of Ecuador, to which country they belong.
some 300 inhabitants living in low thatched or iron-roofed huts, under the supervision of a police commissioner and other officials of Ecuador, by which country the group was annexed in 183 2, when General Villamil founded Floreana on Charles Island, naming it in honour of Juan Jose Flores, president of Ecuador.
The Galapagos Islands are of some commercial importance to Ecuador, on account of the guano and the orchilla moss found on them and exported to Europe.
An interesting link between divergent marsupial families, still living in Ecuador, the Coenolestes, is another discovery of recent years.
RIOBAMBA or Royabamba, a town of Ecuador, capital of the province of Chimborazo, on the railway between Guayaquil and Quito, about 85 m.
The department of Cajamarca lies between the Western and Central Cordilleras and extends from the frontier of Ecuador S.
Vergara y Velasco's Atlas de geografia colombiana (1906-1908); Ecuador is fairly well represented by Th.
RUBBER, INDIARUBBER or Caoutchouc (a word probably derived from Cahucha or Gaucho the names in Ecuador and Peru respectively for rubber or the tree producing it), the chief constituent of the coagulated milky juice or latex furnished by a number of different trees, shrubs and vines.
by Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia.
With regard to the section between the Amazon and the Apaporis river, already settled between Brazil and Peru, the territory has been in protracted dispute between Peru, Ecuador and Colombia; but a treaty of limits between Brazil and Ecuador was signed in 1901 and promulgated in 1905.
One species, the guacharo (Steatornis caripensis), or oil-bird, is commonly said to occur only in Venezuela, though it is found in Colombia and Ecuador also.
The public debt of Venezuela dates back to the War of Independence, when loans were raised in Europe for account of the united colonies of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
Shortly after the battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821), by which the power of Spain in this part of the world was broken, Venezuela was united with the federal state of Colombia, which embraced the present Colombia and Ecuador; but the Venezuelans were averse to the Confederation, and an agitation was set on foot in the autumn of 1829 which resulted in the issue of a decree (December 8) by General Paez dissolving the union, and declaring Venezuela a sovereign and independent state.
AMBATO, or ASIENTO DE Ambato, an inland town of Ecuador, capital of the province of Tunguragua, 80 m.
The cochineal insect is found on the cactus which grows in abundance in the vicinity, and the town is known throughout Ecuador for its manufacture of boots and shoes, and for a cordage made from cabuya, the fibre of the agave plant.
With the exception of parts of the Ecuador, Brazil and Bolivia frontiers, all the boundary lines have been disputed and referred to arbitration - those with Colombia and Ecuador to the king of Spain, and that with Bolivia to the president of Argentina, on which a decision was rendered on the 9th of July 1909.
There have been misunderstandings with Ecuador in regard to some small areas in the Chira valley, but it may be assumed that the line is fixed between Santa Rosa (3° 21' S.) on the Gulf of Guayaquil, and the Chinchipe river, a tributary of the Maranon.
This claim covers all eastern Ecuador and a large part of south-eastern is` Colombia.
These became known prematurely, and in May 1910 war was threatened between Peru and Ecuador in spite of an offer of mediation by the United States, Brazil and Argentina under the Hague Convention.
At the point where the river Santa breaks through the Cordillera Negra that range begins to subside, while the Maritime Cordillera continues as one chain to and beyond the frontier of Ecuador.
The Peruvian telegraph system connects with those of Ecuador and Bolivia.
The Peruvian supply is practically exhausted through the destructive methods employed in collecting the bark, and the world now depends chiefly on Bolivia and Ecuador.
The question of the delimitation of the frontier between Peru and the neighbouring republics of Ecuador, Colombia,.
In the case of Ecuador and Colombia a dispute arose in 1894 concerning the ownership of large tracts of uninhabited country in the vicinity of the headwaters of the Amazon and its tributaries.
An agreement was proposed between Peru and Ecuador in connexion with the limits of the respective republics, but difficulties were created to prevent this proposal from becoming an accomplished fact by the pretensions put forward by Colombia.
The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.
The Spaniards, though expelled from Colombia, still held possession of the neighbouring provinces of Ecuador and Peru; and Bolivar determined to complete the liberation of the whole country.
Placing himself at the head of the army, he marched on Quito in Ecuador.
New Granada (which included the present republics of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador) was created a viceroyalty in 1718 (soon abolished, but re-created in 1740).
For the details of the struggle the reader must refer to the articles Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Brazil; Caribian, around Caribbean Sea; Catamarenyan, Chaco; Changuinan, Panama; Charruan, Parana R.; Chibchan, Colombia .; Churbyan, Orinoco R.; Coconucan, Colombia; Cunan, Panama; Guaycuruan, Paraguay R.; Jivaroan, Ecuador; Kechuan, Peru; Laman, N.E.
Ecuador; Matacoan, Vermejo R.; Mocoan, Colombia; Mosetenan, E.
Bolivia; Zaparoan, Ecuador.
The efflorescence of aboriginal pottery is to be found in the Pueblo region of south-westernUnited States, in Mexico, Central America,Caribbean Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and restricted areas of eastern Brazil.
Beyond Colombia are Ecuador and Peru, where, in the widening of the continent, architecture, stone-working, pottery, metallurgy, textiles are again exalted.
The following islands may be classified as oceanic, but not with any of the three main divisions: the Bonin Islands, north of the Marianas, belonging to Japan; Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands (to New South Wales); Easter Island (to Chile); the Galapagos Islands (to Ecuador).
Miramon's government had violated the British Legation; the Spanish minister, the papal legate and the representatives of Guatemala and Ecuador were expelled from the country for undue interference on behalf of the reactionaries; the payments of the British loan were suspended by Juarez's Congress in Interven- July 1861; and various outrages had been committed on the persons and property of Europeans for which no redress could be obtained.
from the boundary line with Ecuador, on one of the inland trade routes with that republic, and on a principal line of communication with the great forested regions of the Caqueta (Japura), Putumayo and Napo.
as a partner, shortly afterwards proceeding to South America on business connected with negotiations for the granting of oil concessions in Ecuador, Colombia and Costa Rica.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
Ecuador, May 13, 1909.
Ecuador, January 7, 1909.
On the Spanish model concordats were arranged with various Central and South American republics, perhaps the most ironclad being that concluded with Ecuador in 1862 (abrogated 1878).
America (Ecuador, Brazil, Argentine); some missions in Palestine.
Lastly there are two species of true crocodiles in America, C. intermedius of the Orinoco, allied to the former, and C. americanus or acutus of the West Indies, Mexico, Central America to Venezuela and Ecuador; its characteristic feature is a median ridge or swelling on the snout, which is rather slender.
ECUADOR (officially La Republica del Ecuador), a republic of South America, bounded N.
On the 5th of November 1904, Colombia and Ecuador agreed to submit their dispute to the German emperor, and a convention of the 12th of September 1905 between Colombia and Peru established a modus vivendi for the settlement of their conflicting claims, in which Ecuador is likewise interested.
The maps of Ecuador, which are very defective, usually describe its territory as extending eastward to the Brazilian frontier, but as Peru is in actual occupation of the region east of Huiririma-chico, on the Napo river, 31 degrees west of that frontier, those maps cannot be considered correct.
The eastern part of this territory is also claimed by Peru, which would have the effect, if allowed, of restricting Ecuador to a comparatively small area covered by the Andes and western Cordillera and the narrow plain on the Pacific coast.
A small section of this line terminating on the Pacific coast is also in dispute, Ecuador claiming the main channel of the Mira as the dividing line, and Colombia claiming a small district south of that channel, the line running due west from the mouth of the most southern outlet of the Mira opening into Panguapi Bay, to a point of intersection with that river.
The surface of Ecuador may be divided into three distinct regions: the Cis-Andine lying between the Western Cordillera and the coast; the Inter-Andine, which includes the two great mountain chains crossing the republic with the elevated plateau lying between; and the Trans-Andine, lying east of the Andes in the great Amazon valley.
This is the most fertile and productive part of Ecuador, especially on the higher lands near the Cordillera.
The eastern chain is known as the Andes of Ecuador, or the Cordillera Oriental, and the western as the Cordillera Occidental (Western Cordillera).
South of the latter is the irregular and deeply broken Loja basin, which can hardly be considered a part of the great Ecuador plateau.
It is the most northern of the higher peaks of Ecuador, with the exception of Cotocachi, and possibly of Chiles on the Colombian frontier, and reaches the elevation of 15,033 ft.
The next in line is El Altar, which the natives call Capac-Urcu (" king mountain "), whose broken cone and impressive outlines make it one of the most attractive mountains of Ecuador.
Turning to the Cordillera Occidental and taking the principal peaks in order from south to north, the first to claim attention is Chimborazo (from Chimpu-raza, " mountain of snow "), the highest summit of Ecuador, and once believed to be the culminating point of the Andes.
The French academician Bouger, who was chief of the scientific commission sent to Ecuador in 1736 to measure a degree of the meridian on the equator, made a trigonometrical measurement of Iliniza, and Wagner ascended to within 800 ft.
All the higher summits of Ecuador have true glaciers, the largest being found on Antisana, Cayambe and Chimborazo.
There are two distinct hydrographic systems in Ecuador - the streams that flow south-eastward to the Maranon, or Amazon, and those which flow westward to the Pacific. The southern Ravers.
The Coca forms the provisional boundary line between Ecuador and Colombia from its source to the Napo.
The other rivers which flow through the Oriente territory of Ecuador into the Maranon are the Tigre, Pastaza, Morona and Santiago.
The Tigre is navigable at all stages up to the Cunambo confluence, and promises to afford one of the most valuable river routes in Ecuador.
Many of the rivers of eastern Ecuador are subject to similar floods from the Andean slopes, which have cut away broad, deep channels, through the adjacent plains, leaving long, narrow ridges between their courses which the natives call cuchillas.
According to Alexander Garland (Peru in 1906), the rivers of eastern Ecuador are navigable at low water for steamers of 2 to 4 ft.
On the western versant of the Andes of Ecuador there are three river systems of considerable size - the Mira, the Esmeraldas and the Guayas.
It forms the boundary line for some distance between Ecuador and Colombia, but near its mouth where the river turns northward Colombia has taken possession of the left bank and all the territory covered by its large delta.
The Guayas is one of the most interesting and varied of the South American river systems, and is of great economic importance to Ecuador.
There are a considerable number of small lakes in Ecuador, but no large ones.
There are few islands off the coast of Ecuador, and only one of any considerable size - that of Puna in the Gulf of Guayaquil, which is 29 m.
The Galapagos Islands belong to the republic of Ecuador, and form a part of the province of Guayas.
Siemiradzki, " Geologische Reisenotizen aus Ecuador," Neues Jahrb.
Wolf, Geografia y geologia del Ecuador, publicada por orden del Supremo Gobierno de la Republica (Leipzig, 1892); W.
Das Hochgebirge der Republik Ecuador (Berlin, 1892-1902).
Farther north nearly the whole of the depression is filled with lavas, tuffs and agglomerates, derived from the Tertiary and recent volcanoes which form the most striking feature of the Andes of Ecuador.
Climatic conditions in Ecuador are very largely contingent on altitude, and the transition from one climate to another is a matter of only a few hours' journey.
It is to be noted that the Gulf of Guayaquil separates the humid, forestcovered coastal plain of Ecuador from the arid, barren coast of Peru, the two regions being widely dissimilar.
The elevation at which human residence is possible seems to be unusually high in Ecuador.
Many of the towns and villages of central Ecuador lie at altitudes ranging from 8606 ft.
The fauna of Ecuador is comparatively poor in mammalia, but the birds and still more the insects are very numerous.
A small deer and, in southern Ecuador, the llama (Auchenia) with its allied species, the alpaca, guanaco and vicuna, represent the ruminants.
The avifauna of Ecuador is distinguished for the great variety of its genera and species, among which are many peculiar to the Amazon valley, and others to the colder uplands.
Species of the pheasant and partridge are not uncommon, and the " guacharo " (Steatornis caripensis), once believed to inhabit Venezuela only, is found in Ecuador also.
The eagle common to Ecuador is the Morphnus taeniatus, and possibly the M.
An eagle with buzzard-like habits, the Leucopternis plumbea, is likewise common in Ecuador.
The best-known fish of Ecuador is the insignificant Pimelodus cyclopum, the only fish found in the streams and lakes of the plateau region.
The insect inhabitants of Ecuador, like the birds, include a large number of genera and species, but no complete entomological survey of the country has ever been made, and our knowledge in this respect is insufficient to warrant a detailed description.
This may be considered a fair illustration of the situation in Ecuador so far as natural history exploration is concerned.
The total number of species in Ecuador is roughly estimated to be 8000.
The indigenous population of Ecuador was originally composed of two distinct races - the Quitus and Caras, the former being the older, and the latter presumably of Quichua origin.
The Caras, according to tradition, entered the country from the coast, and had thoroughly established themselves there long before the conquest by the Inca rulers Tupac-Yupanqui and his son Huayna-Capac. This conquest was comparatively easy because the Caras spoke a dialect of the same language, and were not greatly unlike their conquerors in manners and customs. The present Indian population of Ecuador, excepting those of the trans-Andean region, may be considered as descendants of these two races.
Notwithstanding all this they still represent from two-thirds to three-fourths of the actual population of Ecuador.
The total number of "aucas " or uncivilized Indians in the republic has been estimated at about 200,000, but this estimate covered a larger area than Ecuador actually occupies and is evidently too high.
No general census has ever been taken in Ecuador, and estimates are little better than vague conjectures.
As a rule, the mestizos of Ecuador are ignorant, indolent and non-progressive.
Communications.-The first railway to be completed in Ecuador was the line between Guayaquil and Quito, 290 m.
During the American civil war the planters of Ecuador entered largely into the production of cotton, which at that time yielded large profits, but the industry has declined to very insignificant proportions since then because of inability to compete with the lower cost of production in the United States.
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
Government.-Constitutionally, the government of Ecuador is that of a centralized republic, whose powers are defined by a written constitution and whose chief organs are an executive consisting of a president and vice-president, and a national congress consisting of two houses, a senate and a chamber of deputies.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.