It was found that the government by Boule and Ecclesia did not mean popular control in the full sense; it meant government by the leisured classes, inasmuch as the industrious farmer or herdsman could not leave his work to give his vote at the Ecclesia, or do his duty as a councillor.
If there was any difference of opinion the matter was referred to the Ecclesia for settlement.
Metropolitan Church, or Ecclesia Ursiana, and baptistery adjoining .
In Athens in the sixth prytany of each year the representatives of the Boule asked the Ecclesia whether it was for the welfare of the state that ostracism should take place.
Grote and others hold that six thousand had to be given against one person before he was ostracized, but it seems unlikely that the attendance at the Ecclesia ever admitted of so large a vote against one man, and the view is contradicted by Plut.
Its political importance really was that it transferred the protection of the constitution from the Areopagus to the Ecclesia.
The Greek ecclesiastes means one who takes part in the deliberations of an assembly (ecclesia), a debater or speaker in an assembly (Plato, Gorgias, 452 E), and this is the general sense of the Hebrew word.
The representation of plays was perhaps transferred to this spot from the early Orchestra in the Agora at the beginning of the 5th century B.C.; it afterwards superseded the Pnyx as the meeting-place of the Ecclesia.
An important event must be referred probably to the year 451, - the law of Pericles, by which citizenship (including the right to vote in the Ecclesia and to sit on paid juries) was restricted to those who could prove themselves the children of an Athenian father and mother (E d,u001v avroiv).
fn6 Matthew Paris gives a letter from Philip, prior of the Dominicans in Palestine, which reached the pope in 1237, and which speaks of a prelate from whom he had received several letters, "qui praeest omnibus quos Nestoriana haeresis ab ecclesia separavit (cujus praelatio per Indiam Majorem, et per regnum sacerdotis Johannis, et per regna magis proxima Orienti dilatatur)."
Following up this advantage, Ephialtes (462 B.C.), and less prominently Archestratus and Pericles, proposed and carried measures for the transfer of most of its functions to the Council of Five Hundred, the Ecclesia, and the popular courts of law (Arist.
As Christianity passed to Gentile soil, the sovereign assembly (ecclesia) of privileged citizens in each Greek city furnished an analogy to the latter usage.
Writing of the unity of the church as set forth by Paul in Ephesians, Dr Hort (The Christian Ecclesia, p. 168) says: " Not a word in the epistle exhibits the One Ecclesia as made up of many Ecclesiae.
To each local Ecclesia St Paul has ascribed a corresponding unity of its own; each is a body of Christ and a sanctuary of God: but there is no grouping of them into partial wholes or into one great whole.
The members which make up the One Ecclesia are not communities but individual men.
The One Ecclesia includes all members of all partial Ecclesiae; but its relations to them all are direct, not mediate.
St Paul anxiously promoted friendly intercourse and sympathy between the scattered Ecclesiae; but the unity of the universal Ecclesia as he contemplated it does not belong to this region: it is a bulk of theology and religion, not a fact of what we call ecclesiastical politics."
Organization corresponded to the life distinctive of the new Ecclesia.
" The Ecclesia itself, i.e.
So says Dr Hort (p. 229), adding that " the very origin and fundamental nature of the Ecclesia as a community of disciples renders it impossible that the principle should rightly become obsolete."
3 ff.); and on the other by the recognition of such gifts by the inspired common consciousness of each Ecclesia (I Cor.
Such consecration, however, whatever its form, was a function of the local Ecclesia as a whole, acting through those of its members most fitted by gift or standing to be its representatives on the occasion.
The local Ecclesia in the Apostolic age was itself responsible for the conduct of its members (i Cor.
But " congregational " (due to the rendering of ecclesia by " congregation " in early English Bibles) appears about 1642, to judge from the New English Dictionary.
Cyprian, Ep. 33, " ecclesia super episcopos constituitur "; 66, " ecclesia in episcopo "; also Ep. 59, and De unitate eccles.
APELLA, the official title of the popular assembly at Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia in most other Greek states.
The cup is not the blood of Jesus, but the holy vine of David, revealed through Jesus; and the holy vine can but signify the spiritual Israel, the Ecclesia or church or Messianic Kingdom, into which the faithful are to be gathered.
The one loaf, as in Paul, symbolizes the unity of the ecclesia, but the cup and bread, given for enjoyment, are symbols at best of the spiritual food and drink of the life eternal given of grace by the Almighty Father through his servant (lit.
It belongs to the same order of ideas that the headship of the Messianic ecclesia in Judea was assigned after the death of Jesus to his eldest brother James, and after him for several generations to the eldest living representative of his family.
Biblica, 3113 seq.); the opposite position is stated excellently by Hort (Christian Ecclesia, 1898, 189 seq.) and Dr T.
It derives its name - Church (ecclesia) Island - from the little church of St Magnus, now in ruins, consisting of a chancel 15 ft.
kirkko, &c.), a word originally applied to the building used for Christian worship, and subsequently extended to the Christian community (ecclesia) itself.
But he seldom used the word ecclesia, church, which became the universal designation of his society.
All the more emphatic is Christ's use of the term ecclesia upon the distinct advance in faith made by the apostles when St Peter as their spokesman confessed him to be " the Christ, the Son of the living God " (Matt.
Instantly came the reply, " I say unto thee, that thou art Petros (rockman), and on this Petra (rock) I will build my ecclesia (church); and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it."
To the Jew the word ecclesia as used in the Septuagint suggested the assembly of the congregation of Israel.
Opinions differ upon the question whether the apostles were chosen as representatives of the ecclesia to be founded (Hort) or as men fitted to become its duly authorized teachers and leaders from the beginning (Stone).
Remember thy congregation, which thou hast purchased of old," claiming for the Christian ecclesia the title of God's ancient ecclesia.
But he never, however fiercely opposed by Judaizers, set a new ecclesia of Christ in opposition to the old.
" Here at least, for the first time in the Acts and Epistles, we have the ecclesia spoken of in the sense of the one universal ecclesia, and it comes more from the theological than from the historical side; i.e.
Hort, The Christian Ecclesia, p. 148.
The cross Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice, instituted by Leo XIII.
He was also the author of volumes entitled De satisfactione Christi disputationes (Geneva, 1666) and De necessaria secessione nostra ab ecclesia romana (Geneva, 1687).
It appears that he had rendered valuable services to the exiles during the reign of the tyrants, and in 403 Thrasybulus proposed that these services should be recognized by the bestowal of the citizenship. The Boule, however, had not yet been reconstituted, and hence the measure could not be introduced to the ecclesia by :the requisite "preliminary resolution" (irpo,60bXevµa).
This shows us the normal organs of a Greek city, boule, ecclesia, prytaneis, &c., in full working, with the annual election of magistrates, and ordinary forms of public action.
The Koreshan Ecclesia >>
the privileges of the Athenians under the Solonian system see Solon; Ecclesia; Archon).
Next to his Greek Testament his best-known work is The Christian Ecclesia (1897).
The lastnamed work has the following topics: (1) De universa ecclesia; (2) De Ecclesia romana et pontificis primatu; (3) De universalibus conciliis; (4) De schismaticis et haereticis.
Eglwys, a corruption of the Latin " ecclesia," a church - Eglwyswrw, Tanyreglwys.
Zwingli, who details these articles, as he says, that the world may see that they are "fanatical, stolid, audacious, impious," can scarcely be acquitted of unfairness in joining together two of them, - the fourth and fifth, - thus making the article treat "of the avoiding of abominable pastors in the church" (Super devitatione abominabilium pastorum in Ecclesia), though there is nothing about pastors in the fourth article, and nothing about abominations in the fifth, and though in a marginal note he himself explains that the first two copies that were sent him read as he does, but the other copies make two articles, as in fact they evidently are.
He also drew up a list of the epitaphs in Westminster Abbey, which was issued as Reges, Reginae, Nobiles et alii in ecclesia collegiata Beati Petri Westmonasterii sepulti.
Hort's The Christian Ecclesia added elements of value; see also T.
It was printed by Wendelin Richelius with the title of Commentarii rerum in ecclesia gestarum (Strasburg, 1554).
The title is Rerum in ecclesia gestarum.
Schnurrer, De ecclesia Maronitica (1810); F.
In the bull Sancta Romana et universa ecclesia (December 28, 1318) John definitively excommunicated them and condemned their principal book, the Postil (commentary) on the Apocalypse' (February 8, 1326).
Among his other works are his Annotationes in Biblia (1607), of which an English translation (Pious and Learned Annotations upon the Holy Bible) was published in London in 1648, and various polemical treatises, such as De fictitio Pontificiorum Purgatorio (1619); De justa secessione Reformatorum ab Ecclesia Romana (1628); De Antichristo, &c. He also published French translations of Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent, and of Edwin Sandys's Account of the State of Religion in the West.
They also performed police duty at the meetings of the ecclesia.
et subjectio religiosa, et apparitio devota, et processio modesta, et Ecclesia unita et Dei omnia," where it would seem to mean "a modest bearing in public;" also De cultu foem.
In this publication he made six proposals as the best means of restoring the life of the Church: (1) the earnest and thorough study of the Bible in private meetings, ecclesiolae in ecclesia; 1 Labadie had formed the ascetic and mystic sect of "The Regenerati" in the Church of Holland (c. 1660), and then in other parts of the Reformed Church.
Its ecclesiolae in ecclesia also weakened the power and meaning of church organization.
The first provision of Magna Carta is quod ecclesia Anglicana libera sit.
Hort, The Christian Ecclesia (London, 1897).
His idea appears to have been to form a general union between the German, the English and the Swiss Protestants, and thus to establish una eademque sancta catholica et apostolica eademque evangelica et reformata ecclesia.
In the time of Gregory the Great the Western Church obtained 1 "Placuit picturas in ecclesia esse non debere, ne quod colitur et adoratur in parietibus depingatur."
Similarly, John XXII., in his bull Sancta Romana et Universalis Ecclesia (28th of December 1317), condemns vaguely those "profanae multitudinis viri commonly called Fraticelli, or Brethren of the Poor Life, or Bizocchi, or Beguines, or by all manner of other names."
But it confirms our claim that, for Rome, the only real authority is the church: sola ecclesia.
I fear that America is already ruled by a plutocracy devoted to pro ecclesia et commercia.
REGIONAL DELIGHTS Eccles Cake Eccles, near Manchester, derives its name from the Greek word ecclesia, which means an assembly.
The first decree (Decretum de fide et ecclesia) declared that the Catholic Church has no right to introduce new dogmas, but only to preserve in its original purity the faith once delivered by Christ to His apostles, and is infallible only so far as it conforms to Holy Scripture and true tradition; the Church, moreover is a purely spiritual body and has no authority in things secular.
Billot, S.J., De Ecclesia Christi (3 vols., Rome, 1898-1900); or G.
Wilmers, S.J., De Christi Ecclesia (Regensburg, 1897).
As these implied a duly appointed minister, the existence of the Church was made to depend upon an organized ministry rather than an organized membership. It calls to mind the Romish formula: "Ubi episcopus ibi ecclesia."
There can be little doubt that the Pnyx was the seat of an ancient cult; the meetings of the Ecclesia were of a religious character and were preceded by a sacrifice to Zeus 'Ayopa70s; nor is it conceivable that, but for its sacred associations, a site would have been chosen so unsuitable for the purposes of a popular assembly as to need the addition of a costly artificial auditorium.
The consciousness of being in the line of apostolic succession helped the English clergy to revert to the principle Ecclesia est in episcopo, and the great periodical conferences of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world have something of the character, though they do not claim the ecumenical authority, of the general councils of the early Church (see Lambeth Conferences).
The De Ecclesia was published by Ulrich von Hutten in 1520; other controversial writings by Otto Brumfels in 1524; and Luther wrote an interesting preface to Epistolae Quaedam, which were published in 1537.
Among these functions were probably jurisdiction in cases of impiety, the supervision of magistrates and the censorship of the morals of citizens, the inhibition of illegal and unconstitutional resolutions in the Five Hundred and the Ecclesia, the examination into the fitness of candidates for office, and the collection of rents from the sacred property (cf.
For this failure the generals were severely criticized at Athens; an inquiry by the boule led to their arrest, and before the ecclesia they aggravated their case by pleading (i.) that the storm made a.
Similarly the Greek word ecclesia (Ekkx'7aia), " assembly," was very early transferred from the community to the building, and is used in both senses, especially in the modern Romance and Celtic languages (e.g.
- In the sense of Christian community (ecclesia) the word " Church " is applied in a narrow sense to any one of the numerous separate organizations into which Christendom is divided (e.g.
Of his numerous works the chief are: The Four Books of Thomas d Kempis on the imitation of Christ (Hung., 1603), of which there are many editions; Diatribe theologica de visibili Christi in terris ecclesia (Graz, '6'5); Vindiciae ecclesiasticae (Vienna, 1620); Sermons for every Sunday in the Year (Hung., Pressburg, 1636); The Triumph of Truth (Hung., Pressburg, 1614).
Bellarmine, De romano pontifice; Wilmers, De christi ecclesia (Regensburg, 1897); Turmel, Histoire de la theologic positive, vol.
By making effective the powers of the Ecclesia (Popular Assembly) the Boule (Council) and Heliaea, Cleisthenes became the true founder of Athenian democracy.
The reference to affranchisement in ecclesia shows that it was composed at a period subsequent to the conversion of the Alamanni to Christianity.
"Ecclesia est in episcopo," wrote St Cyprian (Cyp. iv.
To the north-west lies the parish of Terregles, said to be a corruption of Tir-eglwys (terra ecclesia, that is, "Kirk land").
The members of this ecclesiola in ecclesia pledged themselves "to join together in the Christian profession, to follow Christ the Lord as the righteousness of his people, to walk together in brotherly love, and in the duties of it, in subjection to Mr Glas as their overseer in the Lord, to observe the ordinance of the Lord's Supper once every month, to submit themselves to the Lord's law for removing offences," &c. (Matt.
In the Ecclesia a private citizen might propose another assessment, or the case might be referred to the law courts.
C. Gorham to the benefice of Brampford Speke in spite of the latter's acknowledged disbelief in the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, brought to a crisis the position within the Church of England of those who believed in that Church as a legitimate part of the infallible Ecclesia docens.
south of Prague, and partly at Krakowitz in the immediate neighbourhood of the capital, occasionally giving a course of open-air preaching, but finding his chief employment in maintaining that copious correspondence of which some precious fragments still are extant, and in the composition of the treatise, De Ecclesia, which subsequently furnished most of the material for the capital charges brought against him, and was formerly considered the most important of his works, though it is mainly a transcript of Wycliffe's work of the same name.
Autograph copies of his work De Ecclesia and of the controversial tracts which he had written against Paletz and Stanislaus of Znaim having been acknowledged by him, the extracted propositions on which the prosecution based their charge of heresy were read; but as soon as the accused began to enter upon his defence, he.
The propositions which had been extracted from the De Ecclesia were again brought up, and the relations between Wycliffe and Huss were discussed, the object of the prosecution being to fasten upon the latter the charge of having entirely adopted the doctrinal system of the former, including especially a denial of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
On the 8th of June the propositions extracted from the De Ecclesia were again taken up with some fulness of detail; some of these he repudiated as incorrectly given, others he defended; but when asked to make a general recantation he steadfastly declined, on the ground that to do so would be a dishonest admission of previous guilt.
Largely influenced by his mother, he decided to take holy orders, and in July 1626 he was appointed prebendary of Layton Ecclesia (Leighton Bromswold), Huntingdon.
The Reformation was thus essentially a stage in the disengaging of the modern state from that medieval, international ecclesiastical state which had its beginning in the ecclesia of the Acts of the Apostles.
It would seem as if this sharp, uncompromising reaction was what was needed to produce a popular realization of the contrast between the Ecclesia anglicana of Henry VIII.
In the exercise of its duty as the protector of the laws it must have had power to inhibit in the Four Hundred, or in the Ecclesia, a measure which it judged unconstitutional or in any way prejudicial to the state, and in the levy of fines for violation of law or moral usage it remained irresponsible.
The Council will rely chiefly upon Scripture s in reformandis dogmatibus et instaurandis in ecclesia moribus; the Roman reply to the two sets of articuli of Augsburg, and the Roman counterpart to the (later) Protestant assertion that the Bible 7 is the " only rule of faith and practice."
a Similar development of the idea of the one ecclesia as including all members of all local 1 Ecce Homo, ed.
But the mere history of the word ecclesia does not exhaust the subject.
15-20) probably given to the Twelve, regarding offences against the peace of the society, advocating exclusion only when brotherly appeals had failed; (iii.) the commission of the whole ecclesia or of the Christian ministry (John xx.
The councils were also quoted, and especially that of Nicaea, which does not itself mention the question, but certain texts of which contained the famous gloss: Ecclesia romana semper habuit primatum.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.