Earliest sentence example

earliest
  • Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone, Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne.
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  • The earliest written record of the introduction of domesticated cats into Great Britain dates from about A.D.
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  • In the earliest periods of Christian art this splendour was confined to the figures of the persons of the Godhead, but it was afterwards extended to the Virgin Mary and to several of the saints.
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  • In the very earliest centuries we find the episcopate, united in council,, drawing up symbols of faith, which every believer was bound to accept under pain of exclusion, condemning heresies, and casting out heretics.
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  • The remains of the amphitheatre are scanty; many of its stones have gone to build the city wall, which must, therefore, at the earliest belong to the end of the classical period.
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  • Their earliest writers regarded the latter as the seat of the oldest and most godlike of mankind.
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  • Bishop Williams, a kinsman of Cromwell's, relates at this time that he was "a common spokesman for sectaries, and maintained their part with great stubbornness"; and his earliest extant letter (in 1635) is an appeal for subscriptions for a puritan lecturer.
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  • Many adaptations for the Italian stage were produced between the years 1486 and 1550, the earliest (the Menaechmi) under the direction of Ercole I., duke of Ferrara.
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  • Chadwick (Studies on AngloSaxon Institutions, 1905) says that "the sense of subordination must have been inherent in the word from the earliest time," but it has no connexion with the German dienen, to serve.
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  • The branch railway connecting Whitstable with Canterbury was one of the earliest in England, opened in 1830.
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  • The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century.
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  • The invention of the damper-pedal in the pianoforte epitomizes the difference between polyphony and symphonic art, for it is the earliest device by which sounds are produced and prolonged in a way contrary to the spirit of "real" part-writing.
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  • This material dates from the earliest times down to the commencement of our era.
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  • One of the earliest monuments records the purchase by a king of a large estate for his son, paying a fair market price and adding a handsome honorarium to the many owners in costly garments, plate, and precious articles of furniture.
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  • The earliest instrument of this kind was the Hunnings transmitter, patented in 1878.
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  • In the earliest telephone switchboards the lines were connected to vertical conducting strips, across which were placed a series of similar horizontal strips in such a manner that any horizontal could be connected to any line strip by the insertion of a plug into holes provided in the strips for the purpose.
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  • (~) It is difficult to point to any definite evidence by which we may determine the dates of the earliest appearance of Gallic tribes in the north of Italy.
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  • The Via Flaminia was the earliest and most important road to the north; and it was soon extended (in 187 B.C.) by the Via Aemilia running through Bononia as far as Placentia, in an almost absolutely straight line between the plain of the P0 and the foot of the Apennines.
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  • Thus began that system of mixed government, Teutonic and Roman, which, in the absence of a national monarch, impressed the institutions of new Italy from the earliest date with dualism.
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  • We may reckon these measures among the earliest advantages extended to the cities, which still contained the bulk of the old Roman population, and which were destined to intervene with decisive effect two centuries later in Italian history.
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  • The names of some of these earliest captains of adventure, Fra Moriale, Count Lando and Duke Werner, who styled himself the Enemy of God and Mercy, have been preserved to us.
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  • They wrote the history of Rome from the earliest times (in most cases) down to their own days, the events of which were treated in much greater detail.
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  • Valerius Antias, a younger contemporary of Quadrigarius, wrote the history of Rome from the earliest times, in a voluminous work consisting of seventy-five books.
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  • The earliest commentator of note was Sir Edward Coke, who published his Second Institute, which deals with Magna Carta, by order of the Long Parliament in 1642.
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  • Perhaps the earliest of such specializations is connected with the reproductive function.
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  • The earliest churches were without the walls.
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  • Among the earliest of these speculations is that put forward by Benoit de Maillet in his Telliained, which, though printed in 1735, was not published until twenty-three years later.
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  • Notwithstanding the origin of organs, it still for a certain time, by reason of its want of an internal bony skeleton, remains worm and mollusk, and only later enters into the series of the Vertebrata, although traces of the vertebral column even in the earliest periods testify its claim to a place in that series."
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  • On the other hand, it is clear that all the faithful were subject to these courts (when acting within their own sphere), and that, in the earliest times, no distinction was made in this respect between clergy and laity.
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  • An exact and conscientious worker, he did much to improve and systematize the processes of analytical chemistry and mineralogy, and his appreciation of the value of quantitative methods led him to become one of the earliest adherents of the Lavoisierian doctrines outside France.
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  • The earliest charter to the citizens of Ghent was that granted by Count Philip of Flanders between 1169 and 1191.
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  • The chief Lenten food from the earliest days was fish, and entries in the royal household accounts of Edward III.
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  • The earliest record of an apothecary's shop in London was in 1345.
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  • In 1566 at earliest Luria removed to Safed.
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  • Orpheus, in the manner of his death, was considered to personate the god Dionysus, and was thus the representative of the god torn to pieces every year, a ceremony enacted by the Bacchae in the earliest times with a human victim, afterwards with a bull to represent the bull-formed god.
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  • The earliest scientific result of the study of plants was the recognition of the fact that the various parts of the body are associated with the performance of different kinds of physiological work; that they are, in fact, organs discharging special functions.
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  • It is generally admitted that life originated in water, and that the earliest plants were Algae.
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  • The earliest attempts to deal with the first branch of the inquiry may be called physiognomical.
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  • The Phoenicians are the earliest Mediterranean people in the consecutive chain of geographical discovery which joins prehistoric time with the present.
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  • The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.
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  • In April 1520 Vasco da Gama, as viceroy of the Indies, took a fleet into the Red sea, and landed an embassy consisting of Dom Rodriguez de Lima and Father Francisco Alvarez, a priest whose detailed narrative is the earliest and not the least interesting account we possess of Abyssinia.
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  • 2 This phrase is old, appearing in one of the earliest English works on geography, William Cuningham's Cosmographical Glasse conteinyng the pleasant Principles of Cosmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie or Navigation (London, 1559).
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  • " Bird," when it passed from its earliest meaning of " nestlings," seems to have been applied to the smaller, and " fowl " to the larger species, a distinction which was retained by Johnson.
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  • Abundant charters from early Saxon monarchs are extant confirming various laws and privileges to the abbey, and the earliest of these, from King Ceadwalla, was granted before A.D.
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  • The earliest settlement there goes back to neolithic times, but it was already a fortified city when Elam was conquered by Sargon of Akkad (3800 B.C.) and Susa became the seat of a Babylonian viceroy.
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  • - The earliest writer on patristics was Jerome, whose book De viris illustribus gives a brief account of one hundred and thirty-five Church writers, beginning with St Peter and ending with himself.
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  • It is said that in his earliest boyhood Andrea was, like Giotto, put to shepherding or cattle-herding; this is not likely, and can at any rate have lasted only a very short while, as his natural genius for art developed with singular precocity, and excited the attention of Francesco Squarcione, who entered him in the gild of painters before he had completed his eleventh year.
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  • There were no doubt in the earliest times popular songs orally transmitted and perhaps books - of annals and laws, but except in so far as remnants meat- of them are embedded in the biblical books, they have Scrip- entirely disappeared.
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  • The traditional view that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch in its present form, would make this the earliest monument of Hebrew literature.
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  • As being a constant object of study numerous commentaries have been written on the Talmud from the earliest times till the present.
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  • The earliest existing codification of the prayerbook is the Siddur (order) drawn up by Amram Gaon of Sura about 850.
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  • The earliest account is that contained in the Commentaries of Julius Caesar.
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  • The dioxide has been known since the earliest times and is found as a naturally occurring product in the gaseous exhalations of volcanoes and in solution in some volcanic springs.
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  • Its striated plumage also favours this view, as an evidence of permanent immaturity or generalization of form, since striped feathers are so often the earliest clothing of many of these birds, which only get rid of them at their first moult.
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  • Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
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  • The work of Fordun is the earliest attempt to write a continuous history of Scotland.
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  • It was the basis of the earliest specimen of Provençal literature.
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  • It was not till 1633 that the Dutch attempted to enter into alliance with the native princes, and their earliest permanent settlement at Port Badung only dates from 1845.
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  • Bede gives no information about its origin except that its earliest settlers were Angles.
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  • Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
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  • From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.
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  • Soloviev's history, from the earliest times to 1774, is based throughout on original investigation of sources, and therefore, though inferior to Karamzin's work as literature, is incomparably superior to it in authority.
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  • Temple C is the earliest of those on the acropolis.
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  • The earliest temple must have been erected soon after the foundation of the city, while the later building which superseded it dates from shortly after 600 B.C. The propylon, on the other hand, may date from after 409 B.C.
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  • The earliest examples used in that country, apart from a small experimental model constructed by Peter Cooper, came from England.
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  • - The earliest legislation is contained in charters granted by special act, for the construction of railways.
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  • Such bodies, established to appraise land for railway purposes, to apportion receipts and expenditures of interstate traffic, and in a general way to supervise railway transportation, had been in existence in New England before 1860, one of the earliest being that of Rhode Island in 1839.
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  • The earliest arrangement of this kind was patented by John Blenkinsop, of the Middleton Colliery, near Leeds, in 1811, and an engine built on his plan by Mathew Murray, also of Leeds, began in 1812 to haul coals from Middleton to Leeds over a line 32 m.
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  • One of the earliest and best known of such " gravity " yards is that at Edgehill, near Liverpool, on the London & North-Western railway, which was established in 1873.
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  • There are numerous older and uncritical biographies by members of the Society; best and earliest are De vita Francisca Xaverii.
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  • The earliest communications were carried on by means of "raps," or, as Sir William Crookes calls them, "percussive sounds."
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  • The earliest of these phenomena were the raps already spoken of and other sounds occurring without apparent physical cause, and the similarly mysterious movements of furniture and other objects; and these were shortly followed by the ringing of bells and playing of musical instruments.
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  • The earliest known edition of the Compendious Book of Psalms and Spiritual Songs (of which an unique copy is extant) dates back to 1567, though the contents were probably published in broad sheets during John Wedderburn's lifetime.
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  • The association in the synoptics of the earliest eucharist with the paschal sacrifice provided a model, and long after the eucharist was separated with the agape on other days of the year, we still find celebrated on the evening of Maundy Thursday the sacrifice of the [[Paschal (disambiguation)|paschal ]], immediately followed by an eucharist.
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  • The tradition of the earliest document J ascribes the worship of Yahweh to much earlier times, in fact to the dawn of human life.
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  • We also know that from earliest times Israel believed in the evil as well as good spirits.
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  • Certayne Ecloges of Alexander Barclay, Priest, written in his youth, were probably printed as early as 1513, although the earliest extant edition is that in John Cawood's reprint (1570) of the Ship of Fools.
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  • They form, with the exception of Henryson's Robin and Makyn, the earliest examples of the English pastoral.
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  • The earliest remains near the site go ' For a discussion of this question see Kathleen Schlesinger, The Instruments of the Orchestra, part ii., and especially chapters on the cithara in transition during the middle ages, and the question of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter, in which the evolution of the cithara is traced at some length.
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  • Amongst the earliest mechanical contrivances of Fraunhofer was a machine for polishing mathematically uniform spherical surfaces.
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  • Of these the earliest were Watson's Apology (1776), Salisbury's Strictures (1776) and Chelsum's (anonymous) Remarks (1776).
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  • The earliest recorded public meeting was held at Mormon Station (now Genoa) on the 12th of November 1851.
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  • The mosaics of the 5th century, in the dome, are the earliest and perhaps the finest at Ravenna for their splendid decorative effect and rich colouring, and are less stiff and conventional than the later mosaics.
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  • The campanile (850-878) is circular, and has perhaps the earliest example of the use of disks of coloured majolica as a decoration.
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  • This, as well as the word pecunia for money (pecus, cattle), indicates the fact of cattle having been the earliest Italian medium of exchange.
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  • The earliest pure Latin inscriptions of the district seem to be C.I.L.
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  • The earliest local inscriptions date from about 300 to 150 B.C. and include the interesting and difficult bronze of Lake Fucinus, which seems to record a votive offering to Angitia, if A(n)ctia, as is probable, was the local form of her name.
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  • But many of the laws were quite unsuitable for the circumstances of his age, and the belief that a body of intricate and even contradictory legislation was imposed suddenly upon a people newly emerged from bondage in Egypt raises insurmountable objections, and underestimates the fact that legal usage existed in the earliest stages of society, and therefore in pre-Mosaic times.
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  • But the contents of early tombs and dwellings and indications supplied by such objects as stone vases and seal-stones show that the Cretans had already attained to a considerable degree of culture, and had opened out communication with the Nile valley in the time of the earliest Egyptian dynasties.
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  • One part of her religious being survives in that of the later Rhea, another in that of Aphrodite, one of whose epithets, Ariadne (= the exceeding holy), takes us back to the earliest Cnossian tradition.
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  • It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
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  • - Lying midway between three continents, Crete was from the earliest period a natural stepping-stone for the passage of early culture from Egypt and the East to mainland Greece.
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  • Probably the earliest large find was a 17-lb nugget on the Reed Plantation in Cabarrus county in 1799; in the same mine a 28-lb nugget, probably the largest found in eastern United States, was discovered in 1803.
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  • According to Dr Weeks " the earliest settlers.
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  • The foundress of the nest lays eggs and at first feeds and rears the larvae, the earliest of which develop into workers.
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  • To him belongs the merit of carrying out some of the earliest determinations of the quantities by weight in which acids saturate bases and bases acids, and of arriving at the conception that those amounts of different bases which can saturate the same quantity of a particular acid are equivalent to each other.
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  • The earliest mythical inhabitants (though some have localized the Sirens here) are the Teleboi from Acarnania under their king Telon.
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  • Some of the earliest Greek geographers divided their known world into two portions only, Europe and Asia, in which last Libya (the Greek name for Africa) was included.
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  • Woodthorpe was followed into Burmese fields by many others; and amongst the earliest travellers to those mysterious mountains which hide the sources of the Irrawaddy, the Salween and the Mekong, was Prince Henri d'Orleans Burma was rapidly brought under survey; Siam was already in the 'mapmaking hands of James M'Carthy, whilst Curzon and Warrington Smyth added much to our knowledge of its picturesque coast districts.
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  • In many parts of southern Asia are found semi-barbarous races representing the earliest known stratum of population, such as the Veddahs of Ceylon, and various tribes in China General a nd the Malay Archipelago.
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  • The earliest Sumerian records seem to be anterior to 4000 B.C. Shortly after that period Babylonia was invaded by Semites, who became the ruling race.
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  • The population of India comprises at least three strata: firstly, uncivilized aborigines, such as the Kols and Santhals, and secondly, the Dravidians (Tamils, Kanarese, &c.), who perhaps represent the earliest northern invaders, and appear to have attained some degree of culture on their own account.
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  • - The Persians, with whom are often coupled the Medes, appear to be pure Aryans in origin, and the earliest form of their language and religion offers remarkable analogies to the Vedas.
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  • Among many remarkable qualities they have been distinguished from the earliest times by a species of commensalism, or power of living among other nations without becoming either socially merged or politically distinct.
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  • Here occurred some of the earliest cases of the plague which spread over London in 1664-1665.
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  • Ptolemaei magnam compositionem (printed at Venice in 1496), and his own De Triangulis (Nuremberg, 1533), the earliest work treating of trigonometry as a substantive science.
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  • Chretien de Troyes' treatment of him is contradictory; in the Erec, his earliest extant poem, Lancelot's name appears as third on the list of the knights of Arthur's court.
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  • His wild extravagance, however, forced his father to forestall his creditors by securing his detention in semi-exile in the country, where he wrote his earliest extant work, the Essai sur le despotisme.
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  • 1145, and the hill of Dala is mentioned in the earliest records as the original site of Kano.
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  • He may have studied at Paris in his youth, but the earliest fact which he records of himself is his admission as a monk at St Albans in the year 1217.
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  • When the preliminaries of peace came to be discussed at Versailles in February 1871, the cession of Alsace, together with what is called German Lorraine, was one of the earliest conditions laid down by Bismarck and accepted by Thiers.
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  • It has remembered its earliest objects, and has of late years engaged during war in the ambulance service.
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  • Engaged from the earliest times in the slave trade, they were among the first, as they were certainly the most fervent, supporters of the mandi when he rose in revolt against the Egyptians (1882).
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  • The earliest English settlements in the district which is now Derbyshire were those of the West Angles, who in the course of their northern conquests in the 6th century pushed their way up the valleys of the Derwent and the Dove, where they became known as the Pecsaetan.
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  • His earliest work dealt mainly with mathematical subjects, and especially with quaternions (q.v.), of which he may be regarded as the leading exponent after their originator, Hamilton.
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  • The monumental records of Egypt are the source of the earliest information on farming.
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  • The earliest known forms of intensive husbandry were based chiefly upon the proximity of rivers and irrigation.
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  • The south-eastern counties were the earliest improved, and yet in 1660 their condition seems to have been very wretched.
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  • In John Houghton's Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681, there is one of the earliest notices of turnips being eaten by sheep:" Some in Essex have their fallow after turnips, which feed their sheep in winter, by which means the turnips are scooped, and so made capable to hold dews and rain water, which, by corrupting,; _ mbibes the nitre of the air, and when the shell breaks it runs about and fertilizes.
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  • Though this society, the earliest probably in the United Kingdom, soon counted upwards of 300 members, it existed little more than 20 years.
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  • If a decennial period be taken, then-for the purpose of the new calculation -the earliest year is omitted and the latest year added, the number of years continuing at ten.
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  • From his earliest days he spent much time in his father's study and habitually accompanied him on his walks in North London.
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  • In the earliest times for which we have abundant material the economic life of England had already reached in certain directions a high degree of complexity.
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  • But in the earliest times the manor was subjected to external influences of great importance.
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  • That national poet collected in the earliest Scottish poem, written in the reign of Bruce's grandson, the copious traditions which clustered round his memory.
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  • Religion in the area seems to have been essentially the same everywhere from the earliest period, viz.
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  • First (and perhaps earliest in time), the chambers are grouped round a central court, being engaged one with the other in a labyrinthine complexity, and the greater oblongs are entered from a long side and divided longitudinally by pillars.
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  • The earliest palace at Cnossus was built probably in Period II.
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  • To date the beginning of this earliest record of human production is impossible at present.
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  • Reckoning by that standard we might push the earliest Neolithic remains back behind io,000 B.C.; but the calculation would be worthy of little credence.
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  • His earliest name was Setanta, and he was brought up at Dun Imbrith (Louth).
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  • The earliest of these is his report of the argument of James Otis in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the constitutionality of writs of assistance.
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  • Among a few of the beetles or Coleoptera, and also in the neuropterous genus Mantispa, are found life-histories in which the earliest instar is campodeiform and the succeeding larval stages eruciform.
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  • It is now, in fact, generally admitted that metamorphosis has been acquired comparatively recently, and Scudder in his review of the earliest fossil insects states that " their metamorphoses were simple and incomplete, the young leaving the egg with the form of the parent, but without wings, the assumption of which required no quiescent stage before maturity."
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  • Though birds make a not unimportant appearance in the earliest written records of the human race, the painter's brush has preserved their counterfeit presentment for a still longer period.
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  • The earliest known use of the word Ornithology seems to be in the third edition of Blount's Glossographia (1670), where it is noted as being " the title of a late Book."
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  • The twentythird of these books is De Avibus, and therein a great number of birds' names make their earliest appearance, few of which are without interest from a philologist's if not an ornithologist's point of view, but there is much difficulty in recognizing the species to which many of them belong.
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  • Nevertheless the book was eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared.4 Mention must be made of a medical treatise by Caspar Schwenckfeld, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the title of Theriotropheum Silesiae, the fourth book of which consists of an " Aviarium Silesiae," and is the earliest of the works we now know by the name of fauna.
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  • The earliest list of British birds seems to be that in the Pinax Rerum Naturalium of Christopher Merrett, published in 1667.
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  • In 1684 Sibbald in his Scotia illustrate published the earliest Fauna of Scotland.
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  • More than this, he seems to be the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called a " type " - though such_a term does not occur in his work; and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera - all this being effected by the skilful use of names.
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  • The earliest list of British birds we possess is that given by Merrett in his Pinax rerun naturalium Britannicarum, printed in London in 1667.4 In 1677 Plot published his Natural History of Oxfordshire, which reached a second edition in 1705, and in 1686 that of Staffordshire.
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  • Earliest in date as it is greatest in bulk stands Audubon's Birds of America in four volumes, containing four hundred and thirty-five plates, of which the first part appeared in London in 1827 and the last in 1838.
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  • In these " Fragments," apparently his earliest productions, we find him engaged on the subject with which his name will always be especially identified, the structure and arrangement of feathers.
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  • Our earliest information about the Ephthalites comes from the Chinese chronicles, in which it is stated that they were originally a tribe of the great Yue-Chi, living to the north of the Great Wall, and in subjection to the Jwen-Jwen, as were also the Turks at one time.
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  • From the earliest times, owing to its great strength, speed, and ferocity when at bay, the boar has been one of the favourite beasts of the chase.
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  • His earliest publication was Adversariorum subsecivorum lib.
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  • It has frequently been said that the lagoon population was originally composed of refugees from the mainland seeking asylum from the incursions of Huns,, Goths and Lombards; but it is more probable that, long before the date of the earliest barbarian inroad, the lagoon islands already had a population of fisherfolk.
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  • The ground about the hut was made solid and protected from corrosion by a palisade of wattled osiers, thus creating the earliest form of the fondamenta, or quay, which runs along the side of so many Venetian canals and is so prominent a feature in the construction of the city.
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  • The earliest churches were built with cemeteries for the dead; and thus we find the nucleus of the city of Venice, little isolated groups of dwellings each on its separate islet, scattered, as Cassiodorus 1 says, like sea-birds' nests over the face of the waters.
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  • The earliest of these was the bridge of San Zaccaria, mentioned in a document of 1170.
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  • Perhaps the most famous institution of Venice is the arsenal, whose history and activity has continued unbroken from the earliest days of the republic down to the present time.
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  • The bonds were negotiable, and afford us the earliest instance of the issue of government stock.
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  • Castle Island has been fortified since the earliest days; Fort Independence, on this island, and Forts Winthrop and Warren on neighbouring islands, constitute permanent harbour defences.
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  • Clauberg was one of the earliest teachers of the new doctrines in Germany and an exact and methodical commentator on his master's writings..
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  • The earliest mention of Palmyra is in 2 Chron.
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  • The series of native inscriptions, written in Aramaic, begins a few years after; the earliest bears the date 304 of the Seleucid era, i.e.
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  • The earliest form of the name of the symbol which we can reach is the Hebrew beth, to which the Phoenician must have been closely akin, as is shown by the Greek Oiira, which is borrowed from it with a vowel affixed.
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  • He considers that in its earliest origins Christian faith and the methods of Greek thought were so closely intermingled that much that is not essential to Christianity found its way into the resultant system.
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  • The earliest mention 'of American petroleum occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad pitch-lake in 1595; whilst thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard's Histoire du Canada.
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  • The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
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  • This was plainly stated by Professor Silliman in the earliest stages of development of the American petroleum industry.
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  • A large number of arrangements for carrying out the cracking process have been proposed and patented, probably the earliest directly bearing on the subject being that of James Young, who in 1865 patented his " Improvements in treating hydrocarbon oils."
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  • The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
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  • At the same time, if our text is thus late, it must be remembered that its content gives us the earliest and purest exposition of French feudalism, and describes for us the organization of a kingdom, where all rights and duties were connected with the fief, and the monarch was only a suzerain of feudatories.
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  • If we are to follow von Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix (Historia Hierosolymitana) - genuine saga in its 1 His somewhat legendary treatise, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, was only composed about 1155.
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  • To nomads, Astarte may well have been a sheep-goddess, but this, if her earliest, was not her only type, as is clear from the sacred fish of Atargatis, the doves of Ascalon (and of the Phoenician sanctuary of Eryx), and the gazelle or antelope of the goddess of love (associated also with the Arabian Athtar).
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  • Appointed superintendent of the cathedral school of his native city, he taught with such success as to attract pupils from all parts of France, and powerfully contributed to diffuse an interest in the study of logic and metaphysics, and to introduce that dialectic development of theology which is designated the scholastic. The earliest of his writings of which we have any record is an Exhortatory Discourse to the hermits of his district, written at their own request and for their spiritual edification.
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  • The earliest explorations and attempts at colonization of Florida by Europeans were made by the Spanish.
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  • He was the author of an Annales, probably from the earliest times down to his own days.
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  • The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry, as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations.
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  • The making of these began about the 11th century, one of the earliest of the translators, Constantinus Africanus, wrote about 1075, and another, Gerard of Cremona, lived from 1114 to 1187.
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  • In 754 he resigned his archbishopric in favour of Lull, and took up again his earliest plan of a mission to Frisia; but on the 5th of June 754 he and his companions were massacred by the heathen near Dockum.
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  • The earliest certain reaction against Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage with Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular form of the cult.
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  • At the earliest period of which we have any record Moravia was occupied by the Boii, the Celtic race which has perpetuated its name in Bohemia.
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  • He published the first Italian translation of Euclid (1543), and the earliest version from the Greek of some of the principal works of Archimedes (1543).
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  • The Attic plain, notwithstanding the lightness of the soil, furnished an adequate supply of cereals; olive and fig groves and vineyards were cultivated from the earliest times in the valley of the Cephisus, and pasturage for sheep and goats was abundant.
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    0
  • Of these and other works of the earliest topographers only some fragments remain.
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  • The earliest settlement on the Acropolis was doubtless soon increased by groups of dwellings at its base, inhabited by the dependents of the princes who ruled in the stronghold.
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  • The Cynosarges, from earliest times a sanctuary of Heracles, later a celebrated gymnasium and the school of Antisthenes The Cyno- Cynic, has hitherto been generally supposed to on the eastern slope of Lycabettus; its situation, however, has been fixed by D6rpfeld at a point a little to the south of the Olympieum, on the left bank of the Ilissus.
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  • It is now certain that the earliest written code of the Visigoths dates back to King Euric (466-485).
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  • From the earliest time Dunstable has been an agricultural town.
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  • Central Europe appears to be the locality where it was cultivated, earliest, at least in Europe, for grains have been found among 1 Rarer Kinds of Grain, ii.
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  • The earliest mosque erected was that at Mecca, which consisted of a great court, in the centre of which was the Ka`ba or Holy Stone.
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  • The piers carrying the arches have shafts at their angles, the earliest examples known, and the decoration of the walls consists of friezes, borders, and impost-bands, all enriched with conventional patterns interwoven with cufic characters and modelled in stucco.
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  • The most beautiful portion of the mosque, however, still exists in the prayer chamber of Hakim, where are to be found the earliest examples of the cusped arch and the origin of many of the geometrical patterns in stucco at the Alhambra.
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  • In the earliest mosque at old Delhi, they adopted the piers and bracketed capitals of the Jaina builders, whom they probably employed to build their mosque.
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  • In the above sketch we have briefly treated the history of the main tendencies of our science from the earliest times to the Summary.
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  • The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients.
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  • Breda was in the i i th century a direct fief of the Holy Roman Empire, its earliest known lord being Henry I.
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  • The title "To the Ephesians" is found in the Muratorian canon, in Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, as well as in all the earliest MSS.
    0
    0
  • But as a matter of fact an exclusively Elamite origin is not improbable, from the fact that its earliest and first types are found at Susa.
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  • The stone knives, arrowheads, celts, hoe-blades, hammers, nails, awls, etc., associated with this pottery are of kinds which though simple and often crude in type are nevertheless not early, but date from the transition period to the age of metal and the earliest centuries of the latter period.
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  • So that we are not disposed to accept a recently propounded theory 22 that a certain King Manium of Magan who was overthrown by the Akkadian king Naram-Sin about 2850 B.C., was none other than Merles, the earliest king of Egypt, who is generally identified with Narmerza.
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  • The earliest known inhabitants of the country were the Chatti, who lived here during the 1st century A.D.
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  • According to observations extending from 1706 to 1899, the mean day of the freezing of the Neva is November 25th, the earliest October 28th, the latest January 9th, and the next latest December 26th.
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  • The mean day of opening is April 21st, the earliest March 18th, and the latest May 12th.
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  • Puri district is rich in historical remains, from the primitive rock-hewn caves of Buddhism - the earliest relics of Indian architecture - to the medieval sun temple at Kanarak and the shrine of Jagannath.
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  • The earliest delineation of the description has already been referred to as the AngloSaxon map of the world.
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  • One of the earliest plans of Jerusalem is contained in Gesta Francorum, a history of the Crusades up to 1106, based upon information furnished by Fulcherius of Chartres (c. 1109).
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  • In the case of Japan, the earliest reference to a map is of 646, in which year the emperor ordered surveys of certain provinces to be made.
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  • The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.
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  • On one of his earliest maps compiled under advice of his father Claude (1700), he gave the Mediterranean its true longitudinal extension of 41°.
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  • His earliest work was mineralogical in character, but he soon turned his attention to the study of electricity and especially of electrochemistry.
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  • Some of the earliest adherents indulged in extravagances of no measured kind.
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  • The earliest schools which are still existing were formed at Bristol, for boys in 1810 and for girls in the following year.
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  • Another METRODORUS1 of Lampsacus was a pupil of Anaxagoras, and one of the earliest to attempt' to interpret Homer allegorically.
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  • He and his elder brother Giuseppe (known as Cardinal Pecci) received their earliest education from the Jesuits at Viterbo, and completed their education in Rome.
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  • It was becoming plain that the planters would take no steps tending to the future liberation of the slaves, and the leaders of the movement determined to urge the entire abolition of slavery at the earliest practicable period.
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  • A scheme of study which he drew up for 1722 with a time-table for each day of the week is still to be seen in his earliest diary, which became the property of Mr George Stampe of Great Grimsby.
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  • About the same time he wrote for the Cabinet Cyclopaedia a "History of England from the Earliest Times to the Final Establishment of the Reformation."
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  • The earliest literary papyrus is that known, from the name of its former owner, as the Prisse papyrus, and now preserved at Paris, containing a work composed in the reign of a king of the fifth dynasty, and computed to be itself of the age of upwards of 2500 years B,C. The papyri discovered in Egypt have often been found in tombs, and in the hands, or swathed with the bodies, of mummies.
    0
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  • But of the extant papal deeds the earliest to which an authentic date can be attached is a bull of Adrian I.
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  • Of the Merovingian period there are still extant several papyrus deeds, the earliest of the year 625, the latest of 692.
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  • And the whole breathes such a genuine originality, all is psychologically so accurate and just, the earliest beginnings of the new religious.
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  • The earliest account of the catacombs, that of St Jerome narrating his visits to them when a schoolboy at Rome, about A.D.
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  • In North America the earliest representative of the group is Systemodon of the Lower Eocene, in which all the upper premolars are quite simple; while the molars are of a type which would readily develop into that of the modern tapirs, both outer columns being conical and of equal size.
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  • The earliest digest, completed in 1808, was mainly a compilation of Spanish laws.
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  • This was the earliest settlement in what is now the state of Louisiana.
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  • One of the earliest and best-known private schools is the orphanage at Serajevo, founded in 1869 by two English ladies, Miss Irby and Miss Mackenzie.
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  • From his earliest years he had been deeply impressed with the piety, beauty and thoughtfulness of the writings of the Christian mystics, but it was not till after his accidental meeting with the works of Boehme, about 1734, that pronounced mysticism appeared in his works.
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  • The date of these walls has not as yet been ascertained, recent excavations, which led to the discovery of a few tombs in which the earliest objects showing Greek influence may go back to the 7th century B.C., not having produced any decisive evidence on the point.
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  • His earliest conquest was Karaja Hissar (1295),(1295), where first the name of Osman was substituted for that of the sultan in the weekly prayer.
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  • Should the Porte refuse, the two powers were to take the earliest opportunity, either separately or in common, of establishing a reconciliation on the basis of the protocol.
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  • Such foundations had been created from the earliest times, and the execution of the testator's wishes was generally left to his descendants, under the supervision of some high official designated in the act of endowment.
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  • They are amongst the earliest examples of the "catenic" (catena, chain) form of commentary, consisting of a series of extracts from the fathers, arranged, with independent additions, to elucidate the portions of Scripture concerned.
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  • The earliest writer after himself who gives us any information with regard to him is Eusebius.
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  • The town received its earliest known grant of municipal privileges sometime before 1147 from Fitz Hamon's successor and son-in-law Robert, earl of Gloucester.
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  • The charters of Cardiff and "Materials for a History of the County Borough from the Earliest Times" were published by order of the corporation in Cardiff Records (5 vols., 1898, sqq.).
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  • The pope, no longer possessing any more power than other bishops (though Marsilius recognizes that the supremacy of the Church of Rome goes back to the earliest times of Christianity), is to content himself with a pre-eminence mainly of an honorary kind, without claiming to interpret the Holy Scriptures, define dogmas or distribute benefices; moreover, he is to be elected by the Christian people, or by the delegates of the people, i.e.
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  • Though now cultivated in India, and almost wild in some parts of the northwest, and, as we have seen, probably also in Afghanistan, it has no Sanskrit name; it is not mentioned in the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, nor in the earliest Greek times.
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  • His earliest publication, the anonymous pamphlet of The Pentland Rising, had appeared in 1866, and The Charity Bazaar, a trifle in which his future manner is happily displayed, in 1868.
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  • In this year was published Virginibus puerisque, the earliest collection of Stevenson's essays.
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  • From the earliest times attention has been drawn to the enormous abundance of species of the family in certain localities.
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  • In his earliest years he was confided to the care of his brother, a priest in the diocese of Chambery.
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  • His earliest publications, beginning with A Syllabus of Plane Algebraical Geometry (1860) and The Formulae of Plane Trigonometry (1861), were exclusively mathematical; but late in the year 1865 he published, under the pseudonym of "Lewis Carroll," Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, a work that was the outcome of his keen sympathy with the imagination of children and their sense of fun.
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  • The earliest mention in history of the name Franks is the entry on the Tabula Peutingeriana, at least if we assume that the term " et Franci " is not a later emendation.
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  • The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.
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  • The mission thus ended in complete failure; but, except for Carpini's (q.v.), it was the earliest Catholic embassy which reached any Mongol court, and its information must have been valuable.
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  • Unable to maintain himself there he marched to southern Bohemia, and after defeating the Romanists at Sudomef - the first pitched battle of the Hussite wars - he arrived at Usti, one of the earliest meeting-places of the Hussites.
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  • From her earliest years she delighted every one by her extraordinary beauty and vivacity.
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  • Taxed with a tribute in furs from the earliest years of the Russian conquest, they often revolted in the 17th century, but were cruelly reduced to obedience.
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  • The special features of the language and partly also of the national character are due to the earliest settlers, who came mostly from northern Russia.
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  • According to Radlov, the earliest inhabitants of Siberia were the Yeniseians, who spoke a language different from the Ural-Altaic; some few traces of them (Yeniseians, Sayan-Ostiaks, and Kottes) exist among the Sayan Mountains.
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  • The cult of Athena Itonia, whose earliest seat appears to have been amongst the Thessalians, who used her name as a battle-cry, made its way to Coronea in Boeotia, where her sanctuary was the seat of the Pamboeotian confederacy.
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  • We will choose from the forms in such manner that the product of letters A is either a power of A i, or does not contain A i; this rule leaves us with A2B 1 B 2 and A 2 B,Bs; of these forms we will choose that one which in letters B is earliest in ascending dictionary order; this is A2B 1 B 21 and our earliest perpetuant is (22)a(21)b - (221)a(2)b, and thence the general form enumerated by the generating function Z7 is (1-z)(1 - z2)2 (2 A2+2) a (2�2 +1 1�1 +1) b - (2 A2+2 1)a (2 M2+1 1, ai)b ...
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  • But it can be shown conclusively that the river has borne its present designation from the earliest times.
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  • His mathematical bent, however, soon diverted him from legal studies, and the perusal of some of his earliest theorems enabled Descartes to predict his future greatness.
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  • Among the earliest examples of pulpit oratory which have been preserved in English literature, the discourses of Wycliffe and his disciples may be passed by, to arrive at the English sermons of John Fisher (1469?-1535), which have a distinct literary value.
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  • In the 14th century Gerson (1363-1429) seems to have been the earliest divine who composed and preached in French, but his example was not followed by any man of equal genius.
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  • Gassendi's jejune Life (Paris, 1654) is thus the earliest extant of any note.
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  • Formerly used in every fever, and even in the septic states that constantly followed surgical operations in the pre-Listerian epoch, aconite is now employed only in the earliest stage of the less serious fevers, such as acute tonsilitis, bronchitis and, notably, laryngitis.
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  • His earliest poem is the Livre des quatre dames, written after the battle of Agincourt.
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  • These show that the very few facts known with certainty were freely supplemented by a number of ill-founded conjectures, and sometimes even by " figments and falsehoods, which in the earliest times, no less than nowadays, used to be put forth by raw smatterers and copyists to be swallowed of men."
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  • The earliest Latin inscriptions are of Ciceronian date.
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  • The earliest record of a grant of market rights is in 1219, when Roger la Zouch obtained a grant of a weekly market and a two days' fair at the feast of St Helen, in consideration of a fine of one palfrey.
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  • The genus Agnostus, which belongs to the last category, occurs abundantly in Cambrian strata and is one of the earliest forms A known.
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  • They belong to the earliest ages, for they are mentioned by Eusebius, H.E.
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  • This is one of the earliest and most famous.
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  • Some of Raphael's earliest works were painted for churches in this town, but none of them remains there.
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  • His earliest tastes were literary rather than scientific, and he learned the rudiments of geometry during his first year at the college of Turin, without difficulty, but without distinction.
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  • His determination 2 of maximum and minimum values for the slowly varying planetary eccentricities was the earliest attempt to deal with the problem.
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  • The cunning and stratagem of the fox have been proverbial for many ages, and he has figured as a central character in fables from the earliest times, as in Aesop, down to "Uncle Remus," most notably as Reynard (Raginohardus, strong in counsel) in the great medieval beast-epic "Reynard the Fox" (q.v.).
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  • The earliest prophetic books have a quite different standpoint; otherwise indeed the books of northern prophets and historians could never have been admitted into the Jewish canon.
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  • The first consists of a group of no less than seven different buildings, of different dates; the earliest of which, the former cathedral of SS.
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  • The earliest charter recorded was granted in 1201 under King John; a charter of James I.
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    0
  • A considerable fragment has been preserved from the sixth book, entitled Hitrpta KWVVTavTCVOUIroX€WS, a history of Byzantium from its earliest beginnings till the time of Constantine the Great.
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  • On the lawn near the cathedral stand two of the earliest larches grown in Great Britain, having been introduced from Tirol by the 2nd duke in 1738.
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  • Under the protection of the hill-fort, a native settlement was established on the ridge running down to the valley at the foot of Salisbury Crags, and another hamlet, according to William Maitland (1693-1757), the earliest historian of Edinburgh, was founded in the area at the northwestern base of the rock, a district that afterwards became the parish of St Cuthbert, the oldest in the city.
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  • The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
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  • The earliest inhabitants of Laconia, according to tradition, were the autochthonous Leleges.
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  • Following in the path struck out by Miss Strickland in her Lives of the Queens of England, and by Lord Brougham's Lives of Eminent Statesmen, he at last produced, in 1849, The Lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England, from the earliest times till the reign of King George IV., 7 vols.
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  • It has the formal interest of being one of the earliest, certainly one of the most extensive versedocuments in Scots written in five-accent, or heroic, couplets.
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  • It is also the earliest outstanding work which discloses that habit of Scotticism which took such strong hold of the popular Northern literature during the coming years of conflict with England.
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  • The serio-comic epic of Peder Paars, the earliest of the great classics of the Danish language, appeared in 1719.
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  • The university stands in its own grounds on the site of Grose Farm, the scene of one of the earliest attempts at government farming.
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  • Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
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  • In this way, however, though the distinctions drawn may still be comparatively vague, there existed in the schools a Peripatetic tradition to set over against the Neoplatonic influence of John the Scot, and amongst the earliest remains of Scholastic thought we find this tradition asserting itself somewhat vigorously.
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  • The earliest temple in Paestum, the socalled Basilica, must in point of style be associated with the temples D and F at Selinus, and is therefore to be dated about 57 0 -554 B.C.'
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  • It was there that he had to pick up such rudiments of knowledge as formed his first equipment in life, but from his earliest years he was indefatigable in the work of self-cultivation.
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  • The constitution of Hungary is in many respects strikingly analogous to that of Great Britain, more especially in the fact that it is based on no written document but on immemorial prescription, confirmed or modified by a series of enactments, of which the earliest and most famous was the Golden Bull of Andrew III.
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  • The earliest important collection of sources of Hungarian history was Johann Georg Schrandtner's Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum (4th ed., Vienna, 1766-1768).
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  • (d) Biographical: In Magyar, the great serial entitled Hungarian Historical Biographies (Budapest, 1884, &c.), edited by Sandor Szilagyi, is a collection of lives of famous Hungarian men and women from the earliest times by many scholars of note, finely illustrated.
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  • Amongst the earliest Latin works that claim attention are the " Chronicle " (Gesta Hungarorum), by the " anonymous notary " of King Bela, probably Bela II.
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  • Foremost amongst the Italians was Antonio Bonfini, whose work, Rerum Hungaricarum Decades IV., comprising Hungarian history from the earliest times to the death of King Matthias, was published with a continuation by Sambucus (Basel, 1568).
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  • Karadi in 1569 brought to light the earliest national drama, Balassi Menyhert.
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  • During the latter part of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th two poets of a higher order appeared in Valentine Balassa, the earliest Magyar lyrical writer, and his contemporary John Rimay, whose poems are of a contemplative and pleasing character.
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  • Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
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  • Valyi-Nagy, the first Magyar 1 The earliest, styled " Song on the Discovery of the right hand of the Holy King Stephen," and printed at Nuremberg by Anton Koburger in 1484, is lost.
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  • The establishment of the " national " or popular " school is attributable chiefly to Andrew Dugonics, though his earliest works, Troia veszedelme (1774) and Ulysses (1780), indicate a classical bias.
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  • As writers of didactic poetry may be mentioned John Endrody, Caspar Gobol, Joseph Takacs and Barbara Molnar, the earliest distinguished Magyar poetess.
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  • As the earliest Magyarizer of Servian folk-song, Michael Vitkovics did valuable service.
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  • As authors of special works on philosophy, we find Samuel Koteles, John Imre, Joseph Ruszek, Daniel Ercsei and Paul Sarvari; as a theologian and Hebraist John Somossy; as an historian and philologist Stephen Horvath, who endeavoured to trace the Magyar descent from the earliest historic times; as writers on jurisprudence Alexander Kovy and Paul Szlemenics.
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  • Magyar history is indebted to Paul Jaszay for his careful working out of certain special periods, as, for instance, in his A Magyar nemzet napjai a legregibb idOtOl az arany bullaig (Days of the Hungarian nation from the earliest times to the date of the Golden Bull).
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  • The earliest algebra consists in the solution of equations.
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  • The earliest Indian mathematician of whom we have certain knowledge is Aryabhatta, who flourished about the beginning of the 6th century of our era.
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  • Henry Thomas Colebrooke, one of the earliest modern investigators of Hindu science, presumes that the treatise of Aryabhatta extended to determinate quadratic equations, indeterminate equations of the first degree, and probably of the second.
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  • These works are the earliest printed books on mathematics.
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  • This study was inaugurated by George Peacock, who was one of the earliest mathematicians to recognize the symbolic character of the fundamental principles of algebra.
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  • The earliest rate levied in England was that for poor relief, and of the great variety of rates now existing, the majority are based on the poor rate and levied with it, under the term of precept rates.
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  • From the earliest times the shepherd, the farmer, the horticulturist, and the " fancier " had for practical purposes made themselves acquainted with a number of biological laws, and successfully applied them without exciting more than an occasional notice from the academic students of biology.
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  • Thus not only did Darwin's theory give a new basis to the study of organic 'structure, but, whilst rendering the general theory of organic evolution equally acceptable and Effects of necessary, it explained the existence of low and simple forms of life as survivals of the earliest ancestry of theory more highly complex forms, and revealed the classifications of the systematist as unconscious attempts to construct the genealogical tree or pedigree of plants and animals.
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  • Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
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  • The Swiss professor, Konrad Gesner (1516-1565), is the most voluminous and instructive of these earliest writers on systematic zoology, and was so highly esteemed that his Historia animalium was republished a hundred Gesner.
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  • Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
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  • The earliest is that of Quincke, who coated a glass grating with a chemical silver deposit, subsequently thickened with copper in an electrolytic bath.
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  • The earliest temple obelisk still in position is that of Senwosri I.
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  • But against this explanation of the heading ry;p' 2 there is an almost insuperable objection; for, since both the first and second books contain psalms with this heading, it is clear that the " Chief Musician's - or Director's - Psalter " must have been in existence before either of these books; in which case, apart from the difficulty of the antiquity which we should be compelled to assign to this earliest Psalter, it is impossible to understand on what principle the first book of Psalms was formed.
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  • More extraordinary still was his knowledge of music - an accomplishment which seems to have been his earliest recommendation to Otto I.
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  • In his History of South Africa Theal says: " The community of Lydenburg was accused of attempting to domineer over the whole country, without any other right to pre-eminence than that of being composed of the earliest inhabitants, a right which it had forfeited by its opposi tion to the general weal."
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  • The earliest references are to be found in the various accounts of the Deluge.
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  • The use of the same dialect appears in the earliest Christian literature connected.
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  • Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.
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  • All our historical sources support the view taken above that Edessa, the capital of the kingdom which the Greeks and Romans called Osrhoene, was the earliest seat of Christianity in Mesopotamia and the cradle of Syriac literature.
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  • The history of the Peshitta rendering of the Acts and Epistles is less clear; apparently the earliest Syrian writers used a text somewhat different from that which afterwards became the standard.'
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  • On John of Asia or Ephesus, the eminent Monophysite bishop and earliest Syriac church historian, see the separate article.
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  • Primitive adornment in its earliest stages may be divided into three classes; first the moulding of the body itself to certain local standards of beauty.
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  • The earliest dress of Babylonia also covered only the lower half of the body.
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  • The skirts were held in place by a thick rolled belt, and the upper part of the body remained quite nude in the earliest times; but from the middle Minoan period onward we often find an important addition in the shape of a low-cut bodice, which sometimes has sleeves, either tight-fitting or puffed, and ultimately develops into a laced corsage.
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  • Faversham was probably a member of Dover from the earliest association of the Cinque Ports, certainly as early as Henry III., who in 1252 granted among other liberties of the Cinque Ports that the barons of Faversham should plead only in Shepway Court, but ten years later transferred certain pleas to the abbot's court.
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  • Terence's earliest play was the Andria, exhibited in 166 B.C. A pretty, but perhaps apocryphal, story is told of his having read the play, before its exhibition, to Caecilius (who, after the death of Plautus, ranked as the foremost comic poet), and of the generous admiration of it manifested by Caecilius.
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  • Its earliest known ancestor was one Poppo, who early in the 9th century was count in Grapfeld.
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  • Syracuse was the chief Greek city of ancient Sicily, and one of the earliest Greek settlements in the island.
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  • Two eminent names stand in the first rank as leaders of the two earliest schools of medicine which arose in Alexandria, Herophilus and Erasistratus.
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  • The earliest is Oribasius (326-403), whose date and position are fixed by his being the friend and court physician of Julian the Apostate.
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  • Of these the earliest is Avenzoar or Abumeron, that is, Abu Merwan `Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (beginning of 12th century), a member of a family which gave several distinguished members to the medical profession.
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  • In Italy, Bologna and Padua were earliest distinguished for medical studies - the former preserving more of the Galenical tradition, the latter being more progressive and Averroist.
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  • Among the earliest were Nicolaus Leonicenus of Vicenza (1428-1524), Giovanni de Monte or Montanus (1498-1552), and many others in Italy.
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  • It was probably most so, and earliest, in the schools of Italy and in those of England, where the London College of Physicians might be regarded as an offshoot of the Italian schools.
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  • But some parts of Willis's works, such as his descriptions of nervous diseases, and his account (the earliest) of diabetes, are classical contributions to scientific medicine.
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  • So prognosis became pessimistic, and the therapeutics of the abler men negative, until fresh hopes arose of stemming the tides of evil at their earliest flow.
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  • Provision for the reception and treatment of insanity in its earliest and more curable stages can scarcely be said to exist.
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  • The Rhine has been one of the chief waterways of Europe from the earliest times; and, as its channel is not exposed to the danger of silting up like those of the Elbe and the Oder, it has always been comparatively easy to keep it open.
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  • 101 1 the discovery of the use of skins, fire, &c., and the first beginning of civil society, and proceeds at 1028 to explain the origin of language, and then again returns, from 1090 to 1160, to speculate upon the first use of fire and the earliest stages of political life.
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  • The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.
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  • It must have been in his very earliest school years that the celebrated presentation of him by his godfather to Ninon de Lenclos took place, for Ninon died in 1705.
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  • From the north of England two roads preserve communication-lines from the earliest times.
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  • The earliest part of the system was opened in 1863.
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  • The earliest Roman London must have been a comparatively small place, but it probably contained a military fort of some kind intended to cover the passage of the river.
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  • The earliest Roman city probably extended as far as Tower Hill on the east, and there is, reason to believe that it did not include any ground to the west of Leadenhall.
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  • If this open space was from the earliest times attached to the city there would be no Origin of need when it was built upon for any special act to be the passed for its inclusion in London.
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  • In this, the earliest period of Saxon history recorded, there appears to be no relic of the Christianity of the Britons, which at one time was well in evidence.
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  • One of the earliest acts of the Conqueror was to undertake the erection of a citadel which should overawe the citizens and give him the command of the city.
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  • This Assize, which has been described as the earliest English Building Act, is of great value from an historical point of view, but unfortunately it had little practical effect, and in 1212 what was called " Fitz-Ailwyne's Second Assize," with certain compulsory regulations, was enacted.
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  • The royal processions arranged in connexion with coronations were of great antiquity, but one of the earliest to be described is that of Henry III.
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  • The earliest known view is the drawing of Van den Wyngaerde in the Bodleian Library (dated 1550).
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  • One of the earliest of the religious houses to be suppressed was the hospital cf St Thomas of Acon (or Acre) on the north side of Cheapside, the site of which is now occupied by Mercers' Hall.
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  • St Paul's churchyard was from the earliest days of printing until the end of the 18th century the headquarters of the book trade, when it shifted to Paternoster Row.
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  • One of the earliest statements as to the population of London occurs in a letter of about the year 1199 written to Pope Innocent III.
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  • 2 Mention is made of these bills as early as 1517, but the earliest series now known dates from 1532.
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