Their writings, like those of the apostles, are epistolary; but editions of the apostolic fathers now usually admit also the early Church order known as the Didache, the allegory entitled the Shepherd, and a short anonymous apology addressed to one Diognetus.
As a scholar he devoted his attention almost entirely to Plato; and his Phaedrus (1868) and Gorgias (1871), with especially valuable introductions, still remain the standard English editions of these two dialogues.
Many of the earlier editions inserted the name of Torquatus, but it is not found in any of the best manuscripts.
trans., 1692), exhaustive but uncritical; notices in the editions of Garnier and Aime-Martin; A.
The Rabdologia attracted more general attention than the logarithms, and as has been mentioned, there were several editions on the Continent.
C. Fox-Davies's Armorial Families (Edinburgh, 1895, and subsequent editions) represents an unhistorical attempt to create the idea of a noblesse in the United Kingdom.
The third may be disregarded; but the first and second editions are almost distinct works.
He collaborated with his father in the great edition of Saadia and the edition of Abu-1Walid, and also produced a number of important editions of other Arabic writers.
Over two hundred editions followed, of which perhaps the best is the one published in Paris in 1644.
(other editions 1834, 1836, &c.), and an abridged edition by W.
Editions and Translations.
Six editions of the Opera philosophica appeared at Amsterdam between 1650 and 1678; a twovolume edition at Leipzig in 1843; there are also French editions, euvres philosophiques, by A.
There are also numerous editions and translations of separate works, especially the Method, in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Hungarian.
Ritschl, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and VersOhnung (3rd ed., 1889); Unterricht in der Christlichen Lehre (very many editions); and Theologie and Metaphysik (2nd ed., 1887), give his main position.
The Latin editions of part of these works have been modified by the corrections which the monkish editors confess that they applied.
The different editions of the Descriptio and Constructio, as well as the reception of logarithms on the continent of Europe, and especially by Kepler, whose admiration of the invention almost equalled that of Briggs, belong to the history of logarithms (q.v.).
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
For editions of texts and the innumerable articles in scientific journals see the bibliographies and references in the above works.
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
For editions of texts and the innumerable articles in scientific journals see the bibliographies and references in the above works.
I started looking at earlier editions.
As already stated, the Scienza nuova appeared in three different editions.
Collier preferred the version of the Book of Common Prayer issued in 1549, and regretted that certain practices and petitions there enjoined were omitted in later editions.
The Abbe Migne published a very useful edition of the Summa Theologiae, in four 8vo vols., as an appendix to his Patrologiae Cursus Cornpletus; English editions, J.
His works were collected by Cardinal Cajetan, and were published in four volumes at Rome (1606-1615), and then at Paris in 1642, at Venice in 1743, and there are other editions.
His best-known work, entitled De Republica Anglorum: the Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England, was published posthumously in 1583, and passed through many editions.
Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
Among modern editions of separate plays with commentaries the following are probably the most useful: Amphitruo by Palmer, 1890,1890, and Havet, 1895; Asinaria by Gray, 1894; Aulularia by Wagner, 1866 and 1876; Captivi by Brix, 6th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1910; an English edition of this work by Sonnenschein (with introduction on prosody), 1880; same play by Lindsay (with metrical introduction), 1900; Epidicus by Gray, 1893; Menaechmi by Brix, 4th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1891; Miles gloriosus by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1886; by Brix, 3rd ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1901; by Tyrrell, 3rd ed., 1894; Mostellaria by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1883; by Sonnenschein, 2nd ed., 1907; Pseudolus by Lorenz, 1876; Rudens by Sonnenschein, 1891, editio minor (with a metrical appendix), 1901; Trinummus (with a metrical introduction) by Brix, 5th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1907; by Gray, 1897; Truculentus by Spengel and Studemund, 1898.
The care of his diocese and of his new foundation were not enough for his ardent charity, and in 1609 he published his famous introduction to a Devout Life, a work which was at once translated into the chief European languages and of which he himself published five editions.
The prints are frequently to be found in two states, or editions.
The first contains prolegomena on the life and writings of Boetius, on his religion and philosophy, and on the manuscripts and editions, a critical apparatus, and notes.
In the editions of the works .of Cyprian a number of treatises are printed which, certainly or probably, were not written by him, and have therefore usually been described as pseudo-Cyprianic. Several of them, e.g.
In later editions vol.
He continued to work at his editions of the Apostolic Fathers, and in 1885 published an edition of the Epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp, collecting also a large store of valuable materials for a second edition of Clement of Rome, which was published after his death (1st ed., 1869).
- For the sources of the early history of Plymouth consult (George) Mourt's Relation, or Journal of the Plantation of Plymouth (Boston, 1865, and numerous other editions); William Bradford's History of the Plimouth Plantation (Boston, 1858, and several later editions), the most important source of information concerning Plymouth before 1646; the Plymouth Colony Records (12 vols., Boston, 1855-1861); the Records of the Town of Plymouth (3 vols., Plymouth, 1889-1903); J.
Besides the lithographed editions of the whole work in folio (Bombay, 1853, and Teheran, 1852-1856) and a Turkish version (Constantinople, 1842), the following portions of Mirkhond's history have been published by European Orientalists: Early Kings of Persia, by D.
Some of these are printed in the early Latin editions of Aristotle's works.
of Bern are, after the Vatican glossary of Ansileubus, the oldest of which we know; there are others in several libraries, and printed editions by Mai, Heider and Cahier.
Subsequent editions by A.
The best editions are those by K.
Graetz, Geschichte der Juden (ii vols., 18 531875; several subsequent editions of separate volumes; Eng.
It passed through several editions, and was performed at the theatre in Edinburgh; its title is still known in every corner of Scotland, even if it be no longer read.
Ramsay wrote little afterwards, though he published a few shorter poems, and new editions of his earlier work.
He was the author of Institutiones Physiologicae (1787), and of a Handbuck der vergleichenden Anatomie (1804), both of which were very popular and went through many editions, but he is best known for his work in connexion with anthropology, of which science he has been justly called the founder.
Captivite de la famille royale au Temple (2 vols., 1852, and many subsequent editions), containing copies Of original documents, and essential to the study of the question, although its sentimental pictures of the boy martyr can no longer be accepted.
See The Vicar of Morwenstow (1875; later and corrected editions, 1876 and 1886), by the Rev. S.
C. Brunet chronicles editions of 1488, 1494, 1513, 1520 and 1533 - of this last date there are two, one published by Jehan Petit, the other by Philippe Lenoire, this last by far the better, being printed from a much fuller manuscript.
For the translations, see the various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c.
At a later period he was one of the leading contributors to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (seventh and eighth editions), the articles on Electricity, Hydrodynamics, Magnetism, Microscope, Optics, Stereoscope, Voltaic Electricity, &c., being from his pen.
He also contributed important articles to the 9th, 10th and 1 1th editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and edited a number of Oriental works.
The first edition of the former was published in 1649, and of the latter in 1651; and both of them were enlarged in subsequent editions.
One of his first tasks was to send his treatise on the Subjection of Women (written 1861, published 1869, many editions) through the press.
There are also editions of the correspondence with Gustave d'Eichtal and Comte (specially that of Levy-Bruhl, 1899).
This may serve to show that the ideals of our youth were not without justification; but the younger generation, which does not care about our ideals, and looks to the future rather than the past, will not read annotated editions of old books, however eminent their authors.
His historical research was exemplified in his De antiquitate ecclesiae, and his editions of Asser, Matthew Paris, Walsingham, and the compiler known as Matthew of Westminster; his liturgical skill was shown in his version of the psalter and in the occasional prayers and thanksgivings which he was called upon to compose; and he left a priceless collection of manuscripts to his college at Cambridge.
Other editions are by Turner Macan (Calcutta, 1829), J.
Noldeke (as above) for a full account of the Shahnama, editions, &c.; and H.
Thiers, Histoire de la Revolution francaise, du Consulat et de l'Empire (many editions in French and English); *P. Lanfrey, Histoire de Napoleon I.
Other editions are in the King's Classics (1902) and for the Grolier Club (New York, 1889,1889, ed.
Nevertheless the book was eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared.4 Mention must be made of a medical treatise by Caspar Schwenckfeld, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the title of Theriotropheum Silesiae, the fourth book of which consists of an " Aviarium Silesiae," and is the earliest of the works we now know by the name of fauna.
Successive editions of this work were produced under its author's supervision in 1740, 1748, 1758 and 1766.
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
7 It is unnecessary to enumerate the various editions of the Regne Animal.
Bolton's Harmonia ruralis, an account of British song-birds, first appeared between 1794 and 1796, but subsequent editions appeared up to 1846.
It has passed through a far greater number of editions than any other work on natural history in the whole world, and has become emphatically an English classic - the graceful simplicity of its style, the elevating tone of its spirit, and the sympathetic chords it strikes recommending it to every lover of Nature, while the severely scientific reader can scarcely find an error in any statement it contains, whether of matter of fact or opinion.
There were two issues - virtually two editions - of this with the same date on the title-page, though one of them is said not to have been published till the following year.
Moreover, whatever the lovers of the fine arts may say, it is nearly certain that the " Bewick Collector " is mistaken in attaching so high a value to these old editions, for owing to the want of skill in printing - indifferent ink being especially assigned as one cause - many of the earlier issues fail to show the most delicate touches of the engraver, which the increased care bestowed upon the edition of 1847 (published under the supervision of John Hancock) has revealed - though it must be admitted that certain blocks have suffered from wear of the press so as to be incapable of any more producing the effect intended.
In 1828 James Wilson (author of the article Ornithology in the 7th and Wilson 8th editions of the present work) began, under the title of Illustrations of Zoology, the publication of a series of his own drawings (which he did not, however, himself engrave) with corresponding letterpress.
Of special works relating to the British West Indies, C. Waterton's well-known Wanderings has passed through several editions since its first appearance in 1825, and must be mentioned here, West though, strictly speaking, much of the country he traversed was not British territory.
Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology, originally published beween 1808 and 1814, has gone through many editions including those issued in Great Britain, by Jameson (4 vols.
A continuation of Wilson's work was issued by Bonaparte between 1825 and 1833, and most of the later editions include the work of both authors.
Pithou wrote a great number of legal and historical books, besides preparing editions of several ancient authors.
The editions of Robert Etienne (Stephanus) (1551); H.
The Civil Code, issued 1852, the Criminal Code in 1869 and the Revised Statutes in 1879, have several times been amended and published in new editions.
His editions and biography of Zoega, his Zeitschrift fiir Geschichte and Auslegung der alten Kunst (GÃ¶ttingen, 1817, 8) and his Alte Denkmdler (5 vols., 1849-1864) contain his views on ancient art.
These have all passed through several editions, and have also been translated into French.
He is also the author of the Brazen Serpent (1831), the Doctrine of Election (1839), several "Introductory Essays" to editions of Christian Authors, and a posthumous work entitled Spiritual Order and Other Papers (1871).
Some of his books have been translated into French, and several have gone through two or more editions.
Boston (2 vols., Boston, 1854; and later editions), and Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston (Boston, 1873, and later editions); Josiah Quincy, A Municipal History of.
He also published several editions of Latin authors.
Editions by Wesseling, 1735, Parthey and Pindar, 1848.
Several of his books have passed into new and revised editions and have been translated into English.
In later editions the title of this book was altered to Die Osmanen and die spanische Monarchic. It was now his ambition to continue his exploration of the new world thus opened to him.
During 1834-36 appeared the three volumes of his Die romischen Pcipste, ihre Kirche and ihr Staat 16 and 17 Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1834-36, and many other editions), in form, as in matter, the greatest of his works, containing the results of his studies in Italy.
Editions by I.
Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable.
This persecution gave the book an extraordinary vogue, and it passed through twenty-two editions in three years, besides being translated into several languages; there is an English translation by Lord Falconbridge, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.
Of the other works, never yet completely edited, the best editions are, for the Heptameron, Leroux de Lincy (1855); for the Lettres, Genin (1841-1842); and for the Marguerites, &c., Frank (1873), English translations of the Heptameron are rather numerous: one appeared in 1887 by A.
and two old editions (those of B.
There are editions of the Edictus, the Concordia, and the Liber Papiensis by F.
His text-books on the subject, of which the Qualitative appeared in 1841, and the Quantitative in 1846, have a world-wide reputation, and have passed through several editions.
When we listen to the free declamation of the singers at the outset of Der fliegende Hollander - a declamation which is accompanied by 1 The subsequent division into three acts, as given in all the published editions, has been effected in the crudest way by inserting a full close in the orchestral interludes at the changes of scene, and then beginning the next scene by taking up the interludes again.
Bipont Editions >>
Those in the Rudimentum novitiarum published at Lubeck in 1475 are from woodcuts, while the maps in the first two editions of Ptolemy published in Italy in 1472 are from copper plates.
The objection that a copper plate shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.
It must have been much in demand, for three editions of it were prepared.
Of the seven editions of Ptolemy which were published up to the close of the 15th century, all except that of Vicenza (1475) contained Ptolemy's 27 maps, while Francesco Berlinghieri's version (Florence 1478), and two editions published at Ulm (1482 and 1486), contained four or five modern maps in addition, those of Ulm being by Nicolaus Germanus.
Honter (1546) and Gulielmus Postel (1561) or the Geographia of Livio Sanuto 0588); others, and these the more numerous and important, supplement the original maps of several editions of Ptolemy.
It was the first collection of marine maps, lived through many editions, was issued in several languages and became known as Charettier and Waggoner.
The titles of these atlases survive, though the authors of the original editions are long dead, and the maps have been repeatedly superseded by others bringing the information up to the date of publication.
It covers 697 sheets (or 488 of a " new series " in large sheets), and is published in three editions, viz.
Carefully revised editions of these and of the other maps are brought out at intervals of 15 years at most.
to i in., in two editions, both printed in colour, the one with hills stippled in brown, the other coloured on the " layer system " as a strata-relief map; a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of 4 m.
to i in., also in two editions, the one in outline, showing five classes of roads and parish boundaries, the other in colours, with stippled hills; a map on a scale of io m.
to i in., also in two editions, and finally a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of I: 1,000,000.
The Book of Discipline in its successive printed editions from 1783 to 1906 contains the working rules of the organization, and also a compilation of testimonies borne by the Society at different periods, to important points of Christian truth, and often called forth by the special circumstances of the time.
He is best known by the five volumes of Medical Inquiries and Observations, which he brought out 'at intervals from 1789 to 1798 (two later editions revised by the author).
It appeared in 1743, and passed through many editions.
Not less important than his histories are the historical romances, the best-known of which, Ein Kampf um Rom, in four volumes (Leipzig, 1876), which has gone through many later editions, was also the first of the series.
See latest editions of guidebooks to Lower Egypt (Baedeker, Murray, Macmillan).
The Continental folio editions (Basel, 1563; Cologne, 1612 and 1688) contain many works which cannot by any possibility be Bede's.
The History of Great Britain has been translated into French, and has passed into several English editions.
He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal.
Three editions of his Welsh catechism were published for the use of his schools (1789, 1791 and 1794); an English catechism for the use of schools in Lady Huntingdon's Connexion was drawn up by him in 1797; his shorter catechism in Welsh appeared in 1799, and passed through several editions, in Welsh and English, before 1807, when his Instructor (still the Connexional catechism) appeared.
Evangelisten Johannes (4 vols., 1820-1832); it has since passed through two new and improved editions (the last volume of the 3rd edition by E.
Gayarre, coming down to the war, based on deep and scholarly research, and greatly altered in successive editions.
The editions are as follows: Romance of the History of Louisiana (New York, 1837, 1848); Histoire de la Louisiane (2 vols., Nouvelle Orleans, 1846-1847); Louisiana: its Colonial History and Romance (N.Y., 1851); Louisiana: its History as a French Colony,.
de voces Cubanas (Havana, 1836, 4th ed., 1875; all editions with many errors); Antonio Bachiller y Morales, Apuntes Para la historia de las letras y de la instruction publica de Cuba (3 tom., Havana, 1859-1861); J.
Peano (with various collaborators of the Italian school), Formulaire de mathematiques (Turin, various editions, 1894-1908; the earlier editions are the more interesting philosophically); Felix Klein, Lectures on Mathematics (New York, 1894); W.
Ball, A Short History of Mathematics (London 1st ed., 1888, three subsequent editions, enlarged and revised, and translations into French and Italian).
The standard editions of his works are The Writings of Henry David Thoreau, Riverside edition (II vols., Boston, 18 941895), and Manuscript edition (12 vols., ibid., 1907).
No other writer of such eminence is so rarely quoted; none is so entirely destitute of the tribute of new and splendid editions.
Two fragments of this treatise were given by Petavius, and are contained in the modern editions.
Two works are incorporated in the editions of Clement which are not mentioned by himself or any ancient writer.
Separate editions of Strom.
His chief work, An Inquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul (editions 1733, 1737 and 1745; with appendix added in 1750 in answer to an attack in Maclaurin's Account of Sir I.
In 1894 he was greatly cheered by the plan, suggested by friends in England and carried out by them with the greatest energy, of the noble collection of his works in twenty-eight volumes, since known as the Edinburgh editions.
The first edition also gives an engraving of the ark (repeated in the editions up to the fifth), in shape like a long roofed box, floating on the waters; the animals are seen in separate stalls.
The early printed editions of Pliny erroneously named the discoverer Obsidius, and the rock obsidianus.
He brought out in 1865 an edition of Wheaton's International Law, his notes constituting a most learned and valuable authority on international law and its bearings on American history and diplomacy; but immediately after its publication Dana was charged by the editor of two earlier editions, William Beach Lawrence, with infringing his copyright, and was involved in litigation which was continued for thirteen years.
S.) An edition of Nietzsche's complete works began to appear in 1895; there are also two popular editions, 1899 ff.
In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.
See also the editions of Pascal's Provincial Letters, by John de Soyres (with English notes, Cambridge, 1880), and A.
Besides those already mentioned it is sufficient to refer to his New Testament Introduction (the first edition, 1750, preceded the full development of his powers, and is a very different book from the later editions), his reprint of Robert Lowth's Praelectiones with important additions (1758-1762), his German translation of the Bible with notes (1773-1792), his Orientalische and exegetische Bibliothek (1775-1785) and Neue 0.
In 1546 the council of Trent adopted the canon of Augustine, declaring " He is also to be anathema who does not receive these entire books, with all their parts, as they have been accustomed to be read in the Catholic Church, and are found in the ancient editions of the Latin Vulgate, as sacred and canonical."
Critical editions have been published by Gebhardt and Harnack, Patr.
The best modern editions are the Chronique de Robert de Torigni, &c., edited by Leopold Delisle for the Soc. de l'histoire de Normandie (Rouen, 1872-1873), and Chronicle of Robert of Torigni, edited, with an introduction, by Richard Howlett (Rolls Series, No.
AMPHIBIA, a zoological term originally employed by Linnaeus to denote a class of the Animal Kingdom comprising crocodiles, lizards and salamanders, snakes and Caeciliae, tortoises and turtles and frogs; to which, in the later editions of the Systema N aturae he added some groups of fishes.
At least six other editions appeared in the 17th century.
These and editions of two old chronicles, the Chronica de D.
Unfortunately these editions, brought out in great haste and often edited by superficial scholars, do not come up to the requirements of modern criticism.
Its vast scope leaves it still unique and valuable, where other editions of special works do not exist.
The editions of Holberg's works are legion.
Complete editions of the Comedies are too numerous to be quoted; the best is that brought out in 3 vols.
Of Peder Paars there exist at least twenty-three editions, besides translations in Dutch, German and Swedish.
Accepted at first as Aristotle's, and actually printed in the first Latin editions of his works, the book is in reality an Arabian compilation of Neoplatonic theses.
It attracted great attention, and ran rapidly through several editions.
One of them, Facts Addressed to Landholders, &c. (1780), written by Horne in conjunction with others, criticizing the measures of Lord North's ministry, passed through numerous editions; the other, A Letter on Parliamentary Reform (1782), addressed by him to Dunning, set out a scheme of reform, which he afterwards withdrew in favour of that advocated by Pitt.
2 Both this and the later editions of Frankfort (1581), Cologne (1690) and Pressburg (1744) are represented in the British Museum.
Butler's great work, The Lives of the Saints, the result of thirty years' study (4 vols., London, 1756-1759), has passed through many editions and translations (best edition, including valuable notes, Dublin, 12 vols.
His chief work, the Six livres de la Republique (Paris, 1576), which passed through several editions in his lifetime, that of 1583 having as an appendix L'A pologie de Rene Herpin (Bodin himself), was the first modern attempt to construct an elaborate system of political science.
Other editions have been published, of which we may mention Pierre Fermat's (1670), T.
His great work, the Systema naturae, ran through twelve editions during his lifetime (1st ed.
Among these may be mentioned his Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion (1825), which passed through several editions, and,; was translated into various languages; The Canon of the Old and New Testament Ascertained; or the Bible Complete without the Apocrypha and Unwritten Traditions (1826); A History of the Israelitish Nation (1852), and Outlines of Moral Science (1852), the last two being published posthumously.
1-142 (editions of Blakesley, Rawlinson, Macan); Hippocrates, De Aere, &c., c. 24 sqq.; for geography alone: Strabo vii.
His plays were published in the first two volumes of a collection entitled Theatro comico portuguez, which went through at least five editions in the 18th century, while the Alecrim e Mangerona appeared separately in some seven editions.
Complete editions of his works were published in 1803 and 1836.
Editions: Heinsius (Leiden, 1630); Fischer (Leipzig, 1783) ï¿½ in Aldine Edition of Apuleius (Venice, 1521; Paris, 1532); Fell (Oxford, 1667).
1901); Reste arabischen Heidentums (1897); Das arabische Reich and sein Sturz (1902); Skizzen and Vorarbeiten (1884-1899); and new and revised editions of F.
In the latter class Kimhi stands pre-eminent; to the editions of his commentary on the Psalms enumerated in the article Kimhi must now be added the admirable edition of Dr Schiller-Szinessy (Cambridge, 1883), containing, unfortunately, only the first book of his longer commentary.
To these may be added (excluding general commentaries on the Old Testament) the two acute but wayward commentaries of Hitzig (1836, 1863-1865), that of Delitzsch (1859-1860, then in shorter form in several editions since 1867; Eng.
He also published Narratio de Libris Revolutionum Copernici (Gedenum, 1540), which was subsequently added to editions of Copernicus's works; and Ephemerides until 1551, which were founded on the Copernican doctrines.
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
The other, John bar Aphtonya, was the founder of the famous monastery of Kenneshre, opposite ' See Feldmann, Syrische Wechsellieder von Narses (Leipzig, 1896); Mingana, Narsai, homiliae et carmina (2 vols., Mosul, 1905); and other editions of which a list is given by Duval, p. 344 seq.
Apart from the numerous editions of Syriac texts by M.
This was first printed in the Nouvelles de la republique des lettres (January 1685) and, as Vie de Corneille, was included in all the editions of Fontenelle's OEuvres.
There have been several collective editions of Fontenelle's works, the first being printed in 3 vols.
He declined any knowledge of the Apology for a late Resignation, in a Letter from an English Gentleman to his Friend at The Hague, which ran through four editions in 1748, but there is little doubt that he was, at least in part, the author.
There are also editions of the first series of letters by J.
The editions by James Paterson (Edinburgh, 1860) and H.
A more important work, the Practica seu lilium medicinae, of Bernard Gordon, a Scottish professor at Montpellier (written in the year 1307), was more widely spread, being translated into French and Hebrew, and printed in several editions.
For the earlier editions it is sufficient to refer to the account in Munro's Introduction, vol.
Of the earlier editions, though their bulk is an objection, several are interesting and valuable.
Editions of separate or .selected works are innumerable, and so are books upon Voltaire.
It is curious that the only two existing copies of Agas's map 2 were published in the reign of James I., although apparently they had not been altered from the earlier editions of Elizabeth's reign which have been lost.
Stow, Remarks on London and Westminster (1722); Robert Seymour (John Mottley), Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster (1 734, another edition 1753); William Maitland, History of London (1 739, other editions 1756, 1760, 1769, continued by John Entick 1775); John Entick, A New and Accurate History of London, Westminster, Southwark (1766); The City Remembrancer, Narratives of the Plague 1665, Fire 1666 and Great Storm 1703 (1769); A New and Compleat History and Survey, by a Society of Gentlemen (1770, revised by H.
Fearnside (1838); George Grant, A Comprehensive History of London (Dublin, 1849); John Timbs, Curiosities of London (1855, later editions 1855, 1868, 1875, 1876); Old London Papers, Archaeological Institute (1867); W.
The following books on the population of London have been published: John Graunt, Natural and Political Observations on the Bills of Mortality (1661, other editions 1662, 1665, 1676); Essay in Political Arithmetick (1683); Five Essays on Political Arithmetick (1687); Several Essays in Political Arithmetick (1699, 1711, 1751, 1 755); Essay concerning the Multiplication of Mankind (1682, 1683, 1686), all by Sir William Petty; Corbyn Morris, Observations on the past Growth and present State of the City of London (1751); Collection of the Yearly Bills of Mortality from 1657 to 1758 (ed.
Winterton (1631) has passed through at least nineteen editions.
His Griechische Schulgrammatik, first published in 1852, has passed through more than twenty editions, and has been edited in English.
It went through five editions before 1728, and gained the author much reputation.
In 1783 appeared his History of the Progress and Termination of the Roman Republic; it was very popular, and went through several editions.
Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen; memoir by Principal Lee in early editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; J.
The latter is often made to begin with the line "All praise to Thee, my God, this night," but in the earlier editions over which Ken had control, the line is as first given.'
Editions: Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen (1903, 1906) is indispensable, and leaves nothing to be desired as to the constitution of the texts.
Of the numerous editions of the Salic Law only the principal ones can be mentioned: J.
For further information see the dissertations prefixed to the editions of Pardessus, Waitz and Hessels; Jungbohn Clement, Forschungen fiber das Recht der salischen Franken (Berlin, 1876); R.
we possess, as well as those now lost which served as the basis of the old editions, do not go back beyond the time of Charlemagne (end of 8th century and 9th century).
Among the chief editions are those of Zahn, Der Hirt des Hermas (1868); Gebhardt and Harnack, Patres Apostolici (1877, with full bibliographical material); Funk, Patres Apost.
He wrote a book entitled The Method of Preparing Medicines and Diet, which was translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, and thence into Latin by Paravicius, whose version, first printed at Venice, 1490, has passed through several editions.
The best editions of Odoric are by G.
See editions of Photius's abridgment by J.
Editions by B.
Revised editions of this appear periodically in Germany, e.g.
Kautzsch; English translation from 25th and 26th German editions by G.
Other useful editions are those of M.
Besides collected editions of the Apostolic Fathers, see O.
The most celebrated of these were `Ajjaj and his son Ru'ba of the Bani Tamim (editions by W.
At first this work was merely a compilation, but in the later editions many of his original results were incorporated; the third edition (1807) is noteworthy as containing the first detailed account of the atomic theory, communicated to him by John Dalton himself.
The ablest among recent editions of the Greek text are those of R.
Other modern editions by M.
Akrish, Kol Mebasser (Constantinople, 1577), and often reprinted in editions of Jehuda hal-Levv's Kuzari.
His Das apostolische and das nachapostolische Zeitalter (1851), which developed out of a prize essay (1849), passed through three editions in Germany (3rd ed., 1885), and was translated into English (2 vols., 1886).
For the wide literature of the subject, see the two former editions, also Harnack's Chronologie der altchr.
Editions: Grammatica in H.
The American committee which cooperated in the revision desired to employ the name Jehovah wherever Jhvh occurs in the original, and editions embodying their preferences are printed accordingly.
All the printed editions, however, consist of four parts, the additional one being entitled Speculum Morale.
is not in the earlier editions of Lactantius; it was discovered and printed by Baluze in 1679.
Editions, with scholia, by I.
- WOrkS, Editions and Translations: Cours de philosophie positive (6 vols., Paris, 1830-1842; 2nd ed.
It is a curious fact that the printed editions always give it in conjunction with this latter and that the two have also been preserved together in a Welsh manuscript translation.
- There are early printed editions of the Perceval (1530) and of the Perlesvaus (1516 and 1523).
Parzival exists in numerous editions; critical texts have been edited by Lachmann (1891), Martin (1903) and Leitzmann (1902-1903).
P. de la Val (Paris, 1679; previous editions 1611, &c.).
Editions: Gerhard Voss (Mainz, 1604), Fronto Duca,us (Paris, 1622), Migne, Patr.
After completing his system (1896) Spencer continued to revise it, and brought out new editions of the Biology (1898-1899) and First Principles (1900).
The Divine Providence and Heaven and Hell have been published in popular editions.
What are substantially fresh editions of the Partitiones appeared in 1547 as Institutiones Dialecticae, and in 1J48 as Scholae Dialecticae; his Dialectique (1555), a French version of his system, is the earliest work on the subject in the French language.
It ran through four editions in as many months, and then in August appeared the second volume.
If we turn to separate works, the bibliography of Defoe is practically confined (except as far as original editions are concerned) to Robinson Crusoe.
But the reprints and editions of Crusoe have been innumerable; it has been often translated; and the eulogy pronounced on it by Rousseau gave it special currency in France, where imitations (or rather adaptations) have also been common.
The best editions are still those of Becq de Fouquieres (Paris, 1862, 1872 and 1881), though these are now supplemented by those of L.
Of the numerous subsequent editions, probably the best was that of Foesius (Frankfort, 1 595, 1621, Geneva, 1657), until the publication of the great works of Littre, Ouvres completes d'Hippocrate, traduction nouvelle avec le texte grec en regard, collationnee sur les manuscrits et toutes les editions, accompagnee d'une introduction, de commentaires medicaux, de variantes, et de notes philologiques (10 vols., Paris, 1839-1861), and of F.
and iii., Regimen, and Aphorisms. Of the separate works attributed to Hippocrates the editions and translations are almost innumerable; of the Prognostics, for example, seventy editions are known, while of the Aphorisms there are said to exist as many as three hundred.
All these, however, have been superseded for the modern student by the editions of Natalis de Wailly (1872 and 1874), in which the text is critically edited from all the available MSS.
In the same edition are collected the various fragments of the Targum Jerushalmi, which are to be found in the early editions of the Pentateuch and in part also in various manuscripts.
The Rosicrucians, their Rites and Mysteries, by Hargrave Jennings (three editions, 1870-87); The Real History of the Rosicrucians, founded on their own Manifestoes and on Facts and Documents collected from the Writings of Initiated Brethren, by A.
Four volumes of his sermons appeared between the years 1842 and 1850, and these had reached the 7th, 4th, 3rd and 2nd editions respectively in 1850, but were not afterwards reprinted.
It has no place in the offices of the Eastern Orthodox Church, but is found, without the words " And the Son " of clause 22, in the appendix of many modern editions.
Muller (1903); the best annotated editions are those of Gesner and Schaefer (1805) and G.
(1531), and editions of Velleius Paterculus (ed.
Editions of the complete works: Erasmus (9 vols., Basel, 1516.
Biographies are prefixed to most of the above editions.
Some of his numerous dogmatic writings passed through several editions.
His works have passed through many editions.
The best edition of the text is Wolfflin and Melber (Teubner Series, 1887, with bibliography and editio princeps of the Strategemata of the emperor Leo); annotated editions by Isaac Casaubon (1589) and A.
S.) Among the many editions of Machiavelli's works the one in 8 vols., dated Italia, 1813, may be mentioned, and the more comprehensive ones published by A.
Syruporum universa ratio, &c. (Paris, 1537); four subsequent editions; latest, Venice, 1548 (six lectures on digestion; syrups treated in fifth lecture).
He brought out editions of various Greek and Latin authors - Longinus, Anacreon and Sappho, Virgil, Horace, Lucretius and many others.
Though the Historia was dedicated to Charles V., both works were forbidden on the 17th of November 1 553, and no editions of them were issued between 1554 and 1727.
Lindenbrog (1614); the most recent critical editions are by 0.
In the earlier editions of his works sufficient care was not taken to distinguish between his own writings and those of Wycliffe and others who were associated with him.
Editions by F.
Three editions of his scientific works had already appeared in Paris, and a new edition had recently appeared in London.
3 Closely related to Franklin's political pamphlets are his writings on economics, which, though undertaken with a political 1 " Seventy-five editions of it have been printed in English, fiftysix in French, eleven in German and nine in Italian.
It has passed through many editions, has been translated into German and into English, and is still one of the books most valued by expositors of the New Testament.
Eastwick (Hertford, 1854); Benfey, Pantscha Tantra, German translation with important introduction (2 vols., Leipzig, 1859) other editions, by L.
His name soon became prominent in the learned world, and it may safely be said that most of his historical works and his editions of Icelandic classics have never been surpassed for acute criticism and minute painstaking.
Both editions were superseded by the discovery of a much better preserved MS. of Perotti in the Vatican, published by Angelo Mai in 1831.
Since Pithou's edition in 1596 Phaedrus has been often edited and translated; among the editions may be mentioned those of Burmann (1718 and 1727), Bentley (1726), Schwabe (1806), Berger de Xivrey (1830), Orelli (1832), Eyssenhardt (1867), L.
Euergetes (247-222) largely increased the library by seizing on the original editions of the dramatists laid up in the Athenian archives, and by compelling all travellers who arrived in Alexandria to leave a copy of any work they possessed.
The Bible had long been available in the language of the people, and there are indications that the numerous early editions of the Scriptures were widely read.
- Editions of his works appeared at Basel (1532); Paris, by J.
Many of his works will be found in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cix., cxii., cxiii.; for editions of the rest, C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur (1897), and the article by Cohn in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (1900) should be consulted.
There were five different editions, the last of them dating from 455, after the death of Valentinian.
One of the many good modern editions is that by Alex.
Three editions exist: (I) C. A.
Other editions of the text are those of F.
Among the authors whose works were found specially serviceable in this way may be mentioned the Venerable Bede, who is credited with no fewer than 140 homilies in the Basel and Cologne editions.
This was revised in 1537 by Heusbach, and accompanies the Greek text of Herodotus in many editions.
The best of the older editions of the Greek text are the following :- Herodoti historiae, ed.
The most recent editions of the text, or of portions of it, with and without commentaries are the following: - H.
Stein, Herodotus, erklcirt (Berlin, 1856-1861, and several editions since; the best short commentary and introduction); A.
There he studied the New Testament in the editions of Erasmus and began to found his preaching on "the Gospel," which he declared to be simple and easy to understand.
Collected editions, 4 vols.
His reputation does not rest on his numerous editions, often hasty or even made to booksellers' orders, but in his remarks, especially his conjectures.
He himself designates the Animadversationes in Scriptores Graecos as flos ingenii sui, and in truth these thin booklets outweigh his big editions.
1904); Celtic Heathendom (1886); Studies in the Arthurian Legend (1891); Celtic Folk-lore (Igor); as well as editions of Welsh texts (with J.
Editions of his works are by A.
Droysen (1879), containing the Greek version and the enlarged editions of Paulus Diaconus and Landolfus; smaller critical editions, C. Wagener (1884), F.
There are numerous English school editions and translations.
The later editions of the earlier volumes are much enlarged and altered, and a new edition was published at Stuttgart in 1882.
All have gone through numerous editions and have contributed much to promote the historical study of the English tongue.
Editions of the speech by W.
Uniform editions were published in 190o and 1903.
The editions of Montaigne in France and elsewhere, and the works upon him during the past three centuries, are innumerable.
Bond's edition of Lyly and in the editions of Nashe.
For the Refutation we are still dependent on the editions of Miller (Oxford, 1851), Duncker and Schneidewin (GÃ¶ttingen, 1859), and Cruice (Paris, 1860).
All Murner's more important works have been republished in critical editions; a selection was published by G.
Thus editions tended to vary with the historical views of editors.
- This is too large to indicate even in outline, but is given fully in the chief modern editions, viz.
The work went through many editions.
In 1851 he brought out a life of Count Yorck von Wartenburg (Berlin, 1851-1852, and many later editions), one of the best biographies in the German language, and then began his great work on the Geschichte der preussischen Politik (Berlin, 1855-1886).
Under the pseudonym George Taylor he wrote several historical romances, especially Antinous (1880), which quickly ran through five editions, and is the story of a soul "which courted death because the objective restraints of faith had been lost."
Recent editions by G.
Qaro, a Sephardic (Spanish) Jew, in his Code neglected Ashkenazic (German) customs. These deficiencies Isserles supplied, and the notes of Rema are now included in all editions of Qaro's Code.
The historical works above referred to have been issued in many editions, and selections from the ancient fables and romances are continually being edited and reissued in narrative form or as plays.
Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions, notably for zoological distribution) and Island Life (London, 1880, notably for ornithology).
Among several editions may be mentioned the one in the Monumenta Germaniae historica, chronica minora, Band II.
In these editions, partly texts, partly translations, it is impossible to determine the respective shares of Erasmus and his many helpers.
There are many editions of the works of the Fathers in the original, the most convenient, in spite of its defects, being that of J.
Of modern critical editions, besides those containing the works of one or another individual, the best are the Berlin edition of the early Greek Fathers (Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte, 1897 ff.), and the Vienna edition of the Latin Fathers (Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, 1867 ff.), both of first-rate importance.
These were used by Dillmann and subsequently by Charles in their editions.
Translations: In addition to the translations given in the preceding editions, Basset, Les Apocryphes ethiopiens, iii.
It first appeared in 1794, and went through very many editions, and has been translated into almost all languages.
The earlier editions did not contain the trigonometry.
It ran through four editions in four years.
First published anonymously in 1628, it became very popular, and ran through ten editions in the lifetime of the author.
Maine cannot have known much Roman law in 1847, but in 1856 he contributed to the Cambridge Essays the essay on Roman law and legal education, republished in the later editions of Village Communities, which was the first characteristic evidence of his genius.
Three of these addresses were published, wholly or in part, in the later editions of Village Communities; the substance of others is understood to be embodied in the Cambridge Rede lecture of 1875, which is to be found in the same volume.
Szujski's book has superseded even Joachim Lelewel's learned History of Poland (Pol., Brussels, 1837), of which there are excellent French (Paris, 1844) and German (Leipzig, 1846) editions.
Some of the early printed editions follow the original version of Tristan's death, now found in one manuscript only (B.N.
Gottfried's Tristan and Isolde has been several times published; the best editions are those of Bechstein (1890) and Golther (1889); modern German versions by Kurz, Simrock and Hertz; English prose rendering, J.
Two critical editions of the Iliad and Odyssey were produced by his successor, Aristarchus, who was librarian until 1 4 6 B.C. and was the founder of scientific scholarship. His distinguished pupil, Dionysius Thrax (born c. 166 B.C.), drew up a Greek grammar which continued in use for more than thirteen centuries.
At Subiaco and at Rome they had produced in 1465-1471 the earliest editions of Cicero, De Oratore and the Letters, and eight other Latin authors.
An educational aim is also apparent in his editions of Terence and of Seneca, while his Latin translations made his contemporaries more familiar with Greek poetry and prose, and his Paraphrase promoted a better understanding of the Greek Testament.
1520), which, in its original folio editions of 1537-1538, was an excellent work.
Between 1600 and 1775 there was a great gap in the production of new editions of the principal Greek classics.
The third volume includes, however, some theological treatises, and the first part of it is occupied with editions of treatises on harmonics and other works of Greek geometers, some of them first editions from the MSS., and in general with Latin versions and notes (Ptolemy, Porphyrius, Briennius, Archimedes, Eutocius, Aristarchus and Pappus).
and printed editions is that of the Massoretic text, the date of which is usually placed somewhere between the 6th and 8th centuries of the Christian, era.
Of the systems of punctuation which are known to us, the more familiar is the Tiberian, or sublinear, which is found in all printed editions of the Hebrew Bible.
Various Jewish editions of the Hebrew Bible had already been printed - in part.
These editions furnish the material, but neither attempts the actual construction of a critical text of the version.
The valuable editions of the Old Testament by Baer and Delitzsch, and by Ginsburg, contain critical texts of the Jewish interpretation of Scripture, and therefore necessarily uncritical texts of the Hebrew Old Testament itself: it lies entirely outside their scope to give or even to consider the evidence which exists for correcting the obvious errors in the text of the Old Testament as received and perpetuated by the Jewish interpreters.
England has made many weighty contributions both to Introduction and Canon, especially Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion (collected in 1889); editions of Books of the New Testament and Apostolic Fathers; Westcott, editions; Hort, especially Romans and Ephesians (posthumous, 1895); Swete, editions; Knowling and others.
[ Phototypic editions have been issued in Rome in 1889-1890 and in 1905.] Codex Sinaiticus (St Petersburg, Imperial library), Greg.
[Editions of Old Latin MSS.
But these were not successful, and in the 13th century, instead of revisions, attempts were made to fix the text by providing correctoria, or lists of correct readings, which were the equivalent of critical editions; of these the chief are the Parisian, the Dominican (prepared under Hugo de S.
Hall's Williams MS. (Baltimore, 1886); in the European editions of the Syriac Bible so far as the minor Catholic epistles are concerned; in Hermathena, vol.
But in practice it is general, and certainly convenient, to regard their work rather as material for criticism, and to begin the history of textual criticism with the earliest printed editions which sought to establish a standard Greek Text.
Erasmus issued new editions in 1519, 1522, 1527 and 1535, and the Aldine Greek Testament, printed at Venice in 1518, is a reproduction of the first edition.
Perhaps the most important of all early editions were those of Robert Etienne, or Stephanus, of Paris and afterwards of Geneva.
His two first editions (1546, 1549) were based on Erasmus, the Complutensian, and collations of fifteen Greek MSS.
Stephanus' work was continued by Theodore Beza, who published ten editions between 1565 and 1611.
The two brothers, Bonaventura and Abraham Elzevir, published two editions at Leiden in 1624 and 1633, based chiefly on Beza's text.
The Elzevir text has formed the basis of all non-critical editions on the continent, but in England the 1550 edition of Stephanus has been more generally followed.
The importance of both the Stephanus and Elzevir editions is that they formed a definite text for the purposes of comparison, and so prepared the way for the next stage, in which scholars busied themselves with the investigation and collation of other MSS.
C. Tischendorf, the most famous follower of Lachmann, besides editions of many MSS.
and the collation of many more, published between 1841 and 1869-1872 eight editions of the New Testament with full critical notes.
This rendering of Erasmus, together with his annotations and prefaces to the several books, make his editions the first great monument of modern Biblical study.
The editions of Mill (1707) and of Wetstein (1751) proved once for all that variations in the text, many of them serious, had existed from the earliest times.
C. edition of the Vulgate); Luther's Prefaces (to be found in German-printed editions of Luther's Bible); F.
Stonehewer Cooper, The Islands of the Pacific (London, 1888; earlier editions, 1880, &c., were under the title Coral Lands); F.
on Esther, pp. 20, too and passim); and finally (d) the numerous minor miscellaneous parallels noticed in recent annotated editions of the ' On the history of his intermediate stage see E.
xiv.; recent editions by I.
Other editions followed, the most notable being those of Mr H.
The best works on the various editions of the fueros are Historia de la Legislation.
Continuing his researches, he next gave to the world An Estimate of the Comparative Strength of Britain during the Present and Four Preceding Reigns, London, 1782, which passed through several editions.
Besides biogra p hical sketches of Defoe, Sir John Davies, Allan Ramsay, Sir David Lyndsay, Churchyard and others, prefixed to editions of their respective works, Chalmers wrote a life of Thomas Paine, the author of the Rights of Man, which he published under the assumed name of Francis Oldys, A.M., of the University of Pennsylvania; and a life of Ruddiman, in which considerable light is thrown on the state of literature in Scotland during the earlier part of the last century.
Bullitt and John Feland, The General Statutes of Kentucky (Frankfort and Louisville, 1877, revised editions, 1881, 1887); and the Annual Reports of state officers and boards.
The first book printed in Europe was the Latin Bible, and Copinger estimates that 124 editions of the Vulgate had been issued by the end of the 15th century.
1500, and eighteen editions of the German Bible had already been published before Luther's version appeared.
In Arnauld's Defence (1669) of the famous Port Royal version of the New Testament in French (issued, 1667), he states that it had been printed in many forms and sizes, including very cheap editions for the poor, and goes on to describe how its circulation was promoted by "les sacrifices que s'imposaient les pieux solitaires pour faire participer les plus indigents au bienfait de leur entreprise.
When the Finnish Bible Society began to publish editions of the Scriptures, the tsar Alexander I.
In 1719 appeared the first of numerous editions of the French III.
The prefaces to his various editions contain details as to the methods of this association, and repeatedly insist on the importance of reading the Scriptures.
Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.
In 1722 editions of the Scriptures were also issued in Bohemian and Polish.
Except under special circumstances, the society does not encourage wholesale free distribution, but provides cheap editions at prices which the poorest can pay.
In 1603 Knolles published his Generall Historie of the Turkes, of which several editions subsequently appeared, among them a good one edited by Sir Paul Rycaut (1700), who brought the history down to 1699.
xlix.), and editions of the Arabic and Syriac New Testaments for the British and Foreign Bible Society.
More recent editions are by Obbarius (Tubingen, 1845) and A.
His regard for the young nobleman' last named dictated the omission in the later editions of his Moral Sentiments of the name of the celebrated ancestor of the duke, whom he had associated with Mandeville as author of one of the "licentious systems" reviewed in the seventh part of that work.
Magee (1766-18.31) for the omission in subsequent editions of a passage of the Moral Sentiments which that prelate had cited with high commendation as among the ablest illustrations of the doctrine of the atonement.
On the Wealth of Nations, see the prefaces to M'Culloch's, Rogers's, Shield Nicholson's and Cannan's editions of that work; Rogers's Historical Gleanings (1869); the art.
A series of sermons on the relation between the discoveries of astronomy and the Christian revelation was published in January 1817, and within a year nine editions and 20,000 copies were in circulation.
It has been thought necessary to give in detail the facts relating to the conversion of the logarithms, as unfortunately Charles Hutton in his history of logarithms, which was prefixed to the early editions of his Mathematical Tables, and was also published as one of his Mathematical Tracts, has charged Napier with want of candour in not telling the world of Briggs's share in the change of system, and he expresses the suspicion that " Napier was desirous that the world should ascribe to him alone the merit of this very useful improvement of the logarithms."
The work went through several editions during the 18th century, and was at length superseded in 1785 by Hutton's tables, which continued in successive editions to maintain their position for a century.
In 1717 Abraham Sharp published in his Geometry Improv'd the Briggian logarithms of numbers from 1 to 100, and of primes from 100 to 1100, to 61 places; these were copied into the later editions of Sherwin and other works.
These tables, which form perhaps the most complete and practically useful collection of logarithms for the general computer that has been published, passed through many editions.
Hutton founded on Sherwin and Callet on Gardiner, and the editions of Vega form a separate offshoot from the original tables.
A full and valuable account of these methods is given in Hutton's " Construction of Logarithms," which occurs in the introduction to the early editions of his Mathematical Tables, and also forms tract 21 of his Mathematical Tracts (vol.
Abbreviated editions of this work have appeared from the author, Grundziige der Pal¢ontologie (Palaeozoologie) (Munich and Leipzig, 1895, 2nd ed., 1903), and in English form in Charles R.
165-170 (1862), where several editions of other important grammarians are noticed; G.
The genuineness of the two fragments of a letter from her to her son Gaius, printed in some editions of Cornelius Nepos, is disputed.
Bright, The Gospel of Saint Luke in Anglo-Saxon (Oxford, 1893); for earlier editions see Cook, op. cit, p. lx.
To counteract and supersede all these unauthorized editions, Tyndale himself brought out his own revision of the New Testament with translations added of all the Epistles of the Old Testament after the use of Salisbury.
In later years, between 1536 and 1550, numerous editions of Tyndale's New Testament were printed, twenty-one of which have been enumerated and fully described by Francis Fry.9 " The history of our English Bible begins with the work of Tyndale and not with that of Wycliffe," says Dr Westcott in his History of the English Bible, p. 316, and it is true that one of the most striking features of the work of Tyndale is its independence.
9 See Biographical Description of the Editions of the New Testament, Tyndale's Version, in English (1878).
Quarto and octavo editions of the New Testament alone were published in the same year, 1539, as the original edition, and in the following year, 1540, the New Testament in duodecimo.
The Old Testament was reprinted as part of a Bible in 1551, but no other editions are known than those named.
Coverdale consulted in his revision the Latin version of the Old Testament with the Hebrew text by Sebastian Minster, the Vulgate and Erasmus's editions of the Greek text for the New Testament.
This was the first of seven editions of this noble Bible which issued from the press during the years 1539-1541, - the second of them, that of 1540, called Cranmer's Bible from the fact that it contained a long Preface by Archbishop Cranmer, having the important addition " This is the Byble apoynted to the vse of the churches " on the titlepage.
It was the first Bible which had the text divided into " verses and sections according to the best editions in other languages."
The popularity of the Genevan Bible was so great that between 1560 and 1644 at least 140 editions of it were published,' and this in spite of its not being allowed for use in the churches.
It soon became popular and even replaced the Genevan New Testament in later editions of this Bible.
of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Libr.
Several editions of the Bishops' Bible were afterwards published, but it is doubtful whether the ecclesiastical authorities in spite of repeated enactments (Cardwell, Synodalia, pp. 115, 123, 210, 292) ever succeeded in entirely enforcing its public use in the churches.
In the second edition of the Bishops' Bible, 1572, the two texts were actually printed side by side; in all later editions except one (1585) the older Psalter alone remained.
According to the title-page the New Testament was " translated faithfvlly into English ovt of the authentical Latin, according to the best corrected copies of the same, diligently conferred vvith the Greeke and other editions in diuers languages..
Various editions of the New Version have been published, the most complete being the edition of the whole Bible with marginal references.
Cotton, List of Editions of the Bible (1852), Rhemes and Doway (1855); F.
Fry, The Bible by Coverdale (1867); Description of the Great Bible, 1539 (1865); Bibliographical Descriptions of the Editions of the New Testament (1878); N.
Parallel editions of the Bible, showing both the Authorized and Revised Versions, a large-type edition for public use, a reference edition, and (1900) a "Two Version " edition, have been issued by one or both the University Presses.
His histories, in many different editions, and his speeches, as above, are easily accessible; his minor works and newspaper articles have not, we believe, been collected in any form.
The best comprehensive work on the subject is that by Krabe, which has passed through several editions.
There are 15 editions of the Historia, in whole or part; the first published at Copenhagen, 1579 (the first of the Libellus or Descriptio Ins.
Mendeleeff wrote largely on chemical topics, his most widely known book probably being The Principles of Chemistry, which was written in 1868-1870, and has gone through many subsequent editions in various languages.
Works (a) Collected editions.
Editions of the Theologia Moralis and other separate works are very numerous.
The best editions of the works of Apollonius are the following: (1) Apollonii Pergaei Conicorum libri quatuor, ex versione Frederici Commandini (Bononiae, 1566), fol.; (2) Apollonii Pergaei Conicorum libri octo, et Sereni Antissensis de Sectione Cylindri et Coni libri duo (Oxoniae, 1710), fol.
The Aldine (Venice, 1516) was unfortunately based on a very corrupt MS. The first substantial improvements in the text were due to Casaubon (Geneva, 1587; Paris, 1620), whose text remained the basis of subsequent editions till that of Coraes (Paris, 1815-1819), who removed many corruptions.
Of later editions the most important are those of C. Muller (Paris, 1853) and Meineke (Leipzig, 1866-1877).
His collected Ouvres philosophiques appeared after his death in several editions, published in London, Berlin and Amsterdam respectively.
There are numerous editions (Rome, 1471-1472; Douai, 1617; Antwerp, 1634).
Another question with which the textual critic of modern authors must be prepared to deal is the relative importance of different editions, each of which may have a prima facie claim to be considered authentic. Thus Shakespearean criticism must decide between the evidence of the first folio and the quartos: the critic of Shelley's poems must consider what weight is to be attached to the readings in the posthumous edition by Mrs Shelley, and in unpublished transcripts of various poems. Where there is great or complicated divergence between the editions, as in the case of Marlowe's Faustus, the production of a resultant text which may be relied upon to represent the ultimate intention of the author is well-nigh impossible.
So may the Devil I Respite their souls from Heaven!"; Hellas, 657, "Bask in the [deep] blue noon divine"; Julian and Maddalo, 218, where "Moans, shrieks, and curses, and blaspheming prayers" is absent in the earlier editions though required for the rhyme; so lines 299-301 of the Letter to Maria Gisborne.
(near the end), "The lunch - a hot savoury mutton-chop, and a little of the cold loin sliced and fried - was now brought in" is the reading of most if not all the editions; but "loin" should be "lion," the reference being to the pudding, "a lion with currant eyes," described earlier in the chapter.
Shelley in Triumph of Life, 201 seq., wrote, "And if the spark with which Heaven lit my spirit Had been with proper nutriment supplied," but the printed editions made it "sentiment."
Careful and continuous regard to the various kinds of errors and defaults that are found in transcription will enable us to judge whether a reading which it is suggested stood in the archetype of our text is likely to have been corrupted to the reading, or readings, which stand in the extant manuscripts or editions.
In the case of dramas, different acting editions will give rise to them.
Editions of the separate books are almost innumerable.
Zabarella to the Arabians, and himself gifted with great logical powers, always deserves study in his editions of the Organon and the Physics, and in his Doctrinae Peripateticae.
Editions in Bonn Corpus Scriptorum Hist.
It was, however, published in France by the Jesuit, Jean Garnier, in 1680, and other editions quickly followed.
The best modern editions are one by Eugene de Roziere (Paris, 1869) and another by T.
Three successive subsequent editions had the benefit of extensive revision by the author; a fifth edition in to vols.
Editions of the Virgilian commentary by G.
See the editions of the Historia by H.
The following is a bibliography of Westcott's more important writings, giving the date of the first editions: - Elements of the Gospel Harmony (1851); History of the Canon of First Four Centuries (1853); Characteristics of Gospel Miracles (1859); Introduction to the Study of the Gospels (1860); The Bible in the Church (1864); The Gospel of the Resurrection (1866); Christian Life Manifold and One (1869); Some Points in the Religious Life of the Universities (1873); Paragraph Psalter for the Use of Choirs (1879); Commentary on the Gospel of St John (1881); Commentary on the Epistles of St John (1883); Revelation of the Risen Lord (1882); Revelation of the Father (1884); Some Thoughts from the Ordinal (1884); Christus Consummator (1886); Social Aspects of Christianity (1887); The Victory of the Cross: Sermons in Holy Week (1888); Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889); From Strength to Strength (1890); Gospel of Life (1892); The Incarnation and Common Life (1893); Some Lessons of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1897); Christian Aspects of Life (1897); Lessons from Work (1901).
The best editions of his collected works are the first edition by J.
There were other editions, and an abridgment with some corrections was brought out by J.
He also brought out editions of the Byzantine historians, John Cinnamus and John Zonaras, as Joannis Cinnami historiarum de rebus gestis a Joanne et Manuele Comnenis (Paris, 1670) and Joannis Zonarae Annales ab exordio mundi ad mortem Alexii Comneni (Paris, 1686).
The collected editions of the works are by J.
His first appearance before a wider public was in 1799, when he published against the Italian Jansenists a controversial work entitled Il Trionfo della Santa Sede, which, besides passing through several editions in Italy, has been translated into several European languages.
New editions have been undertaken by such scholars as A.
During the four successful years spent in North Carolina he wrote, for the benefit of his mission work, The Faith of our Fathers, a brief presentation of the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, especially intended to reach Protestants; the books passed through more than forty editions in America and about seventy in England, and an answer was made to it in Faith of our Forefathers (1879), by Edward J.
Apart from alterations in detail, both as to doctrine and ritual, which will be referred to later, the following main advantages were achieved from the very first and apply to all editions of the Prayer Book equally.
This led to the circulation of many editions of Josippon, which thus formed a link in the chain of events which culminated in the readmission of the Jews to England by Cromwell.
Jewel's works were published in a folio in 1609 under the direction of Bancroft, who ordered the Apology to be placed in churches, in some of which it may still be seen chained to the lectern; other editions appeared at Oxford (1848, 8 vols.) and Cambridge (Parker Soc., 4 vols.).
The more important of his works and their editions are here given.
better known as Utopia, was printed at Louvain in 1516, under the superintendence of Erasmus, and appeared in many subsequent editions, many of them of great bibliographical value, the finest being the Basel edition of 1518.
It was translated into the chief languages of Europe, and into English by Ralph Robinson as A fruteful and Pleasaunt Worke of the best State of a Publyque Weale, and of the newe Yle called Utopia (Abraham Nell, 1551); modern editions are by J.
His chief published works are: Le Serapeum de Memphis (18J7 and following years); Denderah, five folios and one 4to (1873-1875) Abydos, two folios and one 4to (1870-1880); Karnak, folio and 4to (1875); Deir el-Bahari, folio and 4to (1877); Listes geographiques des p_ y lones de Karnak, folio (1875); Catalogue du Muse'e de Boulaq (six editions 1864-1876); A percu de l'histoire d'Egypte (four editions, 1864-1874, &c.); LesMastabas de l'ancien empire (edited by Maspero) (1883).
His editions and Latin versions of the New Testament had a marked influence on the English versions of Geneva (1557 and 1560) and London (1611).
He edited two editions of Hamilton Moore's Navigation, and in 1802 published a valuable work, New American Practical Navigator, founded on the earlier treatise by Moore.
A life of Aristotle, ascribed to Ammonius, but with more accuracy to John Philoponus, is often prefixed to editions of Aristotle.
Among the editions of the Latin the best is that edited by L.
In addition to memoirs prefixed to editions of his sermons, there are lives of Latimer by R.
Editio princeps (Rome, 1469); the best editions are those of Gronovius (1706) and M.
and early editions u.s. Modern editions: J.
See the introductions to these editions; also Skeat and Koppel u.s., and P. Buss, Sind die von Horstmann herausgegebenen schottischen Legenden ein Werk Barberes?
For the substantial publication of these researches reference must be made to the Transactions of the Royal Society; but an account of many of them was incorporated in his best-known books, namely, the famous Heat as a Mode of Motion (1863; and later editions to 1880), the first popular exposition of the mechanical theory of heat, which in 1862 had not reached the textbooks; The Forms of Water, &c. (1872); Lectures on Light (1873); Floating Matter in the Air (188x); On Sound (1867; revised 1875, 1883, 1893).
In 1692 appeared his Logica sive Ars Ratiocinandi, and also Ontologia et Pneumatologia; these, with the Physica (1695), are incorporated with the Opera Philosophica, which have passed through several editions.
The Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, edited under his superintendence, appeared in two volumes in1843-1845and passed through three editions.
In the later editions of this essay the thesis is elaborated with greater detail.
Partial editions of his Latin works are dated Paris (1510), Antwerp (1533), Cologne (1535-36), Paris (1618); and in vol.
The ablest recent editions are by B.
Bernard's (Cambridge Greek Testament, 1899) editions.
Of the older editions, the most valuable are Heydenreich's (Die Pastoralbriefe, 1826-1828), Alford's (3rd ed., 1862), Huther's (3rd ed., GÃ¶ttingen, 1866), Bisping's (1866), P. Fairbairn's (Edinburgh, 1874), Ellicott's (5th ed., 1883, strong in exegesis) and Knoke's (in Lange's Bibel-Werk, 4th ed., 1894), with Riggenbach's (in the StrackZockler Commentar, 1897).
Editions in English have recently been undertaken in the International Critical Commentary (by W.
His editions and translations of the classics were either juvenile exercises prescribed by Scaliger, or "lusus poetici," the amusement of vacant hours.
His book On the Causes of the Misfortunes of Denmark (1864) went through many editions, and his posthumous works were published in 4 vols., 1872-1874.
- Editions by Hermolaus Barbarus (Rome, 1492); Dalecampius (Lyons, 1587); Gronovius (Leiden, 1669); Hardouin (Paris, 1685); Franz (Leipzig, 1778-1791); Sillig, with index by O.
Simson's contributions to mathematical knowledge took the form of critical editions and commentaries on the works of the ancient geometers.
(Oxford, 1893), Lectures on Medieval and Modern History (Oxford, 1886) and Early Plantagenets (London, 1876); the same author's introduction to the Rolls editions of "Benedict," Gervase, Diceto, Hoveden; Mrs J.
Within eighteen months it passed through six editions.
In typography Milan is renowned principally for its musical editions and for its heliotype and zincotype establishments.
There are two complete editions in French of his works, both printed at Leiden, one in 1608, the other in 1634 by Albert Girard.
Eight editions of the pamphlet appeared in 1602, and the fortieth edition before the end of the following century.
Other editions are Lessings Werke, published by Hempel, under the editorship of various scholars (23 vols., 1868-1877); an illustrated edition published by Grote in 8 vols.
There are also many popular editions.
Lessing's correspondence is included in the Lachmann editions and in that of Hempel (edited by C. C. Redlich, 1879; Nachtrdge and Berichtigungen, 1886); his correspondence with his wife was published as early as 1789 (2 vols., new edition by A.
Editions of the 'EKAo-y by F.
Editions of the Trebizond MS. by C. Sathas and E.
In 1831 he published Grundriss der anorganischen Chemie, and in 1840 Grundriss der organischen Chemie, both of which went through many editions.
Chemists also had to thank him for translating three editions of the Lehrbuch of Berzelius and all the successive volumes of the Jahresbericht into German from the original Swedish.
He settled there in 1490, and soon afterwards gave to the world editions of the Hero and Leander of Musaeus, the Galeomyomachia, and the Greek Psalter.
The prefaces to his editions were written in Greek.
But it may be well in this place to observe that his successors continued his work by giving Pausanias, Strabo, Aeschylus, Galen, Hippocrates and Longinus to the world in first editions.
writings of Poliziano, the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, Dante's Divine Comedy, Petrarch's poems, a collection of early Latin poets of the Christian era, the letters of the younger Pliny, the poems of Pontanus, Sannazzaro's Arcadia, Quintilian, Valerius Maximus, and the Adagia of Erasmus were printed, either in first editions, or with a beauty of type and paper never reached before, between the years 1495 and 1514.
For these Italian and Latin editions Aldo had the elegant type struck which bears his name.
While aiming at that excellence of typography which renders his editions the treasures of the book-collector, he strove at the same time to make them cheap. We may perhaps roughly estimate the current price of his pocket series of Greek, Latin and Italian classics, begun in 1501, at 2S.
But, though their publications count a large number of first editions, and some are works of considerable magnitude, they were not brought out with the scholarly perfection at which Aldo aimed.
The result was that some of their editions, especially their Aeschylus of 1518, are singularly bad.
He was a passionate Ciceronian, and perhaps his chief contributions to scholarship are the corrected editions of Cicero's letters and orations, his own epistles in a Ciceronian style, and his Latin version of Demosthenes.
To prepare correct editions of the classics, and to print them in a splendid style, has always been a costly undertaking.
As was natural, his editions after his removal to Rome were mostly Latin works of theology and Biblical or patristic literature.
Besides editions of English classics his works include a Life of Queen Victoria (1902),(1902), Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth Century (1904), based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Mass., in 1903, and Shakespeare and the Modern Stage (1906).
The numerous editions of the various portions - for, despite Hume's wrath and grumblings, the book was a great literary success - gave him an opportunity of careful revision, which he employed to remove from it all the ' villainous seditious Whig strokes," and " plaguy prejudices of Whiggism " that he could detect.
During his lifetime fourteen works and editions were published, and thereafter, between 1542 and 1845, there were at least two hundred and thirty-four separate publications according to Mook's enumeration.
It was printed at Basel in 1589-1591, in eleven volumes quarto, and is the best of all the editions.
The original editions of Paracelsus's works are getting less and less common; even the English versions are among the rarest of their class.
Over and above the numerous editions, there is a bulky literature of an explanatory and controversial character, for which the world is indebted to Paracelsus's followers and enemies.
Many other Latin editions were printed before the end of the century.
Several 15th-century editions of the Sermons are also known, and the Mariale was printed at Venice in 1497 and at Paris in 1503.
Les Trois Verites ran through several editions, and obtained for its author the favour of the bishop of Cahors, who appointed him grand vicar and theological canon.
He prepared editions, which won the praise of Edward Gibbon,' of the Ars poetica and Epistola ad Pisones (1749), and the Epistola ad Augustum (1751) of Horace.
The treatise passed through six editions in his lifetime, and in all of them he introduced various additions and corrections.
Eleven editions of the Resolves appeared before 1700.
Later editions by James Cumming (London, 1806; much garbled; has account of Feltham's life and writings), and O.
His greatest work, L' Electrisation localisee (1855), passed through three editions during his lifetime, though by many his Physiologie des mouvements (1867) is considered his masterpiece.
ff.) concerning the frequent early editions of Hobbes's separate works, and also concerning the works of those who wrote against him, to the end of the 17th century.
Important later editions are those of Ferdinand Tonnies, Behemoth (1889), on which see Croom Robertson's Philosophical Remains (1894), p. 45 1; Elements of Law (1889).
His Institutio theologicae elencticae (3 vols., Geneva 1680-1683) has passed through frequent editions, the last reprint having been made in Edinburgh in 1847-1848.
In several of the earlier editions of this work very ample details are furnished regarding the same, with malty interesting pictorial illustrations of the processes of production.
The most important of his works are: - Beitrage zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament (2 vols., 1806-1807); Kommentar fiber die Psalmen (181 I), which has passed through several editions, and is still regarded as of high authority; Lehrbuch der hebraisch jiidischen Archaologie (1814); Ober Religion and Theologie (1815); a work of great importance as showing its author's general theological position; Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmatik (1813-1816); Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung in die Bibel (1817); Christliche Sittenlehre (1819-1821); Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1826); Religion, ihr Wesen, ihre Erscheinungsform, and ihr Einfluss auf das Leben (1827); Das Wesen des christlichen Glaubens (1846); and Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Neuen Testament (1836-1848).
P. Faugere edited that text from the MS. in something like a condition of purity, though, as subsequent editions have shown, not with absolute fidelity.
Meanwhile, with the exception of the Provinciales (of which there are numerous editions, no one much to be preferred to any other, for the text is undisputed and the book itself contains almost all the exegesis of its own contents necessary), Pascal can be read only at a disadvantage.
There are five chief editions of the true Pensees earlier than Brunschvig's: that of Faugere (1844), the editio princeps; that of Havet (1852, 1867 and 1881), on the whole the best; that of Victor Rochet (1873), good, but arranged and edited with the deliberate intention of making Pascal first of all an orthodox apologist; that of Molinier (1877-1879), a carefully edited and interesting text, the important corrections of which have been introduced into Havet's last edition and that of G.
Stephanus (1559); of other editions the best are: P. Wesseling (1746), not yet superseded; L.
Separate editions were published for the Scotch and Irish markets.
Tyers, &c.; far above all, of course, the unique Life by James Boswell, first published in 1791, and subsequently encrusted with vast masses of Johnsoniana in the successive editions of Malone, Croker, Napier, Fitzgerald, Mowbray Morris (Globe), Birrell, Ingpen (copiously illustrated) and Dr Birkbeck Hill (the most exhaustive).
He also lectured upon Hesiod, Anacreon and Pindar, if he did not publish editions of them.
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