It next passed to the crown, and subsequently to the family of St John and to the earls Spencer.
He belonged to a noble family of Scotch descent, tracing its origin to Walter Stutt, who in 1420 accompanied the earls of Buchan and Douglas to the court of France, and whose family afterwards rose to be counts of Tracy.
On the 30th of November 1411 Chicheley, with two other bishops and three earls and the -4 prince of Wales, knelt to the king to receive public thanks for their administration.
The manor is now held by different lords, but the earls of Derby still have a fourth part.
The consequences of this marriage were to alienate many of the most powerful of the nobility, especially the earls of Arran and Home, and to make Margaret entirely dependent on the house of Douglas.
Dukes and earls of Cumberland >>
The legend with regard to the origin of the name Napier was given by Sir Alexander Napier, eldest son of John Napier, in 1625, in these words: "One of the ancient earls of Lennox in Scotland had issue three sons: the eldest, that succeeded him to the earldom of Lennox; the second, whose name was Donald; and the third, named Gilchrist.
The third descended to the earls of Arundel, falling to the share of the duke of Norfolk in 1415, and being divided in 1502 between the families of Howard and Berkeley.
From the earls of Cork it descended by marriage to the dukes of Devonshire.
In the same way earls and barons must only be fined by their peers, and a similar privilege is extended to the clergy, who, moreover, were not to be fined in accordance with the value of their benefices, but only of their other property.
Earls and marquesses of Bristol >>
Its head, the duke of Norfolk, is the first of the dukes and the hereditary earl marshal of England, while the earls of Suffolk, Carlisle and Effingham and the Lord Howard of Glossop represent in the peerage its younger lines.
By his first wife, Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir John Plays, Sir John Howard had a son who died before him, leaving a daughter through whom descended to her issue, the Veres, earls of Oxford, the ancient Norfolk estates of the Howards at East Winch and elsewhere, with the lands of the houses of Scales, Plays and Walton, brought in by the brides of her forefathers.
The bride was Mary, sole heir in her issue of her father Henry, the last of the Fitzalan earls of Arundel.
The Mowbray match had already brought to the Howards the representation of an elder line of the Fitzalan earls, who sat in the seats of their ancestors, the Aubignys and Warennes, great earls near akin to their sovereigns.
And now the younger line, earls of Arundel and Lords Mautravers, were also to have a Howard to represent them.
Thomas, son of the fourth duke of Norfolk's marriage with the daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Audley of Walden, founded the line of the present earls of Suffolk and Berkshire and of the extinct Lords Howard of Escrick.
But three earls of his own house - Carlisle, Suffolk and Berkshire - and the Lord Howard of Escrick, an ex-trooper of Cromwell's guard and an anabaptist sectary, gave their votes against him, his nephew Mowbray being the only peer of his name in the minority for acquittal.
Earls of Ulster >>
From this time, probably, East Anglia was governed by English earls, the most famous of whom were zEthelstan, surnamed Half - King (932-956) and his sons, lEthelwold (956-962), and tEthelwine, surnamed Dei amicus (962-992).
Its charter is said to date from 121 8, and it was the seat of the courts of the earls of Strathearn till 1 747, when heritable jurisdictions were abolished.
The 1st viscount was also the ancestor of the Earls Annesley in the Irish peerage.
"The flight of the earls," one of the most celebrated episodes in Irish history, occurred on the 14th of September 1607, when Tyrone and Tyrconnel embarked at midnight at Rathmullen on Lough Swilly, with their wives, families and retainers, numbering ninety-nine persons, and sailed for Spain.
It was later granted to the earls of Salisbury, who seem to have allowed it to fall into disrepair, for in 1315 and in 1319 the abbot of Sherborne was appointed to inquire into its condition.
for the earls of Cassilis, and passed into the hands of the Stair family in the 17th century.
But perhaps the most celebrated of the early earls was;Ralph, Ranulf, or Randulph, de Blundevill (c. 1172-1232), who succeeded his father Hugh de Kevelioc as earl in 1181, and was created earl of Lincoln in 1217.
Since 1399 the earls of Chester have been also princes of Wales, although the act of Richard II.
Above the entrance are the arms of the Maxwells, earls of Nithsdale, to whose descendant, the duchess of Norfolk, it belongs.
Yet, when Edward was forced by home affairs to quit Scotland, Annandale and certain earldoms, including Carrick, were excepted from the districts he assigned to his followers, Bruce and other earls being treated as waverers whose allegiance might still be retained.
Two days later Isabella, countess of Buchan, claimed the right of her family, the Macduffs, earls of Fife, to place the Scottish king on his throne, and the ceremony was repeated with an addition flattering to the Celtic race.
Earls Warenne >>
Earls of Westmorland >>
Henry de Bohun figures with the earls of Clare and Gloucester among the twenty-five barons who were elected by their fellows to enforce the terms of the Great Charter.
It fell into the hands of the northern earls in 1563, and a garrison was maintained there after the rebellion was crushed.
Many of the Scots princes received their education as wards of the Lords Erskine and the earls of Mar, the last to be thus educated being Henry, the eldest son of James VI.
His cousin and heir, the 6th earl (1657-1666) was uncle of the 8th and 9th earls (1687-1722), both of whom fought for James II.
Earls and marquesses of Winchester >>
Being under the rule of the earls of Northumbria, York is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey.
JOHN HOME (1722-1808), Scottish dramatic poet, was born on the 22nd of September 1722 at Leith, where his father, Alexander Home, who was distantly related to the earls of Home, filled the office of town-clerk.
Coming by marriage into the hands of the earls of March and Plantagenets, the manor was finally vested in the crown.
Throughout the 12th and 13th centuries the castle was strengthened and enlarged under successive earls palatine of Pembroke, who made this fortress their chief seat.
in iiog and again by Earl Richard de Clare in 1154 (who also encircled the town with walls), and these privileges were confirmed and extended under succeeding earls palatine and kings of England.
At this castle Mary queen of Scots was detained in 1569 under the custody of the earls of Huntingdon and Shrewsbury.
Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
The great earldoms of the West-Saxon period were allowed to lapse; the new earls, for the most part closely connected with William by the ties of blood or friendship, were lords of single shires; and only on the marches of the kingdom was the whole of the royal jurisdiction delegated to such feudatories.
In 1075 the king's attention was claimed by a conspiracy of the earls of Hereford and Norfolk, in which the Englishman Waltheof, earl of Northampton, was implicated to some degree.
The earls of the Beauchamp line played a great part in English history.
In 1075 the king's refusal to sanction his marriage with the sister of Roger, earl of Hereford, caused the two earls to revolt.
earls, and so in 1887 to the latter's son as 10th earl.
To the south-east of the church, and divided from it by a screen, is the Derby chapel, the exclusive property of the earls of Derby, whose vault is contained within.
Burlington House, in Piccadilly, built in 1872 on the site of a mansion of the earls of Burlington, houses the Royal Society, the Chemical, Geological, Linnaean and Royal Astronomical Societies, the Society of Antiquaries and the British Association for the Advancement of Science, of which the annual meetings take place at different British or colonial towns in succession.
The result was that Edgar and Earls Edwin and Morkere and " the best men of London " repaired to Berkhampstead, where they submitted themselves and swore fealty to the Conqueror.
Earls and dukes of Bedford >>
1614), 1st and 2nd earls of Orkney, and others, the Scottish xv.
Earls of Plymouth >>
In the summer of 1388 the Scots invaded England by way of Carlisle, sending a small body under the earls of Douglas, Mar and Moray to invade Northumberland.
Hotspur was killed, the earls of Douglas and Worcester, Sir Richard Venables of Kinderton, and Sir Richard Vernon were captured, and the rebel army dispersed.
See NORTHUMBERLAND, EARLS AND DUKES OF; and PERCY: (Family).
Earls of Wemyss >>
There are slight remains of a castle of the O'Donnells, earls of Tyrconnell, where the English, on attempting to besiege it, were defeated and lost heavily in their retreat across the river, in 1597.
(afterwards 1st Viscount St John, a member of a younger branch of the family of the earls of Bolingbroke and barons St John of Bletso), and of Lady Mary Rich, daughter of the 2nd earl of Warwick, was baptized on the 10th of October 1678, and was educated at Eton.
Lord's Island was the residence of the earls of Derwentwater.
Earls and dukes of Argyll >>
In 1070 Malcolm Canmore gave it to Cospatric, earl of Northumberland, ancestor of the earls of Dunbar and March.
Earls and dukes of Northumberland >>
Coronets of Dukes, Marquesses and Earls.
Under the Norman earls of Cornwall this was rebuilt, embattled and furnished with munitions of war.
After 825 we hear of no more kings of Essex, but occasionally of earls.
Earls of Minto >>
In the 18th century the manor passed by marriage to the Courtenays, afterwards earls of Devon, and Robert de Courtenay in 1220 gave the king a palfrey to hold an annual fair at his manor of Okehampton, on the vigil and feast day of St Thomas the Apostle.
Earls and dukes of Atholl >>
To the north of the town is Knowsley Park, the demesne of the earls of Derby, with a mansion of various dates from the 15th century onward, containing a fine collection of pictures.
There are some remains of the ecclesiastic establishments at Bonamargy, where the earls of Antrim are buried, Kells, Glenarm, Glynn, Muckamore and White Abbey.
The 18th-century town house, and some remains of the ancient mansion of the once powerful earls of Ross still exist.
Earls of Rothes >>
He was opposed by the legate Pandulf (1218-1221), who claimed the guardianship of the kingdom for the Holy See; by the Poitevin Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester, who was the young king's tutor; by the foreign mercenaries of John, among whom Falkes de Breaute took the lead; and by the feudal party under the earls of Chester and Albemarle.
He was dragged from the sanctuary at Bury St Edmunds, in which he had taken refuge, and was kept in strait confinement until Richard of Cornwall, the king's brother, and three other earls offered to be his sureties.
In 1534 Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, better known as Silken Thomas (so called because of a fantastic fringe worn in the helmet of his followers), a young man of rash courage and good abilities, son of the Lord Deputy Kildare, believing his father, who was imprisoned in the Tower of London, to have been beheaded, organized a rebellion against the English Government, and marched with his followers from the mansion of the earls of Kildare in Thomas Court, through Dame's Gate to St Mary's Abbey, where, in the council chamber, he proclaimed himself a rebel.
Earls and dukes of Rutland >>
Soon after this it became the absolute property of the de Veres, who were subsequently created Earls of Oxford.
Earls and dukes of Kent >>
He early made himself known as a poet, especially by glorifying the exploits of the contemporary Norse kings and earls; at the same time he was a learned lawyer, and from 1215 became the lOgsiigumaar, or president of the legislative assembly and supreme court of Iceland.
Barons and earls of Dudley >>
Earls of Elgin and Kincardine >>
They remained under the rule of Norse earls until 1231, when the line of the jarls became extinct.
In 1707 the islands were granted to the earl of Morton in mortgage, redeemable by the Crown on payment of 30,000, and subject to an annual feu-duty of 50o; but in 1766 his estates were sold to Sir Lawrence Dundas, ancestor of the earls of Zetland.
appointed both Robert II., earl of Leicester, and Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk, to be his honorary hereditary stewards; and at the Christmas festival of 1186 the successors in title of these two earls, with William, earl of Arundel, who held the similar honorary office of hereditary butler, are described as serving the king at the royal banqueting table.
Subsequently the earls of Leicester bought out the rights of the earls of Norfolk for ten knights' fees.
The subsequent earls and dukes of Lancaster were all recognized as stewards of England, the office apparently being treated as annexed to the earldom, or honor, of Leicester.
Earls of Portsmouth >>
After successively belonging to the earls of Chester and of Derby it passed to Edward Crouchback, earl of Lancaster.
Of the old castles the most notable are Carrigahooly near Newport, said to have been built by the celebrated Grace O'Malley, and Deel Castle near Ballina, at one time the residence of the earls of Arran.
The latter, who commanded the men of Bute at the battle of Falkirk in 1298, had seven sons: (1) Sir Alexander, whose grandson George became in 1389 earl of Angus, the title afterwards passing in the female line to the Douglases, and in 1761 to the duke of Hamilton; (2) Sir Alan of Dreghorn, ancestor of the earls and dukes of Lennox, from whcm Lord Darnley, husband of Queen Mary, and also Lady Arabella Stuart, were descended; (3) Sir Walter, who obtained the barony of Garlies, Wigtownshire, from his uncle John Randolph, earl of Moray, and was the ancestor of the earls of Galloway, younger branches of the family being the Stewarts of Tonderghie, Wigtownshire, and also those of Physgill and Glenturk in the same county; (4) Sir James, who fell at Dupplin in 1332, ancestor of the lords of Lorn, on whose descendants were conferred at different periods the earldoms of Athole, Buchan and Traquair, and who were also the progenitors of the Stewarts of Appin, Argyllshire, and of Grandtully, Perthshire; (5) Sir John, killed at Halidon Hill in 1333; (6) Sir Hugh, who fought under Edward Bruce in Ireland; and (7) Sir Robert of Daldowie, ancestor of the Stewarts of Allanton and of Coltness.
The male representation of the family, being extinct in the royal lines, is claimed by the earls of Galloway and also by the Stewarts of Castlemilk, but the claims of both are more than doubtful.
Earls of Leven and Melville >>
The origin of the earls or counts, on the other hand, is to be found in the governors of large districts (Tacitus's principes), who seem at first generally to have been members of the royal family, though later they were drawn from the highest barons.
P. Earwaker, East Cheshire (1877); John Watson, Memoirs of the Earls of Warren and Surrey (1782).
And if the designation of knights was first applied to the military tenants of the earls, bishops and barons - who although they held their lands of mesne lords owed their services to the king - the extension of that designation to the whole body of military tenants need not have been a very violent or prolonged process.
In the reign of Edward I., whose warlike enterprises after he was king were confined within the four seas, this alteration does not seem to have proceeded very far, and Scotland and Wales were subjugated by what was in the main, if not exclusively, a feudal militia raised as of old by writ to the earls and barons and the sheriffs.'
As Beltz observes, the fame of Sir Reginald Cobham, Sir Walter Manny and the earls of Northampton, Hereford and Suffolk was already established by their warlike exploits, and they would certainly have been among the original companions had the order been then regarded as the reward of military merit only.
And also among the Englishmen there were certain rascals that went afoot with great knives, and they went in among the men of arms, and slew and murdered many as they lay on the ground, both earls, barons, knights and squires, whereof the king of England was after displeased, for he had rather they had been taken prisoners."
The hapless and worthless bridegroom had already incurred the hatred of two powerful enemies, the earls of Morton and Glencairn; but the former of these took part with the queen against the forces raised by Murray, Glencairn and others, under the nominal leadership of Hamilton, duke of Chatelherault, on the double plea of danger to the new religion of the country, and of the illegal proceeding by which Darnley had been proclaimed king of Scots without the needful constitutional assent of the estates of the realm.
Paulet, with loyal and regretful indignation, declined the disgrace proposed to him in a suggestion "to shed blood without law or warrant"; and on the 7th of February the earls of Shrewsbury and Kent arrived at Fotheringay with the commission of the council for execution of the sentence given against his prisoner.
From him it descended by marriage to the earls of Lincoln, and, then passing by marriage to Earl Thomas of Lancaster, it became parcel of the county and later of the duchy of Lancaster; an inquisition of 1352 found that Henry, duke of Lancaster, had 77s.
The last was once the town house of the earls of March, but was presented to Peebles byWilliam Chambers, the publisher, in 1859.
Its first owners were Tweeddale Frasers or Frisels, from whom it passed, by marriage, to the Hays of Yester in Haddingtonshire, earls of Tweeddale.
They lived in very different circles, one surrounded by dukes and earls, the other by starving pamphleteers and indexmakers.
Earls of Rothelin Rothes >>
In the 12th and 13th centuries the Lindsays and the earls of March and Dunbar were the chief baronial families.
Melville House, the seat of the earls of Leven, lies amidst beautiful woods.
Wales and its marches were brought into legal union with the rest of England by the statutes of Wales (1534-1536); and after the Pilgrimage of Grace the Council of the North was set up to bring into subjection the extensive jurisdictions of the northern earls.
Conciliation was also tried with some success; plantation schemes were rejected in favour of an attempt to Anglicize the Irish; their chieftains were created earls and endowed with monastic lands; and so peaceful was Ireland in 1542 that the lord-deputy could send Irish kernes and gallowglasses to fight against the Scots.
William the Conqueror's earl of Northumberland, Robert de Comines, was slain at Durham in 1069, and the houses of Gospatric (earls of Dunbar and March) and of de Comines (the Comyns of Badenoch) were long puissant in Scottish history.
His charters to landowners and burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, but now more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents for the unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted the under kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites, or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, though Celtic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in the Celtic regions, as in Galloway.
The germ of a parliament existed in the crown vassals and the royal officials - chancellor, steward, constable, marischal and the rest - with bishops, priors, earls, barons and other probi homines.
Offences were no longer against the individual and his kin, but against the king's peace, or against the peace of subordinate holders of courts - earls, thanes, barons, bishops and abbots.
The bishop of St Andrews was for Baliol, he of Glasgow was for Bruce; and the Baliol party, the seven earls complain, was ravaging Moray.
These seven earls appear to represent the old rulers of the seven provinces of Pictland, and asserted ancient claims to elect a king.
The earls of Mar and March also lost their lands, on one pretext or another: James's policy was plainly to break the power of the nobles.
FitzWilliam Elliot, in The Trustworthiness of Border Ballads, pp. 136-138.) Among the dead were thirteen earls, and James's son, the archbishop of St Andrews.
It is impossible here to follow the course of the strife, in which the godly were led by the earls of Gowrie and Angus.
The kirk was strong enough to compel James to march, more than once, against the Catholic earls, Huntly, Errol, Angus and others.
As Bothwell had become a Catholic, they excommunicated him in 1595: in 1596 James resolved to recall the exiled Catholic peers; the commissioners of the General Assembly, alarmed and infuriated, met in Edinburgh, ordered a day of humiliation, decided to excommunicate the Catholic earls and established a kind of revolutionary committee of public safety.
About a mile from Kilwinning is Eglinton Castle, the seat of the earls of Eglinton, built in 1798 in the English castellated style.
Five kings are mentioned in connexion with this veritable invasion of England, and many earls.
Earls and dukes of Sutherland >>
Earls, marquesses and dukes of Queensberry >>
Chichester's policy for dealing with the situation thus created was to divide the lands of the fugitive earls among Irishmen of standing and character; but the plantation of Ulster as actually carried out was much less favourable and just to the native population than the lord-deputy desired.
The castle, the ruins of which are in part of Norman date, was the seat of the earls of Cornwall, and was frequently besieged during the civil wars of the 17th century.
Sir George Lockhart purchased the extensive estates of the earls of Carnwath in Lanarkshire, which were inherited by his eldest son, George, whose mother was Philadelphia, daughter of Lord Wharton.
granted the borough to Sir George Rivers, through whom it was obtained by the Sackvilles, earls of Dorset.
To the east of the burgh is Cromarty House, occupying the site of the old castle of the earls of Ross.
Earls and dukes of Albemarle >>
34 earls of Devon, until the 16th century, the castle was dismantled by Fairfax.
He was now the first man in the kingdom, though his power was still balanced by that of the other great earls, Leofric of Mercia and Siward of Northumberland.
Earls and dukes of Richmond >>
The new oak roof is emblazoned with the arms of the Scottish and later British monarchs, and of the old earls of Strathearn.
distant, there are more extensive ruins of its castle, originally the seat of the Turbervilles, lords of Coity, but now belonging to the earls of Dunraven.
Earls, marquesses and dukes of Buckingham >>
Thenceforth, in spite of attempts to set aside the grant, the earls and subsequently the dukes of Cornwall were the lords of Saltash.
Earls of Angus >>
It drew its main revenues from tolls levied at the Mersey ferry; and its prior sat in the parliament of the earls of Chester, enjoying all the dignities and privileges of a Palatinate baron.
Near Kilbirnie Place, a modern mansion, are the ruins of Kilbirnie Castle, an ancient seat of the earls of Crawford, destroyed by fire in 1757.
The seat of the earls of Kingston was built in 1823.
Earls and dukes of Roxburghe >>
The lords of the different territories belonged to five orders of nobility, corresponding closely to the dukes, marquises, earls, counts and barons of feudal Europe.
Earls of Bessborough >>
After the Yorkist failure at Ludlow field in October 1459, Edward fled with the earls of Salisbury and Warwick, his uncle and cousin, to Calais.
Hastily gathering an army he defeated the earls of Pembroke and Wiltshire at Mortimer's Cross on the 2nd of February 1461, and then marched on London.
He endeavoured to persuade Lord Hawkesbury (see Liverpool, Earls Of) to join in a scheme for turning an old friend out of the India Office.
On the shore of the Irish Sea is Leasowe Castle, once known as Mock-Beggar Hall, and supposed to have been erected by the earls of Derby in the reign of Elizabeth, in order to witness the horse-races held here.
He was more or less encouraged by the earls of Desmond and Kildare.
A crescent is used as a difference to denote the second son of a house; thus the earls of Harrington place a crescent upon a crescent, as descending from the second son of a second son.
Barons and earls of Morley >>
Immediately afterwards the two earls rebelled.
Under two kings named Halfdan and Bacsceg, and six earls, they seized Reading and began to harry Berkshire, Surrey and Hampshire.
In Denmark the younger claimant was acknowledged by the whole people, but in England the Mercian and Northumbrian earls chose Harold as king, and Wessex only fell to Harthacnut.
But when he filled his court with them, made them earls and bishops, and appointed one of them, Robert of Jumiges, to the archbishopric of Canterbury, his undisguised preference for strangers gave no small offence to his English subjects.
He was habitually overruled and dominated by his earls, of whom three, Leofric, Godwine and Siwardall old servants of Canutehad far moIe power than their master.
The witan cbose the earl as king without any show of doubt, though the assent of the Mercian and Northumbrian earls must have been half-hearted: Not a word was said in favor of the claim of the child Edgar, the heir of the house of Alfred, nothing (of course) for the preposterous claim of William of Normandy.
They ran into the Humber with a great fleet, beat the earls Edvin and Morcar in battle, and captured York.
But the earls Edwin and Morcar refused to fight for him, and when William appeared in front of the gates of London.
In some parts the insurrections were in favor of the sons of Harold, in others Edgar ~ltheling was acclaimed as king: and while the unwise earls Edwin and Morcar fought for their own hand, the Anglo-Danes of the East sent for Sweyn, king of Denmark, who proved of small help, for he abode but a short space in England, and went off after sacking the great abbey of Peterborough and committing other outrages.
The palatine earls of Chester and Shrewsbury were not only endowed with special powers and rights of jurisdiction, but were almost the only tenants-in-chief within their respective shires.
He made a complete end of the old English system by which great earls ruled many shires: there were to be no Godwines or Leofrics under the Norman rule.
where earls were created, and they were but few, their authority was usually restricted to a single shire.
England, in short, was reorganized into a state of the continental type, but one differing from France or Germany in that the crown had not lost so many of its regalities as abroad, and that even the greater earls had less power than the ordinary continental tenant-in-chief.
And in judicial matters the higher rights of royal justice remain intact, except in the few cases where special privileges have been granted to one or two palatine earls.
The advance was begun by his great vassals, the earls of Chester, Shrewsbury and Hereford, all of whom occupied new districts on the edge of the mountains of Powys and Gwynedd.
He put them down with ease; the one was imprisoned for life, the other driven into exile, while Waltheof, the last of the English earls, who had dabbled in a hesitating way in this plot, was executed.
In 1095 the same body of barons made a second and a more formidable rising, headed by the earls of Shrewsbury, Eu and Northumberland.
At the sftme moment the king of Sects iflvadedNorthumberlund, and the earls of Norfolk, Chester and Leicester rose in the name of the younger Henry.
The justiciar, Richard de Lucy, routed the army of the earl of Leicester at Fornham in Snifolk, the castles of the rebel earls were subdued one after another, and William of Scotland was surprised and captured by a force of northern loyalists while he was besieging Alnwick (1173-1174).
Their allies fared less well; the rebel earls were subjected to heavy fines, and their strongholds were demolished.
At Easter, nothing having, been yet obtained from the king, an army headed by five earls, forty barons, and Giles Braose, bishop of Hereford, mustered at Stamford and marched on.
Yet he was so frankly impossible as a ruler that, save the earls of Pembroke and Chester, all his English followers had left him, and he had no one to back him but the papal legate Gualo and a band of foreign mercenaries.
At Lincoln, on the 20th of May 1217, the marshal completely defeated an Anglo-French army commanded by the count of Perche and the earls of Winchester and Hereford.
He himself was too much like a dictator; even his own followers complained that he was over-masterful, and the most important of them, the young earl of Gloucester, was gradually estranged from him by finding his requests often refused and his aims crossed by the old earls action.
they returned to their evil practice he imprisoned the chief offenders, the earls of Hereford and Gloucester, forfeited their estates, and only gave them back when they had paid vast fines (1291).
At the same time the barons, headed by the earls of Norfolk and Hereford, raised the old grievance about feudal service beyond seas, which had been so prominent in the time of King John.
It was called, and made a liberal grant for that purpose, but Archbishop Winchelsea and the earls of Norfolk and Hereford took advantage of their masters needs, and of his absence, to assert themselves.
The king knew how to yield, and even opponents like Winchelsea and the earls of Norfolk and Hereford respected him too much to drive him to an extremity.
He had several powerful baronial alliesthe earls of Warwick, Pembroke and Warenne, with Humphrey Bohun of Hereford, who had succeeded to his fathers politics, though he had married the kings own sister.
At the same time Gloucesters two chief Gloucester confederates of 1387, the earls of Arundel and Warwick, and the were tried and sentenced to death: the former was ~0~eSl1anL actually executed, the latter imprisoned for life.
their lives, after earls.
The earls of Kent and Huntingdon, close kinsmen of Richard on his mothers side, the earl of Salisbury-a noted LOllardand the lords Despenser and Lumley took arms at midwinter (Jan.
The rising of the earls was only the first and the least dangerous of the trials of Henry IV.
half the nobility of Scotland had been captured in the battle, and Northumberland intended to fill his coffers with their ransoms; but the king looked upon them as state prisoners and announced his intention of taking them out of the earls hands.
Edward himself was captured at Olney and put into Edward a the earls hands.
ing the queens father, Lord Rivers, and her brother, John Woodville, as well as the newly-created earls of Pembroke and Devon, were put to death with Warwicks cOnnivance, if not by his direct orders.
Devon rose in the Lancastrian interest; Kent, where the earls name had always been popular, took arms a -.
Prosperity seems to have revived early during the rule of York; Warwick had cleared the seas of pirates, and both he and King Edward were great patrons of commerce, though the earls policy was to encourage trade with France, while his master wished to knit up the old alliance with Flanders by adhering Corn- to the cause of Charles of Burgundy.
The duke of Norfolk was a Protestant, but his convictions were weaker than his ambition, and he fell a victim to Marys unseen charms. The Catholic north of England ~~ was to rise under the earls of Westmorland and andexNorthumberland, who objected to Elizabeths seizure communiof their mines and jurisdictions as well as to her proscription of their faith; and the pope was to assist with a bull of deposition.
Norfolk, however, played the coward; the bull came nearly a year too late, and the rebellion of the earls (1569) was easily crushed.
Ireland, too, had been thoroughly overpowered at the end of Elizabeths~ reign, and the flight of the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel in 5607 had been, followed by the settlement of English and Scottish colonists in Ulster, a measure which, in the way in which it was undertaken, sowed the seeds of future evils, but undoubtedly conduced to increase the immediate strength of the English government in Ireland.
Sir Maurice Berkeley of Bruton, a cadet of Stoke Giffard, was forefather of the Viscounts Fitzhardinge, the Lords Berkeley of Stratton (1658-1773) and the earls of Falmouth, all extinct, the Berkeleys of Stratton bequeathing their great London estate, including Berkeley Square and Stratton Street, to the main line.
It was occupied in 1584 by the earls of Angus and Mar, the Protestant leaders, who, however, fled to England on the approach of the king.
Earls and dukes of Gloucester >>
to Sir John Russell, ancestor of the earls of Bedford.
The principal races - the Derby and Oaks - are named after one of the earls of Derby and his seat, the Oaks, which is in the neighbourhood.
This last stands on a hill to the east of the town, occupying the site of the 12thcentury castle which was one of the strongholds of the Macduffs, thanes or earls of Fife.
Men of good birth (nearly always, too, of Celtic blood on one side at least), they leave Iceland young and attach themselves to the kings and earls of the north, living in their courts as their henchmen, sharing their adventures in weal and woe, praising their victories, and hymning their deaths if they did not fall by their sides - men of quick passion, unhappy in their loves, jealous of rival poets and of their own fame, ever ready to answer criticism with a satire or with a sword-thrust, but clinging through all to their art, in which they attained most marvellous skill.
Such men were Egil, the foe of Eirik Bloodaxe and the friend of lEthelstan; Kormak, the hot-headed champion; Eyvind, King Haakon's poet, called Skaldaspillir, because he copied in his dirge over that king the older and finer Eiriksmal; Gunnlaug, who sang at Ã†thelred's court, and fell at the hands of a brother bard, Hrafn; Hallfred, Olaf Tryggvason's poet, who lies in Iona by the side of Macbeth; Sighvat, Saint Olaf's henchman, most prolific of all his comrades; Thormod, Coalbrow's poet, who died singing after Sticklestad battle; Ref, Ottar the Black, Arnor the earls' poet, and, of those whose poetry was almost confined to Iceland, Gretti, Biorn the Hitdale champion, and the two model Icelandic masters, Einar Skulason and Markus the Lawman, both of the 12th century.
The complex work now known as Orkneyinga is made up of the Earls' Saga, lives of the first great earls, Turf-Einar, Thorfinn, &c.; the Life of St Magnus, founded partly on Abbot Robert's Latin life of him (c. 1150) an Orkney work, partly on Norse or Icelandic biographies; a Mirade-book of the same saint; the Lives of Earl Rognwald and Sveyn, the last of the vikings, and a few episodes such as the Burning of Bishop Adam.
The saga has already been shown in two forms, its original epic shape and its later development applied to the lives of Norwegian and Danish kings and earls, as heroic but deeper and broader subjects than before.
family and contains the remains of sixteen earls.
Among the subsequent lords were Henry de Beaumont and Alice his wife, Sir Edward Hastings, created Baron Hastings of Loughborough in 1558, Colonel Henry Hastings, created baron in 1645, and the earls of Huntingdon.
Earls of Derby >>
fol., 1724-1734) ran through many editions before it was reprinted at the Clarendon Press (6 vols., 1823, and supplementary volume, 1833) with the suppressed passages of the first volume and notes by the earls of Dartmouth and Hardwicke, with the remarks of Swift.
The other as the Upper (Eighter) M`William took Galway, and from him the earls of Clanricarde afterwards sprung.
The earls of Shrewsbury are still earls of Waterford, and retain the right to carry the white staff as hereditary stewards, but the palatinate jurisdiction over Wexford was taken away by Henry VIII.
For the first six years of Edward's reign the two Geraldine earls engrossed official power.
Louth, Kildare and a part of Meath, and within this (1509- narrow limit the earls of Kildare were really more 1547).
O'Neill and O'Brien went to London to be invested as earls of Tyrone and Thomond respectively.
O'Donnell, whose descendants became earls of Tyrconnel, went to court and was well received.
The " flight of the earls," as it is called, completed the ruin of the Celtic cause.
O'Dogherty, chief of Inishowen, and foreman of the grand jury which found a bill for treason against the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, was insulted by Sir George Paulet, the governor of Derry.
Among other historic families connected with Lincolnshire were the Wakes of Bourne and the d'Eyncourts, who flourished at Blankney from the Conquest to the reign of Henry VI.; Belvoir Castle was founded by the Toenis, from whom it passed by the Daubeneys, then to the Barons Ros and later to the Manners, earls of Rutland.
For their success against the earls of Kent and Salisbury Henry IV.
It was granted by William Rufus to Earl Warenne, through whose family it passed in 1347 to the earls of Arundel.
After being in the possession of the earls of Clare and Hertford, and of the earls of Gloucester, it became the property of the Staffords, and on the attainder of the duke of Buckingham in the reign of Henry VIII.
Earls of Home >>
Finlarig Castle, a picturesque mass of ivy-clad ruins, was a stronghold of the Campbells of Glenorchy, and several earls of Breadalbane were buried in ground adjoining it, where the modern mausoleum of the family stands.
heir apparent of the earls of Donoughmore is usually styled.
In 827 Ludeca, the successor of Beornwulf, was slain in battle with five of his earls.
In the last century of the Saxon period the earls of Mercia frequently occupied a semi-royal position.
ancestor of the earls of Oxford and held as tenant-in-chief in Cambridge, Essex, Huntingdonshire, and Suffolk.
It was the head of a barony held by the Earls of Dunbar, who had the power of inflicting capital punishment.
Doune castle A magnificent 14th century courtyard castle, once the ancestral home of the Earls of Moray.
century courtyard castle, once the ancestral home of the Earls of Moray.
earls court london the NEC birmingham national exhibition center and manchester Gmex.
A large number of Earls, Bishops, Abbots, and other ecclesiastics, would swell the procession at the double ceremony.
In the 1950's the American evangelist, Dr. Billy Graham, took the nation by storm with his Crusades at Earls Court.
magnificent 14th century courtyard castle, once the ancestral home of the Earls of Moray.
On the other side of the lane was Earls Hall, a medieval manor house and farm.
The white saltire is derived from the arms of the de Vere family, the heirs to the original Earls of Essex.
The green wyverns derive from the crest of the Herberts, Earls of Powis and Montgomery.
Earls and marquesses of Worcester >>
and the souls of Henry V., Thomas, duke of Clarence, and all the dukes, earls, barons, knights, squires and other nobles and subjects of our father who during the time and in the service of our father and ourselves ended their lives in the wars of the kingdom of France, and for the souls of all the faithful departed."
The consequences of this marriage were to alienate many of the most powerful of the nobility, especially the earls of Arran and Home, and to make Margaret entirely dependent on the house of Douglas; while it furnished the council with a pretext for removing her from the regency and guardianship of the king in favour of Albany in July 1515.
On the 17th of October 1593 a convention of delegates was held at Edinburgh at which a committee was appointed to follow the king and lay before him in a personal interview certain instructions relating to the punishment of the rebellious Popish earls and the safety of the church.
Soc., 3 vols., Dublin, 1879); also History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland (Dublin, 1882); John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees (Dublin, 1881); The Montgomery MSS., " The Flight of the Earls, 1607" (p. 767), edited by George Hill (Belfast, 1878); Thomas Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde (3 vols., London, 1 735); C. P. Meehan, Fate and Fortunes of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donel, Earl of Tyrconnel (Dublin, 1886); Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors, with an Account of the Earlier History (3 vols., London, 1885-1890); J.
Raglan Castle, near Monmouth, now a beautiful ruin, was the seat of the earls and the ist marquess of Worcester, until it was besieged by the Parliamentarians in 1646, and after its capitulation was dismantled.
Lanfranc's greatest political service to the Conqueror was rendered in 1075, when he detected and foiled the conspiracy which had been formed by the earls of Norfolk and Hereford.
The place derived its name from its use by the earls of Fife as a ferry to the opposite shore of Haddington, 8 m.
on his youngest son Edmund of Woodstock, and subsequently passed to the families of Holland and Neville (see Kent, Earls And Dukes Of).
The last of these earls of Leicester to inherit the hereditary stewardship was Simon V.
But in 1607, by "the flight of the Earls" (see O'Neill), he was relieved of the presence of the two formidable Ulster chieftains, the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell.
In the north aisle of the chancel there are several ancient monuments of the earls of Arundel.
in 1688; and her two sons were successively created earls of Shelburne, but on their death without issue the Petty estates passed to their sister, Anne, and after her marriage to the 1st earl of Kerry the Shelburne title was revived in her son's favour (see under Lansdowne, Ist Marquess).
In 1733 Charles inherited the dukedom of Marlborough and he then transferred the Sunderland estates to his brother John, father of the 1st Earl Spencer (see Marlborough, Earls And Dukes Of).
His second wife, Hugh's mother, by whom he was ancestor of the earls of Tyrconnel (see below), was Judith, sister of Conn Bacach O'Neill, ist earl of Tyrone, and aunt of Shane O'Neill.
In September 1607 " the flight of the earls " (see O'Neill) took place, Tyrconnel and Tyrone reaching Rome in April 1608, where Tyrconnel died on the 28th of July.
Playing the part of the demagogue, and exaggerating all his nephews petulant acts and sayings, he declared the constitution in danger, and took arms at the head of a party of peers, the earls of Warwick, Arundel and Nottingham, and Henry, earl of Derby, the son of John of The Gaunt, who called themselves the lords appellant, lords because they were ready to appeal Richards appel- councillors of treason.
The city was founded in 1804 and takes its name from Lord Hobart (see Buckinghamshire, Earls Of), then secretary of state for the colonies.
Such men were Egil, the foe of Eirik Bloodaxe and the friend of lEthelstan; Kormak, the hot-headed champion; Eyvind, King Haakon's poet, called Skaldaspillir, because he copied in his dirge over that king the older and finer Eiriksmal; Gunnlaug, who sang at Ãƒâ€ thelred's court, and fell at the hands of a brother bard, Hrafn; Hallfred, Olaf Tryggvason's poet, who lies in Iona by the side of Macbeth; Sighvat, Saint Olaf's henchman, most prolific of all his comrades; Thormod, Coalbrow's poet, who died singing after Sticklestad battle; Ref, Ottar the Black, Arnor the earls' poet, and, of those whose poetry was almost confined to Iceland, Gretti, Biorn the Hitdale champion, and the two model Icelandic masters, Einar Skulason and Markus the Lawman, both of the 12th century.
After a futile attempt to injure England by giving support to the earl of Tyrone in Ireland (see TYRONE, EARLS OF) peace was made between the powers in 1604.
Earls, however, were still entitled to take a third of the proceeds from shire courts.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.