See Statuta Ecclesiae Scoticanae (Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh, 1866).
By far the best known of these is the treatise De catholicae ecclesiae unitate, called forth in A.D.
- The most important authority for the history of Ravenna is Bishop Agnellus, who wrote, about 840, the Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis.
The reading in public of his two treatises De Potestate ecclesiastica and De Reformatione Ecclesiae revealed, besides ideas very peculiar to himself on the reform and constitution of the church, his design of reducing the power of the English in the council by denying them the right of.
The particulars of Arbuthnot's life are found in Calderwood, Spottiswood, and other Church historians, and in Scott's Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae.
His historical research was exemplified in his De antiquitate ecclesiae, and his editions of Asser, Matthew Paris, Walsingham, and the compiler known as Matthew of Westminster; his liturgical skill was shown in his version of the psalter and in the occasional prayers and thanksgivings which he was called upon to compose; and he left a priceless collection of manuscripts to his college at Cambridge.
Morcelli, Kalendarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae (Rome, 1788); H.
396-434, where the terminology is explained; idem, Synaxarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae e codice Sirmondiano (Brussels, 1902), forming the volume Propylaeum ad acta sanctorum novembris.
The definition of the Council of Trent was intended both to enforce the accepted Catholic position and to exclude the teaching of Luther, who, whilst not professing to be certain whether the "substance" of the Bread and Wine could or could not be said to remain, exclaimed against the intolerance of the Roman Catholic Church in defining the question.6 For a full and recent exposition of the Catholic teaching on Transubstantiation the reader may consult De ecclesiae sacra mentis, auctore Ludovico Billot, S.J.
The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).
Among the most widely circulated were the commentaries on Jeremiah, Isaiah and Ezekiel, the Vaticinia pontificum and the De oneribus ecclesiae.
A treatise entitled De ultima aetate ecclesiae, which appeared in 1356, has been attributed to Wycliffe, but is undoubtedly from the pen of an anonymous Joachimite Franciscan.
Besides the works already noticed, he wrote De arte critica (1597); De Antichristo (1605); Pro auctoritate ecclesiae in decidendis fidei controversiis libellus; Scaliger hypololymaeus (1607), a virulent attack on Scaliger; and latterly the anti-jesuitical works, Flagellum Jesuiticum (1632); Mysteria patrum jesuitorum (1633); and Arcana societatis Jesu (1635).
This ferula, mentioned by Luitprand of Cremona in his account of the deposition of Benedict V., and the baculus aureus of the Historia dedicationis ecclesiae cavensis (Acta Sanctorum, 4 March, i.
6 De captivitate babylonica ecclesiae.
His De visibili Monarchia Ecclesiae, published in 1571, contains the first narrative of the sufferings of the English Roman Catholics.
As a writer, he was one of the first to restore the Latin tongue to its pristine purity; and among his works are De Vera Philosophia ex quatuor doctoribus ecclesiae (Bologna, 1507), De Sermone Latino (Basel, 1513), and a poem, De Venatione (Venice, 1534).
His history of the cathedral church at Reims (Historia Remensis Ecclesiae) is one of the most remarkable productions of the 10th century.
Besides aiding his brother in his literary labours, he published, in 1749-1760, Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae Universae in xv.
Spottiswoode published in 1620 Refutatio libelli de regimine ecclesiae scoticanae, an answer to a tract of Calderwood, who replied in the Vindiciae subjoined to his Altare damascenum, (1623).
In the Cologne edition of 1530 the title runs- Homiliae seu mavis sermones sive conciones ad populum, praestantissimorum ecclesiae doctorum Hieronymi, Augustini, Ambrosii, Gregorii, Origenis, Chrysostomi, Bedae, &c., in hunt ordinem digestae per Alchuinum levitam, idque injungente ei Carolo M.
The two measures which were adopted by the Church to remedy these conditions - the pax ecclesiae or Dei and the treuga or treva Dei - are usually both referred to as the Truce of God, but they are distinct in character.
The pax ecclesiae is first heard of in the year 990 at three synods held in different parts of southern and central France - at Charroux, Narbonne and Puy.
With the opening of the Ilth century, the pax ecclesiae spread over northern France and Burgundy, and diocesan leagues began to be organized for its maintenance.
Like the pax ecclesiae it found ardent champions in the regular clergy, especially in Odilo (962-1049), the fifth abbot of Cluny, and soon spread over all France.
When the treuga Dei reached its most extended form, scarcely one-fourth of the year remained for fighting, and even then the older canons relating to the pax ecclesiae remained in force.
de Rossi and the abbe Louis Duchesne; in 1902, the Propylaeum ad Ada Sanctorum Novembris, comprising the Synaxarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae.
Writing of the unity of the church as set forth by Paul in Ephesians, Dr Hort (The Christian Ecclesia, p. 168) says: " Not a word in the epistle exhibits the One Ecclesia as made up of many Ecclesiae.
The One Ecclesia includes all members of all partial Ecclesiae; but its relations to them all are direct, not mediate.
St Paul anxiously promoted friendly intercourse and sympathy between the scattered Ecclesiae; but the unity of the universal Ecclesia as he contemplated it does not belong to this region: it is a bulk of theology and religion, not a fact of what we call ecclesiastical politics."
This theory of the independence of the episcopate with regard to the Roman bishop was first propounded by Cyprian, in his treatise De unitate ecclesiae.
In France, in England, in Holland the evangelicals continued to describe their churches as ecclesiae reformatae, without the arriere pensee which in Germany had confined the designation "Reformed" to the followers of a particular church order and doctrine.
also Ep. 4, 4; 74,7; and De unitate ecclesiae, 6: " habere non potest Deum patrem qui ecclesiam non habet matrem ").
Maurer, Die Bekehrung des norwegischen Stammes (2 vols., Munich, 1855-1856); Bang, Udsigt over den norske Kirkes historie under Katholicismen (Christiania, 1887); P. Gams, Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae (Regensburg, 1873); C. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi (2 vols., Munster, 1898, 1901); P. Hinschius, System des kath.
In his celebrated Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae Lutherande in epitomen redactus (Leipzig, 1848), Daniel has used 98 different liturgies and given specimens to show the differences which they exhibit.
de Graca Barreto, Documenta historiam ecclesiae Habessinarum illustrantia (Olivipone, 1879); E.
there is a collection of records relating to Beverley, Libertates Ecclesiae S.
le Prevost, Paris, 1845); the first continuation of Symeon's Historia Ecclesiae Dunelmensis (Rolls ed., 1882); William of Malmesbury in the Gesta pontificum (Rolls ed., 1870); and the Peterborough Chronicle (Rolls ed., 1861).
Obstacles being cleared away, Paul III., on the 27th of September 1540, issued his bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae, by which he confirmed the new Society (the term "order" does not belong to it), but limited the members to sixty, a restriction which was removed by the same pope in the bull Injunctum nobis of the 14th of March 1543.
Gregory XIV., by the bull Ecclesiae Christi (July 28, 1591), again confirmed the Society, and granted that Jesuits might, for true cause, be expelled from the body without any form of trial or even documentary procedure, besides denouncing excommunications against every one, save the pope or his legates, who directly or indirectly infringed the constitutions of the Society or attempted to bring about any change therein.
These leading narratives are supplemented by Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, chap. 38 (247 Lappenberg) of book iv.
Not long after this he visited the king of Denmark, Sweyn Estrithson, in Zealand; on the death of Adalbert, in 1072, he began the Historia Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae, which he finished about 1075.
Adam's Historia - known also as Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, Bremensium praesulum Historia, and Historia ecclesiastica - is a primary authority, not only for the great diocese of Hamburg-and-Bremen, but for all North German and Baltic lands (down to 1072), and for the Scandinavian colonies as far as America.
The Statuta Ecclesiae Antigua (falsely called the Canons of the Fourth Council of Carthage in 397), a Gallican collection, originating in the province of Arles at the beginning of the 6th century, mentions the acolyte, but does not give, as in the case of the other orders, any form for the ordination.
The duties of the acolyte, as given in the Roman Pontifical, are identical with those mentioned in the Statuta Ecclesiae Antigua of Arles: "It is the duty of acolytes to carry the candlesticks, to light the lamps of the church, to administer wine and water for the Eucharist."
See Morin, Commentarius in sacris Ecclesiae ordinationibus (Antwerp, 1685), ii.
p. 152; Martbne, De Antiquis Ecclesiae ritibus (Antwerp, 1739), ii.
53): '.` Usque ad mediam aetatem presbyter fuit ecclesiae Africanae, invidia postea et conturneliis clericorum Romanae ecclesiae ad Montani dogma delapsus."
Knauz, Monumenta Ecclesiae Strigoniensis (3 vols., Eszterg, 1874); Joseph Danko, Geschichtliches.
He repeated his challenge in 1560, and Dr Henry Cole took it up. The chief result was Jewel's Apologia ecclesiae Anglicanae, published in 1562, which in Bishop Creighton's words is "the first methodical statement of the position of the Church of England against the Church of Rome, and forms the groundwork of all subsequent controversy."
ecclesiae does not lead St Paul to regard membership of the universal church as invisible.
See also Ciampinus, Vetera Monumenta (Rome, 1747), where numerous illustrations of altars are to be found; Martene, De antiquis Ecclesiae ritibus, iii, vi.
Gams, Series episcoporum Romanae ecclesiae).
With the latter is connected the commission for the examination of the liturgical books of the East (Commissio pro corrigendis libris ecclesiae Orientalis) .
It is practically only bulls of canonization which are signed by the pope and all the cardinals present in Rome; the signature of the pope is then "(Pius) Episcopus Ecclesiae catholicae," while his ordinary signature bears only his name and number, "Pius PP. X."
At its head is the cardinal camerlengo (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalis Camerarius), who, as we know, exercises the external authority during the vacancy of the Holy See.
Marci, and Eutychius Origines ecclesiae Alexandrinae).
The last chapter but one (181), "De Sancto Pelagio Papa," contains a kind of history of the world from the middle of the 6th century; while the last (182) is a somewhat allegorical disquisition, "De Dedicatione Ecclesiae."
The word first appeared in print in Adam of Bremen's Descriptio Insularum Aquilonis, an appendix to his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, published by Lindenbrog in 1595.
ï¿½ The earliest modern collection of such sayings was by Cotelerius, Ecclesiae Graecae Monumenta (1677-1688), followed by J.
The general rule was said to be that all lands within a parish are subject to tithes, and a layman was not allowed to prescribe generally that his lands were exempt; but he had to show a special exemption, and no length of possession was regarded in law in view of the maxim nullum tempos occurrit ecclesiae, although equity did take account of it.
The same year he was appointed secretary to the Congregation super negotiis ecclesiae extraordinariis, in 1889 became papal nuncio at Munich and in 1892 at Vienna.
The record of his episcopate is to be found in the two volumes of the Ada Ecclesiae Mediolanensis (Milan, 1599).
As the Historia ecclesiae Christi it was first published at Basel in seven volumes (1559-1574).
Spanheim, Gangraena theologiae Anabaptisticae (Franekerd, 1656); Balthasar Lydius, Waldensia, id est conservatio verae Ecclesiae (Rotterdam, 1616); Herman Schyn, Historiae Mennonitarum (Amsterdam, 1729); Joh.
xix.); Simeon of Durham, Historia Dunelmi Ecclesiae.
This sentence was for him an articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae.
8vo, 1740), a laborious but uncritical work; Annales ecclesiae danicae (3 vols., 1741-1747); Marmora danica selectiora (2 vols.
See Robert of Graystanes, Historia de statu ecclesiae Dunelmensis, edited by J.
O'Flanagan, Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland (2 vols., London, 1870); John D'Alton, Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin (Dublin, 1838); Henry Cotton, Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae (5 vols., Dublin, 1848-1878); William Monck Mason, History and Antiquities of the College and Cathedral Church of St Patrick, near Dublin (Dublin, 1819); G.
Comenius also wrote against the Socinians, and published three historical works - Ratio disciplinae ordinisque in unitate fratrum Bohemorum, which was republished with remarks by Buddaeus, Historia persecutionum ecclesiae Bohemicae (1648), and Martyrologium Bohemicum.
" Pius P.P.X.," the signature of bulls is "Pius episcopas ecclesiae catholicae," and the heading, "Pius episcopus, servus servorum Dei," this latter formula going back to the time of St Gregory the Great.
See Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, edited by J.
cxcv.; but this does not include the Miracula Hagulstaldensis Ecclesiae which are printed in J.
Similar absorptions no doubt account for the disappearance of the Culdees of York, a name borne by the canons of St Peter's about 925, and of Snowdon and Bardsey Island in north Wales mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis (c. 1190) in his Speculum Ecclesiae and Itinerarium respectively.
Such was the theme of a book, De state Ecclesiae, ad reuniendos dissidentes in religione Christianos compositus, published by one Justinus Febronius in 1763.
Alvarus Pelagius, De Planctu Ecclesiae, ed.
Pole's reply, which took a year to write, and was afterwards published with additions under the title Pro unitate ecclesiae, was sent to England (May 25, 1536) and was meant for the king's eye alone.
He then retired to Magazzano on the Lake of Garda and occupied himself by editing his book Pro unitate ecclesiae, with an intended dedication to Edward VI.
1; Adam of Bremen, Gesta hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum iii.
Glastoniensis ecclesiae," in Rerum Anglicarum script.
For the Monumenta Germaniae historica he edited the Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, the Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum of Adam of Bremen and the Chronica Slavorum of Helmold, with its continuation by Arnold of Lubeck.
His Bibliotheca symbolica ecclesiae universalis: the Creeds of Christendom (3 vols.
epistolis cornparatur (1826), Institutiones historiae ecclesiae (1835), Institutio theologiae naturalis (1842), Encyclopaedia theologi christiani (1844).
The result was that Jeremiah answered in his Censura Orientalis Ecclesiae condemning the distinctive principles of Lutheranism.
Another work, De antiquitate Glastoniensis ecclesiae (A.D.
de sacris ecclesiae ordinationibus secundum antiquos et recentiores latinos, graecos, syros et babylonios (1655), which expresses those irenical views on the subject of ordination which recommended Morin to Urban VIII.
The literary correspondence of Morin appeared in 1682 under the title of Antiquitates ecclesiae orientalis (edited by R.
Stubbs, Chronica Pontificum Ecclesiae Eboracensis, edited by J.
Serarius, Sacri peripatetici de sacris ecclesiae catholicae processionibus (2 vols., Cologne, 1607); Jac. Gretser, De ecclesiae romanae processionibus (2 vols., Ingolstadt, 1606); Jac. Eveillon, De processionibus ecclesiae (Paris, 1641); Edw.
Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus (3 vols., Antwerp, 1763), &c. For the past usage of the Church of England, Hierurgia anglicana, ed.
It would be impossible to enumerate here all the Gallic councils which contributed towards the canon law of that country; we will mention only the following: - Arles (314), of great importance; a number of councils in the district of Arles, completed by the Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua of St Caesarius; 2 the councils of the province of Tours; the assemblies of the episcopate of the three kingdoms of the Visigoths at Agde (506), of the Franks at Orleans (511), and of the Burgundians at Epaone (517); several councils of the kingdoms of the Franks, chiefly at Orleans; and finally, the synods of the middle of the 8th century, under the influence of St Boniface.
Collectio canonum Ecclesiae Hispanae (Madrid, 1808); reproduced in Migne, P.L.
published a Motu proprio, " de ecclesiae legibus Decision of p ies x.
Berardi, De variis sacrorum canonum collectionibus ante Gratianum (Turin, 1752); P. Quesnel, De codice canonum Ecclesiae Romanae; de variis fidei libellis in antiquo Rom.
For the Greek Church: Pitra, Juris ecclesiae graecorum historia et monuments (Rome, 1864); the later history of the Greek law: Zachariae, Historiae juris graecorum delineatio (Heidelberg, 1839) Mortreuil, Histoire du droit byzantin (Paris, 1843-1846); the recent texts in the Conciliorum Collectio lacensis, vol.
of the Christian Church (1858-1873); Edmond Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus (Venice, 1783); C. F.
Ecclesiae Ritibus (gives Western rites) (Bassani, 1788).
Augusti, Denkwiirdigkeiten (Leipzig, 1829-1831); Monumenta Ecclesiae Liturgica by Dom Cabrol and Dom Leclercq (Paris, 1902) (a summary of all liturgical passages given in the early Fathers); Corblet, Histoire du sacrement de bapteme (2 vols.
For the father, see John Le Neve's Fasti ecclesiae anglicanae (London, 1716), and Anthony Wood's Athenae oxonienses.
But the definition given by Alexander Halensis, which is much fuller, still retains its authority: - " Jejunium est abstinentia a cibo et potu secundum formam ecclesiae, intuitu satisfaciendi pro peccato et acquirendi vitam aeternam."
C. Hippeau, 1868), and other poems, containing less historical 1 An "advocate" was a layman who had been invested with part of an ecclesiastic estate, on condition that he defended the rest, and exercised the blood-ban in lieu of the ecclesiastical owner (see Advocate, sec. Advocatus ecclesiae).
He wrote the De jure Meneviensis ecclesiae in support of the claims of his diocese.
Besides some graceful epistles in the style of Fortunatus, he wrote some long poems, and notably a whole history in verse of the church at York: Versus de patribus, regibus et sanctis Eboracensis ecclesiae.
It is a corruption of persona, the parson being, as it were, the persona ecclesiae, or representative of the Church in the parish.
de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, to all which is appended a large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence.
For the church in Ireland see: Henry Cotton, Fasti ecclesiae hibernicae (1848-1878); W.
Another work, De negligentia praelatorum, was directed against the neglect of their duties by the higher clergy, and he addressed a petition for the reform of the church (Advisamentum pro reformatione ecclesiae) to Pope Nicholas V.
This having no effect, he issued the most outspoken of his works, De septem ecclesiae statibus, in which he reviewed the work of the reforming councils of his time, and, without touching the question of doctrine, championed a drastic reform of life and practice of the church on the lines laid down at Constance and Basel.
Partly from superiority to the narrowness of his age, and partly in the interest of his struggle with the Papacy, this Malleus ecclesiae Romanae drew to his court those savants whose pursuits were discouraged by the church, and especially students in the forbidden lore of the Arabians.
This fact has subsequently been often quoted against those who have appealed to the events of 1415 to maintain that a council can depose a pope who is scandalizator ecclesiae.
Gams, Series Episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae (Regensburg, 1873); Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, vol.
Censures were as follows: (i) Suspension from attending divine offices or ab ingressu ecclesiae, more appropriate for a layman.
xi.; Kimmel, Monumenta fidei ecclesiae orientalis (Jena, 1850; critical edition); P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, vol.
the twenty-seventh - " Cerium est in manu Papae, aut Artic ecclesiae, prorsus non esse statuere articulos fidei (imo nec leges morum seu bonorum operum)."
in nostram linguam ad utilitatem ecclesiae Dei convertit " (Mayor and Lumby, Bedae Hist.
Ã¯¿½ The earliest modern collection of such sayings was by Cotelerius, Ecclesiae Graecae Monumenta (1677-1688), followed by J.
He was interred in his cathedral at midnight on the 22nd of October, in the same coffin as Stella, with the epitaph, written by himself, "Hic depositum est corpus Jonathan Swift, S.T.P., hujus ecclesiae cathedralis decani; ubi saeva indignatio cor ulterius lacerare nequit.
The Spanish collection divides the African canons among seven councils of Carthage and one of Mileve; but in many cases it ascribes them to the wrong source; for example, it gives under the title of the fourth council of Carthage, the Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua, an Arlesian compilation of Saint Caesarius, which has led to a number of incorrect references.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.