Like other ecclesiastical lawyers and civil servants of the day, he was paid with ecclesiastical preferments.
From the 4th century down to the time of the Mahommedan invasion several ecclesiastical buildings were erected on the spot, but of these no distinct traces remain.
Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes.
From this date till the battle of Flodden, in September 1513, he appears to have been occupied with his ecclesiastical duties and literary work.
It also has lycees and training colleges for both sexes, ecclesiastical seminaries, a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, schools of architecture, music, commerce and industry, museums of art and antiquities and natural history and a library.
No less, indeed, than twenty buildings of ecclesiastical or monastic character have been enumerated in the three islands.
CADI (gddi), a judge in a malikama or Mahommedan ecclesiastical court, in which decisions are rendered on the basis of the canon law of Islam (shari `a).
it in person, but solely qua head of the Church, and as the authorized organ of the ecclesiastical body.
(d) Infallibility is the guarantee against error, not in all matters, but only in the matter of dogma and morality; everything else is beyond its power, not only truths of another order, but even discipline and the ecclesiastical laws, government and administration, &c.
From 1701 to 17 21 Collier was employed on his Great Historical, Geographical, Genealogical and Poetical Dictionary, founded on, and partly translated from, Louis Moreri's Dictionnaire historique, and in the compilation and issue of the two volumes folio of his own Ecclesiastical History of Great Britian from the first planting of Christianity to the end of the reign of Charles II.
Whatever the obligations of the state towards the ecclesiastical society may be in pure theory, in practice they become more precise and stable when they assume the nature of a bilateral convention by which the state engages itself with regard to a third party.
And reciprocally, whatever may be the absolute rights of the ecclesiastical society over the appointment of its dignitaries, the administration of its property, and the government of its adherents, the exercise of these rights is limited and restricted by the stable engagements and concessions of the concordatory pact, which bind the head of the church with regard to the nations.
They may make certain concessions or privileges once given without any corresponding obligation; they constitute for a given country a special ecclesiastical law; and it is thus that writers have sometimes spoken of concordats as privileges.
In all cases canonical institution (which confers ecclesiastical jurisdiction) is reserved to the pope or the bishops.
Ecclesiastical immunities, such as reservation of the criminal cases of the clergy, exemption from military service and other privileges, are expressly maintained in a certain number of pacts.
The lengthy discussions on ecclesiastical benefices in Germany ended finally in the concordat of Vienna, promulgated by Nicholas V.
Save in the provisions relating to ecclesiastical benefices, all the property of which had been confiscated, it reproduced the concordat of 1516.
Everything was concerted in advance with the ecclesiastical authorities, and immediately after the baptism both child and nurse disappeared.
This transposition has had, as we shall see, much to do with the history of our subject, ultimately influencing the ecclesiastical chant and lasting until the 17th century of our era.
Yet it would seem there had been a still higher pitch used in the old ecclesiastical music. Upon this interesting question Praetorius is confused and difficult to understand, but he never wavers about the transposition of a fourth.
In the 4th century Basil, when bishop, established an ecclesiastical centre on the plain, about 1 m.
As one of the three principal systems of ecclesiastical polity known to the Christian Church, Presbyterianism occupies an intermediate position between episcopacy and congregationalism.
The ecclesiastical unit in episcopacy is a diocese, comprising many churches and ruled by a prelate; in congregationalism it is a single church, self-governed and entirely independent of all others; in Presbyterianism it is a presbytery or council composed of ministers and elders representing all the churches within a specified district.
That principle is Spiritual in- equally opposed to Erastianism and to Papacy, to the civil power dominating the Church, and to the ecclesiastical power dominating the state.
He was content that ecclesiastical supremacy should be with the civil power, and he believed that the work of the Reformation would in that way be best preserved and furthered.
In the first place, the people generally dreaded the recurrence of ecclesiastical tyranny.
The Swiss, owing to their peculiar geographical position and to certain political circumstances, early manifested independence in ecclesiastical matters, and became accustomed to the Statistics.
Ecclesiastical affairs were, as a matter of course, wholly under the management of the cantonal and municipal authorities, and Zwingli was content that it should be so.
With regard to the relations between the Church and the civil power, Calvin was opposed to the Zwinglian theory whereby all ecclesiastical power was handed over to the state.
The state retained control of the ecclesiastical organization, and Calvin secured his much-needed system of discipline.
Their ecclesiastical polity came much more from Paris than from Geneva."2 To trace the history of Presbyterianism in France for the next thirty years would be to write the history of France itself during that period.
Protestants were granted full civil rights and protection, and were permitted to hold their ecclesiastical assemblies - consistories, colloquies and synods, 1 Lindsay, Hist.
The state controls all ecclesiastical appointments, decides on the passing or rejection of all decrees of the Holy See, and provides an annual subsidy for maintenance of the churches and clergy.
The archbishop of Venezuela resides in Caracas and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the dioceses of Ciudad Bolivar, Calabozo, Barquisimeto, Merida and Maracaibo.
Amongst the more important buildings for ecclesiastical and philanthropic purposes erected to the north of the city since 1860 are the Russian cathedral, hospice and hospital; the French hospital of St Louis, and hospice and church of St Augustine; the German schools, orphanages and hospitals; the new hospital and industrial school of the London mission to the Jews; the Abyssinian church; the church and schools of the Church missionary society; the Anglican church, college and bishop's house; the Dominican monastery, seminary and church of St Stephen; the Rothschild hospital and girls' school; and the industrial school and workshops of the Alliance Israelite.
Educated at the neighbouring Benedictine abbey of Cerne and at Balliol College, Oxford, he graduated in law, and followed that profession in the ecclesiastical courts in London, where he attracted the notice of Archbishop Bourchier.
In 1479, after receiving a number of minor ecclesiastical promotions, he was elected Bishop of Ely.
The steps by which the practice of resting from labour on the Lord's day instead of on the Sabbath was established in Christendom and received civil as well as ecclesiastical sanction are dealt with under Sunday; it is enough to observe here that this practice is naturally and even necessarily connected with the religious observance of the Lord's day as a day of worship and religious gladness, and is in full accordance with the principles laid down by Jesus in His criticism of the Sabbath of the Scribes.
They still contain many old and valuable ecclesiastical objects of art, although a great part has been removed to the various monasteries in Moldavia.
SYNOD OF ELVIRA, an ecclesiastical synod held in Spain, the date of which cannot be determined with exactness.
It is needless to say that he protested against the ecclesiastical legislation of 1867 and 1873.
He was already king's chaplain; his appointment at Paris had been accompanied by promotion to the see of Hereford, and before he returned to take possession he was translated to the bishopric of London (October 1539) Hitherto Bonner had been known as a somewhat coarse and unscrupulous tool of Cromwell,a sort of ecclesiastical Wriothesley.
Both he and Gardiner had in fact sought fresh licences to exercise their ecclesiastical jurisdiction from the young king; and, if he was supreme enough to confer jurisdiction, he was supreme enough to issue the injunctions and order the visitation to which Bonner objected.
So completely had the state dominated the church that religious persecutions had become state persecutions, and Bonner was acting as an ecclesiastical sheriff in the most refractory district of the realm.
His name is not connected with the resistance to the levy of ship-money or to the action of the ecclesiastical courts, but in 1630 he was one of those fined for refusing to take up knighthood.
Cromwell was essentially a conservative reformer; in his attempts to purge the court of chancery of its most flagrant abuses, and to settle the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, he showed himself anxious to retain as much of the existing system as could be left untouched without doing positive evil.
by ecclesiastical authority, and during his whole life Siger was exposed to persecution both from the Church and from purely philosophic opponents.
From his pillar he preached and exercised a great influence, converting numbers of heathen and taking part in ecclesiastical politics.
He himself claims to have brought more than a thousand Marcionites within the pale of the church, and to have destroyed many copies of the Diatessaron of Tatian, which were still in ecclesiastical use; and he also exerted himself to improve the diocese, which was at once large and poor, by building bridges and aqueducts, beautifying the town, and by similar works.
The borough includes the suburb (an ecclesiastical parish) of Luton, in which are the waterworks of Chatham and the adjoining towns.
Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, he steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy.
He compiled the history and did an analysis of the writings of all the ecclesiastical writers of the first thirteen centuries.
entrusted the collection of this tax to Master Boiamund (better known as Bagimund) de Vitia, a canon of Asti, whose roll of valuation formed the basis of ecclesiastical taxation for some centuries.
The actual taxation to which this fragment refers was not the tenth collected by Boiamund but the tenth of all ecclesiastical property in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland granted by Pope Nicholas IV.
C. 37 ecclesiastical provinces, each under a metropolitan, cornposed of 148 suifragan dioceses.
The property and money thus obtained were used to form an ecclesiastical fund (Cassa Ecclesiastica) distinct from the finances of the state.
The value of the capital thus potentially freed was estimated at 12,000,000; though hitherto the ecclesiastical possessions in Lombardy, Emilia.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
But the laws have not been rigorously enforced of late years; and the ecclesiastical possessions seized by the state were thrown on the market simultaneously, and so realized very low prices, being often bought up by wealthy religious institutions.
Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
But the main issue of the struggle was not in these details of ecclesiastical government; principles had been at stake far deeper and more widely reaching.
Their mutual jealousies, combined with the prestige of the empire, and possibly with the selfishness of the pope, who had secured his own position, and was not likely to foster a national spirit that would have threatened the ecclesiastical supremacy, deprived the Italians of the only great opportunity they ever had of forming themselves into a powerful nation.
It was bold policy to confide Frederick to his greatest enemy and rival; but the pope honorably discharged his duty, until his ward outgrew the years of tutelage, and became a fair mark for ecclesiastical hostility.
Ecclesiastical overlords, interfering ~from a distance in.
Thus free thought received a check, by which not only ecclesiastical but political tyrants knew how to profit.
now forced the Venetians to admit his ecclesiastical supremacy; but they refused to readmit the Jesuits, who had been expelled in 1606.
His ecclesiastical legislation, too, met with bitter opposition from the Church.
Article 8 prohibited the seizure or examination of any ecclesiastical papers, documents, books or registers of purely spiritualcharacter.
Article 13 exempted all ecclesiastical seminaries, academies, colleges and schools for the education of priests in the city of Rome from all interference on the part of the Italian government.
Article If abolished the need for reyal exequatur and placet for ecclesiastical publications, but stibordinated the enjoyment of temporalities by bishops and priests to the concession of state exequalur and placet.
Article 17 maintained the independence of the ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in spiritual and disciplinary matters, but reserved for the state the exclusive right to carry out coercive measures.
Besides, the Left stood for anticlericalism and for the retention by the State of means of coercing the Church, in opposition to the men of the Right, who, with the exception of Sella, favored Cavours ideal of a free Church in a free State, and the consequent abandonment of state control over ecclesiastical government.
More important than all was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff and to maintain the predominance 01 the Italian element and the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
In 1677, to secure Protestantism in case of a Roman Catholic succession, he introduced a bill by which ecclesiastical patronage and the care of the royal children were entrusted to the bishops; but this measure, like the other, was thrown out.
Cranmer suggested that if the canonists and the universities should decide that marriage with a deceased brother's widow was illegal, and if it were proved that Catherine had been married to Prince Arthur, her marriage to Henry could be declared null and void by the ordinary ecclesiastical courts.
But his position as chief minister of Henry's ecclesiastical jurisdiction forced him into unpleasant prominence in connexion with the king's matrimonial experiences.
He set practically no limits to the ecclesiastical authority of kings; they were as fully the representatives of the church as the state, and Cranmer hardly distinguished between the two.
But it is more probable that Cesare, who contemplated exchanging his ecclesiastical dignities for a secular career, regarded his brother's splendid position with envy, and was determined to enjoy the whole of his father's favours.
The fundamental principle of ecclesiastical jurisdiction with its sanction " of excommunication will be found in Christ's words in Matt.
To return to the evolution of ecclesiastical jurisdiction from the time of Constantine.
An example of this is found in the ninth canon of Chalcedon, which also illustrates the enforcement upon a clerical plaintiff in dispute with a brother cleric of that recourse to the arbitration of their ecclesiastical superior already mentioned.
The 83rd Novell provides that if the offence be ecclesiastical, needing ecclesiastical correction, the bishop shall take cognizance of it.
If the cause be ecclesiastical, the civil judges are to take no part in the inquiry.
The 6th council of Toledo (in 693) has been cited as if it visited certain very great sinners with scourging as an ecclesiastical punishment.
There is little evidence of the imposition of fines as ecclesiastical penalties; but there are references to the practice in the epistles of St Gregory the Great, notably in his instructions to St Augustine.
Law; Ayliffe, Parergon juris ecclesiastici, p. 161; Godolphin, Abridgement of the Laws Ecclesiastical, p. 8).
(e) The ecclesiastical and temporal courts are kept distinct.
In Catalonia " Pragmatics," letters from the prince, issued to restrain jurisdiction assumed by ecclesiastical judges contrary to the customs of the principality.
(n) Officials, even of bishops and metropolitans, need not be in holy orders, though Bishop Stubbs in his paper in the Report of the Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts seems to say so.
Cases upon the execution of these statutes are collected in Stillingfleet, On Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, p. 189; Gibson, Codex, 83.
When the temporal courts interfered to prevent excess of jurisdiction, they did so by prohibiting the ecclesiastical court from trying and the suitor from suing in that court.
c. 19 _ follows this up by taking away appeals in all other subjects of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
The subject matter over which the ecclesiastical courts had jurisdiction was no longer purely " criminal " with a civil quasijurisdiction by way of arbitration.
If undoubtedly held in frankalmoign or " free alms," by a " spiritual " tenure only, the claim of jurisdiction for the ecclesiastical forum seems to have been at first conceded.
In regard to the execution of these promises, the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts was possibly traversed by c. 15 of the Constitutions of Clarendon; but allowed by the statute 13 Edw.
As just intimated, besides the enforcement of the promise, the " perjury " was treated as an ecclesiastical crime.
In the 13th century it was recognized that a " clerk " for felony was subject only to ecclesiastical trial and punishment; punishment which might involve lifelong imprisonment.
At some indeterminate later period, the " clerk " was tried for felony by a jury in the king's court and then "pleaded his clergy," after conviction there, and was remitted to the ordinary for ecclesiastical punishment.
In France, till 1329, there seems to have been no clear line of demarcation between secular and ecclesiastical jurisdictions.
The only other remaining civil jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts was in personal actions where clerks were defendants (Migne, op. cit., s.v.
(d) Fustigation, as in former period, was hardly an ecclesiastical punishment.
Canon 127 of 1603 provided that the judges must be learned in the civil and ecclesiastical laws and at least masters of arts or bachelors of laws.
Unless the king was to be regarded as an ecclesiastical person, they were not properly ecclesiastical courts; although spiritual persons might sit in them, for they sat only as royal commissioners.
The " ordinary " ecclesiastical tribunals of the later middle ages still subsist in England, at least as regards the laity.
Peculiar jurisdictions have been gradually taken away under the operation of the acts establishing the ecclesiastical commissioners.
15, which was reckoned as an ecclesiastical judicature (5 R.
The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction has been gradually reduced in England, &c., by various causes.
Stephens, Ecclesiastical Statutes, i.
The existing ecclesiastical jurisdiction in England is therefore now confined to the following points.
Ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Ireland was as in England till the Irish Church was disestablished in 1869 by 32 & 33 Vict.
In foro conscientiae spiritual censures canonically imposed are as binding and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is as powerful as ever.
In New York state there is still a court called the surrogates court, surrogate being the regular name for a deputy ecclesiastical judge.
Throughout the United States, whatever may have been the position in some of them before their independence, the Church has now no position recognized by the State, but is just a body of believers whose relations are governed by contract and with whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction is consensual.
(d) The General Assembly is the supreme ecclesiastical court of this system.
The commissioners of teinds became a species of ecclesiastical court.
To this extent ecclesiastical jurisdiction is still exercised in these countries.
In France a law of the Revolution (September 1790) purported to suppress all ecclesiastical jurisdictions.
(April 8, 1802), no express provision was made for ecclesiastical jurisdictions; but several bishops did create new ecclesiastical tribunals, " officialities " (Migne, Dict.
The government in some cases recognized these tribunals as capable of judging ecclesiastical causes (Migne, ubi sup.).
Such neighbouring countries as were conquered by France or revolutionized after her pattern took the same course of suppressing their ecclesiastical jurisdictions.
In Austria, the ancient ecclesiastical jurisdiction was taken away by various acts of legislation from 1781 to 1856; even voluntary jurisdiction as to dispensations.
Even as to the discipline of the Roman clergy it is only in certain limited cases that one can speak of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law, New York, i.
Ecclesiastical jurisdiction on the civil side for the trial of causes soon disappeared.
Over the rest of western continental Europe and in the colonies of Spain, Portugal and France, ecclesiastical jurisdiction remained generally in the state which we have already described the court of the cardinal vicar-general consists of such vicargeneral and four other prelates (Smith, ubi supra).
In the Eastern Church, the early system of ecclesiastical judicature long continued.
Foulkes, Manual of Ecclesiastical History, s.v.
The empire of Russia has in the matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction partly developed into other forms, partly systematized 4th century and later Byzantine rules.
The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Russia during the whole patriarchal period included matrimonial and testamentary causes, inheritance and sacrilege, and many questions concerning the Church domains and Church property, as well as spiritual offences of clergy and laity (ib.).
The old system was swept away by Peter the Great, who settled ecclesiastical jurisdiction substantially on its present basis.
There remain to the spiritual courts in Russia the purely ecclesiastical discipline of clerks and laity and matrimonial causes.
Matrimonial causes in Servia are of ecclesiastical cognizance (Lehr, op. cit.
Ridley, View of the Civile and Ecclesiastical Law (1607); J.
Godolphin, Abridgement of the Laws Ecclesiastical (London, 1687); E.
Stillingfleet, Ecclesiastical Jurisdic t ion (1704); L.
Blackmore, 1842); Ffoulkes, Manual of Ecclesiastical History (1851); E.
Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents (Oxford, 1869); A.
Stephens, Ecclesiastical Statutes (1845); H.
Joyce, The Sword and the Keys (2nd ed., 1881); Report of Ecclesiastical Courts Commission (1888); P. Fournier, Les Of icialites au moyen age (I 880); S.
Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law (New York, 1889-1890); S.
Phillimore, Ecclesiastical Law (2nd ed., 1895); J.
Taunton, Law of the Church (London, 1906); Report of Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Discipline (1906).
Ecclesiastical law >>
In the middle ages, meat, eggs and milk were forbidden in Lent not only by ecclesiastical but by statute law; and this rule was enforced until the reign of William III.
He soon became prior of the abbey of Anchin, near Pecquencourt, and passed much of his time in the valuable library of the abbey, studying ecclesiastical history, especially that of Flanders.
He was a member of the commission for ecclesiastical causes, and although afterwards he claimed that he had used all his influence to dissuade James from removing the tests, and in other ways illegally favouring the Roman Catholics, he signed the warrant for the committal of the seven bishops, and appeared as a witness against them.
It is situated on the Trnava, and has played an important role in the ecclesiastical history of Hungary.
matutinue, sc. possibly vigiliae, morning watches; from matutinus, " belonging to the morning"), a word now only used in an ecclesiastical sense for one of the canonical hours in the Roman Breviary, originally intended to be said at midnight, but sometimes said at dawn, after which "lauds" were recited or sung.
Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.
Eger is the see of an archbishopric, and owing to its numerous ecclesiastical buildings has received the name of "the Hungarian Rome."
Migne, following the example of the editors of bibliothecae patrum who preceded him, swept into his great collection all the Christian writings which fell within his period; but he is careful to state upon his title-page that his patrologies include the ecclesiastical writers as well as the fathers and doctors of the Church.
For a comprehensive use of the term "ecclesiastical writers" he has the authority of Jerome, who enumerates among them 4 such heresiarchs or leaders of schism as Tatian, Bardaisan, Novatus, Donatus, Photinus and Eunomius.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
His interest also in public matters was incessant, especially ecclesiastical questions, and such as bore upon the social welfare and moral improvement of the masses.
Serajevo is the seat of the provincial government, of a Roman Catholic bishop, an Orthodox metropolitan, the highest Moslem ecclesiastical authority or Reis-el-ulema, and the supreme court.
On the other hand, none were less inclined to submit to encroachments on the part of the ecclesiastical power, the Conqueror himself least of all.
The Western bishops who remained confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod; and by its 3rd, 4th and 5th decrees relating to the rights of revision, the council of Sardica endeavoured to settle the procedure of ecclesiastical appeals.
See the liturgical and ecclesiastical dictionaries of Martigny, Migne, and Smith and Cheetham, sub voce, where all the scattered references are collected together and summarized.
The lord high almoner is an ecclesiastical officer, usually a bishop, who had the rights to the forfeiture of all deodands and the goods of a felo de se, for distribution among the poor.
The ecclesiastical courts still retain a ].
The principal ecclesiastical authority is the Holy Synod, the head of which, the Procurator, is one of the council of ministers and exercises very wide powers in ecclesiastical matters.
Much more important in its consequences was Nikon's activity as an ecclesiastical reformer.
He determined also to introduce into the Church many desirable reforms. His project was approved by an ecclesiastical council and was supported by the tsar, but it met with violent opposition from a large section of the clergy, and it alarmed the ignorant masses, who regarded any alterations in the ritual, however insignificant they might be, as heretical and very dangerous to salvation.
In support of this idea, independently of the ecclesiastical innovations, many significant facts could be adduced.
But that political Lollardry was strong is shown by the proposal in the parliament of 1410 for a wholesale confiscation of ecclesiastical property.
He inaugurated new missionary enterprises from Hormuz to Japan and the Malay Archipelago, leaving an organized Christian community wherever he preached; he directed by correspondence the ecclesiastical policy of John III.
Grindal indeed attempted a reform of the ecclesiastical courts, but his metropolitical activity was cut short by a conflict with the arbitrary temper of the queen.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
Ezekiel's system constituted an ecclesiastical in place of a political organization, a church-state in place of a nation.
The prince, it is true, has a central domain, but his functions are ecclesiastical and subordinate and his powers strictly limited (xlvi.
ANTOINE PERRENOT GRANVELLA, CARDINAL DE (1517-1586), one of the ablest and most influential of the princes of the church during the great political and ecclesiastical movements which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe, was born on the 20th of August 1517 at Besancon, where his father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvella (1484-1550), who afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V., was practising as a lawyer.
forbade his relations even to visit Rome; but in 1656 he gave them the best-paid civil and ecclesiastical offices, also palaces and princely estates.
LOUIS ELLIES DU PIN (1657-1719), French ecclesiastical historian, came of a noble family of Normandy, and was born at Paris on the 17th of June 1657.
The liberty with which he there treated the doctrines of the Fathers aroused ecclesiastical prejudice, and the archbishop of Paris condemned the work.
The numerous Letters of Cyprian are not only an important source for the history of church life and of ecclesiastical law, on account of their rich and manifold contents, but in large part they are important monuments of the literary activity of their author, since, not infrequently, they are in the form of treatises upon the topic in question.
In ecclesiastical law, the contempt of the authority of an ecclesiastical court is dealt with by the issue of a writ de contumace capiendo from the court of chancery at the instance of the judge of the ecclesiastical court; this writ took the place of that de excommunicato capiendo in 1813, by an act of George III.
He successfully resisted encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the kings of England, Castile and Aragon.
No other city in the world offers so many and such striking examples of the ecclesiastical architecture of the centuries from :the 5th to the 8th.
He and they were frequently condemned by Protestant ecclesiastical and political authorities, especially by the government of Wurttemberg.
John's main work was his Ecclesiastical History, which covered more than six centuries, from the time of Julius Caesar to 585.
The third part of John's history, which is a detailed account of the ecclesiastical events which happened in 571-585, as well as of some earlier occurrences, survives in a fairly complete state in Add.
in height, are fortified by nine towers, one of which is a prison for both civil and ecclesiastical offenders.
Ivan the Terrible in 1561 made it the centre of the ecclesiastical province of Moscow.
His ecclesiastical preferment he owed to the influence of an uncle, Cardinal Oliviero Caraffa.
The true inwardness of this movement, its extent and its history, can hardly be recovered at present, but it is noteworthy that the evidence generally involves the Levites, an ecclesiastical body which underwent an extremely intricate development.
This is independently suggested by the contents and vicissitudes of the purely ecclesiastical traditions.'
Priesthoods, whose traditions connect them with the south, are subordinated; the ecclesiastical records are re-shaped or re-adjusted; and a picture is presented of hierarchical jealousies and rivalries which (it was thought) were settled once and for all in the days of the exodus from Egypt.
In 1841 an independent reform congregation was founded, and the Spanish and Portuguese Jews have always maintained their separate existence with a IIaham as the ecclesiastical head.
The chief rabbi, who is the ecclesiastical head of the United Synagogue, has also a certain amount of authority over the provincial and colonial Jewries, but this is nominal rather than real.
praelatus, set above, from praefero, prefer), an ecclesiastical dignitary of high rank.
In the early middle ages the title prelate was applied to secular persons in high positions and thence it passed to persons having ecclesiastical authority.
In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women.
But gradually the title was extended to ecclesiastical persons having a prominent office even without jurisdiction, and later still it has come to be applied to ecclesiastical persons marked by some special honour though without any definite office or jurisdiction.
A special class of Roman prelatures exist at Rome, endowed as a kind of ecclesiastical majority to which those members of certain families who are destined for the clerical life naturally succeed.
Having completed his studies in the Capranica College' at Rome, and having taken holy orders, he studied diplomacy at the College of Ecclesiastical Nobles, and in 1875 was appointed councillor to the papal nunciature at Madrid.
Two years later he was recalled to Rome and appointed secretary of the Propaganda for Eastern Affairs, and for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.
This figure, also known as the vesica piscis, is common in ecclesiastical seals and as a glory or aureole in paintings of sculpture, surrounding figures of the Trinity, saints, &c. The figure is, however, sometimes referred to the almond, as typifying virginity; the French name for the symbol is Amande mystique.
In 1642 Henderson, whose policy was to keep Scotland neutral in the war which had now broken out between the king and the parliament, was engaged in corresponding with England on ecclesiastical topics; and, shortly afterwards, he was sent to Oxford to mediate between the king and his parliament; but his mission proved a failure.
He has made a deep mark on the history, not only of Scotland, but of England; and the existing Presbyterian churches in Scotland are largely indebted to him for the forms of their dogmas and their ecclesiastical organization.
The ecclesiastical historian Socrates (Hist.
Many ecclesiastical ceremonies, growing up from early times, clustered round the celebration of the Easter festival.
- Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church;: Bede, Ecclesiastical History of England; Procter and Frere, A New History of the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1901); Surtees Society, Rites of Durham, ed.
At the ecclesiastical council which took place at Paris in 1406 Pierre d'Ailly made every effort to avert a new withdrawal from the obedience and, by order of the king, took the part of defender of Benedict XIII., a course which yet again exposed him to attacks from the university party.
His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.
The latter is characteristic of the mitre in the modern Roman Catholic Church, the tradition of the local Roman Church having always excluded the representation of figures on ecclesiastical vestments.
In the beginning of the 13th century the foundation of the Dominican and Franciscan_ orders furnished a more ecclesiastical and regular means of supplying the same wants, and numerous convents sprang up at once throughout Germany.
The gloom and harshness of these Spanish mystics are absent from the tender, contemplative spirit of Francois de Sales (1567-1622); and in the quietism Fof Mme Guyon (1648-1717) and Miguel de Molinos (1627-1696) there is again a sufficient implication of mystical doctrine to rouse the suspicion of the ecclesiastical authorities.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
Though not a great scholar, he was eminent as an ecclesiastical statesman, and his influence was far-reaching.
As a Scotsman, Aberdeen was interested in the ecclesiastical controversy which culminated in the disruption of 1843.
His dislike of the Ecclesiastical Titles Assumption Bill, the rejection of which he failed to secure in 1851, prevented him from joining the government of Lord John Russell, or from forming an administration himself in this year.
Of the ecclesiastical buildings of Holborn that of first interest is the chapel of St Etheldreda in Ely Place, opening from Holborn Circus.
He does not appear at this time to have been seriously punished, and at the beginning of 1401 he is found in London, where his preaching again attracted the notice of the ecclesiastical authorities.
To the south of the castle is St Robert's chapel, an excavation in the rock constructed into an ecclesiastical edifice in the reign of Richard I.
His ecclesiastical preferments, of which he received several in 1506-1509, culminated in his appointment by Henry to the deanery of Lincoln on February 2, 1509.
made Wolsey his almoner immediately on his accession, and the receipt of some half-dozen further ecclesiastical preferments in the first two years of the reign marks his growth in royal favour.
He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.
He was formerly identified with an Egyptian priest who, after the destruction of the pagan temple at Alexandria (389), fled to Constantinople, where he became the tutor of the ecclesiastical historian Socrates.
Dissatisfied with ecclesiastical life, Genovesi resigned his post, and qualified as an advocate at Rome.
King Ladislaus would have made the book-loving youth a monk, and even designated him for the see of Eger; but Coloman had no inclination for an ecclesiastical career, and, with the assistance of his friends, succeeded in escaping to Poland.
It is a sketch of the history of the world from the creation, based on Jerome, the epitome of Florus, Orosius and the ecclesiastical history of Socrates.
The Order was at once supreme ecclesiastical and political authority.
The Order, clinging to its rights with the conservatism of an ecclesiastical corporation, still maintained its claims to East Prussia, and pressed them tenaciously even against the electors of Brandenburg themselves, when they inherited the land on the failure of Albert's descendants in 1618.
In 1769 he wrote his Memoire sur les prrts a interet, on the occasion of a scandalous financial crisis at Angouleme, the peculiar interest of which is that in it the question of lending money at interest was for the first time treated scientifically, and not merely from the ecclesiastical point of view.
1731; 2nd ed., 1 735, 4 vols.; 3rd ed., 1736-1738, 4 vols.); Life and Acts o f Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury (1710), of Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (1711), and of John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury (1718); An Accurate Edition of Stow's Survey of London (1720), a valuable edition of Stow, although its interference with the original text is a method of editing which can scarcely be reckoned fair to the original author; and Ecclesiastical Memorials (3 vols., 1721; 3 vols., 1733).
In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.
In the West, in the 6th and 7th centuries, besides the original functions of their office, archdeacons had certain well-defined rights of visitation and supervision, being responsible for the good order of the lower clergy, the upkeep of ecclesiastical buildings and the safe-guarding of the church furniture - functions which involved a considerable disciplinary power.
1896); Phillimore, Ecclesiastical Law, part ii.
The county is mainly in the diocese of Southwell, with small portions in the dioceses of Peterborough and Lichfield, and contains 255 ecclesiastical parishes or districts.
Derbyshire is rich in ecclesiastical architecture as a whole.
He was appointed a member of an ecclesiastical commission for reforming the church in 1787, in which capacity he was virtually minister of public worship. In 1791-1792 he became a leading member of the financial and general committees of the riksdag.
and Philip III., Hooke's Roman History, part of a translation of Rollin's Ancient History, Langhorne's Plutarch, Burnet's History of My Own Times, thirty volumes of the Annual Register, Millar's Historical View of the English Government, Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, M`Crie's Knox, and two histories of the Quakers.
Vast areas of the country were in fact under the single control of a territorial lord or an ecclesiastical foundation.
He got into some trouble with the chancellor, Gardiner, over a ribald play, "Pammachius," performed by the students, deriding the old ecclesiastical system, though Bonner wrote to Parker of the assured affection he bore him.
But ecclesiastical politics gave him an infinity of trouble.
Asia Minor and the West developed the strict ecclesiastical forms by means of which the church closed her lines against heathenism, and especially against heresy; in Alexandria Christian ideas were handled in a free and speculative fashion and worked out with the help of Greek philosophy.
however, was broken by many journeys, undertaken partly for scientific and partly for ecclesiastical ob j ects.
This was undoubtedly an infringement of the rights of the Alexandrian bishop; at the same time it was simply a piece of spite on the part of the latter that had kept Origen so long without any ecclesiastical consecration.
He matriculated at Heidelberg with the intention of pursuing an ecclesiastical career.
" Erastianism, as a by-word, is used to denote the doctrine of the supremacy of the state in ecclesiastical causes; but the problem of the relations between church and state is one on which Erastus nowhere enters.
Voigt says that he was the first monk in Florence in whom the love of letters and art became predominant over his ecclesiastical views.
fete des fous), the name for certain burlesque quasi-religious festivals which, during the middle ages, were the ecclesiastical counterpart of the secular revelries of the Lord of Misrule.
The celebrations are directly traceable to the pagan Saturnalia of ancient Rome, which in spite of the conversion of the Empire to Christianity, and of the denunciation of bishops and ecclesiastical councils, continued to be celebrated by the people on the Kalends of January with all their old licence.
The dome is the leading idea or motif in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture; the domes are placed over square, not circular apartments, and their bases are brought to a circle by means of pendentives.
Venetian Gothic, both ecclesiastical and domestic, shares most of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic generally, though in domestic architecture it displays one peculiarity which we shall presently note.
Besides these two churches we may mention Santo Stefano, an interesting building of central Gothic, "the best ecclesiastical example of it in Venice."
The most perfect example of this style in ecclesiastical architecture is the little church of the Miracoli built by Pietro Lombardo in 1480.
After Henry VIII.'s change of attitude towards Rome, Stephen Vaughan, the English envoy to the Netherlands, suggested Tyndale's return, but the reformer feared ecclesiastical hostility and declined.
His Ecclesiastical Characteristics (1753), Serious Apology (1764), and History of a Corporation of Servants discovered a few years ago in the Interior Parts of South America (1765), attacked various abuses in the church and satirized the "moderate" party.
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