How to use Edict in a sentence
This edict would have utterly ruined Campania.
On the advice of Acacius, the energetic patriarch of Constantinople, Zeno issued the Henotikon edict (482), in which Nestorius and Eutyches were condemned, the twelve chapters of Cyril accepted, and the Chalcedon Definition ignored.
After the revocation of the edict of Nantes the settlement of some French refugees further stimulated this industry.
The edict of Nantes had been repealed two years before; but the Calvinists were still very numerous at Nimes.
In 1858 the edict of expulsion was repealed.Advertisement
A few days later a second edict was drafted which ordered the burning of Luther's books.
He committed to the flames the whole body of the canon law, together with an edict of the head of the Church which had recently been issued against his teachings.
Oh, he'll have a fit or two and try to hand down an edict.
Oddly enough, the diet before dissolving had, apparently in order to meet the rokosz half-way, issued the famous edict De non praestanda obedientia, whereby, in case of future malpractices by the king and his subsequent neglect of at least two solemn warnings there-anent by the primate and the senate, he was to be formally deposed by the next succeeding diet.
Ricci replied with the historical answer, Sint ut sunt, aut non sint; and after some further delay, during which much interest was exerted in their favour, the Jesuits were suppressed by an edict in November 1764, but suffered to remain on the footing of secular priests, a grace withdrawn in 1767, when they were expelled from the kingdom.Advertisement
Although the states-general issued an edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the conflict continued, and the Remonstrants were assailed both by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice of Orange, who executed and imprisoned their leaders for holding republican views.
Gradually, however, he was made uneasy by the obvious trend of the imperial policy towards the annihilation of Protestantism, and by a dread lest the ecclesiastical lands should be taken from him; and the issue of the edict of restitution in March 1629 put the coping-stone to his fears.
Still, although clamouring vainly for the exemption of the electorate from the area covered by the edict, John George took no decided measures to break his alliance with the emperor.
His reward was Lusatia and certain other additions of territory; the retention by his son Augustus of the archbishopric of Magdeburg; and some concessions with regard to the edict of restitution.
History From 1 579 To Modern TIMES3 The political compact known as the Union of Utrecht differed from its immediate predecessors, the Pacification of Ghent, the Union of Brussels and the Perpetual Edict, in its permanence.Advertisement
The league of Augsburg (1686), which followed the revocation of the edict of Nantes, placed Orange at the head of the resistance to French domination.
Theodosius, in his persecuting edict of 382, classes them as a special sect with the Manicheans, who also eschewed wine.
It was at the instance of Galerius that the first of the celebrated edicts of persecution against the Christians was published, on the 24th of February 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration (31 I), issued in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine.
In 1037 he issued from Milan his famous edict for the kingdom of Italy which decreed that upon the death of a landholder his fief should, descend to his son, or grandson, and that no fiefholder should be deprived of his fief without the judgment of his peers.
The death of Colbert and the revocation of the edict of Nantes brought the first to a close (166116831685); coinciding with the date when the Revolution in England definitely reversed the traditional system of alliances, and when the administration began to disorganize.Advertisement
Pellisson.s methods of conversion, considered too slow, were accelerated by the violent persecution of Louvois and by the kings galleys, sion of until the day came when Louis XIV., deceived by the the edict clergy, crowned his record of complaisant legal methods by revoking the edict of Nantes.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes vitiated thi-ough a fatal contradiction all the efforts of the latter to create new manufactures; the country was impoverished for tht1 benefit of the foreigner to such a point that economic conditions began to alarm those private persons most noted for their talents, their character, or their regard for the public welfare; such as La Bruyre and Fnelon in 1692, Bois-Guillebert in 1697 and Vauban In.
In 405 an edict was issued by the emperor Honorius commanding the Donatists, under the severest penalties, to return to the Catholic church.
This edict, it is essential to observe, the responsibility for which rests with a disciplinary congregation in no sense representing the church, was never confirmed by the pope, and was virtually repealed in 1757 under Benedict XIV.
The statement that he issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that, while the exercise of magical rites would be severely punished, his subjects should enjoy full liberty of conscience, rests on insufficient evidence.Advertisement
He obtained sole command of the imperial armies, with the power of concluding treaties and of granting pardons, and he doubtless insisted on the withdrawal of the Edict of Restitution, although this is not absolutely certain; in brief, the only limits to his power were the limits to the strength of his army.
The Catholics insisted at first on keeping all the ecclesiastical lands which had been taken from them before the Edict of Restitution in 1629.
Puttkammer, who had now become minister of the interior, defended the practice, and a royal edict of 4th January 1882 affirmed the monarchical character of the Prussian constitution, the right of the king personally to direct the policy of the state, and required those officials who held appointments of a political nature to defend the policy of the government, even at elections.
A further provision empowered the Bundesrat to fix the hours of labor in unhealthy trades; this was applied to the bakeries by an edict of 1895, but the great outcry which this caused prevented any further extension.
He had apparently identified himself with the " Illyrian " party, had broken off all communications with the Hungarian government, and, in spite of an imperial edict issued in response to the urgency of Batthyani, had summoned a diet to Agram, which on the 9th of June decreed the separation of the " Triune Kingdom " from Hungary.
As the existence of the empire would thereby be endangered, Beust interfered; Belcredi was dismissed, Beust himself became minister-president on the 7th of February 1867, and a new edict was issued from Vienna ordering the diets to elect a Reichsrath, according to the constitution, which was now said to be completely valid.
The first royal edict written in Danish is dated 1386; and the Act of Union at Kalmar, written in 1397, is the most important piece of the vernacular of the 14th century.
The order of the Perpetual Edict, which appears to have been taken as a sort of model for the general scheme of books and titles, was doubtless convenient to the Roman lawyers from their familiarity with it, but was in itself rather accidental and historical than logical.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
Not stopping to reflect that in the angry and suspicious state of men's minds he was sure to lose as much in one direction as he would gain in the other, Justinian entered into the idea, and put forth an edict exposing and denouncing the errors contained in the writings of Theodore generally, in the treatise of Theodoret against Cyril of Alexandria, and in a letter of Bishop Ibas (a letter whose authenticity was doubted, but which passed under his name) to the Persian bishop Marls.
This edict was circulated through the Christian world to be subscribed by the bishops.
Among the Western bishops, who were less disposed both to Monophysitism and to subservience, and especially by those of Africa, the edict was earnestly resisted.
According to his usual practice, he issued an edict enforcing this view, and requiring all patriarchs, metropolitans, and bishops to subscribe to it.
He belonged to a French Protestant family, and was compelled to take refuge in England at the revocation of the edict of Nantes, in 1685.
The Jubilee dispensation according to the edict of Boniface VIII.
They include the Fastes de l'empire romain, and editions of Diocletian's edict and of Philippe Lebas's Voyage archeologique (1868-1877).
Yazdeged, the last of the Sassanid kings of Persia, who died in 651, when defeated and hard pressed by the Moslems, invoked the aid of China; the Chinese emperor, Taitsung, issued an edict organizing the whole country from Ferghana to the borders of Persia into three Chinese administrative districts, with 126 military cantonments, an organization which, however, probably only existed on paper.
In the year of his accession he abolished an old edict concerning the censorship. He also furthered in many ways the internal administration of the state, and especially that of the finances.
At last they made up their minds, and presented a memorial to the emperor (19th of February 1521) in which they reminded him that no imperial edict could be published against Luther without their sanction, and proposed that he should be invited to Worms under a safe-conduct and be there examined.
An edict against Luther had been drafted (15th of February) which the diet refused to sanction.
Finally four days after the safe-conduct had been despatched the emperor revised this second edict, limited it to the seizure of Luther's books, and published it on his own authority without consulting the diet (loth March).
After Luther had begun his journey, this edict was posted up along his route in order to intimidate him; other means were taken to make him turn aside from Worms; but he was resolved to go there and nothing daunted him.
Then he was liable to be seized and put to death as a pestilent heretic. There only remained to draft and publish the edict containing the ban.
It was not till the 25th of May that the edict against Luther was presented to a small number of members of the diet, after the elector of Saxony and many important members had left Worms. It threatened all Luther's sympathisers with extermination, and practically proclaimed an Albigensian war in Germany.
It was resolved that the Word of God should be preached without disturbance, that indemnity should be given for past offences against the edict of Worms, and that meanwhile each state should live religiously as it hoped to answer for its conduct to God and the emperor.
Thereupon the diet resolved that the edict of Worms was to be enforced against Luther and his partizans; that the ecclesiastical jurisdictions were to be preserved; and that all the church property taken possession of by the Lutheran princes was to be restored; and that in all cases of dispute the last court of appeal was to be the Imperial Court of Appeals.
He issued an edict forbidding the reading of the law, the observance of the Sabbath, and the rite of circumcision; and determined to convert the still half-ruined Jerusalem into a Roman colony.
Here he lived with his mistress and his daughters - he had repudiated his wife - in disreputable peace until 1789, when he was condemned to a year's imprisonment for a lampoon on the Prussian religious edict of 1788.
Maximinus has a bad name in Christian annals, as having renewed persecution after the publication of the toleration edict of Galerius, but it is probable that he has been judged too harshly.
He was pastor at Rouen (his native place) from 1676 till 1685, when, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, he obtained leave of the king to retire to Holland.
The Chinese government having issued an edict that the growth and consumption of opium in China should be entirely suppressed within ten years, the government ÿf India accordingly agreed in 1908 that the export of opum from India should be reduced year by year, so that the opium revenue would henceforth rapidly decline and might be expected to cease altogether.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes struck a severe blow at the cloth and iron industries, which had previously been a source of prosperity to the town.
During the Wars of Religion, Caen embraced the reform; in the succeeding century its prosperity was shattered by the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685).
Motawakkil, in 850, formulated an edict by which these sectaries were compelled to wear a distinctive dress and to distinguish their houses by a figure of the devil nailed to the door, excluding them at the same time from all public employments, and forbidding them to send their children to Moslem schools.
His father, also George, married (1793) Selina, daughter of Henry Peckwell (1747-1787), minister of the countess of Huntingdon's chapel in Westminster (descended from a Huguenot family, the de Blossets, who had left Touraine on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes), and had one daughter and ten sons, of whom the historian was the eldest.
An imperial edict of the 20th of May 1904 annulled all Korean treaties with Russia.
A criminal code, scarcely equalled for barbarity, though twice mitigated by royal edict since 1785, remained in force in its main provisions till 1895.
But a majority of the theologians and all the monks opposed these measures with uncompromising hostility, and in the western parts of the empire the people refused to obey the edict.
He must be held largely responsible for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but not for the brutal measures applied against the Protestants.
A praetor was essentially a civil judge, and as such he was accustomed at or before his entry on office to publish an edict setting forth the rules of law and procedure by which he intended to be guided in his decisions.
After the revocation of the edict of Nantes he fled to Rotterdam (November 1685), and in 1686 was appointed chaplain to the princess of Dessau, Henrietta Catherine of Orange.
The name is well known in connexion with the silk industry established here by French refugees after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685.
It is eminently characteristic of his methods that, just at the same time as he was turning loose dragoons on his Protestant subjects after the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685), he was employing other dragoons to invade the papal territory at Avignon, to punish Innocent XI.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes owes quite as much to the dream of political absolutism, inherited from Richelieu, as to religious bigotry.
Declining to be classed either as Christians or Jews, they were excluded from the edict of toleration promulgated by the emperor Joseph II.
Next year the book was proscribed in a violently worded edict by the states of Holland and West Friesland.
Even the revocation of the edict of Nantes and the dragonnades have been laid to her charge, but recent investigations have tended to show that in spite of ardent Catholicism, she at least opposed, if not very vigorously, the cruelties of the dragonnades, although she was pleased with the conversions they procured.
It was, however, only natural that its adherents should be won, first and chiefly, among the countrymen of the prophet, and its further success in gaining over all the Iranian tribes gave it a national stamp. So the Susan translation of Darius Behistun inscrrption TThese ideas are strongly exposed in a polemic against the Christians contained in an official edict of the Persian creed to the Armenians by Mihr Narseh, the vizier of Yazdegerd IT.
The shahs grandmother, by feigning herself sick and dependent upon wine only for cure, obtained reversal of the edict.
The edict expressing the royal will on the religious question is dated in June, but the date of coronation is uncertain.
On his return from his second visit he was the prime mover in the promulgation of the Bavarian religious edict of 1522, which practically established the senate of the university of Ingolstadt as a tribunal of the Inquisition, and led to years of persecution.
In the 16th century Bergerac was a very flourishing and populous place, but most of its inhabitants having embraced Calvinism it suffered greatly during the religious wars and by the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685).
Presumably it was successful; since in the winter of 1685, just after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, Fenelon was put at the head of a number of priests, and sent on a mission to the Protestants of Saintonge, the district immediately around the famous Huguenot citadel of La Rochelle.
The abuse naturally reappeared under a man like Domitian; the delators, with whom Vespasian had not interfered, although he had abolished trials for majestas, were again banished by Trajan, and threatened with capital punishment in an edict of Constantine; but, as has been said, the evil, which was an almost necessary accompaniment of autocracy, lasted till the end of the 4th century.
The edict of Gratian lays down that it should be exorcized and blessed by the priest and sprinkled with exorcized salt.
The issue of an important edict ordaining the erection of heathen altars in every township of Palestine, and the appointment of officers to deal with recusants, brought matters to a crisis.
The origin of the Nazarenes or Ebionites as a distinct sect is very obscure, but may be dated with much likelihood from the edict of Hadrian which in 135 finally scattered the old church of Jerusalem.
The first edict prohibiting opium-smoking was issued by the emperor Yung Cheng in 1729.
The Chinese government regarding the use of opium as one of the most acute moral and economic questions which.as a nation they have to face, representing an annual loss to the country of 856,250,000 taels, decided in 1906 to put an end to the use of the drug within ten years, and issued an edict on the 10th of September 1906, forbidding the consumption of opium and the cultivation of the poppy.
Shortly afterwards several of the Huguenots who had sought refuge at the Cape after the revocation of the edict of Nantes were placed in the new settlement.
In 1563 Amboise gave its name to a royal edict allowing freedom of worship to the Huguenot nobility and gentry.
It was formed by the settlement of French refugees here after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
After the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685 it opened its gates to numerous French refugees; but this hardly compensated it for its losses during the war.
The year 1770 saw the beginning of the cotton trade with China, the result of a famine in that country, the Chinese government having issued an edict commanding more land to be used for growing grain.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes, and consequent French immigration, gave further impetus to the industry.
On the 18th of March 339 the exarch of Egypt suddenly confronted Athanasius with an imperial edict, by which he was deposed and a Cappadocian named Gregory was nominated bishop in his place.
The rulers of the Church have learned by experience, however, that they can succeed best by avoiding partisan conflicts, and the archbishop of Bogota gave effect to this in 1874 by issuing an edict instructing priests not to interfere in politics.
About 1686 the European population was increased by a number of the French refugees who left their country on the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
In 1 577 he secured the treaty of Bergerac, which foreshadowed the edict of Nantes.
In 376 he was deprived of his see, and Valens sent him into exile, whence he did not return till the publication of the edict of Gratian in 378.
His defence of the notorious edict of July 9, 1788, issued by the Prussian minister for ecclesiastical affairs, Johann Christoph von Wollner (1732-1800), the object of which was to enforce Lutheran orthodoxy, might with greater justice be cited as a sign of the decline of his powers and of an unfaithfulness to his principles.
John Sigismund, adopting his court-preacher's views, issued (1568) an edict of religious liberty at the Torda Diet, which allowed David (retaining his existing title) to transfer his episcopate from the Calvinists to the anti-Trinitarians, Kolozsvar being evacuated by all but his followers.
On these terms the synod interceded with the Genevese to restore their pastors; but through the opposition of some of the Bernese (especially Peter Kuntz, the pastor of that city) this was frustrated, and a second edict of banishment was the only response.
The story of the struggle for the edict is part of the history of France, and during the thirty-five years of civil war which preceded its grant, many treaties and other arrangements had been made between the contending religious parties, but none of these had been satisfactory or lasting.
In many ways the terms of the edict were very generous to the Protestants, but it must be remembered that the liberty to hold public worship was made the exception and not the rule; this was prohibited except in certain specified cases, and in this respect they were less favourably treated than they were under the arrangement made in 1576.
Then cajoled and threatened by Henry, the parlement registered the edict on the 25th of February 1 599.
The strong political position secured to the French Protestants by the edict of Nantes was very objectionable, not only to the ardent Roman Catholics, but also to more moderate persons, and the payments made to their ministers by the state were viewed with increasing dislike.
The edict of Caracalla, at the beginning of the 3rd century, by conferring the right of citizenship on all the inhabitants of the empire, completed an assimilation for which commercial relations, schools, a taste for officialism, and the adaptability and quick intelligence of the race had already made preparation.
The emperors had now to make terms with these churches, which served to group together all sorts of malcontents, and this was the object of the edict of Milan (313), Triumph by which the Church, at the outset simply a Jewish of Chrisinstitution, was naturalized as Roman; while in 325 tlanity in the Council of Nicaea endowed her with unity.
Hence came the revocation in 1540 of the edict of tolerance of Coucy (1535), and the massacre of the Vaudois (1545).
Henry II., a fanatic, went still further in his edict of Chteaubriant(155f), a code of veritable persecution, and in the coup d@at carried out in the parlement against Antoine du Bourg and his colleagues (1559).
Despite the edict of Romorantin, which by giving the bishops the right, of cognizance of heresy prevented the introduction of the Inquisition on the Spanish model into France; despite the assembly of Fontainebleau, where an attempt was made at a compromise acceptable to both Catholics and moderate Calvinists; the reform party and its Bourbon leaders, arrested at the states-general of Orleans, were in danger of their lives.
He further excited the religious feelings of the people against him, by his edict of Tolerance (1780), and his later attempts at the reform of clerical abuses, which were pronounced to be an infraction of the Joyous Entry (see Joyeuse Entree).
In 1787 the Edict of Tolerance was published.
The edict against the reformer, which was finally adopted by the emperor and the diet, was drawn up and proposed by Aleandro.
The Moot Hill was known also as the Hill of Belief from the fact that here the Pictish king promulgated the edict regulating the Christian church.
In 1784 the Language Edict made German the official language of the common state.
Under pressure from the palatine of Batthyany an imperial edict was issued, on the 7th day of May, ordering the ban to desist from his separatist plans and take his orders from Pest.
Once more, at the instance of Batthyany, the emperor intervened; and on the 10th an imperial edict stripped Jellachich of all his offices.
But the religious toleration of the edict of Nantes was reaffirmed while its political privilegeswere destroyed, and Huguenot officers fought loyally in the foreign enterprises of the cardinal.
The suppression of the independence of the feudal aristocracy was inaugurated in 1626 by an edict calling for the destruction of all fortified castles not needed for defence against invasion.
The year of Richelieu's triumph over the Huguenots (1629) was also that of the Emperor Ferdinand's triumph in Germany, marked by the Edict of Restitution, and France was threatened by a united Germany.
Though the glory of Salerno had departed, the school actually existed till it was finally dissolved by an edict of the emperor Napoleon I.
Chosen to represent the provincial synod of Anjou, Touraine and Maine at the national synod held in 1631 at Charenton, he was appointed as orator to present to the king "The Copy of their Complaints and Grievances for the Infractions and Violations of the Edict of Nantes."
In 1324 a municipal edict was issued forbidding the erection of glass-furnaces within the city.
By the peace of Chartres (March 9, 1409) the king absolved him from the crime, and Valentina Visconti, the widow of the murdered duke, and her children pledged themselves to a reconciliation; while an edict of the 27th of December 1409 gave John the guardianship of the dauphin.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
A papal edict awarding the supremacy of Corsica to the Pisan church proved sufficient cause for the war, which went on from 1118 to 1132.
The pope hurled an edict against the Pisans and tried to deprive them of Sardinia, while their merchants were driven from Sicily by the Angevins.
Constantius also issued an edict to the effect that the two bishops should rule conjointly, but Liberius, on his entrance into Rome in the following year, was received by all classes with so much enthusiasm that Felix found it necessary to retire at once from Rome.
The poppy was formerly extensively cultivated, but after the anti-opium edict of 1906 vigorous measures were taken to stamp out the cultivation of the plant.
During this century the first sumptuary edict ordered that the dwellings of all high officials and opulent civilians should have tiled roofs and be colored red, the latter injunction being evidently intended to stop the use of logs carrying their bark.
His work, which appeared in three parts, entitled respectively History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France (2 vols., 1879), The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre (2 vols., 1886), and The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (2 vols., 1895), is characterized by painstaking thoroughness, by a judicial temper, and by scholarship of a high order.
At least 30,000 Protestants preferred exile, and it was not till the edict of tolerance of 1781 granted by Joseph II.
When Julian published an edict forbidding Christians to lecture on polite literature, Victorinus closed his school.
While Constantine at the beginning of his reign (313) declared complete religious liberty, and kept on the whole to this declaration, yet he confined his favours to the orthodox hierarchical church, and even by an edict of the year 326 formally asserted the exclusion from these of heretics and schismatics.
The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and the death of his father led him to come to England; but, unable to find employment there, he crossed to Holland and enlisted in the company of French volunteers at Utrecht commanded by Daniel de Rapin, his cousin-german.
The attack upon Polish property by the edict of 1865, though never fully applied, prevented the increase of Polish-owned estates for 40 years.
On the 9th of July was issued the famous religious edict, which forbade Evangelical ministers to teach anything not contained in the letter of their official books, proclaimed the necessity of protecting the Christian religion against the "enlighteners" (Aufkltirer), and placed educational establishments under the supervision of the orthodox clergy.
In his zeal for orthodoxy, indeed, Frederick William outstripped his minister; he even blamed W6llner's "idleness and vanity" for the inevitable failure of the attempt to regulate opinion from above, and in 1794 deprived him of one of his secular offices in order that he might have more time "to devote himself to the things of God"; in edict after edict the king continued to the end of his reign to make regulations "in order to maintain in his states a true and active Christianity, as the path to genuine fear of God."
This, however, they had ceased to do as soon as Pliny had published a decree against collegia, in accordance with the emperor's edict.
In France, under the third race of kings, it was usual to begin the year with Easter; and this practice continued at least till the middle of the 16th century, for an edict was issued by Charles IX.
The denomination of Era of Martyrs, subsequently given to it in commemoration of the persecution of the Christians, would seem to imply that its commencement ought to be referred to the year 303 of our era, for it was in that year that Diocletian issued his famous edict; but the practice of dating from the accession of Diocletian has prevailed.
In consequence of this edict, the following year is called the first of Ta-te, and the succeeding years the second, third, fourth, &c., of Ta-te, and so on, till it pleases the same emperor or his successor to ordain that the years shall be called by some other appellation.
The expulsion of the whole body of Moriscos was decided on in 1608, and the edict was published on the 22nd of September 1609.
In 1685 Victor was forced by Louis to persecute his Waldensian subjects, because they had given shelter to the French Huguenot refugees after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
Shortly after the edict by which the king had proclaimed his alliance with Thebes, and the conditions of the general peace which he was going to impose upon Greece, his weakness became evident, for since;56 all the satraps of Asia Minor (Datames, Ariobarzanes, Mausolus, Orontes, Artabazus) were in rebellion again, in close alliance with Athens, Sparta and Egypt.
He had not resided there long when the edict of the 6th of August 1564 banished all foreign dissidents.
His Commentarius de Capellorum gente, giving an account of the family to which he belonged, was published by his nephew James Cappel (1639-1722), who, at the age of eighteen, became professor of Hebrew at Saumur, but, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, fled to England, where he died in 1722.
The chief cause of this is to be found in the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
The French Huguenots found their privileges decreased, and then, in 1685, the edict was altogether withdrawn.
This strange statement suggested some historical allusion, and the discovery of the allusion was made by Reinach, who points out that Domitian by an edict in A.D.
As Asia Minor suffered specially under this edict, an agitation was set on foot which resulted in the revocation of the edict.
From his ascetic standpoint the revocation of the edict could only pander to drunkenness and immorality.
In 1773 there appeared in the Public Advertiser one of Franklin's cleverest hoaxes, " An Edict of the King of Prussia," proclaiming that the island of Britain was a colony of Prussia, having been settled by Angles and Saxons, having been protected by Prussia, having been defended by Prussia against France in the war just past, and never having been definitely freed from Prussia's rule; and that, therefore, Great Britain should now submit to certain taxes laid by Prussia - the taxes being identical with those laid upon the American colonies by Great Britain.
The edict of Worms was entirely in harmony with the laws of Western Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes in Germany at that time who really understood or approved Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless - if we except the elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand - the princes, including the ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to publish the edict, much less to enforce it.
The diet refused to accede to the pope's demand that the edict of Worms should be enforced, and recommended that a Christian council should be summoned in January, to include not only ecclesiastics but laymen, who should be permitted freely to express their opinions.
He induced the diet to promise to execute the edict of Worms as far as that should be possible; but it was generally understood that it was impossible.
The diet of Spires (1529) had received a letter from the emperor directing it to look to the enforcement of the edict of Worms against the heretics.
The diet thereupon decided that the edict of Worms should at last be enforced.
The parlements issued a series of edicts against the heretics, culminating in the very harsh general edict of Fontainebleau, sanctioned by the parlement of Paris in 1543.
It is impossible to review here the Wars of Religion which distracted France, from the " massacre of Vassy " to the publication of the edict of Nantes, thirty-six years later.
The edict of Nantes recapitulated and codified the provisions of a series of earlier edicts of toleration, which had come with each truce during the previous generation.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685 began a new period of persecution, which aimed at entire extermination.
In 1614, at the instance of the Arminian party, an edict was passed by the states-general, in which toleration of the opinions of both parties was declared and further controversy forbidden; but this act only served, by rousing the jealousy of the Calvinists, to fan the controversial flame into greater fury.
His father, Jean Etienne Say, was of a Protestant family which had originally belonged to Nimes, but had removed to Geneva for some time in consequence of the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
This edict dates from 176-177, and inaugurated the persecution which lasted from that time till the death of Marcus Aurelius in r80.
The edict of restitution, however, in 1629, opened his eyes to the emperor's projects, and he joined Gustavus Adolphus.
After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) it rose, by 1698, to 16,934.
The edict of Wielun (1424), remarkable as the first anti-heretical decree issued in Poland, crushed the new sect in its infancy.
Again and again the nobility attempted to exclude the deputies of Cracow from the diet, in spite of a severe edict issued by Sigismund I.
He removed with his family into Switzerland after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and there studied jurisprudence.
He was one of the princes who urged upon the emperor the necessity of enforcing the Edict of Worms, and at several diets was prominent among the enemies of the Reformers.
So great was the general decline that this Neoplatonic philosophy offered a welcome shelter to many earnest and influential men, in spite of the 1 It was condemned by an edict of the emperors Theodosius II.
When Justinian issued the edict for the suppression of the school, Damascius along with Simplicius (the painstaking commentator on Aristotle) and five other Neoplatonists set out to make a home in Persia.
Their hostility to the Huguenots forced on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and their war against their Jansenist opponents did not cease till the very walls of Port Royal were demolished in 1710, even to the very abbey church itself, and the bodies of the dead taken with every mark of insult from their graves and literally flung to the dogs to devour.
The cotton trade was soon afterwards introduced; and silk manufacture was begun by the Huguenots, who had settled in Dublin in considerable numbers after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
In the following year the archduke Ferdinand, on assuming the government of his hereditary dominions, issued an edict of banishment against Protestant preachers and professors.
If we may take the edict of Diocletian against the Manichaeans as genuine, the system must have gained a firm footing in the West by the beginning of the 4th century, but we know that as late as about the year 325 Eusebius had not any accurate knowledge of the sect.
At one time the ginseng obtained from Manchuria was considered to be the finest quality, and in consequence became so scarce that an imperial edict was issued prohibiting its collection.
The king had by a royal edict cumbered the queen-regent with a council and other restrictions, and it was necessary to get the parlement of Paris to overrule the edict and make the queen absolute regent, which was done with the greatest complaisance.
The duke of Guise was now named lieutenant-general of the kingdom, but his Catholic leanings were somewhat held in check by the chancellor Michel de l'Hopital, through whose mediation the edict of Romorantin, providing that all cases of heresy should be decided by the bishops, was passed in May 1560, in opposition to a proposal to introduce the Inquisition.
Precisely one hundred years later religious troubles gave the most effective impetus to the silk-trade of England, when the revocation of the edict of Nantes sent simultaneously to Switzerland, Germany and England a vast body of the most skilled artisans of France, who planted in these countries silkweaving colonies which are to this day the principal rivals of the French manufacturers.
The bishop was induced to issue an edict which prohibited from preaching all who were not in priest's orders, and an appeal to Urban VI.
In the old times birds were protected by the native belief that divine messages were conveyed by bird cries, and by royal edict forbidding the killing of species furnishing the material for feather cloaks, contributions towards which were long almost the only taxes paid.
An edict of toleration in 1839 shortly preceded the visit of the " Artemise."
Multiplication of altars is another medieval characteristic. This also is probably a result of the edict of Pope Felix already mentioned.
After more than a century of repression in 1905 the Edict of Toleration brought some relief.
In the 9th century, as shown by the bilingual Tibeto-Chinese edict at Lhasa, there was relatively little difference between the spoken and the written language.
A form of edict drawn by Grotius was published by the states, recommending mutual toleration, and forbidding ministers in the pulpit from handling the disputed dogmas.
Jurieu did much to help those who suffered by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685).
Then came a time of repression and persecution under Iyeyasu, whose second edict in 1614 condemned every foreigner to death, forbade the entry of foreigners and the return of Japanese who had left the islands, and extinguished Christianity by fire and sword.
His edict prohibiting all commercial intercourse with the enemy at once aroused against him the bitter hostility of the merchants of Holland and Zeeland, who thrived by such traffic. His attempts to pack the council of State, on which already two Englishmen had seats, with personal adherents and to override the opposition of the provincial states of Holland to his arbitrary acts, at last made his position impossible.
Thus it came about that at the diet of Worms, which met in January 1521, without any thorough examination of Luthers position, Charles issued the famous edict, drawn up by Cardinal Aleandro, which denounced the reformer and his followers.
It had shown some sympathy with the reformers and had declined to put the edict of Worms into immediate execution.
Hardly less lukewarm, the imperial diet ordered the edict to be enforced, but only as far as possible, and meanwhile the possibilities of accommodation between the two great religious parties were becoming more and more remote.
Important ecclesiastical reforms were approved, and instructions forbidding all innovations and calling upon the diet to execute the edict of Worms, sent by the emperor from Spain, were brushed aside on the ground that in the preceding March when this letter was written Charles and the pope were at peace, while now they were at war.
Finally the decree of the diet, promulgated in November, ordered the execution of the edict of Worms, the restoration of all church property, and the maintenance of the jurisdiction of the bishops.
In consultation with both Romanist and Lutheran divines a confession of faith called the Interim was drawn up; this was in the nature of a compromise and was issued as an edict in May 1548, but owing to the opposition of the Romanist princes it was not made binding upon them, only upon the Lutherans.
Intoxicated by success, Ferdinand had issued two months before the famous Edict of Restitution.
When, however, the time came for the fulfilment of his bargain, Vigilius declined to give his assent to the condemnation of that council involved in the imperial edict against the three chapters, and for this act of disobedience he was peremptorily summoned to Constantinople, which he reached in 547.
In November 1839 was proclaimed an edict, known as the Hatt-i-sherif of Gulhane, consolidating and enforcing these reforms, which was supplemented at the close of the Crimean war by a similar statute issued in February 1856.
Of these, the Tour de Constance, built by Louis IX., is the most interesting; it commands the northwestern angle of the ramparts, and contains two circular, vaulted chambers, used as prisons for Protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
Erlangen owes the foundation of its prosperity chiefly to the French Protestant refugees who settled here on the revocation of the edict of Nantes and introduced various manufactures.
On the 7th of March 1526 the Zurich Rath issued an edict threatening all who were baptized anew with death by drowning, and in 1529 the emperor Charles V., at the diet of Spires, ordered Anabaptists to be put to death with fire and sword without even the form of ecclesiastical trial.
A royal edict declared the statutes of the Good Parliament null and void.
The edict was greatly disliked by the Roman Catholic clergy and their friends, and a.
One after another proclamations and declarations were issued which deprived the Protestants of their rights under the edict; their position was rendered intolerable by a series of persecutions which culminated in the dragonnades, and at length on the 18th of October 1685 Louis revoked the edict, thus depriving the Protestants in France of all civil and religious liberty.
For further details about the edict see the papers and documents published.
Meanwhile, however, Priscillian was made bishop of Avila, and the orthodox party found it necessary to appeal to the emperor (Gratian), who issued an edict threatening the sectarian leaders with banishment.
Priscillian, Instantius and Salvianus succeeded, however, in procuring the withdrawal of Gratian's edict, and the attempted arrest of Ithacius of Ossonuba.
His earlier views on the doctrine of non-resistance had been sensibly modified by what he saw in France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes and by the course of affairs at home, and in 1688 he published an Inquiry into the Measures of Submission to the Supreme Authority in defence of the revolution.
This was going too fast; and in consequence of a reaction against this too liberal edict a fourth party made its appearance, Tb that of the Catholic League, under the GuisesHenry Catholic le Balafr, duke of Guise, and his two brothers, Charles, League.
Chalais was beheaded at Nantes in 1626 for having upheld Gaston of Orleans in his refusal to wed Mademoiselle de Montpensier, and Marshal dOrnano died at Vincennes for having given him bad advice in this matter; while the duelist de Boutteville was put to the torture for having braved the edict against duels.
Between 1631 and the edict of February I641 Richelieu strove against the continually renewed opposition of the parlements to his system of special commissions and judgments; in 1641 he refused them any right of interference in state affairs; at most would he consent occasionally to take counsel with assemblies of notables.
He united Sweden, now reconciled with Poland, and the Catholic and Protestant electors, disquieted by the edict of Restitution and the omnipotence of Wallenstein; and he aroused the United Provinces.
It was at once evident that the whole tenor of this remarkable work was in flagrant contradiction with the edict passed sixteen years before its publication, as well as with the author's personal pledge of conformity to it.
His works include Ad Sabinum, a commentary on the jus civile, in over 50 books; Ad edictum, a commentary on the Edict, in 83 books; collections of opinions, responses and disputations; books of rules and institutions; treatises on the functions of the different magistrates - one of them, the De officio proconsulis libri x., being a comprehensive exposition of the criminal law; monographs on various statutes, on testamentary trusts, and a variety of other works.
His writings altogether have supplied to Justinian's Digest about a third of its contents, and his commentary on the Edict alone about a fifth.
Further, all the fragments come from the provinces which were under the jurisdiction of Diocletian, from which it is argued that the edict was only published in the eastern portion of the empire; certainly the phrase universo orbi in the preamble is against this, but the words may merely be an exaggerated description of Diocletian's special provinces, and if it had been published in the western portion as well, it is curious that no traces have been found of it.
The articles mentioned in the edict, which is chiefly interesting as giving their relative values at the time, include cereals, wine, oil, meat, vegetables, fruits, skins, leather, furs, foot-gear, timber, carpets, articles of dress, and the wages range from the ordinary labourer to the professional advocate.
The edict was a well-intended but abortive attempt, in great measure in the interests of the soldiers, to meet the distress caused by several bad harvests and commercial speculation.
The actual effect was disastrous; the restrictions thus placed upon commercial freedom brought about a disturbance of the food supply in non-productive countries, many traders were ruined, and the edict soon fell into abeyance.
When, however, Zeno's edict (489) ordered the closing of the school of the Persians at Edessa, East and West drifted apart more and more; the ecclesiastical writer Narsai, " the Harp of the Holy Spirit," fled to Nisibis about 489.
It is to the persons who received such certificates that the name libellatici belonged (those who actually fulfilled the edict being called thurificati or sacrificati).
Although alarmed by the edict of restitution of 162 9, George William took no steps to help the Protestants.
Further incensed against France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, he made an alliance with Leopold in January 1686, agreeing in return for a subsidy to send troops against the Turks.
Agriculture and commerce were improved and encouraged by a variety of useful measures, and in this connexion the settlement of a large number of Flemings, and the welcome extended to French Protestants, both before and after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, were of incalculable service.
The only of Damian's family to be on any sort of speaking terms with the Watchers, she'd tried not to contact them after Damian's edict about declaring war on the immortal creatures.
In France, Louis was proving his own despotic ways by revoking the edict of Nantes which had allowed the Huguenots some toleration.
In A.D. 250 he published an edict calling for a return to the pagan state religion.
Displaying admirable boldness, he had defied the government edict that had banned images of dead British soldiers throughout the war years.
According to historical records, Fu Su committed suicide in obedience to a supposed imperial edict.
Every commandment is a royal edict, a statute which God hath made for the governing of the world.
He denied earlier reports he had issued a fatwa, or formal religious edict.
Once bitten twice shy must surely guide our reaction to the council's latest edict.
What will be the future equivalent of nailing a new edict on a tree in the center of a village?
He even ran for president of Nigeria in 1983, only to find himself banned from politics by government edict.
Here Daniel adds the king's edict, which he wished to be promulgated.
The uproar that followed forced Charles to cancel this edict.
When they did the Church got neurotic and issued an edict.
On the appointed day a number of representatives appeared, and after some elaborate and fantastic ceremonials Rienzi, as dictator, issued an edict citing the emperor Louis the Bavarian and his rival Charles, afterwards the emperor Charles IV., and also the imperial electors and all others concerned in the dispute, to appear before him in order that he might pronounce judgment in the case.
On the 26th of May 1521 the emperor signed the edict of the diet of Worms, which placed Luther under the ban of the Empire; on the 21st of the same month Henry VIII.
Each successive praetor adopted the edict of his predecessor, and added new equitable rules of his own, until the further growth of the irregular code was stopped by the praetor Salvius Julianus in the reign of Hadrian.
The vibration number stated in the edict establishing the Diapason Normal is 870 (435), which for comparison will be here adhered to.
This secured complete liberty of conscience everywhere within the realm and the free right of public worship in all places in which it existed during the years 1596 and 1597, or where it had been granted by the edict of Poitiers (1577) interpreted by the convention of Nerac (1578) and the treaty of Fleix (1580) - in all some two hundred towns; in two places in every bailliage and senechaussee; in the castles of Protestant seigneurs hauts justiciers (some three thousand); and in the houses of lesser nobles, provided the audience did not consist of more than thirty persons over and above relations of the family.
Every fresh reform edict was greeted with demonstrations of enthusiasm, but the ominous cry Viva Pio Nono solo!
Even before the edict of Milan, at least as early as the latter half of the 3rd century, the spiritual sentences of deposition from office had sometimes indirect temporal consequences recognized by the secular courts.
He accordingly issued an edict for a coemptio, that is, an order compelling the provincials to sell their corn to the government, whether they would or not.
A striking feature was the preamble, setting forth the doctrines on which the edict was based, which won the praise of the philosophes and the ridicule of the wits; this Turgot rewrote three times, it is said, in order to make it" so clear that any village judge could explain it to the peasants."The opposition to the edict was strong.
In the preamble to the edict on the jurandes he laid down as a principle the right of every man to work without restriction.
His attacks on privilege had won him the hatred of the nobles and the parlements, his attempted reforms in the royal household that of the court, his free trade legislation that of the "financiers," his views on tolerance and his agitation for the suppression of the phrase offensive to Protestants in the king's coronation oath that of the clergy, and his edict on the jurandes that of the rich bourgeoisie of Paris and others, such as the prince de Conti, whose interests were involved.
He passed many sumptuary laws, and issued an edict forbidding the over-cultivation of vines to the neglect of corn-growing.
In 1685 Fontainebleau saw the signing of the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and in the following year the death of the great Conde.
On the revocation of the edict of Nantes he fled to Holland, and received a pension from William of Orange, who commissioned him to write an account of the persecuted Huguenots (Plaintes des Protestants cruellement opprimes dans le royaume de France, 1686).
During the Thirty Years' War the depopulation of Moravia was so great that after the peace of Westphalia the states-general published an edict giving every man permission to take two wives, in order to "repeople the country."
On the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he was sent to Languedoc to confirm the new converts in the Catholic faith, and he had extraordinary success in this delicate mission.
The new emperor received the tidings of his rival's defeat and death at Alexandria, whence he at once forwarded supplies of corn to Rome, which were urgently needed, along with an edict or a declaration of policy, in which he gave assurance of an entire reversal of the laws of Nero, especially those relating to treason.
In the edict creating this commission (known as Haec quae) Tribonian is named sixth, and is called "virum magnificum, magisteria dignitate inter agentes decoratum" (see Haec quae and Summa reipublicae, prefixed to the Codex.) When the commission of sixteen eminent lawyers was created in 5 3 o for the far more laborious and difficult duty of compiling a collection of extracts from the writings of the great jurists of the earlier empire, Tribonian was made president and no doubt general director of this board.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes in October 1685, and the consequent migration of a large number of industrious French Protestants, caused a considerable growth in the east end of London.
After the Imperial Diet of Spires in 1526 had decreed that all states of the empire should observe the Edict of Worms (1521), banning Luther and his adherents, in such a manner that they should not be afraid to answer it before God and the emperor, the reform movement had received such an access of strength that the Catholic party felt itself menaced in earnest, and in 1529 again passed a resolution at Spires, deigned not merely to preclude any further expansion of the Reformation, but even to prevent it from maintaining the ground already won.
In compliance with this feeling a royal edict (January 18, 1409) was issued, by which, in alleged conformity with Paris usage, and with the original charter of the university, the Bohemian "nation" received three votes, while only one was allotted to the other three "nations" combined; whereupon all the foreigners, to the number of several thousands, almost immediately withdrew from Prague, an occurrence which led to the formation shortly afterwards of the university of Leipzig.
Among his more famous hoaxes were the " Edict of the King of Prussia " (1773), already described; the fictitious supplement to the Boston Chronicle, printed on his private press at Passy in 1782, and containing a letter with an invoice of eight packs of 954 cured, dried, hooped and painted scalps of rebels, men, women and children, taken by Indians in the British employ; and another fictitious Letter from the Count de Schaumberg to the Baron Hohendorf commanding the Hessian Troops in America (1777) - the count's only anxiety is that not enough men will be killed to bring him in moneys he needs, and he urges his officer in command in America " to prolong the war.
During the - latter part of the century its monarchs were en- of gaged in a bloody struggle with a powerful religious political party, the Huguenots, who finally won a toleration which they continued to enjoy until the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685.
After the death of Francis I., his successor, Henry II., set himself even more strenuously to .extirpate heresy; a special branch of the parlement of Paris - the so-called Chambre ardente - for the trial of heresy cases party was established, and the fierce edict of Chateaubriand (June 1551) explicitly adopted many of the expedients of the papal inquisition.
The country was Catholic, and disturbances inevitably occurred, culminating in the attack of the duke of Guise and his troops on the Protestants at Vassy, less than two months after the issuing of the edict.
At the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he retired to Rotterdam, where he was for some years preacher at the Walloon church; in 1695 the elector of Brandenburg appointed him pastor and professor of philosophy, and later inspector of the French college at Berlin, where he enjoyed considerable reputation as a representative of Cartesianism and as a student of physics.
At the diet of Piotrkow in 1562, indeed, the king's sore need of subsidies induced him, at the demand of the szlachta, to abolish altogether the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts in cases of heresy; but, on the other hand, at the diet of 1564 he accepted from Commendone the Tridentine decrees and issued an edict banishing all foreign, and especially Anti-trinitarian, heretics from the land.
The consequence of this edict was the meteor-like outbreak of Bar-Cochebas (q.v.) A.D.
In the beginning of the 8th century, at the time of the iconoclastic controversy, the emperor Leo the Isaurian having forced compliance to his edict against the worshipping of images, the Neapolitans, encouraged by Pope Gregory III., threw off their allegiance to the Eastern emperors, and established a republican form of government under a duke of their own appointment.
In 1685 many French refugees settled in Coventry after the religious intolerance associated with the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
This was strictly adhered to till the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Along with being honest with one another, many religions include an edict to "not bear false witness;" telling lies to a priest or God is considered far graver than lies to men or to oneself.
The ancients generally cared but little for what we call a philosophic distribution of topics, and Tribonian seems to have merely followed the order of the Perpetual Edict which custom had already established, and from which custom would perhaps have refused to permit him to depart.
The States General met in December; the edict of Orleans (January 1561) followed, and finally, after the colloquy of Poissy, the edict of January 1562, the most liberal, except that of Nantes, ever obtained by the Protestants of France.
The freedom of teaching was first curtailed by Theodosius I.; the edict of Justinian (529), forbidding the study of philosophy, dealt the death-blow to ancient Athens.
The penalties which the spiritual court could inflict, in the period between the edict of Milan and c. 854, were properly excommunication whether generally or as exclusion from the sacraments for a term of months or years or till the day of death and (in the case of clerics) suspension or deposition.
Images of Caligula were set up in the synagogues, an edict deprived the Jews of their rights as citizens, and finally the governor authorized the mob to sack the Jewish quarter, as if it had been a conquered city (38).
Hadrian's policy in this respect was matched later on by the edict of the caliph Omar (c. 638), who, like his Roman prototype, prevented the Jews from settling in the capital of their ancient country.
Having been nominated deputy from the bailliage of Guise, he appeared at Laon as one of the commissioners for the election of deputies to the States-General summoned by royal edict of January 24th.
On the outbreak of the second war of religion in 1567, Pithou, who was a Calvinist, withdrew to Sedan and afterwards to Basel, whence he returned to France on the publication of the edict of pacification.
Gondolas are mentioned as far back as 1094, and, prior to a sumptuary edict passed by the great council in the 16th century, making black their compulsory colour, they were very different in appearance from now.
Eberhard, duke and margrave of Rhaetia and Friuli, arranged the contents of the edict with its successive additamenta into a Concordia de singulis causis (829-832).
It is probable also that he foresaw the revocation of the edict of Nantes, which took place in the following year.
The individuals among the American Quakers who laboured most earnestly and indefatigably on behalf of the Africans were John Woolman (1720-1773) and Anthony Benezet (1713-1784), the latter a son of a French Huguenot driven from France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
One of his first acts after entering on the duties of his office was to cause the parlement of Paris to register the edict of Romorantin, of which he is sometimes, but erroneously, said to have been the author.
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
The whole closes with an appeal to the princes, with a reference to the edict issued by Hadrian in favour of the Christians.
He was eight years old when the Camisard revolt was finally suppressed, and nineteen when on the 8th of March 1715 the edict of Louis XIV.
The history of the Church from the passing of the edict of Nantes till its revocation in 1685 cannot be given here.
In 1548 the bishopric was seized by the elector of Brandenburg, who finally took possession of it fifty years later, and the cathedral passed to the Protestant Church, retaining its endowments till the edict of 1810, by which all former ecclesiastical possessions were assumed by the crown.
Justinian himself, with the aid of Leontius of Byzantium (c. 4 8 5-543), a monk with a decided turn for Aristotelian logic and metaphysics, had tried to reconcile the Cyrillian and Chalcedonian positions, but he inclined more and'more towards the monophysite view, and even went so far as to condemn by edict three teachers (Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret, the opponent of Cyril, and Ibas of Edessa) who were offensive to the monophysites.
To pay for rendering inoperative the banishment edict of 1744, the Jews were taxed 3,000,000 florins annually for ten years.
Turgot at once set to work to establish free trade in corn, but his edict, which was signed on the 13th of September 1774, met with strong opposition even in the conseil du roi.
It was his habit to issue important decrees from the capitals of his enemies; and on the 17th of May 1809 he signed at Vienna an edict abolishing the temporal power of the pope and annexing the Papal States, which the French troops had occupied early in the previous year.
They present somewhat similar features with the Salic law, but often differ from it in the date of compilation, the amount of fines, the number and nature of the crimes, the number, rank, duties and titles of the officers, &c. For the Salic law and other Frankish laws, see Salic Law, and for the edict of Theodoric I., which was applicable to the Ostrogoths and Romans, see Roman Law.
The edict of Moulins (1566) maintained it, as one of the exceptions to the inalienability of the crown-lands; only it was then decided that daughters of France should be appanaged in money, or that if, in default of coin, lands were assigned to them, these lands should be redeemable by the crown in perpetuity.
He promised to accept the " Pacification of Ghent," and finally an agreement was drawn up, styled the " Perpetual Edict," which was signed by Don John (February 12th) and like force.
There were also special capitularies for Italy, called Cepitula Italica, some of which were appended to the edict of Rothar.
Under the protection of the edict the Huguenot Church of France flourished.
He therefore refused, with the approval of the representatives of these provinces, to allow the publication of the " Perpetual Edict " in Holland and Zeeland.
In the matter of criminal jurisdiction we paused for a moment at the edict of Milan; but we may at once trace this second or civil branch of episcopal judicature or quasi-judicature down as far as the reign of Charlemagne, when it underwent a fundamental change, and became, if either litigant once chose, no longer a matter of consent but of right.
In1564-1566he accompanied the young king on an extended tour through France; and in 1566 he was instrumental in the promulgation of an important edict for the reform of abuses in the administration of justice.
The "PSlerei of Schweidnitz" is the name given to the riotous revolt of the town, in 1520-1522, against a royal edict depriving it of the right of coining its own money.
It had been known in Scotland since the close of the 16th century (the Glasgow kirk session fulminated an edict against Sunday bowls in 1595), but greens were few and far between.
The edict of emancipation abolished this jurisdiction, and set up instead in each volost a court particular to the peasants (volostnye sud), of which the judges and jury, themselves peasants, were elected by the assembly of the volost (volostnye skhod) each year.
He was soon admitted a member of the French Academy of the Fine Arts, but on the revocation of the edict of Nantes he was obliged to take refuge in Holland, and his name was struck off the Academy roll.