Dynasties Sentence Examples
Not until the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties does a change come over Egyptian costume.
For nine centuries Peking, under various names and under the dominion of successive dynasties, has, with some short intervals, remained an imperial city.
Industrial relations with Egypt are also marked by the occurrence of a series of finds of pottery and other objects of Minoan fabric among the remains of the XVIIIth, XIIth and even earlier dynasties, while the same seafaring enterprise brought Egyptian fabrics to Crete from the times of the first Pharaohs.
The former comprised several dynasties of mixed Turki and Iranian race, but was wanting in coherency.
During the greater part of the Mahommedan period Persia has been ruled by troubled and short-lived dynasties.Advertisement
In Asia Minor he was unable to reduce Bithynia or the Persian dynasties which ruled in Cappadocia.
Having thus recovered the central part of Asia Minor - for the dynasties in Pergamum, Bithynia and Cappadocia the Seleucid government was obliged to tolerate - Antiochus turned to recover the outlying provinces of the north and east.
Africa, was settled in the Aegean area from a remote Neolithic antiquity, but, except in Crete, where insular security was combined with great natural fertility, remained in a savage and unproductive condition until far into the 4th millennium B.C. In Crete, however, it had long been developing a certain civilization, and at a period more or less contemporary with Dynasties XI.
After the foundation of New Paphos and the extinction of the Cinyrad and Ptolemaic dynasties, the importance of the Old Town declined rapidly.
At Saqqara, opposite Memphis itself, the steppyramid of Zoser of the IIIrd Dynasty, several pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, and innumerable mastaba-tombs of the Old Kingdom, are crowded together in the cemetery.Advertisement
The atabegs formed a number of dynasties, which displaced the descendants of the Seljukian amirs in their various principalities.
These dynasties were founded by emancipated mamelukes, who had held high office at court and in camp under powerful amirs, and who, on their death, first became stadtholders for their descendants, and then usurped the throne of their masters.
It is impossible here to follow in detail the numerous changes in the distribution of the territory and the gradual disappearance of particular dynasties which maintained a footing for some time longer in Chalcis, Abila, Emesa and Palestine; but it is of special interest to note that the kingdom of the Arab Nabataeans was able to keep its hold for a considerable period on the north as far as Damascus.
During the struggles of the Mahommedan dynasties for the possession of Syria the country still enjoyed a considerable degree of prosperity.
The introduction is an elaborate treatise on the science of history and the development of society, and the autobiography contains the history, not only of the author himself, but of his family and of the dynasties which ruled in Fez, Tunis and Tlemcen during his lifetime.Advertisement
The inscriptional records cease abruptly in the 12th century, and no more is known of the country until the rise of the Gond dynasties from the 14th to the 16th centuries.
For the detailed accounts of the separate dynasties into which it was divided after Alexander's death, see Seleucid Dynasty, Antigonus, Pergamum, &C., and for its effect on the spread of Hellenic culture see Hellenism.
Of the four kings who now divided the Macedonian Empire amongst them, two were not destined to found durable dynasties, while the house of Antigonus, represented by Demetrius, was after all to do so.
From this time Rome formally entered upon the heritage of Alexander as far as the Euphrates, but many of the dynasties which had arisen in the days of Macedonian supremacy were allowed to go on for a 'time as client states.
Money was also struck in their own name by the cities in the several dynasties' spheres of power, but in most cases only bronze or small silver for local use.Advertisement
The values recognized in the great Hellenistic courts and the Greek world generally imposed their authority upon the dynasties of barbarian origin.
They have been identified with the people of Punt, who were known to the Egyptians of the early dynasties.
Under the kings of the third dynasty, the division of the kingdom among the sons of the dead monarch which had characterized the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, ceased.
Although religious animosities between Christian nations have died out, although dynasties may now rise and fall without raising half Europe to arms, the springs of warlike enterprise are still to be found in commercial jealousies, in imperialistic ambitions and in the doctrine of the survival of the fittest which lends scientific support to both.
Thirteen years later it recognized and received the Fatimites, and passed under various Moslem dynasties, forming part of the Seljuk dominion from 1090 to 1117.Advertisement
It was the usual garb of scribes, servants and peasants, and in the earlier dynasties was worn even by men of rank.
This plain diaphanous garment, without distinction of colour (white, red or yellow), and with perhaps only an embroidered hem at the top, was worn by the whole nation, princess and peasant, from the IVth to the XVIIIth Dynasties (Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 212).
After that the empire fell to a low ebb, and Central Burma was often subject to Shan dynasties.
The authenticity of his list of 10 antediluvian kings who reigned for 120 sari or 432,000 years, has been partially confirmed by the inscriptions; but his 8 postdiluvian dynasties are difficult to reconcile with the monuments, and the numbers attached to them are probably corrupt.
A careful register of the dates was kept, divided into reigns, from which dynastic lists were afterwards compiled, giving the duration of each king's reign as well as that of the several dynasties.
It is generally assumed that two dynasties reigned at Ur and claimed suzerainty over the other Babylonian states, though there is as yet no clear proof that there was more than one.
It was probably Gungunu who succeeded in transferring the capital of Babylonia from Isin to Ur, but his place in the dynasty (or dynasties) is still uncertain.
For the views of other writers on the chronology, see § viii., Chronological Systems. The Babylonian Dynasties from cir.
Babylonia was a land of merchants and agriculturists; Assyria was an organized camp. The Assyrian dynasties were founded Dynasty of Isin of I i kings for 1324 years.
In its original form this document gave a list, arranged in dynasties, of the Babylonian kings, from the First Dynasty of Babylon down to the Neo-Babylonian period.
The first column gives the names of the writers and the dates at which their schemes were published, while the remaining columns give the dates they have suggested for Dynasties I., II.
In 1891, with the object of getting the total duration of the dynasties to agree with the chronological system of Berossus and with the statement of Nabonidus concerning Khammurabi's date, Peiser proposed to emend the figure given by the Kings' List for the length of Dynasty III.
In his first system, published in 1886,' Hommel, mainly with the object of reducing Khammurabi's date, reversed the order of the first two dynasties of the Kings' List, placing Dynasty II.
But even by postulating the highest possible dates for he Dynasties of Babylon and Ur, enormous gaps occurred in he scheme of chronology, which were unrepresented by any ro al name or record.
In his valiant attempt to fill these gaps Rad„ u was obliged to invent kings and even dynasties, 13 the existence f which is now definitely disproved.
At the same time Yemen, which since the 9th century had been in the power of a number of small dynasties ruling in Zubed, San`a, Sa`da and Aden, passed into the hands of the Turk.
These later historians had valuable help from the biographies of famous men and special histories of countries and cities, dynasties and princes, on which much labour was spent from the 4th century from the Flight onwards.
The empire of the Fatimites (q.v.) rested on Berber support, and from that time forth till the advent of the Turks the dynasties of North Africa were really native, even when they claimed descent from some illustrious Arab stock.
The feud between the rival dynasties lasted from the beginning of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th.
All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
The intermediate rice plains, known as the Mogholbandi, from their having been regularly settled by the Mahommedans, have yielded to the successive dynasties and conquerors of Orissa almost the whole of the revenues derived from the province.
Manetho, likewise a priest, living at Sebennytus in Lower Egypt in the 3rd century B.C., wrote in Greek a history of Egypt, with an account of its thirty dynasties of sovereigns, which he professed to have drawn from genuine archives in the keeping of the priests.
Petrie's excavation of the cemetery behind the temple enclosures revealed burials dating from the fourth dynasty onwards, the most important being mastables of the period from the sixth to the eleventh dynasties; many of these exhibited a peculiar degradation of the contemporary style of sculpture.
The title Amir ul Muminim, or "commander of the faithful," now borne by the sultan of Turkey, was first assumed by Abu Bekr, and was taken by most of the various dynasties which claimed the caliphate, including the Fatimites, the Spanish Omayyads and the Almohades.
The history of Berar belongs generally to that of the Deccan, the country falling in turn under the sway of the various dynasties which successively ruled in southern India, the first authentic records showing it to have been part of the Andhra or Satavahana empire.
It became a bone of contention between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of Damascus, then of Egypt, and in 748 was sacked with great slaughter.
In later times the title of tetrarch is familiar from the New Testament as borne by certain princes of the petty dynasties which the Romans allowed to exercise a dependent sovereignty within the province of Syria.
In the middle empire (VIIth to XIIth Dynasties) the lay element maintains its position in religious cultus despite its complexity.
At the beginning of the 16th century the native dynasties Constantine, and the bey of the west who resided at Y Mascara and afterwards at Oran.
When the need began to be felt events were probably at first dated by the regnal years of kings; the reigns of successive kings were then arranged in order, and grouped, if necessary, in dynasties, and thus a fixed standard was gradually constructed.
Native dynasties ruled from 735 to the 15th century, when the region was conquered by the Turks and became Mahommedan.
On the other hand, a list of post-diluvian dynasties, which is quoted by Eusebius and Georgius Syncellus as having been given by Berossus, cannot, in its present form, be reconciled with the monumental facts, though a substratum of historical truth is discoverable in it.
But all attempts to harmonize the scheme of dynasties thus ascribed to Berossus with the list given us in the so-called dynastic Tablets discovered by Dr Pinches have been failures.
After the death of Malik Shah the head of the family was not strong enough to enforce obedience, and consequently the central government broke up into several independent dynasties.
Within the limits of these minor dynasties the same rules were observed, and the same may be said of the hereditary fiefs of Turkish amirs not belonging to the royal family, who bore ordinarily the title of atabeg or atabek (properly "father bey"), e.g.
With the advent of the Dynasties the bodies of some of the principal people are found lying extended at full length.
The once exiled dynasties the conscientiously re-established the legitimate Church, and both conservative powers made common cause against revolutionary tendencies.
The most natural explanation is that Aryans had made their way into the highlands east of Assyria, and thence bands had penetrated into Mesopotamia, peacefully or otherwise, and then, like the Turks in the days of the Caliphate, founded dynasties.
By1185-1186Saladin had made Egypt supreme over all these principalities, thus achieving what the XVIIIth and XIXth Egyptian dynasties had attempted in vain.
This prosperity, however, was checked by a growing tendency among the Silesian dynasties to make partitions of their territories at each new succession.
Henceforth, too, annexations of territory were frequently carried out by the Bohemian crown on the extinction of Silesian dynasties, and the surviving princes showed an increasing reluctance to the exercise of their authority.
That valley prior to the Gurkha domination (1768) was under three native dynasties (at Bhatgaon, Patan and Katmandu), and these struck silver mohurs, as they were called, of the nominal value of half a rupee.
Through the exertions of Prinsep, Csoma de Koros, Emil Schlag intweit, Chandra Das, Rockhill, Huth, Waddell and others, we possess many copies of lists of kings, forming the dynasties of Tibet from the legendary beginnings between the 5th and 2nd century B.C. down to the end of the monarchy in 914.
In Egypt the Phoenician merchants soon gained a foothold; they alone were able to maintain a profitable trade in the anarchic times of the XXIInd and XXIIIrd Dynasties (825-650 B.C.), when all other foreign merchants were frightened away.
But they received a rich compensation in the Eastern Alps (not to speak of the imperial crown), for they there gathered in the harvest that numerous minor dynasties had prepared for them, albeit unconsciously.
It was desirable that the new sovereign should be able to count upon the friendly support of the great powers, and yet not be actually a member of their reigning dynasties.
The city is historically interesting as the capital of the Chola race, one of the oldest Hindu dynasties of which any traces remain, and from which the whole coast of Coromandel, or more properly Cholamandal, derives its name.
Under the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties Thebes was at the height of its greatness.
In addition to this, modern study of monuments and inscriptions has recovered the names, and to a certain extent the records, of a succession of dynasties ruling in the Deccan; of these the most conspicuous are the Cholas, the Andhras or Satavahanas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas of Devagiri (Deogiri).
This journey resulted not only in the discovery of the missing tablets, but of fragments which recorded the succession and duration of the Babylonian dynasties.
Prussia thus made a bid for the sympathy of the democracy at the same time as she declared war against the dynasties; and her power was revealed by the fact that her veto was sufficient to wreck a proposal seconded by the all but unanimous vote of the German sovereigns.
Prussia, he said, would only recognize the right of a reformed federal power to settle the Schleswig-Holstein question, and this power must be based on a German parliament, which alone could guarantee Prussia that any sacrifices she might make would be for the good of Germany and not of the dynasties.
The rivalry of the dynasties to which for so long the interests of the nation had been The new sacrificed now ceased.
The development of this small mark into the AustroHungarian monarchy was a slow and gradual process, and falls into two main divisions, which almost coincide with the periods during which the dynasties of Babenberg and Habsburg have respectively ruled the land.
Of this last came the long connexion between Sicily and southern Italy under several dynasties.
All the ancient dynasties traced their descent from Poseidon, who at the time of the Achaean conquest was the chief male divinity of Greece and the islands.
It was upon the system of Greek and Macedonian cities, planted by Alexander and his successors, that their work rested, and though their dynasties crumbled, their work remained.
Libraries became a feature of the age, the kings leading the way as collectors, of books, especially the rival dynasties of Egypt and Pergamum.
It remains, of course, a question whether the tradition was transmitted by the Greek dynasties from Bactria or by intercourse with the Roman empire; the latter seems now almost certain; but the fact of the influence is equally striking on either theory.
The history of these Greek dynasties is for us almost a blank, and for estimating the amount and quality of Hellenism in Bactria during the 180 years or so of Macedonian and Greek rule, we are reduced to building hypotheses upon the scantiest data.
The west of Iran slipped from the Seleucids in the course of the 2nd century B.C. to be joined to the Parthian kingdom, or fall under petty native dynasties.
Then the reconquest of the nearer East by Oriental dynasties was checked by the advance of Rome.
But under the dynasties of his successors a great work of city-building and colonization went on.
The minor dynasties of non-Greek origin, the native Bithynian and the two Persian dynasties in Pontus and Cappadocia, were Hellenized before the Romans drove the Seleucid out Native of the country.
In Bithynia the upper classes seem to dynasties.
Such local dynasties as were suffered by the Romans to exist had, of course, a Hellenistic complexion.
The numismatic collection, as regards the period of the caliphs and later dynasties, is one of the richest in the world.
The town of Babylon disappeared, but the strong walls of the fortress in part remain, and the name survived, " Babylon of Egypt," or " Babylon " simply, being frequently used in medieval writings as synonymous with Cairo or as denoting the successive Mahommedan dynasties of Egypt.
For the Deltaic dynasties these sources fail absolutely, the scenes being then either purely religious or conventional imitations of the earlier ones.
The first group is contemporary with the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties and consists in the first place of the Tell ci .Amarna tablets with others related to them, containing the reports of governors of the Syrian possessions of Egypt, and the correspondence of the kings of Babylon, Assur, Mitanni and Khntti (the Hittites) with the Pharaohs.
Dr Elliott Smith, who has examined thousands pf skeletons and mummies of all periods, finds that the prehistoric population of Upper Egypt, a branch of the North African-MediterraneanArabian race, changed with the advent of the dynasties to a stronger type, better developed than before in skull and muscle.
In the XVIIIth Dynasty the value of meat, &c., was reckoned in gold; somewhat later copper seems the commonest standard, and under the Deltaic dynasties silver.
During the XXVth and XXVIth Dynasties silver of the treasury of Harshafe (at Heracleopolis Magna) was commonly prescribed in contracts, and in the reign of Darius we hear of silver of the treasury of Ptah (at Memphis).
Egypt before the Deltaic dynasties, but Diodorus in the first century B.C. describes how its eggs were hatched artificially, as they are at the present day.
Main Sources.(a) The Pyramid texts, a vast collection of incantations inscribed on the inner walls of five royal tombs of the Vth and VIth Dynasties at Sakkgra, discovered and first published by Maspero.
The above-mentioned nucleus, combined with other chapters of more recent origin, is found in the papyri of the XVIIIthXXth Dynasties, and forms the so-called Theban recension, which has been edited by Naville man important work.
Thus Ammon, originally the obscure local god of Thebes, was raised by the Theban monarchs of the XIIth and of the XVIIIth to XXIst Dynasties to a predominant position never equalled by any other divinity; and, by similar means, Suchos of the Fayum, IJbasti of Bubastis, and Neith of Sais, each enjoyed for a short space of time a consideration that no other cause would have secured to them.
The later religious literature is much taken up with the mythical and semi-mythical dynasties of kings, and the priests compiled, with many newly-invented details, the chronicles of the wars they were supposed to have waged.
Late Egyptian is seen in hieratic papyri of the XVIIIth to the XXIst Dynasties.
Small chisels set in wooden handles are found (35) of the XIIth and XVIIIth Dynasties.
The drill was worked by a stock with a loose cap (53), rotated by a drill bow, in the XIIth to Roman dynasties.
Copper daggers with parallel ribbing (61) down the middle are common in the XIth-XIVth Dynasties; and in the XVIIIth-XXth Dynasties they are often shown in scenes and on figures.
The sling is rarely shown in the XIXth-XXth Dynasties; and the only known example is probably of the XXVIth.
The flint vase-grinders were used in the early dynasties (110), and also sandstone grinders for hollowing larger vases (III).
Flat dishes were used in earlier times; gradually deeper forms appear, and lastly the deep bowl with turned-in edge belongs to the close of the prehistoric time and continued common in the earlier dynasties (P.D.P. 19).
In the early dynasties the hard stones were still worked, md the 1st dynasty was the most splendid age for vases, bowls, md dishes of the finest stones.
In later work we may note that copper scrapers were used for facing the limestone work in the VIth, the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties.
Such work was kept up in the XVIIIth and XXVIth Dynasties.
The development of glazing at the beginning of the dynasties was sudden and effective.
In the latter part of the XVIIIth and the XIXth Dynasties a thick hard light pottery, with white specks and a polished drab-white facing, was generally used for all fine purposes.
The XIXth and XXth Dynasties only show a degradation of the types of the XVIIIth; and even through to the XXVth Dynasty there is no new movement (P.K.; P.1; P.A.; P.S.T.).
In the XVIIIth to XXth Dynasties we reach the great period of monuments.
The duration of the reigns in several dynasties is fairly well known from the incontrovertible evidence of contemporary monuments.
The lengths of several reigns in the XIIth, XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties are known, and the sum total for the XIIth Dynasty is preserved better than any other in the Turin Papyrus, which was written under the XIXth Dynasty.
The succession and number of the kings are also ascertained for other dynasties, together with many regnal dates, but very serious gaps exist in the records of the Egyptian monuments, the wo,rst being between the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties, between the XIth and the VIth, and at Dynasties 1.-Ill.
It is 788 3246 possible that the compiler of the Turin 2793 Papyrus, who excluded contemporary reigns in the period between the VIth and the 1731 XIIth Dynasties, here admitted such; nor 580 1580 is a correspondingly large number of kings 350 1322 in so short a period without analogies in history.
Professor Petrie, however, thinks it best, while accepting the evidence of the Sirius date, to suppose further that a whole Sothic period of 1460 years had passed in the interval, making a total of 1650 years for the six dynasties in place of 220 years.
To the present writer it seems that Meyers chronology provides a convenient working theory, but involves such an improbability in regard to the interval between the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties that the interpretation of the Sothic date on which it is founded must be viewed with suspicion until clear facts are found to corroborate it.
Beyond the XIIth Dynasty estimates must again be vague rhe spacing of the years on the Palermo stone has given rise to some calculations for the early dynasties.
The dates of the earlier dynasties in this table are always intended to be only approximate; for instance, Meyer in 1904 allowed an error of 100 years either of excess or deficiency in the dates he assigned to the dynasties from the Xth upwards.
The other dynasties are dated as in Table II.
The succession of archaeological types revealed in them has been tabulated by Petrie in his Diospolis Parva; and the detailed publication of Reisners unusually careful researches is bringing much new light on the questions involved, amongst other things showing the exact point at which the prehistoric series merges into the 1st Dynasty, for, as might be surmised, in many cases the prehistoric cemeteries continued in use under the earliest dynasties.
The advent of the dynasties, however, produced a quickening rather than a dislocation in the development of civilization.
The VIIth and VIIIth Dynasties are said to have been Memphite, but of them no record survives beyond some names of kings in the lists.
The Middle Kingdom.The long Memphite rule was broken by the IXth and Xth Dynasties, of Heracleopolis Magna (Hns)
The Abydos tablet ignores all between the XIIth and XVIIIth Dynasties.
Dynasties; while a prince at Tanis named Smendes (Esbentti)
Like other provinces of the later Abbasid Caliphate its rulers were, during this period, able to establish quasi-independent dynasties, such being those of the Tulunids who ruled from 868 to 905, and the Ikshidis from 935969.
The period between the rise of the Abbasids and the quasi-independent dynasties of Egypt was marked by much religious persecution, occasioned by the fanaticism of some of the caliphs, the victims being generally Moslem sectarians.
The later dynasties of Brabant and Lorraine, when these fiefs became hereditary, bore only the title of duke.
The various dynasties of sultans (Buyids, Ghaznevids, Seljuks, and finally the Mongols) never paid heed to the caliphs, and at length abolished them; but the fall of the theocracy only increased the influence of the clergy, the expounders and practical administrators of that legislation of Koran and Sunna which had become part of the life of the Mahommedan world.
In 1204 Constantinople was captured by the Latins of the Fourth Crusade, and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned emperor; the Venetians acquired several maritime towns and islands, and Frankish feudal dynasties were established in Salonica, Athens, Achaea and elsewhere.
The geographical character of the district north and north-east of the elbow of Orontes makes it the natural centre of Syria, so long as that country is held by a western power; and only Asiatic, and especially Arab, dynasties have neglected it for the oasis of Damascus.
The long list of the kings of the principal dynasties carved on a wall is known as the "Table of Abydos."
The Royal Tombs of the earliest dynasties were placed about a mile back on the great desert plain.
It was extensive in the XIIth and XIIIth dynasties and contained many rich tombs.
In the XVIIIth-XXth dynasties a large number of fine tombs were made, and later ages continued to bury here till Roman times.
That region was the most fertile, had the best husbandry, and possessed the most civilized population, a people essentially English in language and institutions, but indomitably attached to the Celtic dynasties of the western and northern part of the island.
During the Ts'in, Han and Tang dynasties the city was usually the capital of the empire, and in size, population and wealth it is still one of the most important cities of China.
The tablet itself was in October 1907 removed by Chinese officials into the city proper, and placed in the Pei Lin or "forest of tablets," a museum in which are collected tablets of the Han, Tang, Sung, Yuen and Ming dynasties, some of which bear historical legends, notably a set of stone tablets having the thirteen classics inscribed upon them, while others are symbolical or pictorial; among these last is a full-sized likeness of Confucius.
Indeed Asiatic influence made itself felt in Egypt before the Hyksos age, and later, and more strongly, during the XVIIIth and following Dynasties, and deities of Syro-Palestinian fame (Resheph, Baal, Anath, the Baalath of Byblos, Kadesh, Astarte) found a hospitable welcome.
He is presumably the Baal who is associated with thunder and lightning, and with the bull, and who was familiar to the Egyptians of the XIXth and XXth Dynasties in the adulations of their divine king.
The cuneiform script, which continued in Egypt during the XIXth and XXth Dynasties, was perhaps still used in Palestine; it was doubtless familiar at least during the Assyrian supremacy.
Unfortunately, there is very little evidence in the biblical history for the subsequent career of Samaria, but it is clear that the old Israel of the dynasties of Omri and Jehu received crushing blows.
It may perhaps be no mere chance that with the dynasties of Omri and Jehu the historical continuity is more firm, that older forms of prophetical narrative are preserved (the times from Ahab to Jehu), and that to the reign of the great Jeroboam (first half of the 8th century), the canonical writers have ascribed the earliest of the extant prophetical writings (Amos and Hosea).
Various barbaric dynasties succeeded each other.
The successive dynasties of Delhi are generally called Pathan, but were really so only in part.
The tiles, which are evidently of the same origin as those of Persia and Turkey, are chiefly to be found in the ruined mosques and tombs of the old Mussulman dynasties; but the industry still survives at the little towns of Saidpur and Bubri.
On the other hand, the names of Greeks and kings of Grecian dynasties appear in the rock inscriptions, under Indian forms.
During those four centuries their history is I t intertwined with that of the Pallavas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and other minor dynasties.
The earliest of the Mahommedan dynasties in the Deccan was that founded by Ala-ud-din in 1347, which has received the name of the Bahmani dynasty.
It is, of course, impossible here to trace in detail the history of these several dynasties.
Successive Arab dynasties looted it, and many monuments of antiquity suffered (to be finally swept away by "municipal improvements" under the French regime).
The temple continued to be built upon or rebuilt by kings of various succeeding dynasties, as shown by bricks and votive objects bearing the inscriptions of the kings of various dynasties of Ur and Isin.
But, to judge from the photographic reproduction of the Nippur tablet, the characters upon it do not appear to resemble those in use at the time of the First Dynasty, nor those of the period of the Dynasties of Ur and Isin.
Here arose the successive dynasties of Asoka, of the Guptas, and of Harshavardhana, which for a thousand years exercised imperial sway over the greater part of India.
The kings of the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties were the greatest conquerors that Egypt ever produced, and their records are clear on this point.
A compendium in Arabic of this secular history was made by Bar-Hebraeus under the title al-Mukhtasar fi `d-Duwal (Compendious History of the Dynasties).
Extended intercourse with Syria, Palestine and Egypt brought other types of pottery, jewelry, &c. (especially scarabs of XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties, 1600-1200 B.C.), which were freely copied on the spot.
And from the social side the development of law, the influence of city life, the formation of priesthoods, the connexion of particular deities with the fortunes of dynasties or the vicissitudes of nations, the processes of migration, of conquest and political fusion, the deportations of vanquished peoples, even the sale of slaves to distant lands and the growth of trade and travel, all contribute to the processes which expand and modify different pantheons, and determine the importance of particular deities.
He succeeded in maintaining the status quo practically unimpaired, additional security being found in intermarriage between the two dynasties.
It is convenient at this point to mention several other minor dynasties founded by nominal governors in various parts of Mi Persia and its borderland.
From 879 to about 930 Dynasties, the Sajids ruled in.
For these and other minor dynasties such as the Hsanwayhids of Kurdistan (c. 9591015) and the Kakwayhids of Kurdistan (1007-1051), see Stockvis, Manuel dhistoire, 1.113 sqq.
Hitherto the ultimate power, at least nominally, had resided in the caliphate at Bagdad, and all the dynasties which have been noticed derived their authority formally from that source.
As we have seen, the Ghaznevid armies in a brief space destroyed most of the native dynasties of Persia.
Similar dynasties existed in Laristan and Fars.
In every part of the empire they gradually superseded the Seljuk princes, and the minor dynasties above mentioned all owed their existence to the ambition of the Turkish regents or atabegs.
Thus from the fall of the Samanidsto the invasion of the Mongols five or at most six important dynasties held sway over Persia, while some forty small dynasties enjoyed a measure of local autonomy.
We now come to a new period in Persian history, when the numerous, petty dynasties which succeeded the Seliuks were all swallowed up in the great Mongcl invasion.
Hulagu at Once proceeded to destroy a number of nascent dynasties which endeavoured to establish themselves on the ruins of the Khwarizm Empire; about 1255 he destroyed the dynasty of the i by the capture of their stronghold of Alamut (Eagles Nest), and finally in 1258 captured Bagdad.
Practically from the reign of Abu Said Persia was divided under five minor dynasties, (I) the Jelairids, (2) the Mozaffarids, MInor (3) the Sarbadarids (Serbedarians), (4) the Beni Dynasties.
It was about this time that Timur (q.v.) began his great career of conquest, under which the power of the various Persian dynasties collapsed.
Fresh risings of the defeated dynasties followed each new enterprise, and he had also to deal with the Mongol hordes whose territory marched with northerii Persia.
The development of Persian poetry under these first native dynasties was slow.
The other members of the coalition had assigned Palestine to Seleucus after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years the question of its ownership becomes the standing ground of enmity between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties.
Still, the fashion for cylinders appears to have revived at intervals, for they are found in the 6th, the 12th and the 18th dynasties.
The beginning of the year 1345 was marked by an event more interesting in the scholar's eyes than any change in dynasties.
Genealogies also pass from the bald verse, which was the vehicle for oral transmission, to such elaborate tables as those in which Manetho has preserved the dynasties of Egyptian Pharaohs.
All over the place are imperial tablets of different dynasties, with glowing tributes to the one man whom China delights to honour; and on the right of the grandson's mound is a small house said to mark the place of the hut where Tze-kung passed his nearly five years of loving vigil.
In her the type of queen characteristic of the Macedonian dynasties stands in the most brilliant light.
He had close relations through marriage with the three principal European dynasties of his time.
In the hill on the opposite side of the river are tombs of the VIth to XIIth dynasties, opened by Lord Grenfell in 1885-1886.
The northern part, Behar, constituted the ancient kingdom of Magadha, the nucleus of the imperial power of the successive great dynasties of the Mauryas, Andhras and Guptas; and its chief town, Patna, is the ancient Pataliputra (the Palimbothra of the Greeks), once the capital of India.
On their meeting in September they at once proceeded to vote with unanimity the union of the two principalities into a single state under princi- the name of Romania (Rumania), to be governed by a foreign prince elected from one of the reigning dynasties of Europe, and having a single representative assembly.
About 250 B.C. Diodotus (Theodotus), governor of Bactria under the Seleucidae, declared his independence, and commenced the history of the Greco-Bactrian dynasties, which succumbed to Parthian and nomadic movements about 126 B.C. After this came a Buddhist era which has left its traces in the gigantic sculptures at Bamian and the rock-cut topes of Haibak.
But, in general, though the title " prince " implies descent from one or other of the ruling dynasties of Russia, it is in itself of little account, being exceedingly common owing to its being borne by every member of the family.
The history of the century and a half that follows is very obscure; short-lived Saka dynasties succeeded one another until, about 388, the country was conquered by the Guptas of Magadha, who kept a precarious tenure of it till about 470, when their empire was destroyed by the White Huns, or Ephthalites, who, after breaking the power of Persia and assailing the Kushan kingdom of Kabul, poured into India, conquered Sind, and established their dominion as far south as the Nerbudda.
Under the Hun tyranny, which lasted till the overthrow of the White Huns on the Oxus by the Turks (c. 565), native dynasties had survived, or new ones had established themselves.
From the date of its occupation by the Arabs the town had a stormy history, being repeatedly captured by rival Berber and Spanish-Moorish dynasties.
The Beni Marin and Wattasi dynasties which reigned in Morocco from 1213 to 1548 were of Zenata origin.
Such a man did not arise; those who afterwards claimed to be ardri lacked the qualities of founders of strong dynasties, and are termed by the annalists " kings with opposition."
Diarmait MacMurchada (Dermod MacMurrough), greatgrandson of Diarmait Mael-na-mBo, as king of Leinster was by descent and position much mixed up with foreigners, and generally in a state of latent if not open hostility to the high-kings of the Hy Neill and Dalcais dynasties.
The very nature of things was against the new dynasties, as it had been against the old.
According to the native historian Xanthus (460 B.C.) three dynasties ruled in succession over Lydia.
The Bagratids founded dynasties at Kars, 962-1080, and in Georgia, which they held until its absorption, 1801, by Russia.
After the death of Timur, Armenia formed part of the territories of the Turkoman dynasties of Akand Kara-Kuyunli, and under their milder rule the seat of the Catholicus, which, during the Seljuk invasion, had been moved first to Sivas, and then to Lesser Armenia, was re-established, 1441, at Echmiadzin.
From this time they passed under the dominion of the successive Macedonian rulers of Asia, but continued, with the exception of Miletus (q.v.), to enjoy great prosperity both under these Greek dynasties and after they became part of the Roman province of Asia.
The name is frequently, but incorrectly, applied to the Mahommedan dynasties that preceded the Moguls at Delhi, and also to the style of architecture employed by them; but of these dynasties only the Lodis were Afghans.
In the course of the 14th century, when the native Berber dynasties were in decadence, piracy became particularly flagrant.
When the Bagdad caliphs lost control of their dominions, Edessa shared the fortunes of western Mesopotamia, changing with the rise and fall of Egyptian dynasties and Arab chieftains.
Offa's policy was apparently the extinction of the dependent kingdoms. In his reign the dynasties of Kent, Sussex and the Hwicce seem to have disappeared, or at all events to have given up the kingly title.
In the old copper-smelting district of Arabia Petraea, clay blast-pipes dating back to the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt have been found buried in slag heaps; and in India the native smiths and iron-workers continue to use furnaces of similar types.
Torn by civil war, the Seljuk sultanate disintegrates as its provinces and cities become independent under local dynasties.
Whatever part vanity or the flattery of courtiers may have played with others, or with Alexander, it is significant that the dynasties of Alexander's various successors all claim divine honours of some sort (see Ptolemies, Seleucid Dynasty, &c.).
For their separate local histories and their dynasties, their wars and political relations with one another and with neighbouring countries, reference must be made to the separate articles Flanders, Holland, Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg, Luxemburg, Utrecht, Liege.
At the close of the nth century the system of feudal states had been firmly established in the Netherlands under stable dynasties hereditary or episcopal, and, despite the The continual wars between them, civilization had begun to crusades.
The dynasties founded by Alexander's generals, Seleucus, Antiochus and Ptolemy, encouraged the same spirit of enterprise which their master had fostered, and extended geographical knowledge in several directions.
The earlier and later palaces at Cnossus and Phaestus, and the interrupted phases of each, seem to point to a succession of dynasties, to which, as to its civilization as a whole, it is certainly convenient to apply the name " Minoan."
The Nilotic influence visible in the vases, seals and other fabrics of the Early Minoan age, seems to imply a maritime activity on the part of the islanders going - back to the days of the first Egyptian dynasties.
The Oriental point of view for the 13th century appears in Jelaleddin's history of the Ayyubite sultans of Egypt, written towards the end of the 13th century; in Maqrizi's history of Egypt, written in the middle of the 15th century; and in the compendium of the history of the human race by Abulfeda (f1332); while the omniscient Abulfaragius (whom Rey calls the Eastern St Thomas) wrote, in the latter half of the 13th century, a chronicle of universal history in Syriac, which he also issued, in an Arabic recension, as a Compendious History of the Dynasties.
El Wad possesses a curious currency known as flous, consisting of obsolete copper coins of Algerian and Tunisian dynasties.
The invasion of Babylonia by Cyrus was doubtless facilitated by the existence of a disaffected party in the state, as well as by the presence of foreign exiles like the Jews, who had 1 The following is a list of the later dynasties and kings of Babylonia and Assyria so far as they are known at present.
Lane-Poole's Mohammadan Dynasties (1894), pp. 222-231; for the relations of the various descendants of Jenghiz, see Stockvis, Manuel d'histoire, vol.
But under the new empire (Dynasties XVIIIth and following) the professional priest had attained to ominous power.
The chief event of his reign was the incursion of Egypt under Sheshonk (Shishak) I., who came up against Judah and despoiled the temple about 930 B.C. (see Egypt, History, § " Deltaic Dynasties").
The 1st to Turd Dynasties have left at Abydos large forts of brickwork, remains of two successive temples, and the royal tombs (see ABYDOS).
The IVth to VIth Dynasties are best known by the series of pyramids (see PYRAMID) in the region of Memphis.
He had made a new system in making a staff, a world with full and fair proportions; in which, though the old cities and dynasties had passed away, fairer and more glorious ones had taken their places.
This is because the rulers of successive dynasties between the 13th and the 17th centuries established seven cities in different parts of Delhi.
Annual water ski records of dynasties contained various sarcophagi.
There is early evidence that the caretakers of the Chinese Army's horses used acupuncture as early as 2,000 BC, during the Zang and Chow Dynasties.
It's believed that feng shui was responsible for the enormous wealth and power that the Chinese royalty accumulated and more importantly why the dynasties were able to reign for so many generations.
Very early Clerical Script (from early dynasties) is hard for modern Chinese to read, but later examples are still legible.
A city occupying approximately the same site had been the capital of one of the principalities into which China was divided some centuries before the Christian era; and during the reigns of the two Tatar dynasties that immediately preceded the Mongols in northern China, viz.
From these it is clear that the country fell in turn under the sway of the various dynasties that ruled in the Deccan, memorials of the Chalukyan dynasty, whether temples or inscriptions, being especially abundant.
Only faint outlines can be traced of the condition of Rajputana previous to the invasion of Upper India by the Mahommedans, and these indicate that the country was subject for the most part to two or three powerful tribal dynasties.
These tribal dynasties of Rajputs were gradually supplanted by the Moslem invaders of the 11th century and weakened by internal feuds.
The dispute was fought out in Flanders; but Spanish Lombardy felt the shock, as usual, of the French and Austrian dynasties.
Masudi, a great traveller who knew from personal experience all the countries between Spain and China, described the plains, mountains and seas, the dynasties and peoples, in his Meadows of Gold, an abstract made by himself of his larger work News of the Time.
Here lay the principality of Lithuania and beyond it the kingdom of Poland, two loosely conglomerated states which had been created by the Piast and Gedymin dynasties in pretty much the same way as the tsardom of Muscovy had been created by the descendants of Rurik.
The strange contrast between the succession of dynasties and kings cut off by assassination in the northern kingdom, ending in the tragic overthrow of 721 B.C., and the persistent succession through three centuries of the seed of David on the throne of Jerusalem, as well as the marvellous escape of Jerusalem in 701 B.C. from the fate of Samaria, must have invested the seed of David in the eyes of all thoughtful observers with a mysterious and divine significance.
But the contents of early tombs and dwellings and indications supplied by such objects as stone vases and seal-stones show that the Cretans had already attained to a considerable degree of culture, and had opened out communication with the Nile valley in the time of the earliest Egyptian dynasties.
There is evidence that the use in Crete of both linear and pictorial signs existed in the Early Minoan period, contemporary with the first Egyptian dynasties.
On the contrary there have been 20 dynasties since the Christian era.
Even the great dynasties have left few traces, and it is with difficulty that the patient historian disinters the minor kingdoms from obscurity, but Indian religion, literature and art have influenced all Asia from Persia to Japan.
In view of the uncertainty regarding the length of Dynasties IV.
In it we have(a) the recently discovered inscriptions of the 1st Dynasty, too brief and concise to throw much light on the language of that time; and the great collections of spells and ritual texts found inscribed in the Pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, which must even then have been of high antiquity, though they contain later additions made in the same style.
It was probably in 642 that he married Eanfled, daughter of Edwin, thus uniting the two rival dynasties of Northumbria.