines and Tyr'ans were sold en masse to Edom, and presumably went to Egypt or Arabia,.Advertisement
Egypt and Edom, on the other hand, shall be desolate, because they have shed the blood of Yahweh's innocents.
Compare the similar predictions against Edom, Isa.
These two oracles agree in the elaborateness of their description of the fearful fate of the enemies of Yahweh (Babylon and Edom are merely representatives of a class), and also in their view of the deliverance and restoration of Israel as an epoch for the whole human race.
Nothing certain is known of the marauding bands sent against Jehoiakim; for Syrians (Aram) one would expect Edomites (Edom), but see Jer.
Its king Hanun had fled to Musri, but was pursued and captured; Ascalon, Judah and Edom appear in a list of tributaries.Advertisement
Judah, Edom and Moab were also involved, but submitted (711 B.C.).
In the 7th century Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod and Ekron were Assyrian vassals, together with Judah, Moab and Edom - in all, twenty-two kings of the " Hittites " - and the discovery of Assyrian contract-tablets at Gezer (c. 650) may indicate the presence of Assyrian garrisons.
It is often supposed that the name of the king of Edom,4 Bela, son of Beor, is a corruption of Balaam, and that, therefore, one form of the tradition made him a king of Edom.
If these situations can with difficulty find a place in our picture of Solomon's might, it is clear that some of them form the natural introduction to the subsequent history, when his death brought internal discontent to a head, when the north under Jeroboam refused allegiance to the south, and when the divided monarchy enters upon its eventful career by the side of the independent states of Edom, Damascus and Phoenicia.
Ammon, Moab, Edom and the queen of Sheba sent tribute, and Teima in northern Arabia was captured by the Assyrian troops.
The popular view regarding Israel and Edom is expressed when the story makes Jacob a tent-dweller, and Esau a hunter, a man of the field.
Two such still remain hard by the ruins of the royal sanctuary of Edom, overlooking Petra, and are obelisks in form, 18 ft.
To the first great kings, Saul and David, are ascribed conquests over Moab, Ammon and Edom.
At length he roused Mesha; and Moab, which had evidently retreated southwards towards Edom, now began to take reprisals.
But the king of Moab's attempt to break through unto him suggests that in the original story (there are several signs of revision) Moab and Edom were in alliance.
In fact, during the reign of Assur-bani-pal Moab played the vassal's part in helping to repulse the invasion of the Nabayati and nomads of Kedar, a movement which made itself felt from Edom nearly as far as Damascus.
The relationship felt between Israel and the external states (Moab, Edom, and Ammon) is entirely justified.
The numbers are comparatively large and possibly include forces from Tyre, Judah, Edom and Moab.
I) began an intrigue with Moab, Edom, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon, which the prophet Jeremiah vigorously denounced (Jer.
From the end of October 1861 to the beginning of March 1862 was spent by him in Egypt, from which he went over the desert of Sinai and of Edom to Syria, reaching Jerusalem on the 19th of April 1862.
They are generally concealed by later deposits, but are exposed to view along the eastern margin of the Wadi Araba, at the foot of the plateau of Edom.
In the midst of this series there is an inconstant band of fossiliferous limestone, which has been found in the Wadi Nasb and at other places on the southern border of et-Tih, and also along the western escarpment of the Edom plateau.
Its stability and the necessary furtherance of commerce, usual among Oriental kings, depended upon the attitude of the maritime coast (Philistia and Phoenicia), Edom, Moab, Ammon, Gilead and the Syrian states; and the biblical and external records for the next four centuries (to 586) frequently illustrate situations growing out of this interrelation.
Judah itself was next involved in an anti-Assyrian league (with Edom, Moab and Philistia), but apparently submitted in time; nevertheless a decade later (70r), after the change of dynasty in Assyria, it participated in a great but unsuccessful effort from Phoenicia to Philistia to shake off the yoke, and suffered disastrously.3 With the crushing blows upon Syria and Samaria the centre of interest moves southwards and the history is influenced by Assyria's rival Babylonia (under Marduk-baladan and his successors), by north Arabia and by Egypt.
The land of Edom is unfruitful and forbidding, with the notable exception of fertile districts immediately south of the Dead Sea and along its eastern border.
Thus Edom formed a prominent centre for traffic from Arabia and its seats of culture to Egypt, the Philistine towns, Palestine and the Syrian states, and it enjoyed a commercial importance which made it a significant factor in Palestinian history.
The earliest history of Edom is that of the "sand-dwellers," "archers" or Shasu (perhaps "marauders"), whose conflicts with ancient Egypt are not infrequently mentioned.
Not only is Edom as a nation recognized as older than Israel, but a list of eight kings, who reigned before the Israelite monarchy, is preserved in Gen.
After the death of David he returned to Edom; if, as the narrative implies, he became a troublesome adversary to Solomon, nothing is known of his achievements, and if the royal trading-journeys from Ezion-geber were maintained, Edom could have done little.
But some catastrophe befell the fleet, and shortly afterwards Jehoshaphat's son Jehoram had to face a revolt in which Edom and the men of Libnah (the Philistines) were concerned.
It was about this period that Israel had conquered Moab, thrusting it farther south towards Edom, and the subsequent success of Moab in throwing off the yoke, and the unsuccessful attempt of Jehoram of Israel to regain the position, may show that Edom was also in alliance with Moab.'
In the time of Adad-nirari of Assyria (812-783 B.C.) Edom is mentioned as an independent tributary with Beth-Omri (Israel) and Palashtu (Philistia); the absence of Judah is perplexing.
Consequently it is uncertain whether Edom was the vassal of the next great Israelite king Jeroboam II., or whether the Assyrian evidence for its independent position belongs to this later time.
The pressure of the Nabataeans forced Edom to leave its former seats and advance into the south of Judah with Hebron as the capital.
It is hardly probable that there was enmity between Edom and Moab as 2 Kings iii.
See, for further history, Herod; Jews.4 Although but little is known of the inhabitants of Edom, their close relationship to Judah and their kinship with the surrounding tribes invest them with particular interest.
The ties which united Lot (the "father" of Ammon and Moab), Ishmael, Midian and Edom (Esau) with the southern tribes Judah and Simeon, as manifested in the genealogical lists, are intelligible enough on geographical grounds alone, and the significance of this for the history of Judah and Palestine cannot be ignored.
Many motives have worked to bring these legends into their present form, and while they depict the character of Israel's wilder neighbours, they represent the recurrent alternating periods of hostility and fellowship between it and Edom which mark the history.
The names Esau and Edom are possibly old divine names; see ESAU and Ency.
The last word is woe for Edom.
It was now the turn of the Arabs, some of whom had been in Babylon during the siege, while others had occupied themselves in plundering Edom, Moab and the Hauran.
The prophecy is directed against Edom.
The prominence given to Edom, and the fact that Chaldea is not mentioned at all, make it probable that the passage was not written in Babylonia.
Edom is attacked by his own allies, and his folly appears in that he exposes himself to such treachery.
But the desolation of Edom has already been accomplished in the time of Malachi i.
The restoration of the old borders of Israel and the conquest of Edom and the Philistines are ideas as old as Amos ix., Isa.
The chief interest of the book of Obadiah lies in its references to the historical relations between Israel and Edom.
For a sketch of the history of the Edomites, see Noldeke's article "Edom" in the Ency.
The interest of the struggles between Jacob and Esau lay, not in the history of individuals of the distant past, but in the fact that the names actually represented Israel and its near rival Edom.
Nevertheless, some allusion to national fortunes is reflected in the exaltation of Jacob (Israel) over Esau (Edom), and in the promise that the latter should break the yoke from his neck.
Particular attention is paid to Edom and Jacob, and there is good evidence for a close relationship between Edomite and allied names and those of South Palestine (including Simeon and Judah).
Here again biblical criticism cannot at present determine precisely when or precisely why the changed attitude began; see Edom; Jews, §§ 20, 22.
This statement, it should be noticed, has been questioned by some modern historical and textual critics, who believe that "Syria" (Hebrew Aram) is here a corruption for "Edom."
Ashdod, Ammon, Moab and Edom now submitted, but Hezekiah of Judah with the dependent Philistine princes.
With a dock worker, PC EDOM recovered the man from the dock and performed artificial respiration.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, and the Psalmist have a kindred burthen for Edom.
Others suggest that it refers to the mineral-rich red mountains nearby which are called harei Edom.
Ancient Edom also had a major seaport near Aqaba for trade along the Red Sea.
Petra (q.v.) or Sela` was the ancient capital of Edom; the Nabataeans must have occupied the old Edomite country, and succeeded to its commerce, after the Edomites took advantage of the Babylonian captivity to press forward into southern Judaea.'
A series of campaigns against Edom, Moab, Ammon and the Aramaean states, friendly relations with Hiram of Tyre, and the recognition of his sovereignty by the king of Hamath on the Orontes, combine to portray a monarchy which was the ideal.
Only the babe Jehoash was saved, and he remained hidden in the Temple adjoining the palace itself, The queen, Athaliah, despite the weak state of Judah after the revolt in Philistia and Edom, actually appears to have maintained herself for six years, until the priests slew her in a conspiracy, overthrew the cult of Baal, and crowned the young child.
He defeated Edom in the Valley of Salt, and hence it is conceivable that Amaziah's kingdom extended over both Edom and Philistia.
In the subsequent disasters of Israel (§ 15) we may perceive the growing supremacy of Judah, and the Assyrian inscriptions clearly indicate the dependence of Judaean politics upon its relations with Edom and Arab tribes on the south-east and with Philistia on the west.
Ashdod openly revolted and found support in Moab, Edom, Judah, and the still ambiguous "Egypt."
Allusions to Judah's sufferings at the hands of Edom, Moab and Ammon often imply conditions which are not applicable to 586.
In the book of Joel there are only scanty allusions to Phoenicians, Philistines, Egypt and Edom, couched in terms applicable to very different ages, while the prophet's own people are exhorted to repentance without specific reference to any of those national sins of which other prophets speak.
This Musri appears to have been a district outside the limits of Egypt proper, and although tribes of the Delta may well have been concerned, its relations to Philistia agree with the independent biblical account of the part played previously by Edom and Arabian tribes (see MIzRAIM).
In the next year Edred himself went to Tanshelf, near 4 For the Jewish hatred of Edom in later times see the book of Enoch lxxxix.
The traditions agree in representing the kin of Moses as related to the mixed tribes of the south of Palestine (see Edom) and in ascribing to the family an important share in the early development of the worship of Yahweh.