The economy was affected by the establishment of a land tax.
We wanted a firm economy, reasonable real estate costs, and a good school system.
The Political Economy was published in 1848.
When the economy entered recession, the workhouse conditions had to be worsened more.
In 1817 a Roman Catholic theological faculty was added, with a seminary called the Konvikt, and there are now also faculties of law, medicine, philosophy, political economy and natural science.
Parkside's economy was less than spectacular, but at least it didn't require dependency on the fickle business of mines, steel or manufacturing for its fiscal survival.
The next winter I used a small cooking-stove for economy, since I did not own the forest; but it did not keep fire so well as the open fireplace.
Public opinion is ever more in the peace camp because the vast majority of the economy doesn't benefit financially in times of war.
1874); Principles of Political Economy (2 vols., 1848; many ed., especially ed.
From the point of view of the economy of the globe this classification by species is perhaps less important than that by mode of life and physiological character in accordance with environment.
The economy makes new machines that replace manual labor because many thousands of people are paid very well to do so.
His character was marked by independence, economy and generosity.
They can standardize in a thousand more ways to a world economy, while maintaining their values, traditions, and distinctions.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
He could talk about rural economy with the count, fashions with the countess and Natasha, and about albums and fancywork with Sonya.
In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied Adam Smith and Ricardo with his father.
After speaking about the economic costs of war, the burden it places on the economy, and the toll this takes on the people, Eisenhower closed by describing the peace proposals he was offering Russia and China.
In these ways, they can be part of a larger world economy without sacrificing much autonomy.
The moon will not sour milk nor taint meat of mine, nor will the sun injure my furniture or fade my carpet; and if he is sometimes too warm a friend, I find it still better economy to retreat behind some curtain which nature has provided, than to add a single item to the details of housekeeping.
This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the 21st of December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects upon the rural economy of Russia.
Immured in his castle at Pavia, accumulating wealth by systematic taxation and methodical economy, he organized the mercenary troops who eagerly took service under so good a paymaster; and, by directing their operations from his cabinet, he threatened the whole of Italy with conquest.
In 1872 he became docent, and in 1882 professor of political economy at Upsala, of which university he was afterwards rector.
The varying load against which a locomotive works, and the fact that a locomotive is non-condensing, are factors which reduce the margin of possible economy within narrow limits.
It would be practically impossible for a line thus used by different carriers to be operated either with safety, or with economy, or with the advantage to the public which a centralized management affords.
By the seizure and sale of Church lands, by th sale of state railways, by economy to the bone and on onc supreme occasion by an appeal to taxpayers to advance a years quota of the land-tax, he had met the most pressing engagements of that troublous period.
The Book of Surveying adds considerably to our knowledge of the rural economy of that age.
From this oppressive feeling he found relief in the thought set forth in the opening of the second book of his Political Economy - that, while the conditions of production have the necessity of physical laws, the distribution of what is produced among the various classes of producers is a matter of human arrangement, dependent upon alterable customs and institutions.
This must not be taken to mean, however, that the medusa is derived from a sessile polyp; it must be regarded as a direct modification of the more ancient free actinula form, without primitively any intervening polyp-stage, such as has been introduced secondarily into the development of the Leptolinae and represents 'a revival, so to speak, of an ancestral form or larval stage, which has taken on a special role in the economy of the species.
The superiority, so far as the convenience of passengers is concerned, of an elevated over an underground railway, when both are worked by steam locomotives, and the great economy and rapidity of construction, led to the quick development and extension of this general design.
If land forms may be compared to organs, the part they serve in the economy of the earth may, without straining the term, be characterized as functions.
His widow left a sum of Ioo,000 francs to the Institut de France, to found in his memory scholarships in political economy or law.
As an independent measure of economy, the stipend paid to the titular nawab of Bengal, who was then a minor, was reduced by one-half - to sixteen lakhs a year (say 160,000).
Adam Smith had invariably associated the general principles of the subject with their applications, and in treating those applications had perpetually appealed to other and often far larger considerations than pure political economy affords.
What then, it may be asked, becomes of the " old Political Economy" ?
(2) The second source of economy is to be sought in the reduced cost of actually making the line and cf working it when made.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
Great improvements, however, have been effected in the design of open fireplaces, and many ingenious contrivances of this nature are now in the market which combine efficiency of heating with economy of fuel.
For it is almost impossible to prove that any structure, however rudimentary, is useless - that is to say, that it plays no part whatever in the economy; and, if it is in the slightest degree useful, there is no reason why, on the hypothesis of direct creation, it should not have been created.
He studied history and humanities at the university of Moscow, and, after having gone through his military training in a grenadier regiment, left for Germany where he read political economy in Berlin under Prof. Schmoller.
Sometimes he speaks of political economy as a department "carved out of the general body of the science of society;" whilst on the other hand the title of his systematic work implies a doubt whether political economy is a part of "social philosophy" at all, and not rather a study preparatory and auxiliary to it.
- Works: System of Logic (2 vols., 1843; 9th ed., 1875; "People's" ed., 1884); Essays on some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844, ed.
In the agricultural economy, virtually everyone was a farmer.
He at first taught mathematics at Yale; but in 1895 was made assistant professor of political economy, and in 1898 professor.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
This difficulty is not peculiar to railways; but it was in the history of railway economy and railway control that certain characteristics which are now manifesting themselves in all directions where large investments of fixed capital are involved were first brought prominently to public notice.
ANTONIO GENOVESI (1712-1769), Italian writer on philosophy and political economy, was born at Castiglione, near Salerno, on the 1st of November 1712.
Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.
The economy and success of most lines of communication depend on following as far as possible existing natural lines and utilizing existing natural sources of power.'
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.
Compound locomotives have been built by various designers, but opinion is still uncertain whether any commercial economy is obtained by their use.
The title of his work, Principles of Political Economy, with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy, though open to criticism, indicated a less narrow and formal conception of the field of the science than had been common amongst his predecessors.
The pursuit of this study has not only thrown valuable light on the economy of the plant as a whole, but forms an indispensable condition of the advance of morphological anatomy.
Oncken, to take the extreme of condemnation, looks upon him as a bad physiocrat and a confused thinker, while Leon Say considers that he was the founder of modern political economy, and that "though he failed in the 18th century he triumphed in the 1 9th."
Independently of the necessary consideration of the general economy of the farm, the choice must be influenced partly by the character of the soil, but very much more by that of the climate.
He suppressed, however, a number of octrois and minor duties,' and opposed, on grounds of economy, the participation of France in the War of American Independence, though without success.
As was suggested at the outset, railway accident statistics are useful only as showing how to make life and limb safer, though in pursuing this object increased economy should also be secured.
If, however, cost within reasonable limits is a secondary consideration and the intention is to build a line adapted for express trains and for the carriage of the largest volume of traffic with speed and economy, he will lean towards the second.
Cranes driven by shafting, or by mechanical power, have been largely superseded by electric cranes, principally on account of the much greater economy of transmission.
Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
Though possessing a complete copulatory apparatus and producing large quantities of spermatozoa, they have lost their sexual instinct and play no part in the economy of the species.
If we study the economy of a village, the idiosyncrasies of every individual in it are of importance.
In the former treatise we have a clear and minute description of the rural practices of that period, and from the latter may be learned a good deal of the economy of the feudal system in its decline.
As most of the Lancashire cotton mills lie far from Manchester, direct importations to that city do not usually dispense with a " handling," and frequently save little or nothing in freight rates, though in some cases the economy derived from direct importation is considerable.
He became the financier of his party, preached unceasingly his cardinal doctrines of simplicity and economy, and was an effective critic of the measures of government.
Boeckh, The Public Economy of the Athenians (Eng.
He reorganized the Bavarian army; he immensely improved the condition of the industrial classes throughout the country by providing them with work and instructing them in the practice of domestic economy; and he did much to suppress mendicity.
The avarice with which both Tacitus and Suetonius stigmatize Vespasian seems really to have been an enlightened economy, which, in the disordered state of the Roman finances, was an absolute necessity.
He had a vision of a political economy based not on selfishness but on love, not on desire but on self-denial.
Boeckh, Public Economy of Athens, Eng.
Mill's Political Economy, book ii.
From 1853 until his death, on the second of August 1859, he was president of the newly established Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he taught political economy, intellectual and moral philosophy, and natural theology.
His works, though interesting from the clearness and precision with which these peculiar opinions are presented, do not now possess much value for the student of political economy.
Commerce (resting largely upon specialized agriculture) is vastly more prominent as yet than manufacturing and mining in the island's economy.
To ensure economy, the decisions of this body are supervised by a government commissioner.
In the effort to reduce the practice of economy to a fine art he arrived at the conviction that the less labour a man did, over and above the positive demands of necessity, the better for him and for the community at large; he would have had the order of the week reversed - six days of rest for one of labour.
Janissaries and the suppression of the quasi-indepen dent power of the derebeys had removed the worst disturbing elements; the government had been centralized; a series of enactments had endeavoured to secure economy in the administration, to curb the abuses of official power, and ensure the impartiality of justice; and the sultan had even expressed his personal belief in the principle of the equality of all, Mussulman and non-Mussulman, before the law.
A partial explanation of this phenomenon may perhaps be found in the economy of nervous energy his strategical method ensured to him.
In 1847 he wrote his biographies of Simon, Lord Lovat, and of Duncan Forbes, and in 1849 prepared for Chambers's Series manuals of political and social economy and of emigration.
The success of this made his position secure, and in 1840 he was appointed professor of political economy in the College de France.
Thus he opposed the French alliance which de la Gardie carried through in 1672, and consistently advocated economy in domestic and neutrality in foreign affairs.
Apart from his pertinacious fight for economy Hume was not always fortunate in his political activity.
These doctrinal interpretations introduce the economy of blinding the Jews into the parabolic teaching; the declaration as to the redemptive character of the Passion into the sayings; the sacramental, institutional words into the account of the Last Supper, originally, a solemnly simple Messianic meal; and the formal night-trial before Caiaphas into the original Passion-story with its informal, morning decision by Caiaphas, and its one solemn condemnation of Jesus, by Pilate.
(After Lankester, loc. cit.) has as many structure of the prosoma, and must play an important part economy of these organisms. In Limulus (figs.
If by this process a more perfect defecation and purification of the juice is obtained, it will no doubt be highly beneficial to the cane p lanter, though no great economy in lime can be effected, because but very little is used in a cane factory in comparison with the amount used in a beet factory.
Even a machine of simple type, like the ordinary drain-pipe machine, in which the retorts are made by forcing the plastic clay mixture through a die, may result in greater economy and uniformity than is possible when retorts are made by hand.
Most commonly the engineer has to attach great importance to the question of cost, and to design his structure to secure the greatest economy consistent with the provision of adequate strength.
The rivers play a very important part in the economy of Borneo, both as highways and as lines along which run the main arteries of population.
The college offers four-year courses in agronomy, animal husbandry, dairying, domestic economy, general science, veterinary medicine, and civil, mechanical, electrical and mining engineering.
Avila is naturally divided into two sections, differing completely in soil, climate, productions and social economy.
This is a strange idea to people who have been brought up in a pure capitalist economy.
A law enacted in 1908 encourages the establishment of departments of agriculture, domestic economy and manual training in at least one high school in each congressional district.
In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
He still, however, continued an academic career by lecturing on political economy at the university.
Marcionites, named by Clement of Alexandria Antitactae (revolters against the Demiurge) held the Old Testament economy to be throughout tainted by its source; but they are not accused of licentiousness.
The fibre of the piassava (Leopoldinia piassava, or Attalea funifera) is widely used for cordage, brushes and brooms. There are many other palms whose fruit, fibre and wood enter largely into the domestic economy of the natives, but the list given shows how important a service these trees rendered to the aboriginal inhabitants of tropical America, and likewise how useful they still are to the people of tropical Brazil.
In addition to this economy it was calculated that the lines could be leased for £132,000 a year.
President Salles publicly promised political reform, economy in the administration, and absolute respect for civil rights, and speedily made efforts to fulfil these pledges.
In social economy his views are very vague; he preserves the family, country and property, but finds in all three, as they now are, a despotism which must be eliminated.
For many generations the charitable foundations for the teaching and training of youth were a conspicuous feature in the economy of the city.
In theology and philosophy the most distinguished names are: Bernardino Ochino and Lelio and Fausto Soccini (16th century); in jurisprudence, three Soccini: Mariano senior, Bartolommeo and Mariano junior (15th and 16th centuries); and in political economy, Sallustio Bandini (1677-1760), author of the Discorso sulla Maremma.
For the next few months he travelled to regain his health; and in the spring of 1836 returned to his cotton plantation, where for several years he devoted his time largely to reading political philosophy, political economy, public law and the English classics, and by careful management of his estate he acquired considerable wealth.
Since its reorganization in 1869 the academy has, however, paid equal attention to the various departments of history, archaeology, national economy and the physical sciences.
Ecsery, Geza Ferdinandy (historical and systematic politics), Arpad Zigany, Bela Foldes (political economy), Julius Mandello (political economy), Alexander Matlekovics (Hungary's administrative service; Allamhdztartds, 3 vols.), J.
By care and economy, however, aided by generous royal grants, she was enabled to pay off mortgages and to bring up the children in a way befitting their rank.
Bardoux, Les Legistes et leur influence sur la soc.francaise; Fournol, Bodin predecesseur de Montesquieu (Paris, 1896); for his political economy, J.
The astonishing colours and grotesque forms of some animals and plants which the museum zoologists gravely described without comment were shown by these observers of living nature to have their significance in the economy of the organism possessing them; and a general doctrine was recognized, to the effect that no part or structure of an organism is without definite use and adaptation, being designed by the Creator for the benefit of the creature to which it belongs, or else for the benefit, amusement or instruction of his highest creature - man.
After completing his studies in law at the university of Padua, he attracted the attention of the Austrian police by his lectures on political economy, and was obliged to emigrate.
When work restarted after the war, the mine owners offered the Kaffir workmen little more than half the wages paid in 1898; but this effort at economy was abandoned, and the old rates of pay were restored in January 1903.
The part played by the thyroid body in the internal economy of the organism has also received much attention.
Moreover, the Liberal promises of economy had been largely falsified, the reductions in the navy estimates being dangerous in themselves, while the income tax still remained at practically the war level.
Of Wren's other churches it is to be noted that the necessity of economy usually led him to pay special attention to a single feature.
Economy in handling makes it desirable to bring the mine-cars as near as may be to the point where the mineral is broken.
That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.
To this end he examined such immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the organism.
The horse does not occupy the important position in the Bedouin economy that is popularly supposed.
The measures were those of the late-medieval town economy applied to the wide region of the German Baltic trade, but not supported, as was the analogous mercantilist system, by a strong central government.
In November 1822 Daubeny succeeded Dr Kidd as professor of chemistry at Oxford, and retained this post until 1855; and in 1834 he was appointed to the chair of botany, to which was subsequently attached that of rural economy.
All these have faculties of letters and law, and San Marcos has in addition faculties of theology, medicine, mathematics and science, philosophy and administrative and political economy.
The details of the plant - the material and fittings of the still, the manner of heating, the form of the condensing plant, receivers, &c. - have to be determined for each substance to be distilled in order to work with the maximum economy.
In addition to the four usual faculties there is a fifth - of political economy.
Like Mach, he started from the principle of economy of thinking, and in the Kritik endeavoured to explain pure experience in relation to knowledge and environment.
In 1840 he was appointed professor of mental and moral philosophy and political economy in Manchester New College, the seminary in which he had himself been educated, and which had now removed from York to the city after which it was named.
It is obvious that, with suitable methods and apparatus, the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides may be made to yield chlorine, hypochlorites (bleaching liquors), chlorates or caustic alkali, but that great care must be exercised if any of these products is to be obtained pure and with economy.
The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal economique (1751-1772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 1759; periodical biography may be first seen in the Necrologe des hommes celebres de France (1764-1782); the political economists established the Ephemerides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'education was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same year; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des theatres (1770); in the same year were produced a Journal de musique and the Encyclopedia militaire; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de marine in 1778.
The Maanedlige Afhandlinger (1762), " Monthly Treatises," was supported by several writers and devoted chiefly to rural economy.
Japan now possesses native periodicals of the European type, of which the following are representative examples: Fudzoku-Gaho (native customs); The Kokka (art); Toyo-Gakugei - Zasshi (science); Jogaku-Zasshi (domestic economy); Tetsugaku-Zasshi (philosophy); Keizai-Zasshi (political economy); Taiyo (literature).
The magnitude of the sum, and his acquiescence in the grant of pensions by the Shelburne ministry, convinced the country that his zeal for economy was hypocritical.
After travelling with his charge, he settled with his family in Holland, first at the Hague, then, for economy's sake, at Wesel, in 1707, where he began his great work, L'Histoire d'Angleterre.
Its advantages over the zinc process are that the deposited gold is purer and more readily extracted, and that weaker solutions can be employed, thereby effecting an economy in cyanide.
It is especially suitable to gold containing little silver and base metals - a character of Australian gold - but it yields to the sulphuric acid and electrolytic methods in point of economy.
Its causes and results are fundamental for the study of ethnology (formation and mixture of races), of political and social history (formation of states and survival of institutions), and of political economy (mobility of labour and utilization of productive forces).
Called to office after disaster had driven Turkey's forces from Hungary and Poland and her fleets from the Mediterranean, he began by ordering strict economy and reform in the taxation; himself setting the example, which was widely followed, of voluntary contributions for the army, which with the navy he reorganized as quickly as he could.
The organs and instincts for egg-laying and foodproviding are perhaps the most remarkable features in the economy of the Hymenoptera.
He then devoted himself with astonishing ardour to mathematics, chemistry, natural history, technology and even political economy.
As such it survived the introduction of the Reformation in 1542; but in 1566, on the death of Sigismund of Brandenburg (also archbishop of Madgeburg from 1552 to 1566), the last Catholic bishop, the chapter from motives of economy elected the infant Henry Julius of Brunswick-Luneburg.
Yet some such isolation of the subject matter of this science was demanded at the moment of its birth, just as political economy, when first started, had to make a rigid severance of wealth from other units.
We have hardly yet discovered that political economy has unavoidable points of contact with ethics.
This system presents the greatest advantages in point of economy of driving power, especially where the gradients are variable, but is expensive in first cost, and is not well suited for curves, and branch roads cannot be worked continuously, as a fresh set of pulleys worked by bevel gearing is required for each branch.
Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.
Bonar, Philosophy and Political Economy in their historical Relations (1873); D.
The gross value of agricultural products is not great compared with that of other industries, but they are of great importance in the economy of the state.
The last emphasizes scientific instruction in domestic economy.
Various machines have been constructed to perform this operation, some of them specially designed for the use of troops in the field; those in which economy of fuel is studied have an exchange-heater, by means of which the incoming cold water receives heat from the outgoing hot water, which thus arrives at the point of outflow at a temperature nearly as low as that of the supply.
C. Carey, who attracts him both by his theory of value, which suggests an ultimate harmony of the interests of capitalist and labourer, and also by his doctrine of "national" political economy, which advocates protection on the ground that the morals and culture of a people are promoted by having its whole system of industry complete within its own borders.
The swellings on the palmar faces of the phalanges of the several fingers are also indicative, the 1st and and of the thumb respectively, of the logical faculty and of the will; the 1st, and and 3rd of the index finger, of materialism, law and order, idealism; those of the middle finger, humanity, system, intelligence; of the ring finger, truth, economy, energy; and of the little finger, goodness, prudence, reflectiveness.
MELCHIORRE GIOJA (1767-1829), Italian writer on philosophy and political economy, was born at Piacenza, on the 10th of September 1767.
Originally intended for the church, he took orders, but renounced them in 1796 and went to Milan, where he devoted himself to the study of political economy.
In political economy this avidity for facts produced better fruits.
(1844) (containing an attack on Gioja's "sensualism"); for his political economy, list of works in J.
A chair of industrial economy was founded for him in 1819 at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers.
In 1 831 he was made professor of political economy at the College de France.
He recognizes political economy and statistics as alike sciences, and represents the distinction between them as having never been made before him, though he quotes what Smith had said of political arithmetic. While deserving the praise of honesty, sincerity and independence, he is inferior to his predecessor in breadth of view on moral and political questions.
His published works are: Hints Toward Reforms (1850); Glances at Europe (1851); History of the Struggle for Slavery Extension (1856); Overland Journey to San Francisco (1860); The American Conflict (2 vols., 1864-1866); Recollections of a Busy Life (1868; new edition, with appendix containing an account of his later years, his argument with Robert Dale Owen on Marriage and Divorce, and Miscellanies, 1873); Essays on Political Economy (1870); and What I know of Farming (1871).
But here also the question of economy must be taken into the reckoning.
built with hinges considerable economy has been obtained.
It can be stiffened by girders and bracing and is then of mixed type, when it loses much of its advantage in economy.
The continuity permits economy of weight.
The larger the bridge, the more important is economy of material, not only because the total expenditure is more serious, but because as the span increases the dead weight of the structure becomes a greater fraction of the whole load to be supported.
span, with much economy, and the calculations being simple, an engineer can venture to work closely to the dimensions required by theory.
- It has been stated that if in a girder bridge of three or more spans, the girders were made continuous there would be an important economy of material, but that the danger of settlement of the supports, which would seriously alter the points of contrary flexure or points where FIG.
All this, combined with the stringency of the international money-market, meant a heavy burden on Austrian national economy.
The virtual stoppage of all supplies of raw materials from abroad necessitated the strictest economy in the use of those available at home, and this led to an elaborate system of Government control.
All these measures could not alter the fact that the national economy became less and less equal to the tasks imposed upon it by the war.
FERENCZ LAJOS AKOS KOSSUTH (1841-), Hungarian statesman, the son of Lajos Kossuth, was born on the 16th of November 1841, and educated at the Paris Polytechnic and the London University, where in 1859 he won a prize for political economy.
She never accommodated herself to the part she was called on to play during the Empire, and, though endowed with immense wealth and distinguished by the title of Madame Mere, lived mainly in retirement, and in the exercise of a strict domestic economy which her early privations had made a second nature to her, but which rendered her very unpopular in France and was displeasing to Napoleon.
Between these two were Questions in Political Economy, Politics, Morals, &c. (1823), and a Critical Dissertation on the Nature, Measure, and Causes of Value (1825), directed against the opinions of Ricardo and his school.
It made for internal stability, order and economy, and enabled her to develop and husband her resources, and devote herself uninterruptedly to the now burning question of national education.
During this period De la Gardie was the ruling spirit of the government and represented the party of warlike adventure as opposed to the party of peace and economy led by Counts Bonde and Brahe (qq.v.).
ECONOMY, a township and a village of Beaver county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the E.
Three hundred thus separated from Rapp in 1833, with $105,000 as their share of the communal property, to build the millennial kingdom of New Jerusalem at Phillipsburg (now Monaca), Beaver county, Pennsylvania, under the lead of Bernhard Muller, who had come to Economy in 1831 as a fellow religionist, and was called Count Maximilian de Leon (or Proli); in 1833 Leon went, with his followers, to Louisiana, and established a religious colony 6 m.
The Harmonists at Economy flourished under the rule of a tradesman, R.
In 1851 the township of Harmony was set apart from Economy.
After the publication of this work his ethical doctrines occupied less space in his lectures, and a larger development was given to the subjects of jurisprudence and political economy.
Smith afterwards described Quesnay as a man "of the greatest modesty and simplicity," and declared his system of political economy to be, "with all its imperfections, the nearest approximation to truth that had yet been published on the principles of that science."
But it must at once be said that it is plainly contrary to fact to represent him, as some have done, as the creator of political economy.
As a theoretic treatment of social economy, and therefore as a guide to social reconstruction and practice in the future, it is provisional, not definitive.
"Smith" in Coquelin and Guillaumin's Dictionnaire de l'economie politique; Bagehot's Economic Studies (1880); and Cossa's Guide to the Study of Political Economy (Eng.
He declared that twenty new churches, with parishes, should be erected in Glasgow, and he set to work to revivify, remodel and extend the old parochial economy of Scotland.
In 1826 he published a third volume of the Christian and Civic Economy of Large Towns, a continuation of work begun at St John's, Glasgow.
In 1832 he published a Political Economy, the chief purpose of which was to enforce the truth that the right economic condition of the masses is dependent on their right moral condition, that character is the parent of comfort, not vice versa.
In 1796 he was made a member of the Institute, was appointed to a professorship of political economy, and founded tin Journal d'economie publique, de morale et de legislation.
suggest reformations in the different departments of the army essential to good discipline, order and economy, and that his, character and popularity in the army would facilitate the execution of such reformations when adopted by Congress.
In the first decades after the establishment of independence the resources and energies of the nation were absorbed in the task of occupying the vacant spaces of a continent, and sub-, duing it to agriculture; and so long as land was so abundant that the spreading population easily sustained itself upon the fruits of the soil, and satisfied the tastes of a simple society with the products of neighborhood handicrafts, there was no incentive to any real development of a factory economy.
The production had steadily fallen to 16,984 flasks in 1908, but in the opinion of the United States Geological Survey this reduction is mainly attributable, in recent years at least, to market conditions, and does not truly indicate the exhaustion of the mines, although the ores now available are of low grades, those of New Almaden having shown a decrease in yield from 36.7% in1850-1851to o~74% in 1895-1896, so that only the greatest metallurgical skill and business economy can sustain the mines against a weak market.
The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of space and convenience of access from one part of the community to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium.
The courses in library economy (college of liberal arts) are particularly well known.
Now if we add together all these savings in the rate of rail and ocean freights and incidental expenses, we arrive at an aggregate economy of 8s.
Their economy is fully described in a special article on Termites.
Here he introduced many improvements in map-making, and gained a scientific reputation which led (in 1751) to his election to the chair of economy and mathematics in the university of Gottingen.
But it was not until 1860 that he definitely began to propound a new social scheme, denouncing the dogmas of political economy.
Where conscription has existed for any appreciable time it has sunk into the national economy, and men do their military service with as little concern as if it were a civil apprenticeship.
Instead of plundering to support his prodigality, he emptied his private treasury to assist distressed provinces and cities, and everywhere exercised rigid economy (hence the nickname Kv'Avowpicmis, " cummin-splitter").
Thus Ivan Poroshkov, Peter's contemporary, the father of Russian political economy, writes as follows: "If any land be over-much encumbered with weeds, corn cannot be sown thereon unless the weeds first be burned with fire.
In early days a limited number of Chinese settled in the islands, intermarried with the natives and by their industry and economy generally prospered.
If he has any originality, it consists in substituting for the association of ideas the " economy of thinking," by which he means that all theoretical conceptions of physics, such as atoms, molecules, energy, &c., are mere helps to facilitate our consideration of things.
Inference, according to him, is merely mental completion of sensations; and this mental completion has two characteristics: it only forms ideas, and it proceeds by an " economy of thought."
He thinks that there is a notion of understanding (Verstandesbegrif), under which every new experience is subsumed, but that it has been developed by former experience, instinctively, and by the development of the race, as part of the economy of thinking.
His philosophy, therefore, is that all known things are sensations and complexes of sensory elements, supplemented by an economy of thinking which cannot carry us beyond ideas to real things, or beyond relations of dependency to real causes.
Avenarius held a view of knowledge very like that of Mach's view of the economy of thinking.
There he lectured on political and domestic economy with such success that in 1770 he was appointed ordinary professor.
In addition to the books above mentioned, she wrote many pamphlets and short stories and The (American) Frugal Housewife (1829), one of the earliest American books on domestic economy, The Mother's Book (1831), a pioneer cook-book republished in England and Germany, The Girls' Own Book (1831), History of Women (2 vols., 1832), Good Wives (1833), The Anti-Slavery Catechism (1836), Philothea (1836), a romance of the age of Pericles, perhaps her best book, Letters from New York (2 vols., 1843-1845), Fact and Fiction (1847), The Power of Kindness (1851), Isaac T.
In this form a number of knights were made before and after almost every battle between the iith and the 16th centuries, and its advantages on the score of both convenience and economy gradually led to its general adoption both in time of peace and time of war.
In November 1768 he was appointed to the chair of law and economy, which had been founded expressly for him at the Palatine college of Milan.
His lectures on political economy, which are based on strict utilitarian principles, are in marked accordance with the theories of the English school of economists.
They are published in the collection of Italian writers on political economy (Scrittori Classici Italiani di Economia politica, vols.
Therefore while less energy is absorbed in its final reduction, more is needed in its initial preparation, and it is questionable whether the economy possible in the second stage would not be neutralized by the greater cost of the first stage in the whole operation of winning the metal from bauxite with the sulphide as the intermediary.
By 1888 Hall was at work on a commercial scale at Pittsburg, reducing German alumina; in 1891 the plant was removed to New Kensington for economy in fuel, and was gradually enlarged to 150o h.p.; in 1894 a factory driven by water was erected at Niagara Falls, and subsequently works were established at Shawenegan in Canada and at Massena in the United States.
It is largely replacing brass and copper in all departments of industry - especially where dead weight has to be moved about, and lightness is synonymous with economy - for instance, in bed-plates for torpedo-boat engines, internal fittings for ships instead of wood, complete boats for portage, motor-car parts and boiling-pans for confectionery and in chemical works.
These play a most important part in the natural economy of the country.
"Economy" is used in both senses.
Large size has here, as in most metallurgical operations, not only its usual advantage of economy of installation, labour and administration per unit of product, but the further very important one that it lessens the proportion which the outer heat-radiating and hence heatwasting surface bears to the whole.
Mushet had no such exclusive knowledge of the effects of manganese that he alone could have helped Bessemer; and even if nobody had then proposed the use of spiegeleisen, the development of the Swedish Bessemer practice would have gone on, and, the process thus established and its value and great economy thus shown in Sweden, it would have been only a question of time how soon somebody would have proposed the addition of manganese.
But this cannot be tolerated, because the economy of the process requires extreme promptness in each of its steps.
To enlarge the scale of operations makes strongly for economy in the open-hearth process as in other high temperature ones.
To lessen the loss in shape of " crop ends," and for general economy, these billets are in some cases 30 ft.
This great economy is not due to reduction in wages.
It lacks a silky, bright and fresh appearance, and therefore is unlikely to be in great demand, except where economy is an object.
After the publication of the Treatise Hume retired to his brother's house at Ninewells and carried on his studies, mainly in the direction of politics and political economy.
Berkeley had already, in the Querist, attacked the mercan t i le theory of the nature of national wealth and the functions of money, and Locke had, in a partial manner, shown that political economy could with advantage be viewed in relation to the modern system of critical philosophy.
Bonar, Philosophy and Political Economy (London, 1893), chapter on Hume; notes to W.
Roscher's Principles of Political Economy (J.
It becomes, therefore, necessary to balance in some way the varying displacement of the ram if economy is to be secured in the working: this is often done by the use of counter-weights attached to chains travelling over head sheaves, but this largely destroys the simplicity and safety of the direct-acting lift, and hence some form of hydraulic balancing is more satisfactory and more certain.
As an illustration of the economy of this system, it may be mentioned that in one lift having a 6-in.
French officers were selected for the training and disciplining of the army, the civil list was arranged with economy and order, and reforms were introduced into the public service and system of administration.
In 1805 Malthus married happily, and not long after was appointed professor of modern history and political economy in the East India Company's College at Haileybury.
In fact, the way in which abundance, increase of numbers, want, increase of deaths, succeed each other in the natural economy, when reason does not intervene, had been fully explained by Joseph Townsend in his Dissertation on the Poor Laws (1786) which was known to Malthus.
Besides his great work, Malthus wrote Observations on the Effect of the Corn Laws; An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent; Principles of Political Economy; and Definitions in Political Economy.
For his life see Memoir by his friend Dr Otter, bishop of Chichester (prefixed to 2nd ed., 1836, of the Principles of Political Economy), and Malthus and his Work, by J.
Though the smallest of the three, it is in some respects the most complete and interesting; and it was until of late years the principal source from which we derived our knowledge of this important branch of the economy of Roman life.
The motive power is generally a steam engine, but the greater economy and facility of oil engines have led to their fairly wide adoption.
In September 1782 the place at Streatham was from motives of economy let to Lord Shelburne, and Mrs Thrale took a house at Brighton, whither Johnson accompanied her; they remained for six weeks on the old familiar footing.
The extravagance of Frederick drained the resources of his state, but this was amply atoned for by the rigid economy of Frederick William I., who not only paid off the debts accumulated by his father, but amassed an enormous treasure.
His great work, the Elements of Political Economy, appeared in 1821 (3rd and revised ed.
His Elements of Political Economy, which was intended only as a textbook of the subject, shows all the author's precision and lucidity.
This arrangement represents a potential economy of some £2,000,000 capital for Hungary as compared with the original Austrian demand that the Hungarian contribution to the service of the old Austrian debt be capitalized at 4.2%.
Schaffle, a professor at the university of of Hohen- Vienna, chiefly known for his writings on political wart' economy.
The police, on the other hand, are more or less equally divided between the provinces (including the establishment at each cantonment), and while their interior economy and organization rests in the hands of a commissioner, they are for purposes of duty under the control of the resident of the province.
By the exercise of the most rigid economy in all branches this end was attained, though budgetary equilibrium was only secured by a variety of financial expedients, justified by the vital importance of saving Egypt from further international interference.
The capital of the debt was increased by 1,945,000 by these conversions, while the annual economy to the Egyptian government amounted at the time of the conversion to E.348,ooo.
He endeavoured to replenish the treasury not only by extreme economy, but by inflicting fines on a vast scale on persons who had held offices under his predecessor and others who had rendered themselves suspect.
The theory of the physiocrats now found powerful advocates in Denmark; and after 1755, when the press censorship was abolished so far as regarded political economy and agriculture, a thorough discussion of the whole agrarian question became possible.
C. Olufsen (1764-1827) was a writer on geography, zoology and political economy.
He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1858, was professor of political economy at University College from 1872 to 1875, and in December 1876, after a previous unsuccessful attempt, was elected to parliament for Liskeard in the Liberal interest.
By continual economy he left in the former the immense sum of 70 million thalers; the latter, at the time of his death, numbered 200,000 men, disciplined with all the strictness to which he had throughout life accustomed his troops.
He there began the study of Saxon history, still devoting his attention chiefly to the history of commerce and economy, and published Die Geschichte des Kurfiirsten August von Sachsen in y olkswirthschaftlicher Beziehung (Leipzig, 1868) and Geschichte des deutschen Zollwesens (Leipzig, 1869).
Gifts, too, fall in, and with his native avarice and economy he rises in wealth, position and reputation for piety.
The quantitative estimate of the amount of this flora has revealed its enormous aggregate amount and therefore its great importance in the economy of oceanic and lacustrine animal life.
In spite of his Imperialist views, however, he did much to smooth over the party difficulties, and when the tariff-reform movement began in 1903, he seized the opportunity for rallying the Liberals to the banner of freetrade and championing the "orthodox" English political economy, on which indeed he had been a lecturer in his younger days.
Further study of political economy soon enabled him to pass out of this phase, and in 1850 he settled down to practise as an advocate at Gottingen.
Both processes are inferior in economy to calcination in rotatory kilns, a process which may be regarded as the method of the present and the immediate future.
After the gift of $500,000 by Andrew Carnegie there were established in 1909 the Andrew Carnegie School of Engineering, the James Madison School of Law, the James Monroe School of International Law, the James Wilson School of Political Economy, the Edgar Allan Poe School of English and the Walter Reed School of Pathology.
The prevalent political economy, in which that theory was embodied, made a principle of neglecting the very evils which it should be the great function of government to remedy.
He lectured on constitutional and public law and Roman law in 1875-1877, and also taught subjects as diverse as botany and political economy.
His duties were light, and he employed his leisure in the study of philology, mathematics, philosophy, history, political economy, natural science and natural history, for which he made large collections.
We now find him making extracts from the English newspapers on the Poor-Law Bill of 1796; criticising the Prussian land laws, promulgated about the same time; and writing a commentary on Sir James Steuart's Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy.
At first he made a good use of this, counselling economy, decreasing taxation, disbanding 25,000 soldiers and restoring liberty to the persecuted Jansenists.
He devoted himself to philosophical trifling, petty administrative and judicial details, while his craze for economy developed into avarice.
His principal works are: The Coming Revolution (1880); The Co-operative Commonwealth in its Outlines, An Exposition of Modern Socialism (1884); Ca Ira, or Danton in the French Revolution (1888), a rehabilitation of Danton; Our Destiny, The Influence of Socialism on Morals and Religion (1890); and The New Economy (1898) .
The most efficient evaporating apparatus, as far as economy of fuel is concerned, is the vacuum-pan, of which from two to five are combined to form a set, but it has the drawback that the removal of the salts is much more difficult than with the ?,,..
Jefferson was prominent in all; was a signer of the Virginia agreement of non-importation and economy (1769); and was elected in 1774 to the first Virginia convention, called to consider the state of the colony and advance intercolonial union.
The simple system of rural economy is entirely based upon the dealings of this man, whom it is the fashion sometimes to decry as a usurer, but who is really the one thrifty person among an improvident population.
The course on moral philosophy embraced, besides ethics proper, lectures on political philosophy or the theory of government, and from 1800 onwards a separate course of lectures was delivered on political economy, then almost unknown as a science to the general public. Stewart's enlightened political teaching was sufficient, in the times of reaction succeeding the French Revolution, to draw upon him the undeserved suspicion of disaffection to the constitution.
In his course he included singing, economy, politics, world-history, geography, and the arts and handicrafts.
He spent all his spare time in the study of classics, history, metaphysics and political economy, and in learning German, French and Italian.
In the 14th century this social arrangement, based primarily on natural economy and on the feudal disruption of society, began to give way.
These inevitable consequences came to be perceived in course of time and occasioned a backward tendency towards services in kind which could not prevail against the general movement from natural economy to money dealings, but was strong enough to produce social friction and grave disturbances.
It has been chiefly indebted to writers, who were not, or were not primarily, logicians, to Avenarius, for example, for the law of the economy of thought, to Wundt, whose system, and therewith his logic,' is a pendant to his psychology, for the volitional character of judgment, to Herbert Spencer and others.
The progress of coal-mining has been a striking feature of the state's economy since 1880.
The introduction of other exotics into these zones, - made humid by irrigation, which converts them, the one into true austro-riparian the other into true humid tropical, has revolutionized the agricultural, and indeed the whole, economy of California.
Hides and tallow were the sum and substance of Californian economy.
In the manner of modern travellers, he gives an account of the customs, government and antiquities of the country he is supposed to have visited; a copious introduction supplies whatever may be wanting in respect to historical details; whilst various dissertations on the music of the Greeks, on the literature of the Athenians, and on the economy, pursuits, ruling passions, manners and customs of the surrounding states supply ample information on the subjects of which they treat.
The period of isolated economy which we may term medieval lasted only from about the 5th to the 12th centuries.
Their swarming multitudes are of enormous importance in the economy of the sea.
Silver-mining ceased to be highly remunerative beginning with the closing of the India mints and repeal of the Sherman Law in 1893; since 1900 the yield has shown an extraordinary decrease - in 1905 it was $6,945,581, and in 1907 $7,411,652 - and it is said that as a result of the great fall in the market value of the metal the mines can now be operated only under the most favourable conditions and by exercise of extreme economy.
For the Germans the phrase " science of finance " (Finanzwissenschaft) refers exclusively to the economy of the state.
The canon of economy is as fundamental in regard to public expenditure as it will appear, later, to be in respect to revenue.
Again, the rule of " economy" in raising revenue, or, in other words, taking as little as possible from the contributors over and above what the state receives, holds good for the whole and for each part of public revenue.
The part played by money economy was small, and it is noticeable that the revenues were collected by the monarch's servants, the farming out of taxes being completely unknown.
By means of his freedmen the emperor introduced the more rigorous economy of the Roman household into public finance.
Mechanical uniformity and minute regulation are inadequate substitutes for observance of the canons of equality, certainty and economy in the operation of the tax system.
The opinion was common at the time, and the error was merely ignorance of the true principles of political economy.
A great many modified scutching machines and processes have been proposed and introduced with the view of promoting economy of labour and improving the turn-out of fibre, both in respect of cleanness and in producing the least proportion of codilla or scutching tow.
Order and economy being thus introduced into the working of the government, the country, according to Colbert's vast yet detailed plan, was to be enriched by commerce.
Modern methods in copper smelting and refining have effected enormous economy in time, space, and labour, and have consequently increased the world's output.
He at once applied himself to moral and administrative reform; declared against nepotism, introduced economy, abolished sinecures, wiped out the deficit (at the same time reducing rents), closed the gaming-houses, and issued a number of sumptuary ordinances.
Colerus gives particulars which enable us to realize the almost incredible simplicity and economy of his mode of life.
There was the high-aristocratic party with a leaning towards martial adventure headed by Magnus de la Gardie, and the party of peace and economy whose ablest representative was the liberal and energetic Johan Gyllenstjerna.
The amount of revenue accruing to the Crown from the whole Reduktion it is impossible to estimate even approximately; but by these means, combined with the most careful management and the most rigid economy, Charles XI.
The Riksdag refused to sanction his favourite project of a reform of the Swedish army on the Prussian model, for which he laboured all his life, partly from motives of economy, partly from an apprehension of the king's martial tendencies.
Several new and powerful cruisers were added to the navy, and the internal economy of this branch of the national defence was thoroughly inspected and many defects were remedied.
The pine is an important tree in the economy of the northern nations of Europe.
The provinces of the Persian Empire differed as materially in economy as in organization.
At the court, natural economy was still the rule.
In 1866 he was elected professor of logic and mental and moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy in Owens college.
In 1876 he was glad to exchange the Owens professorship for the professorship of political economy in University College, London.
It would be difficult to exaggerate the loss which logic and political economy sustained through the accident by which his life was prematurely cut short.
Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic. The theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was practically formulated in a letter written in 1860; and the germ of his logical principles of the substitution of similars may be found in the view which he propounded in another letter written in 1861, that "philosophy would be found to consist solely in pointing out the likeness of things."
The theory of utility above referred to, namely, that the degree of utility of a commodity is some continuous mathematical function of the quantity of the coin modity available, together with the implied doctrine that economics is essentially a mathematical science, took more definite form in a paper on "A General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy," written for the British Association in 1862.
This paper does not appear to have attracted much attention either in 1862 or on its publication four years later in the Journal of the Statistical Society; and it was not till 1871, when the Theory of Political Economy appeared, that Jevons set forth his doctrines in a fully developed form.
It was not till after the publication of this work that Jevons became acquainted with the applications of mathematics to political economy made by earlier writers, notably Antoine Augustin Cournot and H.
In his reaction from the prevailing view he sometimes expressed himself without due qualification: the declaration, for instance, made at the commencement of the Theory of Political Economy, that "value depends entirely upon utility," lent itself to misinterpretation.
A Serious Fall in the Value of Gold (1863) and The Coal Question (1865) placed him in the front rank as a writer on applied economics and statistics; and he would be remembered as one of the leading economists of the 19th century even had his Theory of Political Economy never been written.
Amongst his economic works may be mentioned Money and the Mechanism of Exchange (1875), written in a popular style, and descriptive rather than theoretical, but wonderfully fresh and original in treatment and full of suggestiveness, a Primer on Political Economy (1878), The State in Relation to Labour (1882), and two works published after his death, namely, Methods of Social Reform and Investigations in Currency and Finance, containing papers that had appeared separately during his lifetime.
Jevons's work in logic went on par/ passe with his work in political economy.
For while self-love plays a most important part in the human economy, there is no less evidently a natural principle of benevolence.
"Whoever thinks it worth while to consider this matter thoroughly should begin by stating to himself exactly the idea of a system, economy or constitution of any particular nature; and he will, I suppose, find that it is one or a whole, made up of several parts, but yet that the several parts, even considered as a whole, do not complete the idea, unless in the notion of a whole you include the relations and respects which these parts have to each other."
He now began to occupy himself with scientific pursuits, and gave some attention to mathematics as well as to chemistry and mineralogy; but, having met with Adam Smith's great work, he threw himself with ardour into the study of political economy.
Ricardo's chief work, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, appeared in 1817.
A lectureship on political economy, to exist for ten years, was founded in commemoration of him, M'Culloch being chosen to fill it.
To reconcile the ways of God to man had been the ambition of Chrysippus, as we know from Plutarch's criticisms. He argued plausibly that natural evil was a thing indifferent - that even moral evil was required in the divine economy as a foil to set off good.
in the constitutional, administrative and judicial organization of the various powers, in international law, commercial law and maritime law, in the history of treaties and in commercial and political geography, in political economy, and in the German and English languages.
A co-operative social economy is evidenced by the traces of great public works, such as canals many miles in length.
Having studied jurisprudence and political economy at the universities of Bonn, Heidelberg, Munich and Berlin, he entered the legal career at Cologne, and immediately devoted his attention to financial and commercial questions.
He travelled through several of the countries of Europe, examining different systems of machinery; and some of the results of his investigations were published in the admirable little work, Economy of Machines and Manufactures (1834).
His diligent investigations into the efficiency of various illuminants in differing circumstances, and into the best conditions for developing their several maximum powers of brilliancy, while greatly improving the usefulness of the line of beacons along the extensive coast of the United States, effected at the same time a great economy of administration.
Notwithstanding the continuous pressure of an active business life he found time to contribute largely many valuable articles to the magazines and newspapers, and took an active part in the proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society (of which he was one of the honorary secretaries, editor of its journal, and in1869-1871president) and the Political Economy Club.
Many of the larger species of Crustacea are used as food by man, the most valuable being the lobster, which is caught in large quantities on both sides of the North Altantic. Perhaps the most important of all Crustacea, however, with respect to the part which they play in the economy of nature, are the minute pelagic Copepoda, of which incalculable myriads form an important constituent of the " plankton " in all the seas of the globe.
He was rector of St Paul's Boston, from 1826 to 1831, when he became professor of moral and intellectual philosophy and political economy at Union.
He edited many reprints and collections of sermons and lectures, and wrote: Political Economy (1840), The Principles of Science applied to the Domestic and Mechanic Arts (1841), Handbook for Readers and Students (1843), and Religious Philosophy (1870).
The Yorkshire Ladies' Council of Education has as its object the promotion of female education, and the instruction of girls and women of the artisan class in domestic economy, &c. The general infirmary in Great George Street is a Gothic building of brick with stone dressings with a highly ornamental exterior by Sir Gilbert Scott, of whose work this is by no means the only good example in Leeds.
In a state of backward agriculture and natural economy it will sometimes be more profitable for the conquerors as well as for the conquered to leave the dependent population in their own households and on their own plots, at the same time taxing them heavily in the way of tribute and services.
He uses the vernacular with an economy which no other English writer has rivalled.
The following short list of authors may be useful to the student: - Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations; Ricardo-M'Culloch, Principles of Taxation; Mill, Principles of Political Economy; Bastable, Public Finance; E.
Apart from its share in the agricultural interests of the surrounding region, - devoted mainly to Indian corn, small grains and fruits, - the entire economy of Eureka Springs centres in its medicinal springs, more than forty of which, lying within the corporate limits, are held in trust by the city for the free use of the public. The temperature of the springs varies from about 57° F.
He became a member of the Society of Political Economy, helped to found La Revista, and took a prominent part in propagating Free Trade doctrines in the press and on the platform.
He was associate professor of history and political economy at Bryn Mawr in1885-1888and at Wesleyan University in 1888-1890; professor of jurisprudence and political economy at Princeton in 1890-1895, of jurisprudence in 1895-1897, and subsequently of jurisprudence and politics; and in 1902 he became president of Princeton University, being the first layman to hold that office.
Technical instruction is given in the agricultural schools; in various arts and crafts institutes, such as those of Bucharest and Jassy; in the veterinary and engineering colleges of Bucharest; in numerous commercial schools, and in schools of domestic economy for girls.
He ruled the province with economy and efficiency, but was defeated in December 1871 by the Liberals, resigned the premiership, and died on the 1st of June 1872.
The method will therefore always increase the yield for the time, and it may do so permanently, though to a very much smaller extent than at first; but its economy must always be less than that of direct pumping.
Both the Neuadd and the Fisher Tarn dams are largely dependent upon the support of earthen embankments with much economy and with perfectly satisfactory results.
His son Francesco Maria (1678-1727) suffered from the wars between Spain and Austria, the latter's troops devastating his territory; but although this obliged him to levy some burdensome taxes, he was a good ruler and practised economy in his administration.
The filament most important in the economy of the angler is the first, which is the longest, terminates in a lappet, and is movable in every direction.
The German-Russian Mennonites, whose immigration became notable about 1874, furnished at first many examples of communal economy, but these were later abandoned.
Henry was in the same position; by strict economy, by the use of foreign subsidies, by the automatic growth of his revenues during a time of peace and returning prosperity, by confiscation and forfeitures, he built himself up a financial position which rendered it unnecessary for him to make frequent appeals to parliament.
The movement in favor of economy was necessarily also a movement in favor of peace; and when the surrenderof Yorktown was known (1782), Lord North at once resigned office.
He accomplished this task partly by economical administrationfor no minister ever valued economy moreand partly by a reform of the financial system, effected in three great budgets.
Neither now nor ever had Burke any other real conception of a polity for England than government by the territorial aristocracy in the interests of the nation at large, and especially in the interests of commerce, to the vital importance of which in our economy he was always keenly and wisely alive.
The fact that considerable area is required and that the works do not improve the neighbourhood are important conditions, and although economy of space should be considered, arrangements should be such as to allow of extension.
This system shows a greater economy in the cost of carbonizing the coal, but the large outlay and the wear and tear of the mechanical appliances involved have so far prevented its very general adoption.
In Sybil were exhibited the social relations of rich and poor (the "two nations") under this regime, and under changes in which, while the peasantry were neglected by a shoddy aristocracy ignorant of its duties, factory life and a purblind gospel of political economy imbruted the rest of the population.
He had always rejected the political economy of his time, and it was breaking down.
They are concerned with Social Economy, Christianity, Education and Philosophy, besides Miscellaneous writings.
He strongly believed in the absolute truth of a few moral ideas, with which it was the aim of his teaching to mould and suffuse political economy.
Finally it has become apparent that many problems hitherto left for political economy to solve belong more properly to the moralist, if not to the moral philosopher, and it may be confidently expected that with the increased complexity of social life and the disappearance of many sanctions of morality hitherto regarded as inviolable, the future will bring a renewed and practical 1 Cf.
In addition to a fixed stipend of some 700 golden florins yearly, he was continually in receipt of special payments for the orations and poems he produced; so that, had he been a man of frugal habits or of moderate economy, he might have amassed a considerable fortune.
His work embraced everything; he was consulted on every affair, great and small, that came before the council, - on questions of law, police, economy, trade, and manufactures, no less than on questions of doctrine and church polity.
The ambitious medical establishment created by him was subjected to a good deal of criticism on the score of economy during 1920; and on the reconstruction of the Ministry in March 1921 he was transferred from the new department to become once more a minister without portfolio.
In political economy he was a Utilitarian on the lines of Mill and Bentham; his work was the careful investigation of first principles and the investigation of ambiguities rather than constructive.
His chief works are Principles of Political Economy (1883, 3rd ed.
The department has devoted itself to (1) promoting in struction in experimental science, drawing, manual instruction and] domestic economy in day secondary schools, (2) supplying funds to country and urban authorities for the organization of schemes for technical instruction in non-agricultural subjects-these subjects embracing not only preparation for the highly organized industries but the teaching of such rural industries as basket-making, (3) the training of teachers by classes held at various centres, (4) the provision of central institutions, and (5) the awarding of scholarships.
The house-fed pig was then as now an important object of domestic economy, and its flesh was much prized.
So important a place did bee-culture hold in the rural economy of the ancient Irish that a lengthy section is devoted to the subject in the Brehon Laws.
The consolidated rate was now paid by the occupier, who would profit by economy and lose by extravagance.
This exposition by Irenaeus of the divine economy and the incarnation was taken as a criterion by later theologians, especially in the Greek Church (cf.
Despite the influence of Sully, a convinced agrarian because of his horror of luxury and love of economy, Henry IV.
He made economy truly political:
This worn-out septuagenarian, who prized rest above everything, imported into foreign policy the same mania for economy and the same sloth in action.
Turgot, the most notable of these latter, was well fitted to play his great part as an enlightened minister, as much from the principle of hard work and domestic economy ot, traditional in his family, as from a maturity of mind 1776.
Economy in the matter of public finance implies a grain of severity in the collection of taxes as well as.
he could suppress its symptoms by a curative process of borrowing and economy.
These prisms have the advantage of economy of material and of a greater field than the ordinary Nicol's prism, but a difficulty seems to be experienced in finding a suitable permanent cement.
The important part played by the bee in the economy of nature as a fertilizer is shown in fig.
The action of the bees themselves makes this point clear, for when the season of mating is past the drone is no longer needed, the providing of winter stores taking first place in the economy of the hive.
Discussion proceeded hotly on the merits of a preferential tariff, and on August 15th a manifesto appeared against it signed by fourteen professors or lecturers on political economy, including Mr Leonard Courtney, Professor Edgeworth, Professor Marshall, Professor Bastable, Professor Smart, Professor J.
This economy has somewhat hampered the growing state.
2 He was born in Hinsdale, New Hampshire, on the Loth of January 1844; served in the Union army during the Civil War; graduated at Brown University in 1870 and at Newton Theological Institution in 1874; taught homiletics at Newton in 1879-1882, history and economics at Brown in 1882-1888, and political economy and finance at Cornell in 1888-1889; and was president of Brown University in 1889-1898.
They serve various purposes in the economy of the flower, often closing the way to the honey-secreting part of the flower to small insects, whose visits would be useless for purposes of pollination.
C. Lunt in Journal of Political Economy, iii.
No actual refrigerating machine does, in fact, take in heat at the exact temperature of the body to be cooled, and reject it at the exact temperature of the cooling water, but, for economy in working, it is of great importance that the differences should be as small as possible.
ARTHUR YOUNG (1741-1820), English writer on agriculture and social economy, second son of the Rev. Arthur Young, rector of Bradfield, in Suffolk, chaplain to Speaker Onslow, was born on the 11th of September 1741.
Owing to the care which he lavished upon the proper maintenance of the army, Nicephorus was compelled to exercise rigid economy in other departments.
A small but efficient navy was founded, and strict economy, together with increasing resources, enabled a disciplined army to be maintained.
The town has a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a school of forestry, a gymnasium, a higher-grade girls' school and two schools of domestic economy.
In the simplest cases the functions of two or more of these parts may be combined into one, as in the smith's forge, where the fire-place and heating chamber are united, the iron being placed among the coals, only the air for burning being supplied under pressure from a blowing engine by a second special contrivance, the tuyere, tuiron, twyer or blast-pipe; but in the more refined modern furnaces, where great economy of fuel is an object, the different functions are distributed over separate and distinct apparatus, the fuel being converted into gas in one, dried in another, and heated in a third, before arriving at the point of combustion in the working chamber of the furnace proper.
We wanted a firm economy and reasonable real estate costs and a good school system.
Numbers. We collect and collate numbers that impact the economy.
Parkside's economy was less than spectacular, but at least it didn't require dependency on the fickle business of mines, steel or manufacturing for its fiscal survival.
The campaign should also take up a class position and put forward a planned economy and a socialist alternative.
This economy cannot be rationally defended or even apologized for.
The first is a restructuring of the global economy so that it can sustain civilization.
It has wit, economy and intellectual control, in a richly expressive harmonic idiom.
We are becoming a knowledge economy.
The article was filled with platitudes about the systematic character of the industrial economy.
The government has been much more successful in developing an economy which has grown and withstood the vagaries of the world markets.
The emerging global world economy lacks the corresponding social structures that cushion economic vicissitudes within domestic society.
Ashford BC is a relatively affluent district with a strong economy.
agrarian economy of the region.
The essentially agrarian economy of the District is symbolized by the sheaves of wheat.
Prior to 1959, the Cuban economy was underdeveloped and primarily agrarian in character.
agronomy schools, agricultural production began narrowly connected to the economy.
ails an economy.
Travel should normally be second class rail fare or economy apex airfare.
alluded to above have meant that a significant proportion of the economy is now underground.
We need an economy which can unleash the creative powers of hi-tech artisans.
This turned out to be vague aspirations to grow the Fife economy.
Our economy and in particular its business cycles are much more closely attuned to that of the USA than the rest of the EU.
austerity program means that the economy is recovering.
Shooting modes include automatic, easy, movie mode, photo review, economy mode and scene mode.
backbone of the economy.
The letter spelled out major reforms and austerity measures linked to a massive bailout of the Indonesia economy.
Pity central bankers: keep the economy growing or hold back a new property boom?
bankrupt economy cannot even sustain eight days of war.
Above all, we had broken the inflationary psychology that had so bedeviled our economy.
bedrock of the rural economy in large parts of all Member States.
bestiaryGould * According to medieval Bestiaries, ants do have a purpose beyond the parables of political economy in Aesop and the Bible.
bimetallic catalysts and their relevance to the hydrogen economy, Ind. Eng.
Buffalo The buffalo (American bison) also played a role in the water economy of the Plains.
blip caused by inadequate demand but, if it were, spare capacity should be appearing in the economy.
bloodhound hunting on the rural economy.
bodes well for continued success in a more uncertain world economy.
boost the local economy.
The UK remains a diverse global hub The diversity of projects reflected the breadth of the UK economy.
Rising property prices helped to prop up the world economy after the stockmarket bubble burst in 2000.
buoyancy of the hill farming economy.
buoyant economy, referred to earlier, which will provide jobs.
The drought economy has been particularly harsh on women, imposing multiple burdens on them.
Like the multinational companies, the state employs salaried bureaucrats whose decisions can have a massive impact on a local economy.
Given these developments, small businesses should be somewhat less vulnerable to a downturn in the economy than in the last business cycle.
businesswomanss="ex">encourage businesswomen from all sectors of the economy who are doing business internationally to enter this prestigious award.
bust ' economy cycle.
The economy may be tight, but the lure of ten per cent capital gains tax has encouraged many owner-managers to consider a sale.
Instead of destroying the market economy, Americans are engaged in the slow process of superseding capitalism.
The creaking world economy was started up again by a coalition of industrial capitalists and government, with the trade unions as junior partner.
capitalist market economy is not, of course, an equal society.
capitalistic economy that was still functioning well and normally.
Palma has Gaudi architecture and a tremendous Gothic cathedral More than 95% of Majorca's economy is tourist driven.
Suddenly the economy went into a drastic free-fall, with one event causing a chain reaction to the next.
Were the Wessex chieftains the ` barrow boys ' of the Bronze Age economy?
Billions of pounds of new investment have been pumped into the city's economy, transforming the cityscape.
From the point of view of even classical bourgeois political economy, Cliff's argument was a pure evasion.