of Edinburgh by the North British railway.
Three weeks after the battle he, still provost of St Giles, was admitted a burgess of Edinburgh, his father, the "Great Earl," being then civil provost of the capital.
In 1894 he delivered the Gifford Lectures at Edinburgh, the subject being "The Philosophy and Development of Religion."
See James Mackintosh, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1832); and specially Sir Leslie Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, iii.
Eventually the marriage was celebrated in Edinburgh on the 8th of August 1503.
Margaret was crowned at Edinburgh in March 1504.
Albany had to blockade Margaret in Stirling Castle before she would surrender her sons, After being obliged to capitulate, Margaret returned to Edinburgh, and being no longer responsible for the custody of the king she fled to England in September, where a month later she bore to Angus a daughter, Margaret, who afterwards became countess of Lennox, mother of Lord Darnley and grandmother of James I.
Bain (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1890); John Leslie, History of Scotland, ed.
Thompson (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1830); Sir H.
A useful sketch of recent biographies is to be found in The Edinburgh Review (July 1906).
Adamson, The Development of Modern Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1903); J.
There is record of a club in Haddington in 1709, of Tom Bicket's green in Kilmarnock in 1740, of greens in Candleriggs and Gallowgate, Glasgow, and of one in Lanark in 1750, of greens in the grounds of Heriot's hospital, Edinburgh, prior to 1768, and of one in Peebles in 1775.
There is evidence of its vogue in Holland in the 17th century, for the painting by David Teniers (1610-1690), in the Scottish National Gallery at Edinburgh, is wrongly described as "Peasants playing at Skittles."
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
In 1868 he obtained the same professorship at Edinburgh University, and in 1873 he published a textbook of Magnetism and Electricity, full of original work.
His influence among the Edinburgh students was pronounced.
He was also well known as a sanitary reformer, and during the last ten years of his life he did much useful work in inculcating more enlightened ideas on the subject both in Edinburgh and other places.
Garvie, The Ritschlian Theology (Edinburgh, 1899), in both of which the bibliography of the movement is given.
trans., Edinburgh, 1868), and Pusey (1875), S.
JOHN NAPIER (1550-1617), Scottish mathematician and inventor of logarithms, was born at Merchiston near Edinburgh in 1550, and was the eighth Napier of Merchiston.
He was provost of Edinburgh in 1437, and was otherwise distinguished.
His eldest son Alexander, who succeeded him in 1 454, was provost of Edinburgh in 1 455, 1 457 and 1469; he was knighted and held various important court offices under successive monarchs; at the time of his death in 1473 he was master of the household to James III.
He also was provost of Edinburgh at various times, and it is a remarkable instance of the esteem in which the lairds of Merchiston were held that three of them in immediate lineal succession repeatedly filled so important an office during perhaps the most memorable period in the history of the city.
In 1588 he was chosen by the presbytery of Edinburgh one of its commissioners to the General Assembly.
Shortly afterwards another convention was held at Edinburgh, and it was resolved that the delegates sent to Jedburgh should again meet the king at Linlithgow and repeat their former instructions.
Edinburgh, printed by Robert Walde-grave, printer to the King's Majestie, 1 593.
The second edition in English appeared at Edinburgh in 1611, and in the preface to it Napier states he intended to have published an edition in Latin soon after the original publication in 1593, but that, as the work had now been made public by the French and Dutch translations, besides the English editions, and as he was "advertised that our papistical adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that are alreadie set out," he defers the Latin edition "till having first seene the adversaries objections, I may insert in the Latin edition an apologie of that which is rightly done, and an amends of whatsoever is amisse."
A third edition appeared at Edinburgh in 1645.
Corresponding to the first two Edinburgh editions, copies were issued bearing the London imprint and dates 1594 and 1611.
It has been usually supposed that John Napier was buried in St Giles's church, Edinburgh, which was certainly the burialplace of some of the family, but Mark Napier (Memoirs, p. 426) quotes Professor William Wallace, who, writing in 1832, gives strong reasons for believing that he was buried in the old church of St Cuthbert.
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
The first council met in Edinburgh in 1877.
Robertson, Scotland under her Early Kings (Edinburgh, 1862); Lord Hailes, Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819); A.
Returning to Scotland in 1819, he lived partly on his estate of Auchengray and partly in Edinburgh, and like his brother took an active part,.
But what he really said in his address to the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution in 1867 was that it was necessary "to induce our future masters to learn their letters."
In 1912 he was Gif ford lecturer at Edinburgh.
The Royal Society printed six important memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions, and a few other memoirs are to be found in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Royal Irish Academy, in the Bulletin de 1' Academic de St-Petersbourg for 1862 (under the name G.
He then marched north into Scotland, following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the Argyle faction at Edinburgh; replying to the Independents who disapp-oved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired "union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ...
a more glorious work in our eyes than if we had gotten the sacking and plunder of Edinburgh.
and after a campaign in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh which proved unsuccessful in drawing out the Scots from their fortresses, he retreated to Dunbar to await reinforcements from Berwick.
Advancing, he occupied Edinburgh and Leith.
Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters (Edinburgh, 1904).
The underground system of paper cables has been very largely extended, Cables between London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Liverpool.
In 1856 the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce began an agitation for the purchase by the government of the telegraphs, and other chambers of commerce in Great Britain joined the agitation, which was strongly supported by the Press.
Military School (1908) on " Submarine Cable Laying and Repairing," and articles in Quarterly Review (April 1903) on " Imperial Telegraphs," and in Edinburgh Review (April 1908) on " The International RadioTelegraphic Convention."
Fahie, A History of Wireless Telegraphy (Edinburgh, 1899); J.
The term " telephony " was first used by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorf, in a lecture delivered before the Physical Society of Frankfort in 1861.1 But, although this lecture and Reis's subsequent work received considerable notice, little progress was made until the subject was taken up between 1874 and 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, a native of Edinburgh, then resident in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. Bell, like Reis, employed electricity for the reproduction of sounds; but he attacked the problem in a totally different manner.
See Statuta Ecclesiae Scoticanae (Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh, 1866).
C. Fraser's Edinburgh lectures (Phil.
Gwatkin (Edinburgh: The Knowledge of God) pours out his historical knowledge, and W.
James (Edinburgh: Varieties of Relig.
Soc. Edinburgh, xxix.
of testaments and other matters (Keith, History of the Scottish Bishops, Edinburgh, 1824, p. 38).
The court consists of ministers and elders, elected from the presbyteries in specified proportions, and of commissioners from the four universities, the city of Edinburgh and the royal burghs.
Keith, History of the Scottish Bishops (Edinburgh, 1824); P. N.
The chief bridge, which carries the high road from Edinburgh to Berwick, was built by John Rennie in 1807.
The Links are the scene every year of the Edinburgh race meetings and of those of the Royal Caledonian Hunt which are held every third year.
JOHN INGLIS GLENCORSE, Lord (1810-1891), Scottish judge, son of a minister, was born at Edinburgh on the 21st of August 1810.
In 1869 he was elected chancellor of Edinburgh University, having already been rector of the university of Glasgow.
degrees at Oxford, Edinburgh and Dublin, and was made a fellow of the Royal Society.
British Association Report (Edinburgh, 1892), p. 699.
He joined Mary at Paris in September, and in 156 1 was sent by her as a commissioner to summon the parliament; in February he arrived in Edinburgh and was chosen a privy councillor on the 6th of September.
In March 1562, having made up his quarrel with Arran, he was accused of having proposed to the latter a project for seizing the queen, and in May he was imprisoned in Edinburgh castle, whence he succeeded in escaping on the 28th of August.
On the 24th he seized Mary's willing person near Edinburgh, and carried her to his castle at Dunbar.
Thence they marched with a strong force towards Edinburgh, meeting the lords on the 15th of June at Carberry Hill.
War broke out with England, but James, made a prisoner by his nobles, was unable to prevent Albany and his ally, Richard, duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard III.), from taking Berwick and marching to Edinburgh.
In 1906 he joined the Edinburgh publishing firm of Thomas Nelson & Sons.
He studied law for three years in South Carolina, and then spent two years abroad, studying French and Italian in Paris and jurisprudence at Edinburgh.
of Cambridge and Edinburgh.
C. Fox-Davies's Armorial Families (Edinburgh, 1895, and subsequent editions) represents an unhistorical attempt to create the idea of a noblesse in the United Kingdom.
The whole work, including Bower's continuation, was published by Walter Goodall at Edinburgh in 1759.
degrees from all the Scottish universities, was from 1896 to 1899 lord rector of Edinburgh University and from 1900 chancellor of St.
Jamieson's edition of the Ship of Fools (Edinburgh, 1874), which contains an account of the author and a bibliography of his works; and J.
Smith, China in Convulsion (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1902).
After a marriage between the prince and Lady Diana Spencer, afterwards the wife of John, 4th duke of Bedford, had been frustrated by Walpole, Frederick was married in April 1736 to 1 Frederick was never actually created duke of Gloucester, and when he was raised to the peerage in 1736 it was as duke of Edinburgh only.
He took part in the defence of Edinburgh, and in the battles of Langside (1568) and Restalrig (1571).
3); the symbolical processions in honour of "King Crispin" at Stirling and Edinburgh were particularly famous.
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879), British physicist, was the last representative of a younger branch of the wellknown Scottish family of Clerk of Penicuik, and was born at Edinburgh on the 13th of November 1831.
He was educated at the Edinburgh Academy (r840-1847) and the university of Edinburgh (1847-1850).
Forbes communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a short paper of his on a mechanical method of tracing Cartesian ovals.
In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society - one of which, " On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids," is remarkable, not only on account of its intrinsic power and the youth of its author, but also because in it he laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shearing stress.
(" International Theological Library," Edinburgh, 1903) is in many respects the most serviceable and complete study; a modern and more critical " Ewald " is a desideratum.
An earlier edition was translated into English under the title History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1890, 1891).
It passed through several editions, and was performed at the theatre in Edinburgh; its title is still known in every corner of Scotland, even if it be no longer read.
Gay visited him in Edinburgh, and Pope praised his pastoral - compliments which were undoubtedly responsible for some of Ramsay's unhappy poetic ventures beyond his Scots vernacular.
In 1736 he set about the erection of a new theatre, "at vast expense," in Carrubber's Close, Edinburgh; but the opposition was too strong, and the new house was closed in 1737.
See Captain Cook's Voyages and other early narratives; Martin, Mariner's account of the Tonga Islands (Edinburgh, 1827); Vason, Four Years in Tongatabu (London, 1815); A.
text) that others were brought with it, and that one of them was given to the Edinburgh Museum.
On the 1st of March 1638 the public signing of the " National Covenant " began in Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh.
During the sitting of this Assembly it was carried by a majority of seventy-five votes that Henderson should be transferred to Edinburgh.
In 1640 Henderson was elected by the town council rector of Edinburgh University - an office to which he was annually re-elected till his death.
On Henderson's return to Edinburgh in July 1641 the Assembly was sitting at St Andrews.
To suit the convenience of the parliament, however, it removed to Edinburgh; Henderson was elected moderator of the Edinburgh meeting.
During Charles's second state-visit to Scotland, in the autumn of 1641, Henderson acted as his chaplain, and managed to get the funds, formerly belonging to the bishopric of Edinburgh, applied to the metropolitan university.
He was buried in Greyfriars churchyard, Edinburgh; and his death was the occasion of national mourning in Scotland.
His extant works are (a) three poems, "The Praises of Wemen" (224 lines), "On Luve" (10 lines), and "The Miseries of a Pure Scholar" (189 lines), and (b) a Latin account of the Arbuthnot family, Originis et Incrementi Arbuthnoticae Familiae Descriptio Historica (still in MS.), of which an English continuation, by the father of Dr John Arbuthnot, is preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.
Arbuthnot must not be confused with his contemporary and namesake, the Edinburgh printer, who produced the first edition of Buchanan's History of Scotland in 1582.
After the expulsion of King Otho in 1862, the Greek nation, by a plebiscite, elected the British prince, Alfred, duke of Edinburgh (subsequently duke of Coburg), to the vacant throne, and on his refusal the national assembly requested Great Britain to nominate a candidate.
Skene (Edinburgh, 1867); W.
Skene, Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh, 1876); and Sir John Rhys, Celtic Britain (London, 1904).
Proc. R.G.S., 1887; Henry Lansdell, Through Central Asia (London, 1887); Archibald Colquhoun, Report on Railway Connexion between Burma and China (London, 1887); Major C. Yate, Northern Afghanistan (Edinburgh, 1888); Captain F.
His portrait by Raeburn is the property of Glasgow University, and in the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, there is a good medallion by Tassie, taken in his eighty-first year.
Young Rainy was intended for his father's profession, but he was caught by the evangelical fervour of the Disruption movement, and after studying for the Free Church he became a minister, first in Aberdeenshire and then in Edinburgh, till in 1862 he was elected professor of Church history in the theological seminary, New College, a post he only resigned in 1900.
He was indeed taken in June 1673 while holding a conventicle at Knockdow, and condemned by the privy council to 4 years and 3 months' imprisonment on the Bass Rock and a further 15 months in the Tolbooth at Edinburgh.
Born in Edinburgh on the 28th of January 1784, he lost his father in 1791 and his mother in 1795; and as his grandfather regarded him with indifference, he went to reside with Henry Dundas, afterwards Viscount Melville.
Moreover, he wrote an article in the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord Byron to refer to him in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers as "the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen."
At the early age of twelve he was sent to the university of Edinburgh, being intended for the clerical profession.
He began literary work in 1799 as a regular contributor to the Edinburgh Magazine, of which he acted as editor at the age of twenty.
In 1807 he undertook the editorship of the newly projected Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, of which the first part appeared in 1808, and the last not until 1830.
In 1819 Brewster undertook further editorial work by establishing, in conjunction with Robert Jameson (1774-1854), the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, which took the place of the Edinburgh Magazine.
After parting company with Jameson, Brewster started the Edinburgh Journal of Science in 1824, sixteen volumes of which appeared under his editorship during the years 1824-1832, with very many articles from his own pen.
Berzelius; and ten years later he accepted the office of principal of the university of Edinburgh, the duties of which he discharged until within a few months of his death, which took place at Allerly, Melrose, on the 10th of February 1868.
After attending the Academy at Edinburgh and spending a session at the University, he went up to Cambridge as a member of Peterhouse, and graduated as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman in 1852.
Forbes, as professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh, and this chair he occupied till within a few months of his death, which occurred on the 4th of July 1901, at Edinburgh.
He was the author of two text-books on them - one an Elementary Treatise on Quaternions (1867), written with the advice of Hamilton, though not published till after his death, and the other an Introduction to Quaternions (1873), in which he was aided by Professor Philip Kelland (1808-1879), who had been one of his teachers at Edinburgh.
In 1873 he took thermoelectricity for the subject of his discourse as Rede lecturer at Cambridge, and in the same year he presented the first sketch of his well-known thermoelectric diagram before the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
" Thomson and Tait," as it is familiarly called ("T and T" was the authors' own formula), was planned soon after Lord Kelvin became acquainted with Tait, on the latter's appointment to his professorship in Edinburgh, and it was intended to be an all-comprehensive treatise on physical science, the foundations being laid in kinematics and dynamics, and the structure completed with the properties of matter, heat, light, electricity and magnetism.
In Scotland higher agricultural instruction is given at: Edinburgh and East of Scotland Agricultural College.
Edinburgh University, Agriculture Department.
In the autumn of the same year he turned to psychology, reviewing Bain's works in the Edinburgh Review.
It was he who at a cost of over X500,000 made the harbour at Granton, near Edinburgh.
In March 1313 his lieutenant Sir James Douglas surprised Roxburgh, and Thomas Randolph surprised Edinburgh.
Meantime hostilities more car less constant continued with England, but, though in 1322 Edward made an incursion as far as Edinburgh, the internal weakness of his government prevented his gaining any real success, while in October of this year Bruce again ravaged Yorkshire, defeated the English near Byland, and almost captured their king.
Skeat (Edinburgh, 1894), and the Chronica gentis Scotorum of John of Fordun, edited by W.
Skene (Edinburgh, 1871-72), are perhaps the most valuable.
Stevenson (Edinburgh, 1839), is also very important.
Stevenson (Edinburgh, 1836).
Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819); P. F.
Tytler, History of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1841-43); J.
(Edinburgh, 1905); A.
(Edinburgh, 1904); R.
In matters of religion she at first tried to hold the balance between the Catholic and Protestant factions and allowed the Presbyterian preachers the practice of their religion so long as they refrained from public preachings in Edinburgh and Leith.
Mary retreated to Edinburgh and thence to Dunbar, while Edinburgh opened its gates to the reformers, who issued a proclamation (Oct.
Mary entered Edinburgh and conducted a campaign in Fife.
An English army under Lord Grey entered Scotland on the 29th of March 1560, and the regent received an asylum in Edinburgh castle, which was held strictly neutral by John Erskine.
Bain (Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1890-1899); Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots,1547-1603 (Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1898-1900), &c. There is a Life in Miss Strickland's Queens of Scotland (vols.
from Edinburgh in 1884.
He entered the university of Edinburgh at the early age of twelve, and continued to attend classes there for more than ten years.
In 1837 he became the colleague of John Sym in the pastorate of Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh, and at once attracted notice as a great pulpit orator.
Towards the close of 1840 he became minister of St John's church, Victoria Street, Edinburgh.
was conferred on Guthrie by the university of Edinburgh; and in 1850 William Hanna (1808-1882), the biographer and son-in-law of Thomas Chalmers, was inducted as his colleague in Free St John's Church.
He studied at Haddington, and graduated in 1739 at the university of Edinburgh, where he completed a divinity course in 1743.
After being educated at the high school of Edinburgh and at Durham, he attended the literary and law classes at the university of Edinburgh, and becoming in 1810 a member of the Edinburgh faculty of advocates, he for some time enjoyed the intimate acquaintance of Cockburn, Jeffrey, Scott and other distinguished men whose talent then lent lustre to the Scottish bar.
He died at Edinburgh on the 10th of March 1870.
Scots Law: Hunter, on Landlord and Tenant (Edinburgh, 4th ed., 1876); Rankine, on Land Ownership (Edinburgh, 3rd ed., 1891); Rankine, on Leases (Edinburgh, 2nd ed., 1893); Hunter, Landlord and Tenant (4th ed.
Guthrie, Edinburgh, 1876).
xiv., and another in the Edinburgh Review, January 1879.
Taiping (Perak, 1894-1898); John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1820); Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language (2 vols., London, 1852); A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries (London, 1856); Journal of the Indian Archipelago (12 vols., Singapore, 1847-1862); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 33 Nos.
Flint's History of the Philosophy of History (Edinburgh, 18 93), pp. 157-170.
The following year he was elected professor of mathematics in the university of Edinburgh on the urgent recommendation of Newton.
His Treatise on Fluxions was published at Edinburgh in 1742, in two volumes.
In 1745, when the rebels were marching on Edinburgh, Maclaurin took a most prominent part in preparing trenches and barricades for its defence.
As soon as the rebel army got possession of Edinburgh Maclaurin fled to England, to avoid making submission to the Pretender.
Herring, then archbishop of York, with whom he remained until it was safe to return to Edinburgh.
He died of dropsy on the 14th of June 1746, at Edinburgh.
He inherited an attachment to scientific discovery, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in 1782.
Lepsius, Briefe aus A gypten (1852); "The Voice of Memnon" in Edinburgh Review (July 1886); article by R.
Setting aside London and Edinburgh, no locality in the British Isles is so intimately associated with the history of English literature as the Lake District.
distant by the Caledonian railway, from both Edinburgh and Glasgow.
from Edinburgh by the North British railway via the Forth Bridge, and 28 m.
Educated partly at Tiverton grammar-school, and partly at Dublin, where he studied chemistry, he afterwards proceeded to Edinburgh and took the degree of M.D.
In Edinburgh the church of St Giles could boast the possession of an arm-bone of its patron.
Following petitions to the Kennel Club from exhibitors at the club's own show at the Crystal Palace, and also at the show of the Scottish Kennel Club in Edinburgh during the autumn of 1900, the divisions were decided upon as follows: Sporting.
So great a success was scored that other shows were held in the same year at Birmingham and Edinburgh; while the Cleveland Agricultural Society also established a show of foxhounds at Redcar, the latter being the forerunner of that very fine show of hounds which is now held at Peterborough every summer and is looked upon as the out-of-season society gathering of hunting men and women.
United Kingdom, no fewer than 519 being held in 1905, the actual number of dogs which were entered at the leading fixtures being: Kennel Club show 1789, Cruft's 1768, Ladies' Kennel Association 1306, Manchester 1190, Edinburgh 896 and Birmingham 892.
Train, The Buchanites from First to Last (Edinburgh, 1846).
His name first came before the public in 1683, when a prospectus was published in Edinburgh entitled An Account of the Scottish Atlas, stating that "the Privy Council of Scotland has appointed John Adair, mathematician and skilfull mechanick, to survey the shires."
Some of his work is preserved in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh and in the King's Library of the British Museum, London.
After serving an apprenticeship of six years with a doctor in Philadelphia, he went for two years to Edinburgh, where he attached himself chiefly to William Cullen.
trans., Edinburgh, 1853).
Educated at several schools in London, he went to Edinburgh University in 1792, where he attended Dugald Stewart's moral philosophy class.
Brown wrote a criticism of Darwin's Zoonomia (1798), and was one of the first contributors to the Edinburgh Review, in the second number of which he published a criticism of the Kantian philosophy, based entirely on Villers's French account of it.
She corresponded with Garrick, Dr Blair and Principal Robertson; and when in Edinburgh, where she was very well received, she arranged to entrust the education of her son to Principal Robertson.
P. Curran (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1822); Thomas Moore, Life and Death of Lord Edward Fitzgerald (2 vols.
In 1812 he entered the university of Edinburgh, where he distinguished himself specially in mathematics.
He contributed largely to the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and also wrote several scientific papers for the Edinburgh Review and various scientific journals.
Born on the 18th of February 1718 he was educated at the parish school of St Ninians, and at the grammar school of Stirling, and, after completing his course at Edinburgh University, became master of the grammar school at Annan.
In 1768 he became minister of the New Greyfriars' Church, Edinburgh, and having received the degree of D.D.
from Edinburgh University in 1771, and served as moderator of the general assembly of the church of Scotland in 1774, he was appointed one of the ministers of the Old Greyfriars' Church, Edinburgh, in 1776, remaining in this charge until his death on the 24th of November 1790.
During his residence in Berwick, Henry commenced his History of Great Britain, written on a new plan; but, owing to the difficulty of consulting the original authorities, he did not make much progress with the work until his removal to Edinburgh in 1768.
ALLAN RAMSAY (1713-1784), Scotch portrait-painter, the eldest son of the author of The Gentle Shepherd, was born at Edinburgh in 1713.
On his return he settled in Edinburgh; and, having attracted attention by his head of Forbes of Culloden and his full-length of the duke of Argyll, he removed to London, where he was patronized by the duke of Bridgewater.
This last-named work shows the influence of French art, an influence which helped greatly to form the practice of Ramsay, and which is even more clearly visible in the large collection of his sketches in the possession of the Royal Scottish Academy and the Board of Trustees, Edinburgh.
WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN RANKINE (1820-1872), Scottish engineer and physicist, was born at Edinburgh on the 5th of July 1820, and completed his education in its university.
By correspondence he stimulated some friends in Edinburgh to establish charity schools in the Highlands, and the Gaelic School Society (1811) was his idea.
Munro, Through Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia (Edinburgh, 1900); A.
Skene, Edinburgh, 1891).
Returning to Scotland, he lived at Whittingehame, near Edinburgh, till his death in 1750.
(Edinburgh, 18 93), pp. 1 4 2 - 1 45, 199 Mohn and F.
After studying at the university of his native city, he removed to Edinburgh, where he qualified for the Scottish bar and practised as an advocate; but his progress was slow, and he eked out his narrow means by miscellaneous literary work.
A memoir of Hill Burton by his wife was prefaced to an edition of The Book Hunter, which like his other works was published at Edinburgh (1882).
He was born at 8 Howard Place, Edinburgh, on the 13th of November 1850.
He went to school, mainly in Edinburgh, from 1858 to 1867, but his ill-health prevented his learning much, and his teachers, as his mother afterwards said, "liked talking to him better than teaching him."
In 1871 he had so far advanced as to receive the silver medal of the Edinburgh Society of Arts for a paper suggesting improvements in lighthouse apparatus.
Although he greatly enjoyed the outdoor business of the engineer's life it strained his physical endurance too much, and in 1871 was reluctantly exchanged for study at the Edinburgh bar, to which he was called in 1875.
In the autumn of 1880 he returned to Scotland, with his wife and stepson, who were received at once into the Edinburgh household of his parents.
In the early months of 1887 Stevenson was particularly ill, and he was further prostrated by being summoned in May to the deathbed of his father, who had just returned to Edinburgh from the south.
In 1894 he was greatly cheered by the plan, suggested by friends in England and carried out by them with the greatest energy, of the noble collection of his works in twenty-eight volumes, since known as the Edinburgh editions.
Stevenson's other works include: Memories and Portraits (1887); The Merry Men and other Tales and Fables (1887); The Black Arrow (1888); Edinburgh: Picturesque Notes (1889); Across the Plains, with other Memories and Essays (1892), and the posthumous works, Songs of Travel and other Verses (1896), St Ives (1899), completed by Sir A.
A complete edition of Stevenson's works was issued at Edinburgh in 1894-1898.
RANDALL THOMAS DAVIDSON (1848-), archbishop of Canterbury, son of Henry Davidson, of Muirhouse, Edinburgh, was born in Edinburgh and educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Oxford.
Featherstonhaugh, A Canoe Voyage up the Minnay Sotor (2 vols., London, 1847); Laurence Oliphant, Minnesota and the Far West (Edinburgh, 1855); and Frederika Bremer, The Homes of the New World: Impressions of America (2 vols., New York, 1864).
Hill-James, Battles round Biarritz, Nivelle and the Nive (London, 1896); Battles round Biarritz, Garres and the Bridge of Boats (Edinburgh, 1897); H.
He was educated at the grammar school of his native town, and at the university of Edinburgh, where he graduated M.A.
Though he showed a fondness for the profession of arms, he studied divinity, and was licensed by the presbytery of Edinburgh in 1745.
It also was rejected, but on his return to Edinburgh his friends resolved that it should be brought out in that city.
From 1767 he resided either at Edinburgh or at a villa which he built at Kilduff near his former parish.
Home died at Merchis* ?n Bank, near Edinburgh, on the 5th of September 1808, in his eighty-sixth year.
Soc. (Edinburgh, 1904), vol.
Three times, in July 1638, and in March and June 1639, Montrose entered Aberdeen, where he succeeded in effecting his object, on the second occasion carrying off the head of the Gordons, the marquess of Huntly, as a prisoner to Edinburgh, though in so doing, for the first and last time in his life, he violated a safeconduct.
On the 27th of May 1641 he was summoned before the Committee of Estates charged with intrigues against Argyll, and on the 11th of June he was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle.
He was brought a prisoner to Edinburgh, and on the 10th of May sentenced to death by the parliament.
He was lord rector of the University of Glasgow from 1868 to 1871, and later held the same office in that of Edinburgh.
C. Bissell, Apocrypha of the Old Testament (Edinburgh, 1880); Zickler, Apok.
EDINBURGH, a city and royal burgh, and county of itself, the capital of Scotland, and county town of Edinburghshire, or Midlothian, situated to the south of the Firth of Forth, 396 m.
Edinburgh occupies a group of hills of moderate height and the valleys between.
Its situation, general plan and literary associations suggested a comparison that gave Edinburgh the name of " the modern Athens "; but it has a homelier nickname of " Auld Reekie," from the cloud of smoke (reek) which often hangs over the low-lying quarters.
Edinburgh is particularly rich in monuments of every description and quality.
- Edinburgh is exceptionally well provided with parks and open spaces.
In several directions many places once to be described among the environs have practically become suburbs of Edinburgh.
The parish church contains the tombs of the Forresters, of old the leading family of the district, with full-length sculptured figures, and at the base of Corstorphine Hill - from one point of which (" Rest and be Thankful ") is to be had one of the best views of Edinburgh - are the seats of several well-known families.
Craigmillar, though situated in the parish of Liberton, is really a part of Edinburgh.
Liberton (pop. of parish, 7 2 33), a name that recalls the previous existence of a leper's hospital, is prominently situated on the rising ground to the south of Edinburgh, the parish church being a conspicuous landmark.
Adjoining is the village of Gilmerton (pop. 1482), which used to supply Edinburgh with yellow sand, when sanded floors were a feature in the humbler class of houses.
Lasswade (pop. of parish, 9708), partly in the Pentlands, famous for its oatmeal, was often the summer resort of Edinburgh worthies.
The two most celebrated resorts, however, amongst the environs of Edinburgh are Roslin (pop. 1805) and Hawthornden.
The two trunk railways serving Edinburgh are the North British and the Caledonian.
Leith, Granton and Grangemouth serve as the chief passenger seaports for Edinburgh.
Under the Edinburgh Corporation Act 1900, a further addition of nearly 1800 acres was made.
This embraced portions of South Leith parish (landward) and of Duddingston parish, including the village of Restalrig and the ground lying on both sides of the main road from Edinburgh to Portobello; and also part of Cramond parish, in which is contained the village and harbour of Granton.
By the Redistribution Act of 1885 the city was divided for parliamentary purposes into East, West, Central and South Edinburgh, each returning one member; the parliamentary and municipal boundaries are almost identical.
During the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland, Edinburgh was the seat of a bishop, and the ancient collegiate church of St Giles rose to the dignity of a cathedral.
But the annual meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland at Edinburgh is now the public manifestation of the predominance of Presbyterianism as the national church.
The university of Edinburgh, the youngest of the Scottish universities, was founded in 1583 by a royal charter granted by James IV., and its rights, immunities and privileges have been remodelled, ratified and extended at various periods.
is spoken of as its founder, it really originated in the liberality of the citizens of Edinburgh.
The magnificent hall used for academic and public functions was the gift of William M ` Ewan, some time M.P. for the Central division of Edinburgh.
Edinburgh has always possessed exceptional educational facilities.
It was not until 1825, when the Edinburgh Academy was opened, that it encountered serious rivalry.
At his death in 1624 Heriot left his estate in trust to the magistrates and ministers of Edinburgh for the maintenance and teaching of poor fatherless sons of freemen.
Although Edinburgh is a residential rather than a manufacturing or commercial centre, the industries which it has are important and flourishing.
Constable, the Ballantyne Press, Morrison & Gibb, Turnbull & Spears, and others, admirably maintain the traditional reputation of the Edinburgh press.
Brewing is an industry of exceptional vigour, Edinburgh ale being proverbially good.
An infantry regiment is always stationed in the castle, and there are in addition the barracks at Piershill (or " Jock's Lodge "), half-way between Edinburgh and Portobello.
- Edinburgh society still retains a certain oldfashioned Scottish exclusiveness.
Rugby football is in high favour, Edinburgh being commonly the scene of the international matches when the venue falls to Scotland.
Edinburgh maintains few newspapers, but the Scotsman, which may be said to reign alone, has enjoyed a career of almost uninterrupted prosperity, largely in consequence of a succession of able editors, like Charles Maclaren, Alexander Russel, Robert Wallace and Charles Cooper.
In the past the Edinburgh Evening Courant, the chief organ of the Tory party, of which James Hannay was editor for a few years, had a high reputation.
Volunteering has always attracted the younger men, and the highest awards at Wimbledon and Bisley have been won by the Queen's Edinburgh History.
It is probable that the Ottadeni built a fort or camp on the rock on which Edinburgh Castle now stands, which was thus the nucleus around which, in course of time, grew a considerable village.
Under the protection of the hill-fort, a native settlement was established on the ridge running down to the valley at the foot of Salisbury Crags, and another hamlet, according to William Maitland (1693-1757), the earliest historian of Edinburgh, was founded in the area at the northwestern base of the rock, a district that afterwards became the parish of St Cuthbert, the oldest in the city.
The Romans occupied the country for more than three hundred years, as is evidenced by various remains; `but James Grant (1822-1887), in Old and New Edinburgh, doubts whether they ever built on the castle rock.
The southern Picts ultimately subdued the Britons, and the castle became their chief stronghold until they were overthrown in 617 (or 629) by the Saxons under Edwin, king of Northumbria, from whom the name of Edinburgh is derived.
Edinburgh was long an exposed frontier town within a territory only ceded to Malcolm II.
Hence, though the village of Canongate grew up beside the abbey of David I., and Edinburgh was a place of sufficient importance to be reckoned one of the four principal burghs as a judicatory for all commercial matters, nevertheless, even so late as 1450, when it became for the first time a walled town, it did not extend beyond the upper part of the ridge which slopes eastwards from the castle.
The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
The determination of Edinburgh as the national capital, and as the most frequent scene of parliamentary assemblies, dates from the death of James I.
Of the thirteen parliaments summoned by that sovereign, only one, the last, was held at Edinburgh, but his assassination in the Blackfriars' monastery at Perth led to the abrupt transfer of the court and capital from the Tay to the Forth.
Of fourteen parliaments summoned during this reign, only one was held at Perth, five met at Stirling and the rest at Edinburgh; and, notwithstanding the favour shown for Stirling as a royal residence in the following reign, every one of the parliaments of James III.
was held at Edinburgh.
In the 16th century the movements connected with John Knox and Mary, queen of Scots, made Edinburgh a castle of much activity.
(1760), Edinburgh showed signs of revived enterprise.
Then succeeded the era of Scott's Marmion and The Lady of the Lake, followed by the Waverley novels and the foundation of Blackwood's Magazine and the Edinburgh Review.
Modern conditions have changed the character of Edinburgh society.
Edinburgh is not markedly a manufacturing city, but preserves its character as the Scottish capital.
- James Grant, Old and New Edinburgh (London, 1880 et seq.); W.
Maitland, History of Edinburgh (1753); Hugo Arnot, History of Edinburgh (1789); B.
Chambers, Traditions of Edinburgh (1824); D.
Wilson, Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time (1846-1848); O.
Smeaton, Edinburgh and its Story (1904).
JAMES LORRAINE GEDDES (1827-1887), American soldier and writer, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 19th of March 1827.
In that year he became attorney-general and was returned by Edinburgh, for which he sat till 1841.2 His political creed declared upon the hustings there was that of a moderate Whig.
It was not on legal technicalities, however, but on the broad principle of religious equality, that Campbell supported the abolition of church rates, in which he included the Edinburgh annuity-tax.
The poem (preserved in a unique MS., dated 1488, in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh) is divided into eleven books and runs to 11,853 lines.
In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with a series of remarkable peace congresses - international assemblies designed to unite the intelligence and philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league against war - which from 1848 to 1851 were held successively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester and Edinburgh.
documents, mainly concerned with the Slovaks; Rene Gonnard, La Hongrie au XX e siecle (Paris, 1908), an admirable description of the country and its people, mainly from the point of view of economic development and social conditions; Geoffrey Drage, Austria-Hungary (London, 1909), a very useful book of reference; P. Alden (editor), Hungary of To-day, by members of the Hungarian Government (London, 1909); see also " The Problem of Hungary " in the Edinburgh Review (No.
He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and after graduating as M.D.
From 1816 he published various papers in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.
He died at Edinburgh on the 14th of November 1844.
Ronaldson, Edinburgh and Johannesburg, 5904); Reports and Memoirs, Geol.
Buchan, The African Colony (Edinburgh, 1903); L.
Aylward, The Transvaal of To-day (Edinburgh, 1878); R.
208 (Edinburgh, 1848) and "Untersuchungen fiber die Geschichte der Paulicianer" in Theol.
of Cambridge and Edinburgh, Doctor in utroque jure of Heidelberg; an hon.
Thereafter he joined the order of Observantine Franciscans, at St Andrews or Edinburgh, and proceeded to France as a wandering friar.
Examples of this type are The Satire on Edinburgh, The General Satire, the Epitaph on Donald Owre, and the powerful vision of The Dance of the Sevin Deidlie Synnis.
The chief authorities for the text of Dunbar's poems are :- (a) the Asloan MS. (c. 1515); (b) the Chepman and Myllar Prints (1508) preserved in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh; (c) Bannatyne MS. (156$) in the same; (d) the Maitland Folio MS. (c. 1570-1590) in the Pepysian library, Magdalene College, Cambridge.
Some of the poems appear in the Makculloch MS. (before 1500) in the library of the university of Edinburgh; in MS. Cotton Vitellius A.
The first complete edition was published by David Laing (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1834) with a supplement (Edinburgh, 1865).
The editions by James Paterson (Edinburgh, 1860) and H.
William Cullen (1710-1790) was a most eminent and popular professor of medicine at Edinburgh.
The enthusiasm of the younger Brunonians in Germany was as great as in Edinburgh or in Italy, and led to serious riots in the university of Gottingen.
In Edinburgh the admirable teaching of Cullen had raised the medical faculty to a height of prosperity of which his successor, James Gregory (1758-1821), was not unworthy.
The Memoirs of the marquise were translated into English by Sir Walter Scott, and issued as a volume of "Constable's Miscellany" (Edinburgh, 1827).
Edinburgh, 1875); Bishop Colenso, Langalibalele and the Amahlubi Tribe (1874); Zulu Boundary Commission (Books i.-iv., 1878, MSS.
Allardyce (Aberdeen, 1895-1896); James Hogg, The Jacobite Relics of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819-1821); and F.
The marquis de Ruvigny has compiled The Jacobite Peerage (Edinburgh, 1904), a work which purports to give a list of all the titles and honours conferred by the kings of the exiled House of Stuart.
The Wodrow Society, founded in Edinburgh to perpetuate his memory, was in existence from 1841 to 1847, several works being published under its auspices.
In 1759 Ferguson was appointed professor of natural philosophy in the university of Edinburgh, and in 1764 was transferred to the chair of "pneumatics" (mental philosophy) "and moral philosophy."
McCosh, The Scottish Philosophy (1875); articles in Dictionary of National Biography and Edinburgh Review (January 1867); Lord Henry Cockburn, Memorials of his Time (1856).
In his later years he published an address read before the members of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution (1868), one on Design in Nature, for the Christian Evidence Society, which reached a fifth edition, various charges and pastoral addresses, and he was one of the projectors of The Speaker's Commentary, for which he wrote the "Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels."
In 183 2 he entered the university of Edinburgh, where, after studying in Berlin and St Petersburg, he graduated as M.D.
He died at Edinburgh on the 10th of September 1856.
at the university of St Andrews in 1713, and completed his education for the ministry at Edinburgh.
The seat of this congregation was shortly afterwards transferred to Dundee (whence Glas subsequently removed to Edinburgh), where he officiated for some time as an "elder."
A collected edition of his works was published at Edinburgh in 1761 (4 vols., 8vo), and again at Perth in 1782 (5 vols., 8vo).
In 1819 he was apprenticed to Nicholas Wood, a coal-viewer at Killingworth, after which he was sent in 1822 to attend the science classes at the university of Edinburgh.
His best legal treatise is Memoire pour le comte de Morangies (Paris, 1772); Linguet's imprisonment in the Bastille afforded him the opportunity of writing his Memoires sur la Bastille, first published in London in 1789; it has been translated into English (Dublin, 1783, and Edinburgh, 1884-1887), and is the best of his works, though untrustworthy.
- (I) Leuckart, The Parasites of Man (Edinburgh, 1886); (2) Braun, The Animal Parasites of Man (London, 1906); (3) Id., " Cestodes " in Braun's Klassen u.
Harris, Journey through Yemen (Edinburgh, 1893); J.
Adeney, The Greek and Eastern Churches, pp. 477-53 8 (Edinburgh, 1908); J.
He graduated at Edinburgh University in 1691, and became a regent at St Andrews.
He was educated at the universities of St Andrews and Edinburgh, and after taking the degree of M.D.
In 1811 he left Edinburgh, and after a visit to Sweden went to London, where in 1813 he began to edit the Annals of Philosophy, a monthly scientific journal which in 1827 was merged in the Philosophical Magazine.
trans., 1851, Edinburgh), K.
It was shown by Professor Rutherford at Edinburgh to be a powerful secretory cholagogue, an action possessed by few hydragogue purgatives.
165 of Blackwood's Magazine (Edinburgh, 1898), described the attempt at colonization made in 1630.
JAMES DAVID FORBES (1809-1868), Scottish physicist, was the fourth son of Sir William Forbes, 7th baronet of Pitsligo, and was born at Edinburgh on the 10th of April 1809.
He entered the university of Edinburgh in 1825, and soon afterwards began to contribute papers to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal anonymously under the signature "A."
At the age of nineteen he became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and in 1832 he was elected to the Royal Society of London.
A year later he was appointed professor of natural philosophy in Edinburgh University, in succession to Sir John Leslie and in competition with Sir David Brewster, and during his tenure of that office, which he did not give up till 1860, he not only proved himself an active and efficient teacher, but also did much to improve the internal conditions of the university.
In 1846 he began experiments on the temperature of the earth at different depths and in different soils near Edinburgh, which yielded determinations of the thermal conductivity of trap-tufa, sandstone and pure loose sand.
He was educated at Newcastle, and at Edinburgh University, where he graduated M.A.
Broadley, Tunis, Past and Present (Edinburgh, 1882); Guerin, Voyage archeologique (Paris, 1862); D'Herisson, Mission archeologique en Tunisie (Paris, 1884); E.
From 1815 to 1818 he studied medicine in London and Edinburgh.
In 1819, in the course of a tour through France, he made the volcanic district of Auvergne a special study, and his Letters on the Volcanos of Auvergne were published in The Edinburgh Journal, 1820-21.
An article by Thomas Carlyle in the Edinburgh Review (July 1832) is the best criticism on Elliott.
In 1766 he succeeded Cullen in the chair of chemistry in Edinburgh, where he devoted practically all his time to the preparation of his lectures.
He died in Edinburgh on the 6th of December 1799 (not on the 26th of November as stated in Robison's life).
After his death his lectures were written out from his own notes, supplemented by those of some of his pupils, and published with a biographical preface by his friend and colleague, Professor John Robison (1739-1805), in 1803, as Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry, delivered in the University of Edinburgh.
He raised Lio,000 to endow a missionary chair at New College, Edinburgh, and himself became first professor.
ROBERT SMITH CANDLISH (1806-1873), Scottish divine, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of March 1806, and spent his early years in Glasgow, where he graduated in 1823.
After short assistant pastorates at St Andrew's, Glasgow, and Bonhill, Dumbartonshire, he obtained a settled charge as minister of the important parish of St George's, Edinburgh.
From the very commencement of his ministry in Edinburgh, Candlish took the deepest interest in ecclesiastical questions, and he soon became involved as one of the chief actors in the struggle which was then agitating the Scottish church.
So early as 1841 his reputation in this department was sufficient to secure for him the government nomination to the newly founded chair of Biblical criticism in the university of Edinburgh.
from Princeton, New Jersey, in 1841, was chosen by the Assembly of the Free Church to succeed Chalmers in the chair of divinity in the New College, Edinburgh.
The county of Edinburgh, or Midlothian, which he contested against the dominant influence of astonishing exertions.
In the Waverley Market at Edinburgh, which is said to hold 20,000 people, he could be heard without difficulty; and as late as 1895 he said to the present writer: " What difference does it make to me whether I speak to 400 or 4000 people ?
1736), captain of the city guard of Edinburgh, whose name is associated with the celebrated riots of 1736, was the son of Stephen Porteous, an Edinburgh tailor.
Having served in the army, he was employed in 1715 to drill the city guard for the defence of Edinburgh in anticipation of a Jacobite rising, and was promoted later to the command of the force.
The sympathies of the people, and even, it is said, of the clergy, throughout Scotland, were so unmistakably on the side of the rioters that the original stringency of the bill introduced into parliament for the punishment of the city of Edinburgh had to be reduced to the levying of a fine of 2000 for Porteous's widow, and the disqualification of the provost for holding any public office.
London, 1816); Alexander Carlyle, Autobiography (Edinburgh, 1860), which gives the account of an eye-witness of the execution of Wilson; pamphlets (2 vols.
of Edinburgh in 1884, D.C.L.
He was tutor to the son of the first duke of Queensberry, through whose influence he was appointed professor of civil law in the university of Edinburgh.
In 1710, the Edinburgh magistrates, regarding the university patronage as their privilege, appointed another professor, ignoring the appointment of Cunningham, who had been installed in the office for at least ten years.
As far back as 1755 Adam Smith, Blair and others had produced an Edinburgh Review which only ran to two numbers, and in 1773 Gilbert Stuart and William Smellie issued during three years an Edinburgh Magazine and Review.
To Edinburgh is also due the first high-class critical journal, the Edinburgh Review, established in October 1802 by Jeffrey, Scott, Horner, Brougham and Sydney Smith.
These little papers, rapidly thrown off for a temporary purpose, were destined to form a very important ' The centenary of the Edinburgh Review was celebrated in an article in October 1902, and that of the Quarterly Review in two articles April and July 1909.
See also On the Authorship of the First Hundred Numbers of the Edinburgh Review (1895), by W.
It will be sufficient to mention the following: The Scots Magazine (1739-1817) was the first published in Scotland; from 1817 to 1826 it was styled the Edinburgh Magazine.
Class magazines were represented by the Edinburgh Farmer's Magazine (1800-1825) and the Philosophical Magazine (1798), established in London by Alexander Tilloch; the latter at first consisted chiefly of translations of scientific articles from the French.
The following periodicals, all of which date from the 18th century, are still published: the Gospel Magazine (1766, with which is incorporated the British Protestant), the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine (1778), Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1786), Evangelical Magazine (1793; since 1905 the Evangelical British Missionary), the Philosophical Magazine (1798), now known as the London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine.
The increased influence of this class of periodical upon public opinion was first apparent in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, founded in 1817 by the publisher of that name, and carried to a high degree of excellence by the contributions of Scott, Lockhart, Hogg, Maginn, Syme and John Wilson (" Christopher North "), John Galt and Samuel Warren.
The regular price of these magazines was half a crown; the first of the cheaper ones was Tait's Edinburgh Magazine (1832-1861) at a shilling.
He resided in Edinburgh for nearly sixteen months, and his services to the government were repaid by a regular salary.
In 1870 Nimmo of Edinburgh published in one volume an admirable selection from Defoe.
from the university of Edinburgh.
Not till 1736 were the statutes against witchcraft repealed; an act which the Associate Presbytery at Edinburgh in 1743 declared to be" contrary to the express law of God, for which a holy God may be provoked in a way of righteous judgment."The recognition and condemnation of errors in religious belief is by no means confined to the Christian Church.
He held honorary degrees at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, Edinburgh and Durham, was an Associate of the Institute of France; a Commander of the Legion of Honour, and of the Order of Leopold.
In 1827 he became a student at Glasgow University, and in 1831 went to Edinburgh to study divinity under Dr Thomas Chalmers.
In 1847 he became one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance, and from 1849 edited the Christian Instructor (Edinburgh).
For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
"Fawn" (Edinburgh, 1863); J.
1 479, after his daring escape from Edinburgh Castle, the duke of Albany concealed himself within its walls, until he contrived to sail for France.
Cromwell, after a war of manoeuvre near Edinburgh, had been compelled by want of supplies to withdraw to Dunbar; Leslie pursued and took up a position on Doon Hill, commanding the English line of retreat on Berwick.
of Edinburgh by the North British railway, being the terminus of a branch line from Drem Junction.
It is entitled Vindiciae contra tyrannos, sive de principis in populum populique in principem legitima potestate, Stephano Junio Bruto Celta auctore, and is thought to have been published at Basel (1579) although it bears the imprint of, Edinburgh.
trans., Edinburgh, 1865); A.
C. McGiffert, The Apostles' Creed (Edinburgh, 1902); and F.
Oxford, Edinburgh and Glasgow gave him honorary degrees; the two Scottish universities made him lord rector.
150-297 (Edinburgh, 1889).
ALEXANDER ALES (ALESIUS) (1500-1565), Scottish divine of the school of Augsburg, whose family name was Alane, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of April 1500.
He was educated at Edinburgh (M.A.
P. Forbes, Kalendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 18 7 2), pp. 34 1 -34 6; D.
Hallam's earliest literary work was undertaken in connexion with the great organ of the Whig party, the Edinburgh Review, where his review of Scott's Dryden attracted much notice.
A messenger was at once sent from Edinburgh to London with a letter from Lethington and a verbal message.
According to Moray's version of the letter, Mary was to try to poison Darnley in a house on the way between Glasgow and Edinburgh where he and she were to stop. Clearly Lord Livingstone's house, Callendar, where they did rest on their journey, is intended.
ROBERT ADAMSON (1852-1902), Scottish philosopher, was born in Edinburgh on the 19th of January 1852.
At the end of his school career he entered the university of Edinburgh at the age of fourteen, and four years later graduated with first-class honours in mental philosophy, with prizes in every department of the faculty of Arts.
After a short residence at Heidelberg (1871),(1871), where he began his study of German philosophy, he returned to Edinburgh as assistant first to Henry Calderwood and later to A.
He was a spectator of the riot of St Giles's, Edinburgh, on the 23rd of July 1637, endeavoured in vain to avoid disaster by concessions, and on the taking of the Covenant perceived that "now all that we have been doing these thirty years past is thrown down at once."' He escaped to Newcastle, was deposed by the assembly on the 4th of December on a variety of ridiculous charges, and died in London on the 26th of November 1639, receiving burial in Westminster Abbey.
(" Defence " carried 4 9.2-in., " Warrior," " Black Prince," " Duke of Edinburgh," 6 9.2-in.) This measure had been suggested, and even ordered in the case of the " Defence," but had never reached fulfilment.
The " Black Prince " and " Duke of Edinburgh " were doing convoy work in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, and the " Warrior was at Port Said, while the " Defence " was with Rear-Adml.
In June she followed the king to England (after distributing all her effects in Edinburgh among her ladies) with the prince and the coffin containing the body of her dead infant, and reached Windsor on the 2nd of July, where amidst other forms of good fortune she entered into the possession of Queen Elizabeth's 6000 dresses.
The instrument then passed, by purchase from Gill, to Lord McLaren, by whom it was presented to the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh.
Soc. Edinburgh, xxxiv.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
In 1834 he entered Edinburgh University, but during 1836 and 1837, owing to financial straits, taught in a school at Ayton.
In November 1837 he returned to Edinburgh, where he became the most distinguished student of his time, graduating M.A.
While at Edinburgh he organized the Metaphysical Society along with A.
In 1857 he was one of the representatives at the meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in Berlin, and in 1858 Edinburgh University conferred on him an honorary D.D.
In the following year he declined an invitation to become principal of Edinburgh University.
He died on the 12th of March, 1892, at Edinburgh.
Adamson, Development of Modern Philosophy (Edinburgh and London, 1903); G.
His chief work appeared in 1713, under the title Clavis Universalis, or a New Inquiry after Truth, being a Demonstration of the NonExistence or Impossibility of an External World 1 (printed privately, Edinburgh, 1836, and reprinted in Metaphysical Tracts, 1837, edited by Sam.
An anthracite occurring in connexion with the old volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat,Edinburgh, which contains a large amount of sulphur in proportion to the Caking coals.
In 1759, for his literary and more particularly his scientific attainments, he received the freedom of the city of Edinburgh and the degree of doctor of laws from the university of St Andrews.
The crown of Scotland, preserved with the Scottish regalia at Edinburgh, is believed to be composed of the original circlet worn by King Robert the Bruce.
(Among the councillors returned at the election of 1904 was Dr Abdurrahman, a Mahommedan and a graduate of Edinburgh, this being, it is believed, the first instance of the election of a man of colour to any European representative body in South Africa.) The municipality owns the water and lighting services.
345 (London, 1891), and Edinburgh Review, vol.
After studying at St John's College, Cambridge, and at Edinburgh, he settled in 1756 as a physician at Nottingham, but meeting with little success he moved in the following year to Lichfield.
His services to education in Scotland were now recognized by the conferment of the honorary degree of doctor of laws by the university of Edinburgh in 1871.
NICOL 1768-18511, Scottish physicist, was born about 1768, and died Edinburgh on the 2nd of September 1851.
Nothing is known of his early history beyond the fact that, after amassing a small competence as a popular lecturer on natural philosophy, he settled in Edinburgh to live a very retired life in the society of his apparatus alone.
For a general view of Thirlwall's life and character, see the Edinburgh Review, vol.
He was educated at Edinburgh in the Royal High School, the University and New College.
Cochran, Edinburgh, 1858); J.
He was Hibbert lecturer in 1886, Rhind lecturer in archaeology at Edinburgh in 1899 and president of the anthropological section of the British Association in 1900.
On his return to Scotland in 1732 he settled as a practitioner in the parish of Shotts, Lanarkshire, and in1734-1736studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he was one of the founders of the Royal Medical Society.
In 1751 he was appointed professor of medicine, but continued to lecture on chemistry, and in 1756 he was elected joint professor of chemistry at Edinburgh along with Andrew Plummer, on whose death in the following year the sole appointment was conferred on Cullen.
In 1887 he returned to England and became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh.
The second council met in Boston in 1899, and the third in Edinburgh in 1908.
of Edinburgh, and 24 m.
He was educated at Westminster School and the universities of Edinburgh and Bonn.
As to Scots law: Bell, On Arbitration (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1877); Erskine, Principles (20th ed., Edinburgh, 1903).
An English translation is to be found in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library (Edinburgh, 1868-1869).
Important magnetic observations were begun at Makerstoun in 1841, and the results gained him in 1848 the Keith prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in whose Transactions they were published.
He was elected president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh after the death of Sir Walter Scott in 1833, and in the following year acted as president of the British Association.
He founded two gold medals for the encouragement of scientific research, one in the award of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and the other in that of the Scottish Society of Arts.
Princess Alice (afterwards grand duchess of Hesse) was born on the 25th of April 1843; Prince Alfred (afterwards duke of Edinburgh and duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) on the 6th of August 1844; Princess Helena (Princess Christian) on the 25th of May 1846; Princess Louise (duchess of Argyll) on the 18th of March 1848; and Prince Arthur (duke of Connaught) on the 1st of May 1850.
In 1874 Prince Alfred, duke of Edinburgh, married Princess Marie Alexandrovna, only daughter of the tsar Alexander II.
The dukes of Edinburgh, Connaught and Albany were each voted an income of £15,000, and £10,000 on marrying.
In 1899 her grandson, the hereditary prince of Coburg, had succumbed to phthisis, and in 1900 his father, the duke of Coburg, the queen's second son, previously known as the duke of Edinburgh, also died (July 30).
Herschel wrote a full account in the Edinburgh Review), and in 1848 Du systeme social et des lois qui le regissent.
"Church and Culture" (Edinburgh, 1 877).
Mitchell, The Herring, its Natural History and National Importance (Edinburgh, 1864).
In this year he visited Edinburgh, and on the recommendation of certain Edinburgh physicians was made an M.D.
The garden at Edinburgh was founded by Sir Andrew Balfour and Sir Robert Sibbald in 1670, and, under the name of the Physic Garden, was placed under the superintendence of James Sutherland, afterwards professor of botany in the university.
For later history see John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago (Edinburgh, 1820), which quotes from native as well as European records, and Twentieth-Century Impressions of Netherlands India (ed.
28 romance of Thomas and the elf-queen was attributed to Erceldoune by Robert Mannyng de Brunne, but the earliest text, in the Auchinleck MS. in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh, is in a dialect showing southern forms, and dates from the beginning of the 14th century.
The first successful manufacture of sal ammoniac in Great Britain was established in Edinburgh about the year 1760.
There is a convenient English translation of most of the writings of the ante-Nicene Fathers by Roberts and Donaldson (Ante-Nicene Christian Library, 25 vols., Edinburgh, 1868 ff., American reprint in nine vols., 1886 ff.).
Blair, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1887-1890); W.