1864) became 6th earl of Mansfield.
By the time he'd brewed them both a cup of Earl Grey tea and rejoined Cynthia at the kitchen table, she had finished yet another paragraph.
In 1518 the manor was granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, from whom it passed to Sir Richard Boyle, afterwards earl of Cork.
The Earl said he should be delighted to visit Tuscumbia the next time he comes to America.
Three weeks after the battle he, still provost of St Giles, was admitted a burgess of Edinburgh, his father, the "Great Earl," being then civil provost of the capital.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury) >>
Here Morton encouraged Buckingham's designs against Richard, and put him into communication with the queen dowager, Elizabeth Woodville, and with Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond.
His second wife had died during this year; in 1656 he married a third, who survived him, Margaret, daughter of Lord Spencer, niece of the earl of Southampton, and sister of the earl of Sunderland, who died at Newbury.
Sidney Godolphin, Earl Of Godolphin >>
fell before Henry earl of Richmond, who thereupon assumed the crown as Henry VII.
The next earl was Waltheof and after him Uhtred, who defeated Malcolm II., king of the Scots, in io06.
In 1776 he was created earl of Mansfield.
By that time it was in the hands of the king by the forfeiture of Earl Morcar.
Alexander Robert Maule Ramsay, third son of the 13th Earl of Dalhousie.
In 1016 he defeated Earl Sveyn, hitherto the virtual ruler of Norway, at the battle of Nesje, and within a few years had won more power than had been enjoyed by any of his predecessors on the throne.
to Roger Fitz Reinfred was purchased by the corporation from the earl of Lonsdale and Captain Bagot, lords of the manor, in 1885 and 1886.
A weekly market on Wednesdays was granted to John, earl of Richmond, in 1308 together with an eight days' fair beginning on the vigil of St Margaret's day, and in 1445 John de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, one of his successors as lord of the manor, received a further grant of the same market and also two yearly fairs, one on the feast of St Philip and St James and the other at Michaelmas.
of Irish Periodical Literature from the End of the 17th to the Middle of the Igth Century (2 vols., London, 1867); Francis Hardy, Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont (2 vols., London, 1812); W.
26 1829, the youngest son of the 4th Earl of Aberdeen.
In 1738 he married Lady Elizabeth Finch, daughter of the earl of Winchelsea.
On the 21st of December 1443 he was sworn to the statutes by Bishop Bekynton and the earl of Suffolk, the king's commissioners, and himself administered the oath to the other members of the foundation, then only five fellows and eleven scholars over fifteen years of age.
SPENCER PERCEVAL (1762-1812), prime minister of England from 1809 to 1812, second son of John, 2nd earl of Egmont, was born in Audley Square, London, on the 1st of November 1762.
The church contains a monument to Lord Edward Bruce, killed in a duel with Sir Edward Sackville, afterwards earl of Dorset, in 1613.
In 1002 Wulfric, earl of Mercia, founded here a Benedictine abbey, and by charter of 1004 granted to it the town with other large endowments.
The then king of Scotland having wars, did convocate his lieges to battle, amongst whom that was commanded was the earl of Lennox, who, keeping his eldest son at home, sent his two sons to serve for him with the forces that were under his command...
WILLIAM MURRAY MANSFIELD, 1ST Earl Of (1705-1793), English judge, was born at Scone in Perthshire, on the 2nd of March 1705.
granted it to the first earl of Derby.
Albany's longer absence in France permitted the partyfaction of the nobles to come to a head in a plot by the earl of Arran to seize the earl of Angus, the queen's husband.
These two, afterwards joined by the primate's old rival Lord Shannon, and usually supported by the earl of Kildare, regained control of affairs in 1758, during the viceroyalty of the duke of Bedford.
Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone, Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne.
During the War of Independence Norfolk was bombarded on the 1st of January 1776 by the British under John Murray, 4th earl of Dunmore (1732-1809); much of the town was burned by the American troops to prevent Dunmore from establishing himself here.
ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER SHAFTESBURY, 1ST EARL OF (1621-1683), son of Sir John Cooper of Rockbourne in Hampshire, and of Anne, the only child of Sir Anthony Ashley, Bart., and was born at Wimborne St Giles, Dorset, on the 22nd of July 1621.
Benjamin Disraeli chose the title of earl of Beaconsfield in 1876, his wife having in 1868 received the title of Viscountess Beaconsfield.
He was appointed in 1911 to succeed Earl Grey as governor-general of Canada, retiring from this office in 1916.
On the 25th of April 1650, he married Lady Frances Cecil, sister of the earl of Essex, his first wife having died in the previous year leaving no family.
The 2nd earl was ambassador to Vienna and then to Paris; he was secretary of state for the southern.
He found ships for the invasion of England and fought in person at Senlac; in 1067 he became earl of Kent, and for some years he was a trusted royal minister.
Uhtred was slain by the orders of Canute, who gave the province to Eric (Eirikr) earl of Lade.
The old district of Assiniboia, the result of the efforts in colonization by the earl of Selkirk in 1811 and succeeding years, was the nucleus of the province.
He escaped from Brecknock Castle to Flanders, avoided Buckingham's fate, and devoted his energies during the next two years to creating a party in England and abroad in the interests of the earl of Richmond.
It dates from 1817 and bears the name of its founder, James Duff, 4th earl of Fife.
He married a great-granddaughter of Duncan, 8th earl of Levenax (or Lennox), and besides this relationship by marriage the Napiers claimed a lineal male cadency from the ancient family of Levenax.
Lord Stormont's family was Jacobite in its politics, and his second son James (c. 1690-1728), being apparently mixed up in some of the plots of the time, joined the court of the exiled Stuarts and in 1721 was created earl of Dunbar by James Edward, the Old Pretender.
The new castle, an uninteresting building, was erected in 1724 by the earl of Fife, and though untenanted is maintained in repair.
During the first weeks of the queen's sorrow after the battle, Gavin, with one or two colleagues of the council, acted as personal adviser, and it may be taken for granted that he supported the pretensions of the young earl.
As representing the pope, the suzerain of Henry, he claimed the regency and actually divided the chief power with William Marshal, earl of Pembroke.
It was destroyed in 1260 by Llewellyn ab Gruffydd, prince of Wales, with the supposed connivance df Mortimer, but its site was reoccupied by the earl of Lincoln in 277, and a new castle at once erected.
The salt-houses were divided between the king, the earl of Chester and certain resident freemen of the neighbourhood.
About the year 1070 William Malbedeng or Malbank was created baron of Nantwich, which barony he held of the earl of Chester.
Earl Cholmondeley received a grant of two fairs in 1723.
It was provided that the hundred court of Powdershire should always be held there and two fairs at the feasts of St Peter in Cathedra and St Barnabas, both of which are still held, and a Tuesday market (now held on Friday) and that it should be a free borough rendering a yearly rent to the earl of Cornwall.
On the 6th of November he carried a motion entrusting the train-bands south of the Trent to the command of the earl of Essex.
In July 1643 Cromwell had been appointed governor of the Isle of Ely; on the 22nd of January 1644 he became second in command under the earl of Manchester as lieutenant-general of the Eastern Association, and on the 16th of February 1644 a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms with greatly increased influence.
In like manner a successful thegn might hope to become an earl.
Castle Grant, immediately to the north, is the principal mansion of the earl of Seafield, the head of the Clan Grant.
B.) S, ifOMAS Osborne, 1st Duke Of (1631-1712), Inglis Statesman, commonly known also by his earlier title of Earl Of Danby, son of Sir Edward Osborne, Bart., of Kiveton, Yorkshire, was born in 1631.
On the 19th of June, on the resignation of Lord Clifford, he was appointed lord treasurer and made Baron Osborne of Kiveton and Viscount Latimer in the peerage of England, while on the 27th of June 1674 he was created earl of Danby, when he surrendered his Scottish peerage of Osborne to his second son Peregrine Osborne.
ROBERT SPENCER SUNDERLAND, 2ND Earl Of (1640-1702), English politician, was the only son of Henry Spencer (1620-1643), who succeeded his father, William, as 3rd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton in 1636.
In February 1679, when the country was agitated by real or fancied dangers to the Protestant religion, the earl entered political life as secretary of state for the northern department and became at once a member of the small clique responsible for the government of the country.
1 In February 1566 Bothwell, in spite of his previous matrimonial engagements - and he had also been united by "handfasting" to Janet Betoun of Cranstoun Riddell - married Jane, daughter of George Gordon, 4th earl of Huntly.
He left no lawful descendants; but his nephew, Francis Stewart Hepburn, who, through his father, John Stewart, prior of Coldingham, was a grandson of King James V., and was thus related to Mary, queen of Scots, and the regent Murray, was in 1581 created earl of Bothwell.
In 1266 the town was the scene of a battle between the royal forces and the barons, when Robert de Ferrers, earl of Derby, was taken prisoner.
At the Norman accession it became part of the possessions of Earl Edwin, and was granted to Robert de Romille.
The 13th earl of Eglinton also set an example of active interest which many magnates emulated.
of France and the emperor Maximilian being proposed as suitable husbands for the young widow, when the queen privately married Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus, on the 6th of August 1514.
With the rest of the north of England, Bridlington suffered from the ravages of the Normans, and decreased in value from £32 in the reign of Edward the Confessor, when it formed part of the possessions of Earl Morcar, to 8s.
But the lands belonging to these titles remained with the Crown and he had to repair his fortunes by one of those marriages which never failed his house, his wife being Alathea Talbot, who was at last the heir of Gilbert, earl of Shrewsbury.
A knight of the Garter, he was in 1621 created earl marshal for life, and revived the jurisdiction belonging to the office.
An act of 1627, one of several such aimed at aggrandizing families by diverting the descent of dignities in fee from heirs general, entailed the earldom and castle of Arundel upon Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey and the heirs male of his body "and for default of such issue, to the heirs of his body."
to his grandson Thomas, a lunatic living at Padua, on whose death in 1677 it passed to this Thomas's brother, Henry Frederick, who had been created earl of Norwich and hereditary earl marshal of England in 1672.
A third cousin succeeded him in 1815, Bernard Edward Howard, who, although a Roman Catholic, was enabled, by the act of 1824, to act as earl marshal.
This was the grandfather of the fifteenth duke, earl of Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk, and hereditary earl marshal of England.
He was created earl of Nottingham in 1596 and died in 1624.
Two of his sons succeeded in turn to the earldom of Nottingham, extinct on the death of Charles, the third earl in 1681.
Francis, seventh Lord Howard of Effingham, was created earl of Effingham in 1731, a title extinct in 1816 with the fourth earl, but revived again in 1837 for the eleventh baron, who had served as a general officer in the Peninsular campaign, the great-grandfather of the present peer.
A patent of 1604 created Henry Howard (1540-1614), younger son of Surrey the poet, earl of Northampton, a peerage which ended with the death of this, the most unprincipled of his house.
Married in 1577 to one of the three co-heirs of the Lord Dacre of Gilsland he suffered under Elizabeth more than one imprisonment with his brother the unfortunate earl of Arundel.
The Protector summoned him in 1657 to his House of Lords, but he was imprisoned in 1659 on suspicion of a share in Booth's insurrection and, after the Restoration, was created, in 1661, earl of Carlisle, Viscount Morpeth and Lord Dacre of Gilsland, titles which are still held by his descendants.
William Howard, Viscount Stafford, was the fifth son of Thomas, earl of Arundel, and grandson of Philip the prisoner.
After the death of his mother in 1463, and of her principal supporter, James Kennedy, bishop of St Andrews, two years later, the person of the young king, and with it the chief authority in the kingdom, were seized by Sir Alexander Boyd and his brother Lord Boyd, while the latter's son, Thomas, was created earl of Arran and married to the king's sister, Mary.
Having undertaken the government in person, the king received the submission of the powerful earl of Ross, and strengthened his authority in other ways.
About 1479, probably with reason both suspicious and jealous, James arrested his brothers, Alexander, duke of Albany, and John, earl of Mar; Mar met his death in a mysterious fashion at Craigmillar, but Albany escaped to France and then visited England, where in 1482 Edward IV.
He left three sons - his successor, James IV.; James Stewart, duke of Ross, afterwards archbishop of St Andrews, and John Stewart, earl of Mar.
During the Polish insurrection Gorchakov rebuffed the suggestions of Great Britain, Austria and France for assuaging the severities employed in quelling it, and he was especially acrid in his replies to Earl Russell's despatches.
The story that Earl Godwine himself was of churlish birth, whether true or false, marks the possibility of such a rise.
to the N.W., was fought in 1411 the great battle between Donald, lord of the Isles, and the royal forces under the earl of Mar.
Not far from the scene of this conflict stands Balquhain Castle, a seat of the Leslies, now a mere shell, which was occupied by Queen Mary in September 1562 before the fight at Corrichie between her forces, led by the earl of Moray, and those of the earl of Huntly.
Thomas Randolph, 1st earl of Moray >>
Four years afterwards he made his first appearance as an author with an elegy called Fame's Memorial, or the Earl of Devonshire deceased, and dedicated to the widow of the earl (Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, "coronized," to use Ford's expression, by King James in 1603 for his services in Ireland) - a lady who would have been no unfitting heroine for one of his own tragedies of lawless passion, the famous Penelope, formerly Lady Rich.
To judge, however, from the dedications, prologues and epilogues of his various plays, he seems to have enjoyed the patronage of the earl, afterwards duke, of Newcastle, "himself a muse" after a fashion, and Lord Craven, the supposed husband of the ex-queen of Bohemia.
1394) one of the co-heiresses of the last earl of Hereford.
Henry Percy (Hotspur) and his father, the earl of Northumberland, thought their services ill-requited, and finally made common cause with the partisans of Mortimer and the Welsh.
A plot to carry off the young Mortimers was defeated; but Mowbray, the earl marshal, who had been privy to it, raised a rebellion in the north supported by Archbishop Scrope of York.
Some personal matter is contained in Wardrobe Accounts of Henry, Earl of Derby (Camden Soc.).
"BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-), English mathematician and philosopher, second son of Viscount Amberley and grandson of the 1st Earl Russell, was born at Chepstow May 18 1872.
They wasted the next few years in the attempt to win Normandy; but Earl Robert of Gloucester, the half-brother of the empress, at length induced her to visit England and raise her standard in the western shires, where his influence was supreme.
Routed at the siege of Winchester, she was compelled to release Stephen in exchange for Earl Robert, and thenceforward her cause steadily declined in England.
In 1148, having lost by the earl's death her principal supporter, she retired to Normandy, of which her husband had in the meantime gained possession.
and the known leanings of the regent, the earl of Arran, to reform, encouraged many exiles, Wedderburn among them, to revisit Scotland.
Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd earl Granville >>
William Cadogan, 1st earl Cadogan >>
of England, daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, afterwards earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, and of Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, afterwards duke of Norfolk, was born, according to Camden, in 1507, but her birth has been ascribed, though not conclusively, to an earlier date (to 1502 or 1501) by some later writers.'
Among the former was the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt, 2 and among the latter, Henry Percy, heir of the earl of Northumberland, a marriage with whom, however, was stopped by the king and another match provided for her in the ' See Anne Boleyn, by P. Friedman; The Early Life of Anne Boleyn, by J.
Her former lover, the earl of Northumberland, left the court seized with sudden illness.
ARTHUR ANNESLEY ANGLESEY, 1st Earl Of (1614-1686), British statesman, son of the 1st Viscount Valentia (cr.
In November 1660 by his father's death he had become Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris in the Irish peerage, and on the 20th April 1661 he was created Baron Annesley of Newport Pagnell in Buckinghamshire and earl of Anglesey in the peerage of Great Britain.
In 1681 Anglesey wrote A Letter from a Person of Honour in the Country, as a rejoinder to the earl of Castlehaven, who had published memoirs on the Irish rebellion defending the action of the Irish and the Roman Catholics.
In 1682 he wrote The Account of Arthur, Earl of Anglesey.
the Earl of Anglesey (1682); A Letter of Remarks upon Jovian (1683); other works ascribed to him being The King's Right of Indulgence in Matters Spiritual.
He was created in 1793 earl of Mountnorris in the peerage of Ireland.
All the male descendants of the 1st earl of Anglesey became extinct in the person of George, 2nd earl of Mountnorris, in 1844, when the titles of Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris passed to his cousin Arthur Annesley (1785-1863), who thus became 10th Viscount Valentia, being descended from the 1st Viscount Valentia, the father of the 1st earl of Anglesey in the Annesley family.
GEORGE EDEN AUCKLAND, EARL OF (1784-1849), English statesman, was the second son of the 1st Baron Auckland.
The early operations were crowned with success, and the governor-general received the title of earl of Auckland.
Trotter, The Earl of Auckland (" Rulers of India" series), 1893.
the support of the earl of Ulster, was inaugurated 3 prince, or lord, of Tyrone in 1291; and his son Henry became lord of the Clann Aodha Buidhe (Clanaboy or Clandeboye), early in the 14th century.
Conn O'Neill (c. 1480-1559), 1st earl of Tyrone, surnamed Bacach (the Lame), grandson of Henry O'Neill mentioned above, was the first of the O'Neills whom the attempts of the English in the 16th century to subjugate Ireland brought to the front as leaders of the native Irish.
Conn, who was related through his mother with the earl of Kildare (Fitzgerald), became chief of the Tyrone branch of the O'Neills (Cinel Eoghain) about 1520.
When Kildare became viceroy in 1524, O'Neill consented to act as his swordbearer in ceremonies of state; but his allegiance was not to be reckoned upon, and while ready enough to give verbal assurances of loyalty, he could not be persuaded to give hostages as security for his conduct; but Tyrone having been invaded in 1541 by Sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy, Conn delivered up his son as a hostage, attended a parliament held at Trim, and, crossing to England, made his submission at Greenwich to Henry VIII., who created him earl of Tyrone for life, and made him a present of money and a valuable gold chain.
The rest of the earl's life was mainly occupied by endeavours to maintain his influence, and by an undying feud with his son Shane (John), arising out of his transaction with Henry VIII.
Shane O'Neill (C. 1530-1567) was a chieftain whose support was worth gaining by the English even during his father's lifetime; but rejecting overtures from the earl of Sussex, the lord deputy, Shane refused to help the English against the Scottish settlers on the coast of Antrim, allying himself instead with the MacDonnells, the most powerful of these immigrants.
There were at this time three powerful contemporary members of the O'Neill family in Ireland - Shane, Turlough and Hugh, 2nd earl of Tyrone.
This victory greatly strengthened Shane O'Neill's position, and Sir Henry Sidney, who became lord deputy in 1566, declared to the earl of Leicester that Lucifer himself was not more puffed up with pride and ambition than O'Neill.
O'Neill ravaged the Pale, failed in an attempt on Dundalk, made a truce with the MacDonnells, and sought help from the earl of Desmond.
Turlough Luineach O'Neill (c. 1530-1595), earl of Clanconnell, was inaugurated chief of Tyrone on Shane's death.
But his conduct giving rise to suspicions, an expedition under the earl of Essex was sent against him, which met with such doubtful success that in 1575 a treaty was arranged by which O'Neill received extensive grants of lands and permission to employ three hundred Scottish mercenaries.
In 1578 he was created baron of Clogher and earl of Clanconnell for life; but on the outbreak of rebellion in Munster his attitude again became menacing, and for the next few years he continued to intrigue against the English authorities.
Hugh O'Neill (c. 1540-1616), 2nd earl (known as the great earl) of Tyrone, was the second son of Matthew, reputed illegitimate son of Conn, 1st earl of Tyrone.'
In the following year he was allowed to attend parliament as earl of Tyrone, though Conn's title had been for life only, and had not been assumed by Brian.
This increased his anxiety to temporize, which he did with signal success for more than two years, making ' The grave doubt as to the paternity of Matthew involved a doubt whether the great earl of Tyrone and his equally famous nephew Owen Roe had in fact any O'Neill blood in their veins.
from time to time as circumstances required, professions of loyalty which deceived Sir John Norris and the earl of Ormonde.
Eight months after the battle of the Yellow Ford, the earl of Essex landed in Ireland to find that Tyrone had done nothing in the interval to improve his position.
Warned, however, that his arrest was imminent, and possibly persuaded by Rory O'Donnell (created earl of Tyrconnel in 1603), whose relations with Spain had endangered his own safety, Tyrone resolved to fly from the country.
SIR Phelim O'Neill (c. 1603-1653), a kinsman and younger contemporary of the earl of Tyrone, took a prominent part in the rebellion of 1641.
In that year he was elected member of the Irish parliament for Dungannon, and joined the earl of Antrim and other lords in concerting measures for supporting Charles I.
Owen Roe O'Neill (c. 1590-1649), one of the most celebrated of the O'Neills, the subject of the well-known ballad "The Lament for Owen Roe," was the son of Art O'Neill, a younger brother of Hugh, 2nd earl of Tyrone.
Through an elder line from Neill Mor was descended Brian Mac Phelim O'Neill, who was treacherously seized in 1573 by the earl of Essex, whom he was hospitably entertaining, and executed together with his wife and brother, some two hundred of his clan being at the same time massacred by the orders of Essex.
He joined the rebellion of his kinsman Hugh, earl of Tyrone, but submitted in 1586.
In defending the town of Antrim against the rebels in 1798 O'Neill received wounds from which he died on the 18th of June, being succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by his son Charles Henry St John (1779-1841), who in 1800 was created Earl O'Neill.
Antrim 1863-1880, and who married in 1873 Louisa, daughter of the 11th earl of Dundonald.
Taylor, Owen Roe O'Neill (London, 1896); John Mitchell, Life and Times of Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, with an Account of his Predecessors, Con, Shane, Turlough (Dublin, 1846); L.
Caulfield, Earl of Charlemont (2 vols., London, 1812).
The final rupture seems to have arisen on the question of the declaration of "the armed neutrality of the North;" but we know that Potemkin and the English ambassador, James Harris (afterwards 1st earl of Malmesbury), were both working against him some time before that.
Skene's view is that it chronicles the struggle in 900 between Sigurd, earl of Orkney, and Maelbrigd, Maormor of Moray.
Farther south is the forest of Darnaway, famous for its oaks, in which stands the earl of Moray's mansion of Darnaway Castle.
It occupies the site of the castle which was built by Thomas Randolph, the first earl.
Attached to it is the great hall, capable of accommodating l000 men, with an open roof of fine dark oak, the only remaining portion of the castle that was erected by Archibald Douglas, earl of Moray, in 1450.
Earl Randolph's chair, not unlike the coronation chair, has been preserved.
Three miles east of Stranraer is Lochinch, the residence of the earl of Stair, a modern structure in the Scots Baronial style.
Lymington dates its importance from the grant of the town to Richard de Redvers, earl of Devon, in the reign of Henry I.
No charter has been found, but a judgment given under a writ of quo warranto in 1578 confirms to the burgesses freedom from toll, passage and pontage, the tolls and stallage of the quay and the right to hold two fairs - privileges which they claimed under charters of Baldwin de Redvers and Isabel de Fortibus, countess of Albemarle, in the 13th century, and Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, in 1405.
The borough was founded before 1217 by William de Vernon, earl of Devon, whose ancestor Richard de Redvers had received the manor from Henry I.
granted to his attorneygeneral, Sir Robert Heath, all the territory lying between the 31st and 36th parallels and extending through from sea to sea, but the patent was in time vacated, and in 1663 the same territory was granted to the earl of Clarendon (1609-1674), the duke of Albemarle (1608-1670), and six other favourites of Charles II.
Hugh, who was probably one of William the Conqueror's companions, was made earl of Chester in 1071; he had special privileges in his earldom, and he held land in twenty counties.
But perhaps the most celebrated of the early earls was;Ralph, Ranulf, or Randulph, de Blundevill (c. 1172-1232), who succeeded his father Hugh de Kevelioc as earl in 1181, and was created earl of Lincoln in 1217.
's son, Geoffrey of Brittany, and is sometimes called duke of Brittany and earl of Richmond.
The earl's memory remained green for a long time, and in the Vision of Piers Plowman his name is linked with that of Robin Hood.
In November 1232 the earldom of Chester was granted to his nephew John the Scot, earl of Huntingdon (c. 1207-1237), and in 1246, nine years after John had died childless, it was annexed to the English crown "lest so fair a dominion should be divided among women."
In 1254 Prince Edward, afterwards King Edward I., was created earl of Chester, and since this date the earldom has always been held by the heirs apparent to the English crown with the single exception of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester.
886), she was married to 'Ethelred, earl of Mercia, to whom Alfred entrusted the control of Mercia.
Conway married in 1747 Caroline, daughter of General Campbell (afterwards duke of Argyll), and widow of the earl of Aylesbury.
GEORGE HAMILTON GORDON ABERDEEN, 4TH Earl Of (1784-1860), English statesman, was the eldest son of George Gordon, Lord Haddo, by his wife Charlotte, daughter of William Baird of Newbyth, Haddingtonshire, and grandson of George, 3rd earl of Aberdeen.
Before this time, however, he had become earl of Aberdeen on his grandfather's death in 1801, and had travelled over a large part of the con iinent of Europe, meeting on his journeys Napoleon Bonaparte and other persons of distinction.
He smoothed the way for Palmerston to succeed rim, and while the earl of Clarendon remained at the foreign office he aided him with advice and was consulted on matters of moment.
His eldest son, George John James, succeeded as 5th earl; his second son was General Sir Alexander Hamilton-Gordon, K.C.B.; his third son was the Reverend Douglas Hamilton-Gordon; and his youngest son Arthur Hamilton, after holding various high offices under the crown, was created Baron Stanmore in 1893.
Among the public offices held by the earl were those of lordlieutenant of Aberdeenshire, president of the society of Antiquaries from 1812 to 1846 and fellow of the Royal Society.
He wrote An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in Grecian Architecture (London, 1822), and the Correspondence of the Earl of Aberdeen has been printed privately under the direction of his son, Lord Stanmore.
See Lord Stanmore, The Earl of Aberdeen (London, 1893) C. C. F.
Of this school, which had Lagrange for its professor of mathematics, we have an amusing account in the life of Gilbert Elliot, 1st earl of Minto, who with his brother Hugh, afterwards British minister at Berlin, there made the acquaintance of Mirabeau.
During the 13th and 14th centuries the castle and lordship changed hands very frequently; they were granted successively to Hubert de Burgh, whose son forfeited them after the battle of Evesham, to Richard, earl of Cornwall, whose son Edmund died without issue; to Piers Gaveston, and lastly to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and so to the Crown as parcel of the duchy of Lancaster.
RICHARD HOWE HOWE, Earl (1726-1799), British admiral, was born in London on the 8th of March 1726.
In 1782 he was created Viscount Howe of Langar, and in 1788 Baron and Earl Howe.
1861) became 4th Earl Howe in 1900.
Among his informants were Earl Richard of Cornwall and Henry III.
He married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Charles Morrison of Cassiobury, Hertfordshire, through whom that estate passed into his family, and by whom besides four daughters he had five sons, the eldest Arthur being created earl of Essex at the Restoration.
He had a share in writing Smectymnuus, was appointed chaplain to the earl of Essex's regiment in 1642, and a member of the Westminster Assembly in 1643.
It is said to have been named Athfotla (Atholl) after Fotla, son of the Pictish king Cruithne, and was under the rule of a Celtic mormaer (thane or earl) until the union of the Picts and Scots under Kenneth Macalpine in 843.
There he would be in close connexion with his friend and patron Spencer Compton, 2nd earl of Northampton.
Here he became private chaplain to Richard Vaughan, 2nd earl of Carbery (1600-1686), whose hospitable mansion, Golden Grove, is immortalized in the title of Taylor's still popular manual of devotion, and whose first wife was a constant friend of Taylor.
Jesus Christ, a book which was inspired, its author tells us, by his earlier intercourse with the earl of Northampton.
Some of his verses attracted the attention of the town, and the earl of Rochester, with Sir Charles Sedley and other wits, came down to see him.
He became tutor to the son of Sir William Hickes, and was eventually glad to accept the patronage of William Pierrepont, earl of Kingston, whose kindly offer of a chaplaincy he had refused earlier.
Originally the abbey was a convent, founded in the 12th century, but converted two centuries later into a collegiate church by Archibald, earl of Douglas.
The Ferrers estates were forfeited by Robert, earl of Derby, in the reign of Henry III.
In 1155 the younger Peverel was disinherited for poisoning the earl of Chester, and his estates forfeited to the crown.
the earl of Derby was active in stirring up feeling in the county against the king, and in 1266 assembled a considerable force, which was defeated by the king's party at Chesterfield.
1312), earl of Cornwall, favourite of the English king Edward II., was the son of a Gascon knight, and was brought up at the court of Edward I.
John, 2nd earl of Stair, one of their most active members, is said to have been the first who cultivated turnips in that country.
The witan was also a court of justice, Earl Godwine and many other offenders receiving sentence of outlawry therein.
BUCCLEUCH The substantial origin of the ducal house of the Scotts of Buccleuch dates back to the large grants of lands in Scotland to Sir Walter Scott of Kirkurd and Buccleuch, a border chief, by James in consequence of the fall of the 8th earl of Douglas (1452); but the family traced their descent back to a Sir Richard le Scott (1249-1285).
The second earl's daughter Anne (1651-1732), who succeeded him as a countess in her own right, married in 1663 the famous duke of Monmouth, who was then created 1st duke of Buccleuch; and her grandson Francis became 2nd duke.
ROBERT I., "THE Bruce" (1274-1329), king of Scotland, was the son of the 7th Robert de Bruce, earl of Carrick by right of his wife Marjorie, daughter of Niel, or Nigel, earl of Carrick, and was the eighth in direct male descent from a Norman baron who came to England with William the Conqueror.
After the death of Margaret, the "maid of Norway," in 1290, Bruce's grandfather, the 6th Robert de Bruce, lord of Annandale, claimed the crown of Scotland as the son of Isabella, the second daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, and greatgranddaughter of King David I.; but John de Baliol, grandson of Margaret, the eldest daughter of Earl David, was preferred by the commissioners of Edward I.
of England and Baliol, which ended in Baliol losing his kingdom, commenced in this year, it is doubtful whether Bruce ever rendered homage; but he is henceforth known as earl of Carrick, though in a few instances this title is still given to his father.
Urgent letters were sent ordering Bruce to support John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, Edward's general, in the summer of 1297; but, instead of complying, he assisted to lay waste the lands of those who adhered to Edward.
On his way he granted the Scottish estates of Bruce and his adherents to his own followers, Annandale falling to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th earl of Hereford.
Quitting Rathlin, he had made a short stay in Arran, and before Edward's death had failed to take Ayr and Turnberry, although he defeated Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, at Loudoun Hill in May 1306.
He overran Buchan either once or twice, and after a serious illness defeated the earl of Buchan, one of his chief Scottish opponents, near Inverurie on the 22nd of May 1308.
Moved by this language and conscious of the weakness of Edward, the pope exhorted him to make peace with Scotland, and three years later Randolph, now earl of Moray, procured the recognition of Bruce as king from the papal see by promising aid for a crusade.
Some of his chief nobles - Thomas, earl of Lancaster, in 1321, and Sir Andrew Harclay, earl of Carlisle, in 1322 - entered into correspondence with the Scots, and, though Harclay's treason was detected and punished by his death, Edward was forced to make a truce of thirteen years at Newcastle on the 30th of May 1323, which Bruce ratified at Berwick.
1327), daughter of Richard de Burgh, earl of Ulster, whom he had married about 1304, and who bore him late his only son, David, who succeeded him.
Of two surviving daughters, Matilda married Thomas Ysaak, a simple esquire, and Margaret became the wife of William, earl of Sutherland.
Marjorie, an only child by his first wife, Isabella, daughter of Donald, earl of Mar, had predeceased him.
In 1485 Henry, earl of Richmond, disembarked here on his return from France, and was welcomed on landing by Sir Rhys ap Thomas and much of the chivalry of Wales.
Beton was arrested and the regency fell to the heir presumptive James, earl of Arran, whose inclinations were towards England and the Protestant party, and who hoped to secure the hand of the infant princess for his own son.
She made fresh alliances with the earl of Angus and Sir George Douglas, and in 1544 she made a premature attempt to seize the regency; but a reconciliation with Arran was brought about by Cardinal Beton.
the confirmation of the dukedom and revenues of Chatelherault for the earl of Arran, in the hope of inducing him to resign the regency.
In October 1559 they made an unsuccessful attack on Leith and the seizure of an English convoy on the way to their army by James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell, increased their difficulties.
The circular vaulted keep erected by Earl William Marshal (c. 1200), remains almost intact.
Facing the castle, on the western side of the pill, stand the considerable remains of Monkton Priory, a Benediction house founded by Earl William Marshal as a cell to the abbey of Seez or Sayes in Normandy, but under Henry VI.
C. Seaton, Napoleon's Captivity in Relation to Sir Hudson Lowe (London, 1903); Basil Jackson, Notes and Reminiscences of a Staff Officer (London, 1903); Earl of Rosebery, Napoleon: the Last Phase (1900); J.
On the 18th of October 1744 Carteret became Earl Granville on the death of his mother.
The early castle, which existed before 1086, was important during the civil wars of Stephen's reign; in 1142 Robert, earl of Gloucester, on his departure for France, committed it to his son's charge.
Stephen, however, surprised and took it, but it surrendered to the earl in the same year on the king's refusal to send it aid.
granted the honour of Penrith to the earl of Portland, by whose descendant it was sold in 1787 to the duke of Devonshire.
The town suffered much from the incursions of the Scots, and Ralph, earl of Westmorland, who died 1426, built the castle, but a tower called the Bishop's Tower had been previously erected on the same site.
At the time of the Conquest Halifax formed part of the extensive manor of Wakefield, which belonged to the king, but in the 13th century was in the hands of John, earl Warrenne (c. 1245-1305).
He was a descendant of John, 1st or 6th earl of Mar, regent of Scotland in the reign of James VI., a grandson of Colonel John Erskine of Carnock.
He acted as one of the lords justices during the absence from Ireland of the lord deputy, the earl of Sussex, in 1557.
Close to Sevenoaks is Knole Park, one of the finest old residences in England, which in the time of King John was possessed by the earl of Pembroke, and after passing to various.
By Elizabeth it was conferred first on the earl of Leicester and then on Thomas Sackville, afterwards earl of Dorset.
By this earl it was in great part rebuilt and fitted up in regard to decoration much as it now exists.
The great hall, with elaborately carved music-gallery, is mainly the work of the first earl.
Pico, with a biography, which was translated by Sir Thomas More as Life of John Picus, Earl of Mirandola, in 1510.
Sir Thomas Beaufort, afterwards earl of Dorset and duke of Exeter (appointed admiral of the fleet 1407, and admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine 1412, which latter office he held till his death in 1426), certainly had a court, with a marshal and other officers, and forms of legal process - mandates, warrants, citations, compulsories, proxies, &c. Complaints of encroachment of jurisdiction by the Admiralty Courts led to the restraining acts, 13 Ric. II.
John Oxtoby, who evangelized Filey and became known as "Praying, Johnny," Viscount Goderich (afterwards Earl of Ripon) Duke of Wellington.
Earl Grey Viscount Melbourne Sir R.
Lord John Russell (afterwards Earl Russell) .
Earl of Derby.
Earl of Aberdeen.
Viscount Palmerston Earl of Derby.
Viscount Palmerston Earl Russell .
Earl of Derby .
Disraeli (after wards Earl of Beaconsfield)..
1892-1894 Earl of Rosebery1894-1895Marquess of Salis bury..1895-1902A.
He was chaplain to Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick, and preached before the House of Commons in 1640.
He immediately began to complain to Hyde, earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of the see, and based claims for a better benefice on a certain secret service, which he explained on the 20th of January 1661 to be the sole invention of the Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of his sacred Majestic in his Solitudes and Sufferings put forth within a few hours after the execution of Charles I.
He interceded for Waltheof's life and to the last spoke of the earl as an innocent sufferer for the crimes of others; he lived on terms of friendship with Bishop Wulfstan.
The Rev. Joseph Hunter associated him with the rebel earl of Lancaster of Edward II.'s time.
Sloth in Langland's poem couples him, as we have seen, with Randle, earl of Chester; and no one doubts this nobleman's existence because he had "rymes" made about him.
And possibly enough Hood was contemporary with that earl, who "flourished" in the reigns of Richard I., John and Henry III.
After 1615, the date of the pageant prepared for the mayoralty of Sir John Jolles, draper, by Anthony Munday and entitled Metropolis Coronata, a peer was imported into it, and the yeoman of the older version was metamorphosed into the earl of Huntingdon, for whom in the following century William Stukeley discovered a satisfactory pedigree!
The earl of Huntingdon was probably a nickname for a hunter.
from Robert Cecil, first earl of Salisbury, in exchange for Hatfield House.
A brawl in which he and his servants became involved with the citizens of Dover led to a serious quarrel between the king and Earl Godwine.
She was entrusted to the care of the earl of Linlithgow, and after the departure of the royal family to England, to the countess of Kildare, subsequently residing with Lord and Lady Harington at Combe Abbey in Warwickshire.
The help sought from James came only in the shape of useless embassies and negotiations; the two Palatinates were soon occupied by the Spaniards and the duke of Bavaria; and the romantic attachment and services of Duke Christian of Brunswick, of the 1st earl of Craven, and of other chivalrous young champions who were inspired by the beauty and grace of the "Queen of Hearts," as Elizabeth was now called, availed nothing.
of the earl of Craven, at Combe Abbey.
It was only the alliance of Montfort with Llewelyn of North Wales that brought the earl of Hereford back to his allegiance.
The earl's son and namesake was on the victorious side, and shared in the defeat of Evesham, which he did not long survive.
The motives of the earl's defiance were not altogether disinterested.
In company, therefore, with the earl of Norfolk he refused to render foreign service in Gascony, on the plea that they were only bound to serve with the king, who was himself bound for Flanders.
This close connexion with the royal house did not prevent him, as it did not prevent Earl Thomas of Lancaster, from joining the opposition to the feeble Edward II.
Subsequently he returned to the cause of his order, and fell on the side of Earl Thomas at the field of Boroughbridge (1322).
Earl John (d.
The elder, Eleanor, was given in 1374 to Thomas of Woodstock, seventh son of Edward III.; the younger, Mary, to Henry, earl of Derby, son of John of Gaunt and afterwards Henry IV., in 1380 or 1381.
Helston (Henliston, Haliston, Helleston), the capital of the Meneage district of Cornwall, was held by Earl Harold in the time of the Confessor and by King William at the Domesday Survey.
At Thebes, New York has also carried out work at Qurnet Murra`i and Sheikh `Abd el Qurna, as well as at Dra t Abul Neqqa and Deir el Bahri, 55 where the Earl of Carnarvon, assisted by Mr. Howard Carter, has also dug with remarkable success, recovering some of the most beautiful relics of the art of the XII.
CHARLES JOHN CANNING, Earl (1812-1862), English statesman, governor-general of India during the Mutiny of 1857, was the youngest child of George Canning, and was born at Brompton, near London, on the 14th of December 1812.
His first official appointment was that of under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, in the administration formed by Sir Robert Peel in 1841 - his chief being the earl of Aberdeen.
He declined to accept office under the earl of Derby; but on the formation of the coalition ministry under the earl of Aberdeen in January 18J3, he received the appointment of postmaster-general.
He was also made an extra civil grand cross of the order of the Bath, and in May of the same year he was raised to the dignity of an earl.
Cunningham, Earl Canning (" Rulers of India" series), 1891; and A.
Alloa Park, the seat of the earl of Mar and Kellie, is in the immediate vicinity, and in its grounds stand the ruins of Alloa Tower, an ancient structure 89 ft.
thick, which was built about 1315, and was once the residence of the powerful family of Erskine, descendants of the earl of Mar.
The earl who promoted the Jacobite rising in 1715 was born here.
His son, the second Earl Temple, was created marquess, and his grandson duke, of Buckingham.
The Grenville Papers, being the Correspondence of Richard Grenville, Earl Temple, K.G., and the Right Hon.
Earl Church and Keller-Leuzinger (1869-1875).
He married in 1113 Matilda, daughter and heiress of Waltheof, earl of Northumbria, and thus became possessed of the earldom of Huntingdon.
Alexander, together with the crown, received Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde, David the southern district with the title of earl of Cumbria.
In 1234 he sided with the crown against Richard, earl marshal, who fell in battle against him.
Dying in 1243, he was succeeded as lord of Connaught by his son Richard, and then (1248) by his younger son Walter, who carried on the family warfare against the native chieftains, and added greatly to his vast domains by obtaining (c. 1255) from Prince Edward a grant of "the county of Ulster," in consequence of which he was styled later earl of Ulster.
At his death in 1271, he was succeeded by his son Richard as 2nd earl.
He married a daughter of Henry, earl of Lancaster, and was appointed lieutenant of Ireland in 1331, but was murdered in his 21st year, leaving a daughter, the sole heiress, not only of the de Burgh possessions, but of vast Clare estates.
She was married in childhood to Lionel, son of Edward III., who was recognized in her right as earl of Ulster, and their direct representative, the duke of York, ascended the throne in 1461 as Edward IV., since when the earldom of Ulster has been only held by members of the royal family.
On the murder of the 3rd earl (1333), his male kinsmen, who had a better right, by native Irish ideas, to the succession than his daughter, adopted Irish names and customs, and becoming virtually native chieftains succeeded in holding the bulk of the de Burgh territories.
The former held the territory of Clanricarde, lying in the neighbourhood of Galway, and in 1543 their chief, as Ulick "Bourck, alias Makwilliam," surrendered it to Henry VIII., receiving it back to hold, by English custom, as earl of Clanricarde and Lord Dunkellin.
The 4th earl (1601-1635) distinguished himself on the English side in O'Neill's rebellion and afterwards, and obtained the English earldom of St Albans in 1628, his son Ulick receiving further the Irish marquessate of Clanricarde (1646).
His cousin and heir, the 6th earl (1657-1666) was uncle of the 8th and 9th earls (1687-1722), both of whom fought for James II.
and paid the penalty for doing so in 1691, but the 9th earl was restored in 1702, and his great-grandson, the 12th earl, was created marquess of Clanricarde in 1789.
He left no son, but the marquessate was again revived in 1825, for his nephew the 14th earl, whose heir is the present marquess.
In 1781 John Bourke, a Mayo man, believed to be descended from the line of "MacWilliam Oughter," was created Viscount Mayo, and four years later earl of Mayo, a peerage still extant.
In 1872 the 6th earl was murdered in the Andaman Islands when viceroy of India.
On St Thomas's Hill, where Thomas, earl of Lancaster, was beheaded in 1322, a chantry was erected in 1373, the site of which is now occupied by a windmill built of its stones.
His estates were restored to his brother Henry, earl of Lancaster, on the accession of Edward III., and the manor has since then formed part of the duchy of Lancaster.
sent the earl of Denbigh to Rome to congratulate Leo XIII.
At length in 1833 the ministry of Earl Grey took the question in hand and carried the abolition with little difficulty, the measure passing the House of Commons on the 7th of August, 1833 and receiving the Royal assent on the 28th.
On the death of James in December 1542 he attempted to assume office as one of the regents for the infant sovereign Mary, founding his pretensions on an alleged will of the late king; but his claims were disregarded, and the earl of Arran, head of the great house of Hamilton, and next heir to the throne, was declared regent by the estates.
He crossed over to Angus, and took part in the wedding of his illegitimate daughter with the heir of the earl of Crawford.
Her eldest son by this marriage, Edmund, was created earl of Richmond in 1452, and was the father of Henry VII.
This was destroyed by the Danes but refounded as a priory by Earl Leofric in 1017.
In 1781, through the influence of the earl of Mansfield, he obtained a pension of Doc) a year from the British government.
The ruins of the castle built in 1600 by Patrick Stewart, earl of Orkney, stand at the east end of the bay and are in good preservation.
Near the south-eastern promontory stands Muness Castle, now in ruins, built in 1598 - according to an inscription on a tablet above the door - by Laurence Bruce, natural brother to Lord Robert Stewart, 1st earl of Orkney.
Adjoining it are handsome municipal buildings (1891), and near it is the mansion house, built in 1725 from designs by the earl of Burlington.
It was also one of the chief Danish boroughs, and Earl Siward is said to have died there in 1055.
In 1066 it was taken by Harold Hardrada, and in 1068 the men of the north of England, rising under Edgar Aetheling and Earl Waltheof, stormed the castles which William I.
In 1762 Havana was captured after a long resistance by a British force under Admiral Sir George Pocock and the earl of Albemarle, with heavy loss to the besiegers.
Rosecrans, who on the 3/4 of October 1862 was fiercely attacked here by General Earl von Dorn, whom he repulsed, both sides suffering considerable losses in killed and wounded, and the Confederates leaving many prisoners behind.
In the interior there are a number of interesting monuments, among which the most noticeable are those of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk, and of Henry Howard, the famous earl of Surrey, who was beheaded by Henry VIII.
Hugh, son of Roger, created earl of Norfolk in 1141, succeeded his father, and the manor and castle remained in the Bigod family until 1306, when in default of heirs it reverted to the crown, and was granted by Edward II.
to his half-brother Thomas de Brotherton, created earl of Norfolk in 1312.
Its builder was probably Robert, earl of Gloucester, who also built Bristol castle.
Considerable additions of later date, in the Decorated and Perpendicular styles, are due to the Despensers and to Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, while the present residential part is of various dates ranging from the 15th century down to the last half of the r 9th, when a thorough restoration, including the addition of a superbly ornamented clock-tower, was carried out.
in 1550 to Sir William Herbert, afterwards created Baron Herbert of Cardiff and earl of Pembroke.
Through the daughter and granddaughter of the 7th earl the castle and estates became the property of the 1st marquess of Bute (who was created Baron Cardiff in 1776), to whose direct descendant they now belong.
The town received its earliest known grant of municipal privileges sometime before 1147 from Fitz Hamon's successor and son-in-law Robert, earl of Gloucester.
About 1153, Ivor Bach (or the Little), a neighbouring Welsh chieftain, seized the castle and for a time held William, earl of Gloucester, and the countess prisoners in the hills.
EDMUND, king of Sicily and earl of Lancaster - (1245-1296), was the second son of Henry III.
In 1265, after Montfort's fall, Edmund received the earldom of Leicester, and two years later was created earl of Lancaster.
Although the county of Champagne had descended to his wife's infant daughter, Joan, Edmund assumed the title "Count Palatine of Champagne and Brie," and is described in the English patent rolls as earl of Lancaster and Champagne.
See "Edmund, Earl of Lancaster," by W.
The Dynamics of a Particle was written on the occasion of the contest between Gladstone and Mr Gathorne Hardy (afterwards earl of Cranbrook); and The New Belfry in ridicule of the erection put up at Christ Church for the bells that were removed from the Cathedral tower.
Of these bastards the most important is Robert, earl of Gloucester, upon whom fell the main burden of defending Matilda's title against Stephen.
For the operations of this campaign Wellington was created earl, and subsequently marquess of Wellington; duke of Ciudad Rodrigo by Spain, and marquis of Torres Vedras by Portugal.
Having entered the church he became rector of Ripple, Worcestershire, and later of St Vedast, Foster Lane, London, and it was probably when he was chaplain to John de Vere, earl of Oxford, that he made the acquaintance of Elizabeth Woodville, afterwards the queen of Edward IV.
In 1452 the earl of Huntly crushed the insurrection led by the earl of Crawford at the battle of Brechin Muir, and in 1645 the town and castle were harried by the marquis of Montrose.
Once the seat of the Lindsays the estate now belongs to the earl of Dalhousie.
Between Farnell and Brechin lies Kinnaird Castle, the seat of the earl of Southesk.
assembly, of the household of personal followers or retainers of a king, earl or chief, contrasted with the "folkmoot," the assembly of the whole people.
Tong Castle belonged to Edmund Mortimer, earl of March.
His first service was under Lord Cochrane (afterwards tenth earl of Dundonald) in the famous "Imperieuse," and no midshipman ever had a livelier apprenticeship to the sea.
Andrews, and at the age of seventeen married Magdalene Carnegie, daughter of Lord Carnegie (afterwards earl of Southesk).
EDWARD HENRY STANLEY, 15th earl of Derby (1826-1893), eldest son of the 14th earl, was educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a high degree and became a member of the society known as the Apostles.
He married in 1870 Maria Catharine, daughter of the 5th earl de la Warr, and widow of the 2nd marquess of Salisbury.
The earl left no children and he was succeeded as 16th earl by his brother Frederick Arthur Stanley (1841-1908), who had been made a peer as Baron Stanley of Preston in 1886.
He died on the 1 4 th of June 1908, when his eldest son, Edward George Villiers Stanley, became earl of Derby.
In the reign of Edward the Confessor, Doncaster, as a berewic of the manor of Hexthorp, belonged to Earl Tostig; but before 1086 it had been granted to Robert, earl of Mortain, whose successor William was attainted for treason in the time of Henry I.
Edward the Confessor gave the manor to the church of Winchester in 1042, and it remained with the prior and convent of St Swithin until the 13th century, when it passed by exchange to Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, though the vassals of the prior and convent remained exempt from dues and tronage in the port.
The town suffered severely during the Civil War, being garrisoned by the parliamentary troops in 1642, taken by the earl of Carnarvon in 1643, and surrendered in the following year.
During the invasion of South Wales under William Rufus, Arnulf de Montgomeri, fifth son of Roger earl of Shrewsbury,.
in iiog and again by Earl Richard de Clare in 1154 (who also encircled the town with walls), and these privileges were confirmed and extended under succeeding earls palatine and kings of England.
In the 15th century the manor was held by James Butler, earl of Ormond, after whose attainder it was granted in 1461 to Lord Hastings, who in 1474 obtained royal licence to empark 3000 acres and to build and fortify a castle.
In 1669 he married Rachel (1636-1723), second daughter of the 4th earl of Southampton, and widow of Lord Vaughan, thus becoming connected with Shaftesbury, who had married Southampton's niece.
The old earl of Bedford offered £50,000 or £10o,000, and Monmouth, Legge, Lady Ranelagh, and Rochester added their intercessions.
On attaining his majority in 1871 an annuity of £15,000 was granted to Prince Arthur by parliament, and in 1874 he was created duke of Connaught and Strathearn and earl of Sussex.
Two and a half miles north is Balcarres House, belonging to the earl of Crawford, where Lady Anne Barnard (1750-1825) was born.
Thomas, Earl Cromwell >>
On the attainder of the family after the Gowrie conspiracy in 1600, the land passed to Sir David Murray of the Tullibardine line, who became 1st viscount Stormont (1621) and was the ancestor of the earl of Mansfield, to whom the existing house belongs.
Sir David completed in 1606 the palace which the earl of Gowrie had begun.
conde), the English translation of foreign titles equivalent generally to the English "earl."
1 In Anglo-French documents the word counte was at all times used as the equivalent of earl, but, unlike the feminine form "countess," it did not find its way into the English language until the 16th century, and then only in the sense defined above.
The title of earl, applied by the English to the foreign counts established in England by William the Conqueror, is dealt with elsewhere (see Earl).
Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
Conversely old English writers had no hesitation in translating as "earl" foreign titles which we now render "count."
the nine points and strawberry leaves of the English earl).
It belongs to the earl of Moray (Murray), who derives from it his title of Lord Doune, and was the home of James Stewart, the "bonnie earl" of Moray, murdered at Donibristle in Fife by the earl of Huntly (1592).
On the 26th of August a force of 5000 Highlanders suddenly appearing, Cleland posted his men in the church and behind the wall of the earl of Atholl's mansion.
Argyll Tower, in which Archibald, 9th earl of Argyll, spent his last days (1685), was also restored in 1892 by Mr William Nelson.
It was sacked and burnt by the English under the earl of Hertford in 1544, and again in 1547.
Almost opposite to it stands Moray House, from the balcony of which the 8th earl of Argyll watched Montrose led to execution (1650).
surveys the spot where Knox was buried; the reformer himself is in the quadrangle of New College: Sir David Brewster adorns the quadrangle of the university; Dr William Chambers is in Chambers Street, and Frederick, duke of York (1763-1827), and the 4th earl of Hopetoun are also commemorated.
It is separated from the narrow valley, in which lie the Canongate and Holyrood Palace, by Salisbury Crags, named after Edward III.'s general William Montacute, 1 st earl of Salisbury (1 3 01 - 1 344).
At Dalmahoy Castle, near Ratho (pop. 1946), the seat of the earl of Morton, are preserved the only extant copy of the bible of the Scottish parliament and the original warrant for committing Queen Mary to Lochleven Castle in Kinross-shire.
The chapel, higher up the bank, a relic of great beauty, was founded in 1446 by William St Clair, 3rd earl of Orkney.
The library hall was restored and decorated, largely through the generosity of Sir William Priestley (1829-1900), formerly M.P. for the university; while munificent additions to the academic funds and resources were made by the 15th earl of Moray (1840-1901), Sir William Fraser (1816-1898), and others.
Whatever doubt hangs over the details of the story, it seems clear that the earl made a promise to support the claims of his host upon the English succession.
Early in 1070 the reduction of the north was completed by a march over the moors to Chester, which had not hitherto submitted but was now placed under an earl of William's choice.
An outlawed Englishman, Hereward by name, fortified the Isle of Ely and attracted a number of desperate spirits to his side; amongst others came Morcar, formerly earl of Northumbria, who had been disappointed in the hopes which he based on William's personal favour.
William Fitz Osbern, earl of Hereford, who had been his right-hand man in Normandy, fell in the civil wars of Flanders (1071).
Another half-brother, Robert of Mortain, earl of Cornwall, showed little capacity.
In 1075 the king's attention was claimed by a conspiracy of the earls of Hereford and Norfolk, in which the Englishman Waltheof, earl of Northampton, was implicated to some degree.
In 1076 he invaded Brittany to get possession of the fugitive earl of Norfolk; but Philip of France came to the aid of the Bretons, and William gave way before his suzerain.
In April 1842 Lord Stanley (afterwards 14th earl of Derby), then secretary for the colonies in the second Peel Administration, wrote to Sir George Napier that the establishment of a colony in Natal would be attended with little prospect of advantage, but at the same time stated that the pretensions of the emigrants to be regarded as an independent community could not be admitted.
His eldest son Simon left a daughter, whose husband Hugh (brother of the count of Meulan) was created earl of Bedford by Stephen.
His descendant William, of Elmley, married Isabel, sister and eventually heiress to William Mauduit, earl of Warwick, and their son succeeded in 1268 to Warwick Castle and that earldom, which remained with his descendants in the male line till 1445.
By the heiress of the Tonis he left at his death in 1315 a son Earl Thomas, who distinguished himself at Crecy and Poitiers, was marshal of the English host, and, with his brother John, one of the founders of the order of the Garter.
In 1369 his son Earl Thomas succeeded; from 1376 to 1379 he was among the lords striving for reform, and in the latter year he was appointed governor to the king.
In 1401 he was succeeded by his son Earl Richard, a brave and chivalrous warrior, who defeated Owen Glendower, fought the Percys at Shrewsbury, and, after travelling in state through Europe and the Holy Land, was employed against the Lollards and afterwards as lay ambassador from England to the council of Constance (1414).
He held command for a time at Calais, and took an active part in the French campaigns of Henry V., who created him earl and count of Aumale in Normandy.
Dying at Rouen in 1439, he left by Isabel, widow of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Worcester, a son, Earl Henry, who was created duke of Warwick, 1445, and is alleged, but without authority, to have been crowned king of the Isle of Wight by Henry VI.
Later cadets were John, brother of the 3rd earl, who carried the standard at Crecy, became captain of Calais, and was summoned as a peer in 1350, but died unmarried; and William, brother of the 4th earl, who was distinguished in the French wars, and succeeding to the lands of the Lords Abergavenny was summoned in that barony 1392; his son was created earl of Worcester in 1420, but died without male issue in 1422; from his daughter, who married Sir Edward Neville, descended the Lords Abergavenny.
The title of "Beauchamp of Powyke" was revived as a barony in 1806 for Richard Lygon (descended through females from the Beauchamps of Powyke), who was created Earl Beauchamp in 1815.
In 1131 Ranulph, 2nd earl of Chester, introduced the Cistercians.
Close by is the scene of the battle of the 2nd of February 1645, in which Montrose completely defeated the earl of Argyll.
It was formerly a walled town, and contains some ancient buildings, such as the castle, erected in 1309, formerly a seat of the dukes of Ormonde, now belonging to the Butler family, a branch of which takes the title of earl from the town.
Folkestone (Folcestan) was among the possessions of Earl Godwine and was called upon to supply him with ships when he was exiled from England; at the time of the Domesday Survey it belonged to Odo, bishop of Bayeux.
For the moment the earl of Surrey (who in King Henry VIII.'s absence was charged with the defence of the realm) had no organized force in the north of England, but James wasted much precious time among the border castles, and when Surrey appeared at Wooler, with an army equal in strength to his own, which was now greatly weakened by privations and desertion, he had not advanced beyond Ford Castle.
- This condition of affairs coincided with the second movement in South Africa for a confederation of its various colonies and states, a movement of which the then colonial secretary, the 4th earl of Carnarvon, was a warm advocate.
RALPH DE GUADER, earl of Norfolk (fl.
1070), was the son of a Norman who had held high positions in East Anglia, perhaps that of earl, in the reign of Edward the Confessor (c. X055).
His son Ralph fought on the Norman side at Hastings, and was made earl of Norfolk by William the Conqueror.
In 1075 the king's refusal to sanction his marriage with the sister of Roger, earl of Hereford, caused the two earls to revolt.
PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE CHESTERFIELD, 4TH Earl Of (1694-1773), son of Philip Stanhope, third earl (1673-1726), and Elizabeth Savile, daughter of George Savile, marquess of Halifax, was born in London on the 22nd of September 1694; Philip, the first earl (1584-1656), son of Sir John Stanhope of Shelford, was a royalist who in 1616 was created Baron Stanhope of Shelford, and in 1628 earl of Chesterfield; and his grandson the 2nd earl (1633-1714) was grandfather of the 4th earl.
His relative James Stanhope (afterwards first Earl Stanhope), the king's favourite minister, procured for him the place of gentleman of the bedchamber to the prince of Wales.
In 1726 his father died, and Lord Stanhope became earl of Chesterfield.
In the troublous state of European politics the earl's conduct and experience were more useful abroad than at home, and he was sent to the Hague as ambassador a second time.
The earl showed himself finely capable in practice as in theory, vigorous and tolerant, a man to be feared and a leader to be followed; he took the government entirely into his own hands, repressed the jobbery traditional to the office, established schools and manufactures, and at once conciliated and kept in check the Orange and Roman Catholic factions.
In any case the doctor had expected more help from a professed patron of literature, and wrote the earl the famous letter in defence of men of letters.
His anxiety and the pains he took to become an orator have been already noticed, and Horace Walpole, who had heard all the great orators, preferred a speech of Chesterfield's to any other; yet the earl's eloquence is not to be compared with that of Pitt.
The earldom of Chesterfield passed at his death to his godson, already mentioned, as 5th earl, and so to the latter's son and grandson.
earls, and so in 1887 to the latter's son as 10th earl.
4to); Letters to his Son, 6fc., edited by Lord Mahon (London, 1845-1853, 5 vols.); and Letters to his Godson (1890) (edited by the earl of Carnarvon).
To the west of the town is Dysart House, the residence of the earl of Rosslyn.
William Murray, a native of the place, was made earl of Dysart in 1643, and his eldest child and heir, a daughter, Elizabeth, obtained in 1670 a regrant of the title, which passed to the descendants of her first marriage with Sir Lionel Tollemache, Bart., of Helmingham; she married secondly the 1st duke of Lauderdale, but had no children by him, and died in 1698.
1878), and his grandson, the 8th earl.
1743), who married James Annesley, 5th earl of Anglesey, and afterwards John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham and Normanby.
During the peace he entered parliament as member for Westminster in the fiercely contested election of 1784, was promoted vice-admiral in 1787, and in July of 1788 was appointed to the Board of Admiralty under the second earl of Chatham.
Pittston, named in honour of William Pitt, earl of Chatham, was one of the five original towns founded in the Wyoming Valley by the Susquehanna Company of Connecticut; it was first settled about 1770 and was incorporated as a borough in 1803.
Earl of Haddington >>
On the dissolution of the monasteries the manor was granted to the earl of Derby.
on the site of Savoy Palace, which was erected by Peter, earl of Savoy and Richmond, in 1245, and destroyed in the insurrection of Wat Tyler in 1381.
In Piccadilly Clarendon House, erected in 1664 by Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon, became Albemarle House when acquired by the duke of Albemarle in 1675.
Northumberland House, from which is named Northumberland Avenue, opening upon Trafalgar Square, was built c. 1605 by Henry Howard, earl of Northampton, and was acquired by marriage by Algernon Percy, earl of Northumberland, in 1642.
Arundel House, originally a seat of the bishops of Bath, was the residence of Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel, whose famous collection of sculpture, the Arundel Marbles, was housed here until presented to Oxford University in 1667.
The Metropolitan District (commonly called the District) system serves Wimbledon, Richmond, Ealing and Harrow on the west, and passes eastward by Earl's Court, South Kensington, Victoria and Mansion House (City) to Whitechapel and Bow.
Among other popular places of entertainment may be mentioned the exhibition grounds and buildings at Earl's Court; similar grounds at Shepherd's Bush, where a Franco-British Exhibition was held in 1908, an Imperial Exhibition in 1909, and an Anglo-Japanese in 1910; the great Olympia hall, West Kensington; the celebrated wax-work exhibition of Madame Tussaud in Marylebone Roan, the Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill, an institution resembling the Crystal Palace; and the Agricultural Hall, Islington, where agricultural and other exhibitions are held.
She, however, made them her enemies by delivering up the office of justiciary of London and the sheriffwick to her partisan Geoffrey, earl of Essex, and attempting to reduce the citizens to the enslaved condition of the rest of the country.
This order was first brought to England by William, earl of Warren (son-in-law of William the Conqueror), who built the first house at Lewes in Sussex about 1077.
to Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, at whose death in 1324 the property passed to the knights of St John, who leased the new Temple to the lawyers, still the occupants of the district.
The dissolved monastery of the Charterhouse, which had been bought and sold by the courtiers several times, was obtained from Thomas, earl of Suffolk, by Thomas Sutton for 13,000.
In 1613 The Masque of Flowers was presented by the members of Gray's Inn in the Old Banqueting House in honour of the marriage of the infamous Carr, earl of Somerset, and the equally infamous Lady Frances, daughter of the earl of Suffolk.
When the poll-tax of 1379 was imposed the mayor was assessed as an earl and the aldermen as barons.
Banished from France for this crime (1322), Robert of Artois took refuge in England, where he became earl of Richmond, and incited Edward III.
Within the enclosure of the Khalifa's house is the tomb of Hubert Howard, son of the 9th earl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the capture of the city by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mandi's tomb.
Hawkins, his relative and executor, in 1721; his prose ' The fact, however, that in 1712 - only a year after Ken's death - his publisher, Brome, published the hymn with the opening words "All praise," has been deemed by such a high authority as the 1st earl of Selborne sufficient evidence that the alteration had Ken's authority.
Although very hostile to Earl Thomas of Lancaster, Badlesmere helped to make peace between the king and the earl in 1318, and was a member of the middle party which detested alike Edward's minions, like the Despensers, and his violent enemies like Lancaster.
The king's conduct, however, drew him to the side of the earl, and he had already joined Edward's enemies when, in October 1321, his wife, Margaret de Clare, refused to admit Queen Isabella to her husband's castle at Leeds in Kent.
Earl of against the Bloudy Cavaliers (1642).
Earl of Rochford >>
Neath is a borough by prescription and received its first charter about the middle of the 12th century from William, earl of Gloucester, who granted its burgesses the same customs as those of Cardiff.
The prime object of interest is the cathedral of St Magnus, a stately cruciform red sandstone structure in the severest Norman, with touches of Gothic. It was founded by Jarl Rognvald (Earl Ronald) in 1137 in memory of his uncle Jarl Magnus who was assassinated in the island of Egilshay in 1115, and afterwards canonized and adopted as the patron saint of the Orkneys.
1400), earl and prince of Orkney and 1st earl of Caithness, its last vestiges having been demolished in 1865 to provide better access to the harbour; and the earthwork to the east of the town thrown up by the Cromwellians has been converted into a battery of the Orkney Artillery Volunteers.
To the east of the remains of the bishop's palace are the ruins of the earl's palace, a structure in the Scottish Baronial style, built about 1600 for Patrick Stewart, 2nd earl of Orkney, and on his forfeiture given to the bishops for a residence.
By his wife, Margaret of Bavaria, he had one son, Philip the Good, who succeeded him; and seven daughters - Margaret, who married in 1404 Louis, son of Charles VI., and in 1423 Arthur, earl of Richmond and afterwards duke of Brittany; Mary, wife of Adolph of Cleves; Catherine, promised in 1410 to a son of Louis of Anjou; Isabella, wife of Olivier de Chatillon, count of Penthievre; Joanna, who died young; Anne, who married John, duke of Bedford, in 1423; and Agnes, who married Charles I., duke of Bourbon, in 1425.
granted it to his son Alexander Stewart, 1st earl of Buchan (1343-1405), the "Wolf of Badenoch."
Reverting to the crown, it was bestowed in 1452 upon the 1st earl of Huntly, and still gives the title of lord of Badenoch to the marquess of Huntly.
was perhaps acquainted with the two plays, written in 1598, of The Downfall and The Death of Robert Earl of Huntingdon, by Anthony Munday and Harry Chettle.
It was touched in 1605 by the British ship "Olive Blossom," whose crew, finding it uninhabited, took possession in the name of James I.; but the first actual settlement was made in 1625, at the direction of Sir William Courteen under the patent of Lord Leigh, afterwards earl of Marlborough, to whom the island had been granted by the king.
Two years later, a compromise having been effected with Lord Marlborough, a grant of the island was obtained by the earl of Carlisle, whose claim was based on a grant, from the king, of all the Caribbean islands in 1624; and in 1628 Charles Wolferstone, a native of Bermuda, was appointed governor.
During the Civil War in England many Royalists sought refuge in Barbados, where, under Lord Willoughby (who had leased the island from the earl of Carlisle), they offered stout resistance to the forces of the Commonwealth.
of the town) is the seat of Earl Powis, and has been in the possession of the Herberts for many generations.
This principle, first asserted by a resolution of the House of Commons in the earl of Danby's case (May 5, 1679), forms one of the provisions of the Act of Settlement, 12 & 13 Will.
The first white settlement in the Mosquito country was made in 1630, when the agents of an English chartered company - of which the earl of Warwick was chairman and John Pym treasurer - occupied two small cays, and established friendly relations with the Indians.
The earl of Northumberland remained at Alnwick, but sent his sons Sir Henry and Sir Ralph against the enemy.
Anglesey was taken from him, and he was deprived of Roxburgh Castle in favour of his rival, the earl of Westmorland.
The Scots again invaded England in the autumn of 1402, headed by the earl of Douglas and Murdoch Stewart, son of the duke of Albany.
The English archers were provided with a good target in the masses of the Scottish spearmen, and Hotspur was restrained from charging by his ally, George Dunbar, earl of March.
was heard of no more, and Percy made himself the champion of the young earl of March.