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ecclesiastics

ecclesiastics Sentence Examples

  • Astorga has been the see of a bishop since the 3rd century, and was formerly known as the City of Priests, from the number of ecclesiastics resident within its walls.

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  • The literature of the last two centuries consists mainly of translations and religious works written by ecclesiastics, some of whom were natives of the Albanian colonies in Italy.

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  • PIETRO DAMIANI (c. 1007-1072), one of the most celebrated ecclesiastics of the IIth century, was born at Ravenna, and after a youth spent in hardship and privation, gained some renown as a teacher.

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  • Presbyterian principles and ideas were entertained by many of the leading ecclesiastics in England during the reign of Edward VI.

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  • The fragment should therefore be regarded as supplementary to the Taxatio Ecclesiastics Angliae et Walliae printed by the Record Commissioners in 1802.

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  • All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.

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  • In Italy, divided between feudal nobles and almost hereditary ecclesiastics, of foreign blood and alien sympathies, there was no national feeling.

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  • Article 10 extended immunity to ecclesiastics employed by the Holy See, and bestowed upon foreign ecciesiastics in Rome the personal rights of Italian citizens.

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  • Bishops were further dispensed from swearing fealty tc the king, though, except in Rome and suburbs, the choice of bishop1 was limited to ecclesiastics of Italian nationality.

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  • On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.

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  • Hilda exercised great influence in Northumbria, and ecclesiastics from all over Christian England and from Strathclyde and Dalriada visited her monastery.

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  • This phrase in its primary sense imports not jurisdiction over ecclesiastics, but jurisdiction exercised by ecclesiastics over other ecclesiastics and over the laity.

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  • Kings began to insist upon trying ecclesiastics for treason or other political crimes in secular courts.

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  • In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.

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  • The court of first instance is the " consistorial court " of the bishop. This consists of a small body of ecclesiastics.

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  • If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.

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  • 320) and in the other ecclesiastics to denounce the spherical theory of the middle earth as heretical.

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  • From the ecclesiastics Basil likewise insisted on unquestioning obedience, and he did not hesitate to depose by his own authority a metropolitan who was at that time the highest dignitary of the Russian Church.

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  • Having thus gained the support of a large majority of the landed proprietors and the ecclesiastics, Boris Godunov increased his influence to such an extent that on the Boris death of Tsar Feodor without male issue in 1598 he Godunov, was elected his successor by a Great National Assembly.

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  • p p These had been detected and pointed out by learned ecclesiastics of Kiev, where some of the ancient learning of Byzantium had been preserved, and Nikon determined to make the necessary corrections.

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  • The church, it was conceived, needed defence against the synagogue at all hazards, and the fear that the latter would influence and dominate the former was never absent from the minds of medieval ecclesiastics.

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  • Henderson is one of the greatest men in the history of Scotland and, next to Knox, is certainly the most famous of Scottish ecclesiastics.

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  • This proves that the use of the mitre had been for some time established at Rome; that it was specifically a Roman ornament; and that the right to wear it was only granted to ecclesiastics elsewhere as an exceptional honour.

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  • Nor were their feelings more than half allayed by the arrangement which made their ecclesiastics salaried officers of the Russian state.

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  • Crusaders themselves kept diaries or itineraria; while home-keeping ecclesiastics in the West - monks like Robert of Reims, abbots like Guibert of Nogent, archbishops like Balderich of Dol - found a fertile subject for their pens in the history of the Crusades.

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  • One of these, the Dialogue against Hypocrites, was aimed in a spirit of vindictive hatred at the vices of ecclesiastics; another, written at the request of Nicholas V., covered the anti-pope Felix with scurrilous abuse.

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  • The estates of the county had the bishop of Cahors for president; other members were the bishop of Montauban and other ecclesiastics, four viscounts, four barons and some other lords and representatives of eighteen towns.

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  • He obtained the king's permission to deal with the affairs of the Church in synods which met apart from the Great Council, and were exclusively composed of ecclesiastics.

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  • with Ninoslav and various Bosnian ecclesiastics.'

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  • Roman Catholic, ecclesiastics had been guaranteed certain rights in the holy places.

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  • ALIEN-HOUSES, religious houses in England belonging to foreign ecclesiastics, or under their control.

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  • The taille seigneuriale was a true tax, levied by a lord on all his subjects who were neither nobles nor ecclesiastics.

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  • The royal taille naturally retained the distinctive characteristics of the seigniorial, as can be seen from an examination of the way in which it was assessed and collected; the chief characteristic being that ecclesiastics and nobles, who were exempt from the seigniorial taille, were also exempt from the royal.

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  • It had still further vices: not only were nobles and ecclesiastics exempt from it, but many other privileges had been introduced by law, total or partial exemption extending to a large number of civil and military officials and employes of the crown on the ferme generale.

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  • 15th, 1900), the first of a series intended to correct and replace Renan's presentation of that great subject, was promptly censured by Cardinal Richard, archbishop of Paris; and though scholarly and zealous ecclesiastics, such as the Jesuit Pere Durand and Monseigneur Mignot, archbishop of Albi, defended the general method and several conclusions of the article, the aged cardinal never rested henceforward till he had secured a papal condemnation also.

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  • The discoveries of silver brought great wealth to the margraves, but they resorted at times to bedes, which were contributions from the nobles and ecclesiastics who met in a kind of diet.

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  • Literature The Catholic ecclesiastics who settled in Hungary during the 1 1th century, and who found their way into the chief offices of the state, were mainly instrumental in establishing Latin as the predominant language of the court, the higher schools and public worship, and of eventually introducing it into the administration.

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  • and Edward I., in which the power of the Crown over ecclesiastics was maintained, in 1670.

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  • Frequently did great lay lords, as in this case, hold lands by feudal tenure of ecclesiastics.

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  • Statesmen he could trust as he would not trust ecclesiastics.

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  • He began to hope that he might play the part of those court ecclesiastics who had often had an active share in the government of Spain.

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  • Villehardouin does not tell us of any direct part taken by himself in the debates on the question of interfering or not in the disputed succession to the empire of the East - debates in which the chief ecclesiastics present strongly protested against the diversion of the enterprise from its proper goal.

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  • Manning thereupon proceeded to Rome to pursue his theological studies, residing at the college known as the "Academy for Noble Ecclesiastics," and attending lectures by Perrone and Passaglia among others.

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  • But, unfortunately, there were many things both in the teaching and the practice of the ecclesiastics of that day which were calculated to repel men of sober judgment and high principle.

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  • Dingli and ecclesiastics of all denominations, for conflicting reasons, swelled the opposition against the liberal concessions obtained from Leo XIII.

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  • His chief enemies were the higher ecclesiastics, headed by William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, who had been excluded from power in 1371.

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  • Giuliano de' Ricci tells us it was marked by stringent satire upon great ecclesiastics and statesmen, no less than by a tendency to "ascribe all human things to natural causes or to fortune."

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  • Landazuri y Romarate contain much material for a provincial history: - Historia ecclesiastics, &c. (Pamplona, 1797); Historia civil, &c. (Vitoria, 1798); Compendios historicos de la ciudad y villas de.

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  • The diet refused to accede to the pope's demand that the edict of Worms should be enforced, and recommended that a Christian council should be summoned in January, to include not only ecclesiastics but laymen, who should be permitted freely to express their opinions.

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  • No less than 350 ecclesiastics came to Bern from the various cantons to hear the pleadings, which began on the 2nd of January 1523 and lasted nineteen days.

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  • Ruding enumerates 128 mints operated at various times in the United Kingdom, including some established by usurpation, as in the reign of Stephen by certain barons, and also mints established by grants to ecclesiastics to be worked for their own profit.

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  • From his name he has been supposed by some to remember that Poland swarmed at that time with foreign ecclesiastics.

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  • The education of the country was wholly in the hands of the ecclesiastics, many of whom were foreigners.

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  • Occasionally he is didactic, as in Worek Judaszow (The Bag of Judas) and Victoria deorum, where, under the allegory of the gods of Olympus, he represents the struggles of parties in Poland, not without severely satirizing the nobility and ecclesiastics.

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  • The unsparing satirist described the professor's face as the "gloomiest" in the whole procession of ecclesiastics which took place on Good Friday.

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  • In 1874 and again in 1875, he presided over the Reunion Conferences held at Bonn and attended by leading ecclesiastics from the British Isles and from the Oriental Church, among whom were Bishop Christopher Wordsworth of Lincoln; Bishop Harold Browne of Ely; Lord Plunket, archbishop of Dublin; Lycurgus, archbishop of Syros and Tenos; Canon Liddon; and Professor Ossinine of St Petersburg.

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  • See Orderic Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastics, vols.

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  • Nobles and ministers of state, with the chief ecclesiastics not only of the Russian Church but of the Roman, the Uniat, the Armenian, the Greek, the Georgian and the Lutheran Churches, found themselves constrained to serve on its committees.

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  • Federal officials and ecclesiastics are ineligible for election to either chamber.

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  • The overthrow of Spanish rule in Mexico was the beginning of a new period, and efforts were made to introduce educational reforms, but the colonists and ecclesiastics were still governed by their fears and prejudices, and little was accomplished.

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  • Of these a few were ecclesiastics: two had two terms of office; only two or three were of native birth, and their previous official life had always been passed in other parts of the Spanish dominions.

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  • It was promulgated in Mexico, and the ecclesiastics and Spaniards, fearing that a Liberal Spanish government would force on them disendowment, toleration and other changes, induced Augustin de Iturbide, who had already been conspicuous in suppressing the risings, to take the field in order to effect what may be called a reactionary revolution.

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  • The inroad of Bruce had been countenanced by the native Irish ecclesiastics, whose sentiments were recorded in a statement addressed to Pope John XXII.

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  • The prior's group "entered at the south-east angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or nobility who were assigned to him."

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  • The causes of their subsequent estrangement are obscure, but it was possibly due to the empress's lavish expenditure in charity and church building, which endeared her to ecclesiastics but was a serious drain on the imperial finances.

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  • The ecclesiastics themselves, however, were the first to denounce the abuses at Rome.

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  • The cool reception his endeavours, met with, both at the hands of the French ecclesiastics as well as in Rome, satisfied Bismarck " that the papal hierarchy lacked either the power or the good will to afford Germany assistance of sufficient value to make it worth while giving umbrage to both the German Protestants and the Italian national party, and risking a reaction of the latter upon the future relations between the two countries, which would be the inevitable result were Germany openly to espouse the papal cause in Rome."

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  • The first is the department of extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, having at its head the secretary of the Congregation of the same name; the second, that of ordinary affairs, directed by a substitute, is the department dealing, among other things, with the concession of honorary distinctions, both for ecclesiastics and laymen; the third is that of the briefs, which hitherto.

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  • All ecclesiastics admitted, by virtue of their office or by a gracious concession of the pope, to form part of the "family," are called domestic prelates, prelates of the household; this is an honorary title conferred on many priests not resident in Rome.

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  • The ex- ternal service of the palace is performed by the Swiss Guard and the gendarmerie; the service of the ante-chamber by the lay and ecclesiastical chamberlains; this service has also given rise to certain honorary titles both for ecclesiastics, e.g.

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  • All high Tibetan officials, whether ecclesiastics or laymen, are appointed subject to confirmation by the Chinese government.

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  • The dalmatic was in general use at the beginning of the 9th century, partly as a result of the Carolingian reforms, which established the Roman model in western Europe; but it continued to be granted by the popes to distinguished ecclesiastics not otherwise entitled to wear it, e.g.

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  • He also cultivated the acquaintance of the Anglican ecclesiastics John Overall and L.

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  • of Bohemia and with various ecclesiastics.

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  • The principle of personal service has been strongly opposed by the Catholics and conservatives, but became the law of the land in 1898, though exemptions were conceded in favour of ecclesiastics and certain classes of students.

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  • The contemporary ecclesiastics recorded with wonder many instances of their clemency: the Christian churches saved from ravage; protection granted to vast multitudes both of pagans and Christians who took refuge therein; vessels of gold and silver which were found in a private dwelling, spared because they "belonged to St.

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  • From him and Gudrid a number of prominent ecclesiastics claimed descent, and also Hauk Erlendsson.

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  • The duke's politics were opposed by the chief ecclesiastics, and in resisting them he had made use of Wycliffe.

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  • view of ecclesiastical encroachment on the civil power; the quaint verses, disposed in his now favourite dialogue-form, were first published, nine years after his death, under the title Historia ecclesiastics (L.W.

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  • The appointment, which had hitherto been reserved for ecclesiastics of marked ability as scholars or administrators, excited much comment; but it was undoubtedly popular, and this popularity was confirmed when it was realized that the bishop intended to carry on in his new sphere the democratic traditions of his East End activities.

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  • The fine and extensive buildings, of which the nucleus is a mansion of the 17th century, contain a public school for boys and a house of studies for Jesuit ecclesiastics, while there is a preparatory school at a short distance.

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  • 38-40) All books concerned with the religious sciences and with ethics are submitted to preliminary censorship, and in, addition to this ecclesiastics have to obtain a personal authorization for all their books and for the acceptance of the editorship of a periodical (Nos.

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  • The civilians, looking on him as a patriarch of their science, have as a rule extolled his wisdom and virtues; while ecclesiastics of the Roman Church, from Cardinal Baronius downwards, have been offended by his arbitrary conduct towards the popes, and by his last lapse into heresy, and have therefore been disposed to accept the stories which ascribe to him perfidy, cruelty, rapacity and extravagance.

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  • Beautiful, charitable and pious, she mollified the fierce manners of her husband, who, according to her director and biographer, Turgot, acted as interpreter between her and the Gaelic-speaking ecclesiastics at their conferences.

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  • The last Celtic " bishop of Alban " died at this time; and when the dynasty of Malcolm Canmore was established after an interval of turmoil, English ecclesiastics began to oust the Celtic Culdees from St Andrews.

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  • The ecclesiastics who were parted at his command from the laysisters (whom they kept ostensibly as servants), the thirteen bishops whom he deposed for simony and licentiousness at a single visitation, the idle monks who thronged the avenues to the court and found themselves the public object of his scorn - all conspired against the powerful author of their wrongs.

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  • Accordingly we find that Severus, in narrating the division of Canaan among the tribes, calls the special attention of ecclesiastics to the fact that no portion of the land was assigned to the tribe of Levi, lest they should be hindered in their service of God.

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  • Its control of the sciences embroiled it with its own philosophers and scholars, while saints and pure-minded ecclesiastics attempted, without success, its reform from within.

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  • The persecutions to which heretics were exposed during this reign were due mainly to the excessive influence exercised by the ecclesiastics, especially by David Beaton, archbishop of St Andrews.

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  • those ineradicable forces of the natural man assumed, if we may trust the depositions of ecclesiastics well acquainted with his life, a form of brutal atheistic cynicism.

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  • The title of Exarch was also formerly given in the Eastern Church to a general or superior over several monasteries, and to certain ecclesiastics deputed by the patriarch of Constantinople to collect the tribute payable by the Church to the Turkish government.

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  • His eloquence gained him a hearing and a numerous following, including many laymen, but consisting principally of poor ecclesiastics, who formed around him a party characterized by a rigid morality and not unlike the Lombard Patarenes of the 11th century.

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  • For centuries they were also tolerated by the commons; but the other orders - ecclesiastics and nobles - resented their religious exclusiveness or envied their wealth, and gradually fostered the growth of popular prejudice against them.

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  • Once more, as in 1580, Portugal was governed by ecclesiastics in the name of an absolute monarch; once more, as in 1580, the chief strength of the ecclesiastical party was the Society of Jesus, which still controlled the conscience and mind of the nation and of its nominal rulers, through the confessional and the schools.

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  • It had originally been an assembly of lay vassals and prelates; when its composition became fixed and consisted of councillormagistrates, a certain number of these offices were necessarily occupied by laymen, and others by ecclesiastics, the conseillers lais and the conseillers clercs.

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  • This, it is well known, resulted in the formation of the ancient college of the peers of France, which consisted of six laymen and six ecclesiastics.

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  • This estate, which was to take precedence of all the others, consisted of the Roman archbishop of Prague and of all the ecclesiastics who were endowed with landed estates.

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  • It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.

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  • His theological position was not in accord with any of the religious parties of his age, and Gladstone thought that the catholicity of the Anglican Church was better exemplified in his career than in those of more prominent ecclesiastics (pref.

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  • Pope Innocent IV., having deposed the emperor Frederick II., after several princes had refused to allow themselves to be nominated in the place of the Hohenstaufen, caused the young Il count of Holland to be elected king of the Romans (1247) by an assembly composed chiefly of German ecclesiastics.

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  • The right of the secular tribunals to take cognizance of the offences of ecclesiastics had been asserted in two remarkable cases; and the scope of two ancient laws of the city of Venice, forbidding the foundation of churches or ecclesiastical congregations without the consent of the state, and the acquisition of property by priests or religious bodies, had been extended over the entire territory of the republic. In January 1606 the papal nuncio delivered a brief demanding the unconditional submission of the Venetians.

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  • The senate having promised protection to all ecclesiastics who should in this emergency aid the republic by their counsel, Sarpi presented a memoir, pointing out that the threatened censures might be met in two ways - de facto, by prohibiting their publication, and de jure, by an appeal to a general council.

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  • The chief thing to note is the existence, for these countries, of a civil-ecclesiastical to law, that is to say, a body of regulations made by the - civil authority, with the consent, more or less explicit, co of the Church, about ecclesiastical matters, other than spiritual; these dispositions are chiefly concerned with the nomination or confirmation by the state of ecclesiastics to the most important benefices, and with the administration of the property of the Church; sometimes also with questions of jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, concerning the persons or property of the Church.

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  • The historical position of the general canon law of the Catholic Church in the English provinces has, since the separation from Rome, been the subject of much consideration by English lawyers and ecclesiastics.

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  • It was fortunate that, just at the moment when parliamentary control was established over the state, circumstances should have arisen which made the majority ready to restore to the individual conscience that supremacy over religion which the medieval ecclesiastics had claimed for the corporation of the universal thurch.

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  • The Assembly not only adopted this constitution but decreed that all beneficed ecclesiastics should swear to its observance.

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  • The arms of the popes and ecclesiastics of high birth were borne on an oval cartouche; and it is thus particularly applied, in Egyptian archaeology, for the oblong device with oval ends, enclosing the names of royal personages on the monuments.

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  • The data relating to his whole history are scanty and obscure, and his memory has suffered materially from the fact that the chief chroniclers of his deeds and misdeeds were ecclesiastics.

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  • The coarb might be a bishop or only an abbot, but in either case all the ecclesiastics in the family were subject to him; in this way it frequently happened that bishops, though their superior functions were recognized, were in subjection to abbots who were only priests, as in the case of St Columba, or even to a woman, as in the case of St Brigit.

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  • In the 8th and 9th centuries, when the great emigration of Irish scholars and ecclesiastics took place, the number of wandering bishops without dioceses became a reproach to the Irish church; and there can be no doubt that it led to much inconvenience and abuse, and was subversive of the stricter discipline that the popes had succeeded in establishing in the Western church.

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  • The peculiarities which owing to Ireland's isolation had survived were brought into prominence when the Irish missionaries came into contact with Roman ecclesiastics.

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  • The privileged members are the heads of the nobility, with the highest ecclesiastics and officials.

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  • The affairs of each rural county are managed by an assembly chosen for 6 years, which comprises not only elected members, but delegates from all the cities except Agram and Esseg, with certain high ecclesiastics and officials.

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  • From the house of Este they received the lordship of Carpi, and later they acquired the fiefs of Meldola, Sassuolo, &c. Many members of the family were distinguished as condottieri, diplomats and ecclesiastics.

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  • Thus in various ways ecclesiastical benefices were gradually transformed into fiefs, and lay suzerains claimed the same rights over ecclesiastics as over other vassals from whom they received homage, and whom they invested with lands.

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  • Investiture of ecclesiastics by laymen had certain serious effects which were bound to bring on a conflict between the temporal and spiritual authorities.

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  • To Gregory it was intolerable that a layman, whether emperor, king or baron, should invest a churchman with the emblems of spiritual office; ecclesiastical investiture should come only from ecclesiastics.

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  • it was highly undesirable that the advantages and revenues accruing from lay investiture should be surrendered; it was reasonable that ecclesiastics should receive investiture of temporalities from their temporal protectors and suzerains.

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  • He was great chiefly in negotiation, the art par excellence of ecclesiastics.

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  • In choosing his collaborators his principle was never to select nobles or ecclesiastics, but persons of inferior birth.

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  • In the course of events he soon became involved in quarrels with the intendant touching questions of precedence, and with the ecclesiastics, one or two of whom ventured to criticize his proceedings.

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  • Many of theni were given by nobles or ecclesiastics, but required the confirmation of the king.

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  • Many of the higher ecclesiastics and of the nobility were of Jewish, or partially Jewish, descent.

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  • A number of ecclesiastics proceeding to a council called by Gregory were captured by Enzio at the seafight of Meloria, and the emperor was about to undertake the siege of Rome, when the pope died (August 1241).

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  • A large number of Earls, Bishops, Abbots, and other ecclesiastics, would swell the procession at the double ceremony.

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  • He also took into his confidence beforehand the Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal Manning, and other high ecclesiastics.

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  • So is the fact that, even so, many important ecclesiastics and religious houses did not come forward.

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  • Astorga has been the see of a bishop since the 3rd century, and was formerly known as the City of Priests, from the number of ecclesiastics resident within its walls.

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  • The early chancellors were ecclesiastics, and under their influence not only moral principles, where these were not regarded by the common law, but also the equitable principles of the Roman law were introduced into English jurisprudence.

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  • The literature of the last two centuries consists mainly of translations and religious works written by ecclesiastics, some of whom were natives of the Albanian colonies in Italy.

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  • PIETRO DAMIANI (c. 1007-1072), one of the most celebrated ecclesiastics of the IIth century, was born at Ravenna, and after a youth spent in hardship and privation, gained some renown as a teacher.

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  • Presbyterian principles and ideas were entertained by many of the leading ecclesiastics in England during the reign of Edward VI.

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  • The fragment should therefore be regarded as supplementary to the Taxatio Ecclesiastics Angliae et Walliae printed by the Record Commissioners in 1802.

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  • All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.

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  • In Italy, divided between feudal nobles and almost hereditary ecclesiastics, of foreign blood and alien sympathies, there was no national feeling.

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  • The Papal States were ruled by a unique system of theocracy, for not only the head of the state but all the more important officials were ecclesiastics, assisted by the Inquisition, the Index and all the paraphernalia of medieval church government.

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  • Article 10 extended immunity to ecclesiastics employed by the Holy See, and bestowed upon foreign ecciesiastics in Rome the personal rights of Italian citizens.

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  • Bishops were further dispensed from swearing fealty tc the king, though, except in Rome and suburbs, the choice of bishop1 was limited to ecclesiastics of Italian nationality.

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  • On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.

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  • He let it be understood that the announcement of the appointment of bishops and the request for the royal exequatur might he made to the government impersonally by the congregation of bishops and regulars, by a municipal council or by any other corporate bodya concession of which the bishops were quick to take advantage, but which so irritated Italian political opinion that, in July 1875, the government was compelled to withdra~w the temporalities of ecclesiastics who had neglected to apply for the cxc quatur, and to evict sundry bishops who had taken possession of their palaces without authorization from the state.

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  • Hilda exercised great influence in Northumbria, and ecclesiastics from all over Christian England and from Strathclyde and Dalriada visited her monastery.

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  • This phrase in its primary sense imports not jurisdiction over ecclesiastics, but jurisdiction exercised by ecclesiastics over other ecclesiastics and over the laity.

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  • Kings began to insist upon trying ecclesiastics for treason or other political crimes in secular courts.

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  • In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.

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  • The court of first instance is the " consistorial court " of the bishop. This consists of a small body of ecclesiastics.

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  • If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.

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  • 320) and in the other ecclesiastics to denounce the spherical theory of the middle earth as heretical.

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  • As Christianity was brought into Russia from Constantinople it was only natural that the ecclesiastics, many of whom were Greeks, should admire Byzantine ideals and recommend them as models to be imitated.

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  • From the ecclesiastics Basil likewise insisted on unquestioning obedience, and he did not hesitate to depose by his own authority a metropolitan who was at that time the highest dignitary of the Russian Church.

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  • Having thus gained the support of a large majority of the landed proprietors and the ecclesiastics, Boris Godunov increased his influence to such an extent that on the Boris death of Tsar Feodor without male issue in 1598 he Godunov, was elected his successor by a Great National Assembly.

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  • p p These had been detected and pointed out by learned ecclesiastics of Kiev, where some of the ancient learning of Byzantium had been preserved, and Nikon determined to make the necessary corrections.

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  • The church, it was conceived, needed defence against the synagogue at all hazards, and the fear that the latter would influence and dominate the former was never absent from the minds of medieval ecclesiastics.

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  • The title is applied to numerous ecclesiastics attached by some dignity, active or honorary, to the Roman court (see Curia Romana).

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  • Henderson is one of the greatest men in the history of Scotland and, next to Knox, is certainly the most famous of Scottish ecclesiastics.

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  • This proves that the use of the mitre had been for some time established at Rome; that it was specifically a Roman ornament; and that the right to wear it was only granted to ecclesiastics elsewhere as an exceptional honour.

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  • Nor were their feelings more than half allayed by the arrangement which made their ecclesiastics salaried officers of the Russian state.

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  • Crusaders themselves kept diaries or itineraria; while home-keeping ecclesiastics in the West - monks like Robert of Reims, abbots like Guibert of Nogent, archbishops like Balderich of Dol - found a fertile subject for their pens in the history of the Crusades.

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  • One of these, the Dialogue against Hypocrites, was aimed in a spirit of vindictive hatred at the vices of ecclesiastics; another, written at the request of Nicholas V., covered the anti-pope Felix with scurrilous abuse.

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  • The estates of the county had the bishop of Cahors for president; other members were the bishop of Montauban and other ecclesiastics, four viscounts, four barons and some other lords and representatives of eighteen towns.

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  • He obtained the king's permission to deal with the affairs of the Church in synods which met apart from the Great Council, and were exclusively composed of ecclesiastics.

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  • with Ninoslav and various Bosnian ecclesiastics.'

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  • Roman Catholic, ecclesiastics had been guaranteed certain rights in the holy places.

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  • ALIEN-HOUSES, religious houses in England belonging to foreign ecclesiastics, or under their control.

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  • The taille seigneuriale was a true tax, levied by a lord on all his subjects who were neither nobles nor ecclesiastics.

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  • The royal taille naturally retained the distinctive characteristics of the seigniorial, as can be seen from an examination of the way in which it was assessed and collected; the chief characteristic being that ecclesiastics and nobles, who were exempt from the seigniorial taille, were also exempt from the royal.

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  • It had still further vices: not only were nobles and ecclesiastics exempt from it, but many other privileges had been introduced by law, total or partial exemption extending to a large number of civil and military officials and employes of the crown on the ferme generale.

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  • 15th, 1900), the first of a series intended to correct and replace Renan's presentation of that great subject, was promptly censured by Cardinal Richard, archbishop of Paris; and though scholarly and zealous ecclesiastics, such as the Jesuit Pere Durand and Monseigneur Mignot, archbishop of Albi, defended the general method and several conclusions of the article, the aged cardinal never rested henceforward till he had secured a papal condemnation also.

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  • The discoveries of silver brought great wealth to the margraves, but they resorted at times to bedes, which were contributions from the nobles and ecclesiastics who met in a kind of diet.

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  • Literature The Catholic ecclesiastics who settled in Hungary during the 1 1th century, and who found their way into the chief offices of the state, were mainly instrumental in establishing Latin as the predominant language of the court, the higher schools and public worship, and of eventually introducing it into the administration.

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  • and Edward I., in which the power of the Crown over ecclesiastics was maintained, in 1670.

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  • Frequently did great lay lords, as in this case, hold lands by feudal tenure of ecclesiastics.

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  • Statesmen he could trust as he would not trust ecclesiastics.

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  • He began to hope that he might play the part of those court ecclesiastics who had often had an active share in the government of Spain.

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  • Villehardouin does not tell us of any direct part taken by himself in the debates on the question of interfering or not in the disputed succession to the empire of the East - debates in which the chief ecclesiastics present strongly protested against the diversion of the enterprise from its proper goal.

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  • Manning thereupon proceeded to Rome to pursue his theological studies, residing at the college known as the "Academy for Noble Ecclesiastics," and attending lectures by Perrone and Passaglia among others.

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  • But, unfortunately, there were many things both in the teaching and the practice of the ecclesiastics of that day which were calculated to repel men of sober judgment and high principle.

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  • Dingli and ecclesiastics of all denominations, for conflicting reasons, swelled the opposition against the liberal concessions obtained from Leo XIII.

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  • His chief enemies were the higher ecclesiastics, headed by William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, who had been excluded from power in 1371.

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  • Giuliano de' Ricci tells us it was marked by stringent satire upon great ecclesiastics and statesmen, no less than by a tendency to "ascribe all human things to natural causes or to fortune."

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  • Landazuri y Romarate contain much material for a provincial history: - Historia ecclesiastics, &c. (Pamplona, 1797); Historia civil, &c. (Vitoria, 1798); Compendios historicos de la ciudad y villas de.

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  • The diet refused to accede to the pope's demand that the edict of Worms should be enforced, and recommended that a Christian council should be summoned in January, to include not only ecclesiastics but laymen, who should be permitted freely to express their opinions.

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  • No less than 350 ecclesiastics came to Bern from the various cantons to hear the pleadings, which began on the 2nd of January 1523 and lasted nineteen days.

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  • Ruding enumerates 128 mints operated at various times in the United Kingdom, including some established by usurpation, as in the reign of Stephen by certain barons, and also mints established by grants to ecclesiastics to be worked for their own profit.

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  • From his name he has been supposed by some to remember that Poland swarmed at that time with foreign ecclesiastics.

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  • The education of the country was wholly in the hands of the ecclesiastics, many of whom were foreigners.

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  • Occasionally he is didactic, as in Worek Judaszow (The Bag of Judas) and Victoria deorum, where, under the allegory of the gods of Olympus, he represents the struggles of parties in Poland, not without severely satirizing the nobility and ecclesiastics.

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  • The unsparing satirist described the professor's face as the "gloomiest" in the whole procession of ecclesiastics which took place on Good Friday.

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  • In 1874 and again in 1875, he presided over the Reunion Conferences held at Bonn and attended by leading ecclesiastics from the British Isles and from the Oriental Church, among whom were Bishop Christopher Wordsworth of Lincoln; Bishop Harold Browne of Ely; Lord Plunket, archbishop of Dublin; Lycurgus, archbishop of Syros and Tenos; Canon Liddon; and Professor Ossinine of St Petersburg.

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  • See Orderic Vitalis, Historia ecclesiastics, vols.

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  • Nobles and ministers of state, with the chief ecclesiastics not only of the Russian Church but of the Roman, the Uniat, the Armenian, the Greek, the Georgian and the Lutheran Churches, found themselves constrained to serve on its committees.

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  • Federal officials and ecclesiastics are ineligible for election to either chamber.

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  • The overthrow of Spanish rule in Mexico was the beginning of a new period, and efforts were made to introduce educational reforms, but the colonists and ecclesiastics were still governed by their fears and prejudices, and little was accomplished.

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  • Of these a few were ecclesiastics: two had two terms of office; only two or three were of native birth, and their previous official life had always been passed in other parts of the Spanish dominions.

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  • It was promulgated in Mexico, and the ecclesiastics and Spaniards, fearing that a Liberal Spanish government would force on them disendowment, toleration and other changes, induced Augustin de Iturbide, who had already been conspicuous in suppressing the risings, to take the field in order to effect what may be called a reactionary revolution.

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  • The inroad of Bruce had been countenanced by the native Irish ecclesiastics, whose sentiments were recorded in a statement addressed to Pope John XXII.

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  • The prior's group "entered at the south-east angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or nobility who were assigned to him."

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  • 2 Though no use of it was made by the popes during the 9th and 10th centuries, it was quoted as authoritative by eminent ecclesiastics of the Frankish empire (e.g.

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  • The causes of their subsequent estrangement are obscure, but it was possibly due to the empress's lavish expenditure in charity and church building, which endeared her to ecclesiastics but was a serious drain on the imperial finances.

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  • The ecclesiastics themselves, however, were the first to denounce the abuses at Rome.

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  • The cool reception his endeavours, met with, both at the hands of the French ecclesiastics as well as in Rome, satisfied Bismarck " that the papal hierarchy lacked either the power or the good will to afford Germany assistance of sufficient value to make it worth while giving umbrage to both the German Protestants and the Italian national party, and risking a reaction of the latter upon the future relations between the two countries, which would be the inevitable result were Germany openly to espouse the papal cause in Rome."

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  • The first is the department of extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, having at its head the secretary of the Congregation of the same name; the second, that of ordinary affairs, directed by a substitute, is the department dealing, among other things, with the concession of honorary distinctions, both for ecclesiastics and laymen; the third is that of the briefs, which hitherto.

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  • All ecclesiastics admitted, by virtue of their office or by a gracious concession of the pope, to form part of the "family," are called domestic prelates, prelates of the household; this is an honorary title conferred on many priests not resident in Rome.

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  • The ex- ternal service of the palace is performed by the Swiss Guard and the gendarmerie; the service of the ante-chamber by the lay and ecclesiastical chamberlains; this service has also given rise to certain honorary titles both for ecclesiastics, e.g.

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  • All high Tibetan officials, whether ecclesiastics or laymen, are appointed subject to confirmation by the Chinese government.

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  • The dalmatic was in general use at the beginning of the 9th century, partly as a result of the Carolingian reforms, which established the Roman model in western Europe; but it continued to be granted by the popes to distinguished ecclesiastics not otherwise entitled to wear it, e.g.

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  • He also cultivated the acquaintance of the Anglican ecclesiastics John Overall and L.

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  • of Bohemia and with various ecclesiastics.

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  • The principle of personal service has been strongly opposed by the Catholics and conservatives, but became the law of the land in 1898, though exemptions were conceded in favour of ecclesiastics and certain classes of students.

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  • The contemporary ecclesiastics recorded with wonder many instances of their clemency: the Christian churches saved from ravage; protection granted to vast multitudes both of pagans and Christians who took refuge therein; vessels of gold and silver which were found in a private dwelling, spared because they "belonged to St.

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  • From him and Gudrid a number of prominent ecclesiastics claimed descent, and also Hauk Erlendsson.

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  • The duke's politics were opposed by the chief ecclesiastics, and in resisting them he had made use of Wycliffe.

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  • view of ecclesiastical encroachment on the civil power; the quaint verses, disposed in his now favourite dialogue-form, were first published, nine years after his death, under the title Historia ecclesiastics (L.W.

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  • The appointment, which had hitherto been reserved for ecclesiastics of marked ability as scholars or administrators, excited much comment; but it was undoubtedly popular, and this popularity was confirmed when it was realized that the bishop intended to carry on in his new sphere the democratic traditions of his East End activities.

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  • The fine and extensive buildings, of which the nucleus is a mansion of the 17th century, contain a public school for boys and a house of studies for Jesuit ecclesiastics, while there is a preparatory school at a short distance.

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  • 38-40) All books concerned with the religious sciences and with ethics are submitted to preliminary censorship, and in, addition to this ecclesiastics have to obtain a personal authorization for all their books and for the acceptance of the editorship of a periodical (Nos.

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  • The civilians, looking on him as a patriarch of their science, have as a rule extolled his wisdom and virtues; while ecclesiastics of the Roman Church, from Cardinal Baronius downwards, have been offended by his arbitrary conduct towards the popes, and by his last lapse into heresy, and have therefore been disposed to accept the stories which ascribe to him perfidy, cruelty, rapacity and extravagance.

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  • Beautiful, charitable and pious, she mollified the fierce manners of her husband, who, according to her director and biographer, Turgot, acted as interpreter between her and the Gaelic-speaking ecclesiastics at their conferences.

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  • The last Celtic " bishop of Alban " died at this time; and when the dynasty of Malcolm Canmore was established after an interval of turmoil, English ecclesiastics began to oust the Celtic Culdees from St Andrews.

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  • The ecclesiastics who were parted at his command from the laysisters (whom they kept ostensibly as servants), the thirteen bishops whom he deposed for simony and licentiousness at a single visitation, the idle monks who thronged the avenues to the court and found themselves the public object of his scorn - all conspired against the powerful author of their wrongs.

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  • Accordingly we find that Severus, in narrating the division of Canaan among the tribes, calls the special attention of ecclesiastics to the fact that no portion of the land was assigned to the tribe of Levi, lest they should be hindered in their service of God.

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  • Its control of the sciences embroiled it with its own philosophers and scholars, while saints and pure-minded ecclesiastics attempted, without success, its reform from within.

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  • The persecutions to which heretics were exposed during this reign were due mainly to the excessive influence exercised by the ecclesiastics, especially by David Beaton, archbishop of St Andrews.

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  • those ineradicable forces of the natural man assumed, if we may trust the depositions of ecclesiastics well acquainted with his life, a form of brutal atheistic cynicism.

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  • The title of Exarch was also formerly given in the Eastern Church to a general or superior over several monasteries, and to certain ecclesiastics deputed by the patriarch of Constantinople to collect the tribute payable by the Church to the Turkish government.

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  • His eloquence gained him a hearing and a numerous following, including many laymen, but consisting principally of poor ecclesiastics, who formed around him a party characterized by a rigid morality and not unlike the Lombard Patarenes of the 11th century.

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  • For centuries they were also tolerated by the commons; but the other orders - ecclesiastics and nobles - resented their religious exclusiveness or envied their wealth, and gradually fostered the growth of popular prejudice against them.

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  • Once more, as in 1580, Portugal was governed by ecclesiastics in the name of an absolute monarch; once more, as in 1580, the chief strength of the ecclesiastical party was the Society of Jesus, which still controlled the conscience and mind of the nation and of its nominal rulers, through the confessional and the schools.

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  • It had originally been an assembly of lay vassals and prelates; when its composition became fixed and consisted of councillormagistrates, a certain number of these offices were necessarily occupied by laymen, and others by ecclesiastics, the conseillers lais and the conseillers clercs.

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  • This, it is well known, resulted in the formation of the ancient college of the peers of France, which consisted of six laymen and six ecclesiastics.

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  • This estate, which was to take precedence of all the others, consisted of the Roman archbishop of Prague and of all the ecclesiastics who were endowed with landed estates.

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  • It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.

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  • His theological position was not in accord with any of the religious parties of his age, and Gladstone thought that the catholicity of the Anglican Church was better exemplified in his career than in those of more prominent ecclesiastics (pref.

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  • Pope Innocent IV., having deposed the emperor Frederick II., after several princes had refused to allow themselves to be nominated in the place of the Hohenstaufen, caused the young Il count of Holland to be elected king of the Romans (1247) by an assembly composed chiefly of German ecclesiastics.

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  • The right of the secular tribunals to take cognizance of the offences of ecclesiastics had been asserted in two remarkable cases; and the scope of two ancient laws of the city of Venice, forbidding the foundation of churches or ecclesiastical congregations without the consent of the state, and the acquisition of property by priests or religious bodies, had been extended over the entire territory of the republic. In January 1606 the papal nuncio delivered a brief demanding the unconditional submission of the Venetians.

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  • The senate having promised protection to all ecclesiastics who should in this emergency aid the republic by their counsel, Sarpi presented a memoir, pointing out that the threatened censures might be met in two ways - de facto, by prohibiting their publication, and de jure, by an appeal to a general council.

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  • The chief thing to note is the existence, for these countries, of a civil-ecclesiastical to law, that is to say, a body of regulations made by the - civil authority, with the consent, more or less explicit, co of the Church, about ecclesiastical matters, other than spiritual; these dispositions are chiefly concerned with the nomination or confirmation by the state of ecclesiastics to the most important benefices, and with the administration of the property of the Church; sometimes also with questions of jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, concerning the persons or property of the Church.

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  • The historical position of the general canon law of the Catholic Church in the English provinces has, since the separation from Rome, been the subject of much consideration by English lawyers and ecclesiastics.

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  • It was fortunate that, just at the moment when parliamentary control was established over the state, circumstances should have arisen which made the majority ready to restore to the individual conscience that supremacy over religion which the medieval ecclesiastics had claimed for the corporation of the universal thurch.

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  • The Assembly not only adopted this constitution but decreed that all beneficed ecclesiastics should swear to its observance.

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  • The arms of the popes and ecclesiastics of high birth were borne on an oval cartouche; and it is thus particularly applied, in Egyptian archaeology, for the oblong device with oval ends, enclosing the names of royal personages on the monuments.

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  • The data relating to his whole history are scanty and obscure, and his memory has suffered materially from the fact that the chief chroniclers of his deeds and misdeeds were ecclesiastics.

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  • The coarb might be a bishop or only an abbot, but in either case all the ecclesiastics in the family were subject to him; in this way it frequently happened that bishops, though their superior functions were recognized, were in subjection to abbots who were only priests, as in the case of St Columba, or even to a woman, as in the case of St Brigit.

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  • In the 8th and 9th centuries, when the great emigration of Irish scholars and ecclesiastics took place, the number of wandering bishops without dioceses became a reproach to the Irish church; and there can be no doubt that it led to much inconvenience and abuse, and was subversive of the stricter discipline that the popes had succeeded in establishing in the Western church.

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  • The peculiarities which owing to Ireland's isolation had survived were brought into prominence when the Irish missionaries came into contact with Roman ecclesiastics.

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  • The privileged members are the heads of the nobility, with the highest ecclesiastics and officials.

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  • The affairs of each rural county are managed by an assembly chosen for 6 years, which comprises not only elected members, but delegates from all the cities except Agram and Esseg, with certain high ecclesiastics and officials.

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  • From the house of Este they received the lordship of Carpi, and later they acquired the fiefs of Meldola, Sassuolo, &c. Many members of the family were distinguished as condottieri, diplomats and ecclesiastics.

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  • Thus in various ways ecclesiastical benefices were gradually transformed into fiefs, and lay suzerains claimed the same rights over ecclesiastics as over other vassals from whom they received homage, and whom they invested with lands.

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  • Investiture of ecclesiastics by laymen had certain serious effects which were bound to bring on a conflict between the temporal and spiritual authorities.

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  • To Gregory it was intolerable that a layman, whether emperor, king or baron, should invest a churchman with the emblems of spiritual office; ecclesiastical investiture should come only from ecclesiastics.

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  • it was highly undesirable that the advantages and revenues accruing from lay investiture should be surrendered; it was reasonable that ecclesiastics should receive investiture of temporalities from their temporal protectors and suzerains.

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  • After a scandalous four months duel between this simple innocent girl and a tribunal of crafty malevolent ecclesiastics and doctors of the university of Paris, Joan was burned alive in the old market-place of Rouen, on the 3oth of May 1431 (see JoAN OF ARc).

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  • He was great chiefly in negotiation, the art par excellence of ecclesiastics.

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  • In choosing his collaborators his principle was never to select nobles or ecclesiastics, but persons of inferior birth.

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  • In the course of events he soon became involved in quarrels with the intendant touching questions of precedence, and with the ecclesiastics, one or two of whom ventured to criticize his proceedings.

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  • Many of theni were given by nobles or ecclesiastics, but required the confirmation of the king.

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  • Many of the higher ecclesiastics and of the nobility were of Jewish, or partially Jewish, descent.

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  • in 1612) would have appeared incredibly lax, nay, its religious character almost doubtful, to Bruno, Stephen Harding, Francis or Dominic. It admits only priests aged at least thirty-six, or ecclesiastics who have completed their studies and are ready for ordination.

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  • A number of ecclesiastics proceeding to a council called by Gregory were captured by Enzio at the seafight of Meloria, and the emperor was about to undertake the siege of Rome, when the pope died (August 1241).

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