Dutch Sentence Examples
On the breaking out of the Dutch War in 1664 he was made treasurer of the prizes, being accountable to the king alone for all sums received or spent.
It is a quiet, typically Dutch town, with its old brick houses and tree-bordered canals.
In the youthful Dutch universities the effect of the essays was greater.
Keene was once called The Elm City before Dutch elm disease destroyed the massive trees that surrounded the grassy area at the head of the square.
In 1815 he commanded the Dutch and Belgian contingents, and won high commendations for his courage and conduct at the battles of Quatre Bras and Waterloo, at the latter of which he was wounded.Advertisement
The fundamental law was altered in 1848 and the Dutch monarchy, from being autocratic, became henceforth constitutional.
Two Dutch friends, Constantijn Huygens (von Zuylichem), father of the more celebrated Huygens, and Hoogheland, figure amongst the correspondents, not to mention various savants, professors and churchmen (particularly Jesuits).
His residence in the Netherlands fell in the most prosperous and brilliant days of the Dutch state, under the stadtholdership of Frederick Henry (1625-1647).
In 1595 the first Dutch expedition sailed from the Texel, but it took a more southerly course than its predecessors and confined its operations to Java and the neighbouring islands.
Hastings was soon released at the intercession of the Dutch resident, and made use of his position at Murshidabad to open negotiations with the English fugitives at Falta, the site of a Dutch factory near the mouth of the Hugli.Advertisement
During the leisure thus arising, Descartes one day had his attention drawn to a placard in the Dutch tongue; as the language, of which he never became perfectly master, was then strange to him, he asked a bystander to interpret it into either French or Latin.
In 1642 Abel Janszoon Tasman sailed on a voyage of discovery from Batavia, the headquarters of the governor and council of the Dutch East Indies, under whose auspices the expedition was undertaken.
He left Batavia on what has been designated by Dutch historians the " Happy Voyage," on the 14th of August 1642.
After a visit to the Mauritius, then a Dutch possession, Tasman bore away to the south-east, and on the 24th of November sighted the western coast of the land which he named Van Diemen's Land, in honour of the governor under whose directions he was acting.
The ceremony of hoisting a flag and taking possession of the country in the name of the government of the Netherlands was actually performed, but the description of the wildness of the country, and of the fabulous giants by which Tasman's sailors believed it to be inhabited, deterred the Dutch from occupying the island, and by the international principle of " non-user " it passed from their hands.Advertisement
In 1684 a vessel had sailed from Holland for the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, and after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, she was never again heard of.
The Dutch government claimed the wreck and granted one-third of the salvage to bullion-fishers.
Land was probably acquired for a military post and store depot at Woolwich in 1667, in order to erect batteries against the invading Dutch fleet, although in 1664 mention is made of storehouses and sheds for repairing ship carriages.
This was the turning-point of the first stage in the struggle for Dutch independence.
Eventually, in 1641, a joint attack was made by the Achinese and the Dutch, but the latter, not the people of the sturdy little Sumatran kingdom, became the owners of the coveted port.Advertisement
Malacca was taken from the Dutch by the British in 1795; was restored to the latter in 1818; but in 1824 was exchanged for Benkulen and a few more unimportant places in Sumatra.
Repeated attempts were made by various European nations to subdue the pirates, and in 1816 the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth, assisted by Dutch men-of-war, and the corsair fleet burned.
Burnet declares he had little Latin, but he was able to converse with the Dutch ambassador in that language.
During the interval elapsing between Dampier's two voyages, an accident led to the closer examination of the coasts of Western Australia by the Dutch.
After successfully observing the transit from the island of Tahiti, or Otaheite, as Cook wrote it, the " Endeavour's " head was turned south, and then north-west, beating about the Pacific in search of the eastern coast of the great continent whose western shores had been so long known to the Dutch.Advertisement
The primatial see was placed at Malines (Mechlin), having under it Antwerp, Hertogenbosch, Roermond, Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres constituting the Flemish province; the second archbishopric was at Cambray, with Tournay, Arras, St Omer, and Namur, - the Walloon province; the third at Utrecht, with Haarlem, Middleburg, Leeuwarden, Groningen and Deventer, - the northern (Dutch) province.
The first British factory in the peninsula was established in the native state of Patani on the east coast in 1613, the place having been used by the Portuguese in the 16th century for a similar purpose; but the enterprise came to an untimely end in 1620 when Captain Jourdain, the first president, was killed in a naval engagement in Patani Roads by the Dutch.
In 1651 the Dutch completed a treaty with Denmark to injure English trade in the Baltic; to which England replied the same year by the Navigation Act, which suppressed the Dutch trade with the English colonies and the Dutch fish trade with England, and struck at the Dutch carrying trade.
The Dutch acknowledged the supremacyof the English flag in the British seas, which Tromp had before refused; they accepted the Navigation Act, and undertook privately to exclude the princes of Orange from the command of their forces.
The Protestant policy was further followed up by treaties with Sweden and Denmark which secured the passage of the Sound for English ships on the same conditions as the Dutch, and a treaty with Portugal which liberated English subjects from the Inquisition and allowed commerce with the Portuguese colonies.
In 1653 he had made the astonishing proposal to the Dutch that England and Holland should divide the habitable globe outside Europe between them, that all states maintaining the Inquisition should be treated as enemies by both the proposed allies, and that the latter "should send missionaries to all peoples willing to receive them, to inculcate the truth of Jesus Christ and the Holy Gospel."
The hindrance, however, to the general development of trade which the act involved aroused at once loud complaints, tO which Cromwell turned a deaf ear, continuing to seize Dutch ships trading in forbidden goods.
A small expedition sent by Cromwell in February 1654 to capture New Amsterdam (New York) from the Dutch was abandoned on the conclusion of peace, and the fleet turned to attack the French colonies; Major Robert Sedgwick taking with a handful of men the fort of St John's, Port Royal or Annapolis, and the French fort on the river Penobscot, the whole territory from this river to the mouth of the St Lawrence remaining British territory till its cession in 1667.
Returning to France without having effected anything, Tone served for some months in the French army under Hoche; and in June 17 9 7 he took part in preparations for a Dutch expedition to Ireland, which was to be supported by the French.
But the Dutch fleet was detained in the Texel for many weeks by unfavourable weather, and before it eventually put to sea in October, only to be crushed by Duncan in the battle of Camperdown, Tone had returned to Paris; and Hoche, the chief hope of the United Irishmen, was dead.
After 1815 Ghent was for a time the centre of Catholic opposition to Dutch rule, as it is now that of the Flemish movement in Belgium.
This system of geography founded a new epoch, and the book - translated into English, Dutch and French - was the unchallenged standard for more than a century.
The Dutch nation, as soon as it was emancipated from Spanish tyranny, displayed an amount of enterprise, which, for a long time, was fully equal to that of the British.
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The first of the Dutch Indian voyages was performed by ships which sailed in April 1595, and rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
A second large Dutch fleet sailed in 1598; and, so eager was the republic to extend her commerce over the world that another fleet, consisting of five ships of Rotterdam, was sent in the same year by way of Magellan's Strait, under Jacob Mahu as admiral, with William Adams as pilot.
The Dutch Company in 1614 again resolved to send a fleet to the Moluccas by the westward route, and Joris Spilbergen was appointed to the command as admiral, with a commission from the States-General.
After plundering Payta and making requisitions at Acapulco, the Dutch fleet crossed the Pacific and reached the Moluccas in March 1616.
The Dutch now resolved to discover a passage into the Pacific to the south of Tierra del Fuego, the insular nature of which had been ascertained by Sir Francis Drake.
On the 1st of March the Dutch fleet sighted the island of Juan Fernandez; and, having crossed the Pacific, the explorers sailed along the north coast of New Guinea and arrived at the Moluccas on the 17th of September 1616.
There were several early indications of the existence of the great Australian continent, and the Dutch endeavoured to obtain further knowledge concerning the country and its extent; but only its northern and western coasts had been visited before the time of Governor van Diemen.
But the most remarkable journey in this direction was performed by a Dutch traveller named Samuel van de Putte.
In 1721 Jacob Roggewein was despatched on a voyage of some importance across the Pacific by the Dutch West India Company, during which he discovered Easter Island on the 6th of April 1722.
Swellendam is one of the older Dutch settlements in the Cape, dating from 1745, and was named after Hendrik Swellengrebel (then governor of the Cape) and his wife, whose maiden name was Damme.
Early in 1795 the burghers of the town and district rose in revolt against the Dutch East India Company, proclaimed a "free republic," and elected a so-styled national assembly.
In 1630 Pernambuco was occupied by the Dutch and continued under their rule until 1654.
Although an, active guerrilla warfare was waged against the Dutch during a large part of that period, they did much to promote the agricultural and commercial interests of the colony, especially under the wise administration of Maurice of Nassau.
Several settlements in the Bronx were made by the English and the Dutch between 1640 and 1650.
Slavery and head-hunting are universal, despite the efforts of Dutch and German missionary societies.
Coco-nut oil is produced on Nias and also more especially on the Nako group. A Dutch commissioner is established at Gunong Sitoli on the east coast, a settlement of Malay and Chinese traders.
The latter position he held for nearly forty-five years, with the exception of a short time spent at the university of Leiden, where his health was affected by the Dutch climate.
From the 16th century onwards, English, Dutch, German, French and other European traders contested the commerce of this coast with the Portuguese, and finally drove them away.
In 1882, for administrative purposes, Bali was separated from Java and combined with the island of Lombok to form the Dutch residency of Lombok and Bali.
The population on Dutch territory in the whole residency in the year 1905 was 523,535.
It was not till 1633 that the Dutch attempted to enter into alliance with the native princes, and their earliest permanent settlement at Port Badung only dates from 1845.
They cover an area of 10 acres, are laid out in terraces, and illustrate Italian, Dutch and French styles.
In adopting foreign innovations, he showed, like the Japanese of the present day, no sentimental preference for any particular nation, and was ready to borrow from the Germans, Dutch, English, Swedes or French whatever seemed best suited for his purpose.
In 1598 Sebald de Wert, a Dutchman, visited them, and called them the Sebald Islands, a name which they bear on some Dutch maps.
It is generally considered that the Manua group was sighted by the Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen in 1722, and named by him the Baaumann islands after the captain of one of his ships.
His misgivings as to its reception were at once set at rest, and it was speedily issued in translations into French, Spanish, German and Dutch, in addition to the English editions of New York, London and Paris.
Gudrun is carried off by a king of Normandy, and her kinsfolk, who are in pursuit, are defeated in a great battle on the island of Willpensand off the Dutch coast.
At present more than half of the Dutch Jews are concentrated in Amsterdam, being largely engaged in the diamond and tobacco trades.
Jews made their way to America early in the 16th century, settling in Brazil prior to the Dutch occupation.
Under Dutch rule they enjoyed full civil rights.
The estate is famous for its plantations and Dutch gardens, the pinetum containing the most representative collection of araucarias, deodars and other conifers in Europe.
We now have categories for Dutch writers, Dutch historians, Journalism (linked to Industry and business), Animal Husbandry and Horticulture (linked to agriculture and agriculture was linked to economics and biology).
It has attained a high degree of wealth and prosperity under the Dutch government.
All ideas of external conquest were abandoned, Christianity was forbidden, and Japan closed to foreigners, only the Dutch being allowed a strictly limited commerce.
In 1796 the Dutch were expelled by the English.
Before the century was out the Dutch appeared as the successful rivals of the Portuguese, but the real struggle for supremacy in southern Asia took place between France and England about 1740-1783.
The Dutch authorities who had inscribed on his death certificate the name of Charles Louis de Bourbon, duc de Normandie (Louis XVII.) permitted his son to bear the name de Bourbon, and when the family appealed in 1850-1851, and again in 1874, for the restitution of their civil rights as heirs of Louis XVI.
The text at his disposal, especially in the Queste section, must have been closely akin to that used by the Dutch translator and the compiler of Lenoire, 1533.
About this time began his connexion with Mme de Nehra, the daughter of Zwier van Haren, a Dutch statesman and political writer, and a woman of a far higher type than Sophie, more educated, more refined, and more capable of appreciating Mirabeau's good points.
Regular passenger steamers run from Grimsby to Dutch and south Swedish ports, and to Esbjerg (Denmark), chiefly those of the Wilson line and the Great Central railway.
True, she now agreed to recognise the independence of the Cisalpine, Ligurian, Helvetic and Batavian (Dutch) republics; but the masterful acquisitiveness of the First Consul and the weak conduct of Austrian and British affairs at that time soon made that clause of the treaty a dead letter.
Of their many maritime conquests the British retained only the Spanish island of Trinidad and the Dutch settlements in Ceylon.
Their other conquests at the expense of these allies of France were restored to them, including the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch.
His action in the matters just named, as also in the complex affair of the secularizations of clerical domains in Germany (February 1803), belongs properly to the history of those countries; but we may here note that, even before the signature of the peace of Amiens (27th of March 1802), he had effected changes in the constitution of the Batavian (Dutch) republic, which placed power in the hands of the French party and enabled him to keep French troops in the chief Dutch fortresses, despite the recently signed treaty of Luneville which guaranteed the independence of that republic. His treatment of the Italians was equally high-handed.
She was equally concerned by Napoleon's behaviour in the Dutch Netherlands, where her influence used to be supreme.
Fouche, for meddling in the negotiations through an agent of his own, was promptly disgraced; and, when neither England was moved by diplomatic cajolery nor Louis Bonaparte by threats, French troops were sent against the Dutch capital.
These works had an enormous sale, and portions of them were translated into French and Dutch.
Trade passed into the hands of the Portuguese, the Dutch and the English.
In 1529 on his way to Hamburg he was wrecked on the Dutch coast, and lost his newly completed translation of Deuteronomy.
In the American Presbyterian church he was a prominent figure; he worked for union with the Congregationalists and with the Dutch Reformed body; and at the synod of 1786 he was one of the committee which reported in favour of the formation of a General Assembly and which drafted "a system of general rules for.
The French and Dutch factories were taken possession of by the English in the years 1778 and 1781 respectively.
In Java and other Dutch possessions in the East cotton is cultivated.
The site was settled early in the 18th century, but the village itself dates from about 1760, when it took its present name from the adjacent creek or "kill," on which a Dutch trader, Jans Peek, of New York City, had established a trading post.
A large proportion of the people can read and write Sesuto (as the Basuto language is called) and English, and speak Dutch, whilst a considerable number also receive higher education.
These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.
It is only since the Dutch have established their supremacy in the archipelago that the Roman character has come to be largely used in writing and printing Malay.
The number of Portuguese, English, Dutch and Chinese words in Malay is not considerable; their presence is easily accounted for by political or commercial contact.
The chief event in the history of Brielle is its capture by the Gueux sur Mer, a squadron of privateers which raided the Dutch coast under commission of the prince of Orange.
Pop. (1890) 3945; (1900) 7790, of whom a large portion were of Dutch descent; (1904, state census) 8966.
In the city itself are Hope College (co-educational; founded in 1851 and incorporated as a college in 1866), an institution of the (Dutch) Reformed Church in America; and the Western Theological Seminary (1869; suspended 1877-1884) of the same denomination.
In 1908 seven weekly, one daily, and two monthly papers (four denominational) were published at Holland, five of them in Dutch.
The Dutch were the first, however, to take footing in the island; in 1624 they built a fort, Zelandia, on the east coast, where subsequently rose the town of Taiwan, and the settlement was maintained for thrity-seven years.
On the expulsion of the Ming dynasty in China, a number of their defeated adherents came over to Formosa, and under a leader called in European accounts Coxinga, succeeded in expelling the Dutch and taking possession of a good part of the island.
The city was attacked in 1625 by a Dutch fleet, which was easily repulsed.
Having been fortified the town stood several sieges, specially during the wars of freedom waged by the Dutch, the most celebrated fight under its walls being the one in September 1586 when Sir Philip Sidney was mortally wounded.
It had been a part of the Dutch patroonship of Pavonia granted to Michael Pauw in 1630.
After several battles, in which the advantage was generally on the side of the French, a decisive engagement took place near Catania, on the 20th of April 1676, when the Dutch fleet was totally routed and de Ruyter mortally wounded.
Though Wagner cannot as yet be confidently credited with a satiric intention in his bathos, the fact remains that all the Rossinian passages are associated with the character of Daland, so as to express his vulgar delight at the prospect of finding a rich son-in-law in the mysterious Dutch seaman.
On the 6th of August 1831 the Dutch troops obtained here their chief success over the Belgian nationalists during the War of Independence.
Hoosick Falls was settled about 1688 by Dutch settlers - settlers from Connecticut and Massachusetts came after 1763 - and it was first incorporated in 1827.
These (distinguished by the use of a special language and by the profession of Mohammedanism) are descendants of natives of the Banda islands who fled eastward before the encroachments of the Dutch.
Amongst the breeds which are valued for the distribution of colour on the fur are the Himalayan and the Dutch.
The rabbits known as Dutch are small, and valued for the disposition of the colour and markings.
In Italian, Spanish and Portuguese the word mappa has retained its place, by the side of carta, for marine charts, but in other languages both kinds of maps 1 are generally known by a word derived from the Latin charta, as carte in French, Karte in German, Kaart in Dutch.
A chart, in French, is called carte hydrographique, marine or des cotes; in Spanish or Portuguese carta de marear, in Italian carta da navigare, in German Seekarte (to distinguish it from Landkarte), in Dutch Zeekaart or Paskaart.
In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
These Dutch maps and charts are generally accompanied by descriptive notes or sailing directions printed on the back of them.
A similar map has been in progress for Sumatra since 1883, while the maps for the remaining Dutch Indies are still based, almost exclusively, upon flying surveys.
It afterwards passed into the hands of the Dutch and then of the French, and was finally ceded to the British in 1814.
When Edwards wrote (1791), the number of European factories on the coasts of Africa was 40; of these 14 were English, 3 French, 15 Dutch, 4 Portuguese and 4 Danish.
The Dutch trade was closed In 1814; the Swedish had been abolished in 1813.
The Dutch emancipated their slaves in 1863.
Formerly the fishery was in the hands of the Dutch, whose supremacy was destroyed, however, by the imposition of the salt tax in 1712.
The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."
He came to the conclusion that there could be no hope of peace and progress in South Africa while there remained the "permanent subjection of British to Dutch in one of the Republics."
He returned to the Cape in February 1899 fully assured of the support of Mr Chamberlain, though the government still clung to the hope that the moderate section of the Cape and Free State Dutch would induce Kruger to deal justly with the Uitlanders.
Speaking at Johannesburg on the eve of his departure, he recommended to all concerned the promotion of the material prosperity of the country and the treatment of Dutch and British on an absolute equality.
The Dutch bondholders placed their interests in the hands of the British council.
As pointed out by Sir Adam Block, the representative of the British and Dutch bondholders, in his report for 1908-1909, the above arrangement would have been prejudicial to the bondholders had the public debt not been " unified " (as described below) since, however, as a result of that unification, the ceded revenues now produced a sum more than sufficient for the service of the debt, it was only the surplus of revenue reverting to the government which was affected.
He hoped that if the British ships in the North Sea concentrated with the squadron in the Channel, he would be able to make use of Dutch vessels from the Texel.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
Harderwyk is chiefly important as being the depot for recruits for the Dutch colonial army.
It was visited by whalers, chiefly Dutch, but nothing in the form of permanent European settlements was established until the year 1721, when the first missionary, the Norwegian clergyman Hans Egede, landed, and established a settlement near Godthaab.
During that century, the Portuguese had established some influence in the country, whither they were followed by the Dutch, but after the middle of the 17th century, Europeans counted for little in Cambodia till the arrival of the French.
A considerable trade is carried on in the export of horses, buffaloes, goats, dinding (dried flesh), skins, birds' nests, wax, rice, katyang, sappanwood, &c. Sumbawa entered into treaty relations with the Dutch East India Company in 1674.
Bima or Bodjo, the chief town of the latter state, lies on the east side of the Bay of Bima; it has a stone-walled palace and a mosque, as well as a Dutch fort.
The appearance of Sir Francis Drake in the bay in 1578 led to the fortification of the port, which proved strong enough to repel an attack by the Dutch in 1624.
Its commerce was further extended and developed by the French occupation of Holland in 1795, when the Dutch trade was largely directed to its port.
By the beginning of September all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with cannon, and 7000 men were under arms. So strong was the city by this time that Charles X., abandoning his original intention of carrying the place by assault, began a regular siege; but this also he was forced to abandon when, on the 29th of October, an auxiliary Dutch fleet, after reinforcing and reprovisioning the garrison, defeated, in conjunction with the Danish fleet, the Swedish navy of 44 liners in the Sound.
He was unable to rise to the great opportunity which lay before him of creating out of the Dutch and Belgian provinces a strong and united state.
Their representation in the states general was exactly equal to that of the Dutch, though their population was in the proportion of seven to five.
With the help of the official vote of ministers the Dutch were thus able to have a perpetual majority.
The attempt of the king to enforce the official use of the Dutch language, and the foundation of the so-called philosophical college at Louvain helped to exacerbate the growing discontent.
The Dutch were almost without striking a blow expelled from the country, the strongly fortified seaport of Antwerp alone remaining in their hands.
The Belgian forces were dispersed, and the Dutch would have entered Brussels in triumph but for the intervention of the French.
Still, however, William declined to recognize the new throne, and he had behind him the unanimous support of Dutch public opinion.
It was translated into French, German, Russian, Swedish, Dutch and Danish.
In the old Dutch method, pieces of sheet lead are suspended in stoneware pots so as to occupy the upper two-thirds of the vessels.
These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.
Venetian white, Hamburg white and Dutch white are mixtures of one part of white lead with one, two and three parts of barium sulphate respectively.
It is not known when and by whom the island was discovered, but under the name of Moni it appears on a Dutch chart of 1666.
The Hottentots call the Orange the Garib (great water), corrupted by the Dutch into Gariep. The early Dutch settlers -called it simply Groote-Rivier.
Gordon, a Dutch officer -of Scottish extraction, who commanded the garrison at Cape Town, reached the river in its middle course at the spot indicated by Sparrman and named it the Orange in honour of the prince of Orange.
Negotiations were initiated in 1905 for the definite location of the boundary with Dutch Guiana.
But it was on the part of the Dutch that the most skilful and pertinacious efforts were made for securing a footing in Brazil; and they alone of all the rivals of the Portuguese have left traces of their presence in the national spirit and institutions of Brazil.
In 1630 the Dutch attempted again to effect a settlement; and Olinda, with its port, the Recife-Olinda, was destroyed, but the Recife was fortified and held, reinforcements They had extended their limits southwards till they reached the Spanish settlements of La Plata.
The government, thus left in quiet possession of the rest of Brazil, had time to concentrate its attention upon the Dutch conquests.
The departure of Count Maurice, moreover, had seriously weakened the position of the Dutch, for his successors had neither his conciliatory manners nor his capacity.
Slowly the Dutch lost ground and the outbreak of war with England sounded the knell of their dominion in Brazil.
The pp g y Dutch were unable, however, to extend their power beyond the limits of the town, until the arrival of Count John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen in 1636.
In the course of eight years, the limited period of his government, he succeeded in asserting the Dutch supremacy along the coast of Brazil from the mouth of Sao Francisco to Maranhao.
The question was a complicated one involving the historical survey of Dutch and Portuguese exploration and control in the far interior of Guiana during two centuries; and it was not until 1904 that the king of Italy gave his award, which was largely in favour of the British claim, and grants to British Guiana access to the northern affluents of the Amazon.
Of Peder Paars there exist at least twenty-three editions, besides translations in Dutch, German and Swedish.
The Iter subterraneum has been three several times translated into Danish, ten times into German, thrice into Swedish, thrice into Dutch, thrice into English, twice into French, twice into Russian and once into Hungarian.
Some 12,500 are of Dutch extraction; these live chiefly in the districts of Utrecht and Vryheid.
The majority of the white inhabitants are Protestants, the bodies with the largest number of adherents being the Anglicans, Dutch Reformed Church, Presbyterians and Wesleyans.
The Presbyterians numbered 12,184, the Wesleyan Methodists 11,992, the Dutch Reformed Church 11,340, the Lutherans 4852, and the Baptists 2193.
The first newspaper in Natal was the Natalier, a Dutch print published at Maritzburg; it was succeeded by the Patriot.
In 1886 a new Dutch paper, De Afrikaner, was started at Maritzburg.
In 1576 Manuel de Mesquita Perestrello, commanded by King Sebastian to explore the coast of South Africa and report on suitable harbours, -made a rough chart, even then of little use to navigators, which is of value as exhibiting the most that was known of the country by its discoverers before the advent of their Dutch rivals, who established themselves at Cape Town in 1652.
In May 1685 another English ship the " Good Hope " was wrecked in crossing the bar at Port Natal and in February 1686 the " Stavenisse," a Dutch East Indiaman, was wrecked a little farther south.
When in 1824 the next attempt was made by Europeans to form a settlement at the bay, Cape Colony had passed from the Dutch into the ' possession of Great Britain, while in Natal great changes had come over the land as a result of wars between the natives.
The merchants, however, despatched an expedition under Dr Andrew Smith to inquire into the possibilities of the country, and the favourable nature of his report induced a party of Dutch farmers under Piet Uys to go thither also.
It was not until their hand was forced by the occupation of the interior by Dutch farmers that the Cape authorities at length intervened.
He went thence to Dingaan's kraal with the object of securing a formal cession of territory to the Dutch farmers.
This feeling was, however, changed by what Sir George (and many of the Dutch in Natal also) thought a wilful and unjustifiable attack (December 1840) on a tribe of Kaffirs on the southern, or Cape Colony, frontier by a commando under Andries Pretorius, which set out, nominally, to recover stolen cattle.
Boshof (afterwards president of the Orange Free State), by far the ablest of the Dutch who had settled in Natal.
At the end of 1843 there were not more than 500 Dutch families left in Natal.
The new administration found it hard to please the Dutch farmers, who among other grievances resented what they considered the undue favour shown to the Kaffirs, whose numbers had been greatly augmented by the flight of refugees from Panda.
A comparatively small number of the Dutch colonists joined the enemy, but there was no general rebellion among them.
The districts added to Natal contained about 6000 white inhabitants (mostly Dutch), and some 92,000 natives, and had an area of nearly 7000 sq.
Towards those Dutch colonists who had joined the enemy during the war leniency was shown, all rebels being pardoned.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
These crocuses of the flower garden are mostly horticultural varieties of C. vernus, C. versicolor and C. aureus (Dutch crocus), the two former yielding the white, purple and striped, and the latter the yellow varieties.
It was he who on this occasion obtained privileges for the burgesses of Copenhagen which placed them on a footing of equality with the nobility; and he was the life and soul of the garrison till the arrival of the Dutch fleet practically saved the city.
The Dolomite Series, known to the Dutch as " Olifants Klip," consists of a bluish-grey magnesian limestone with bands of chert.
The white population is broadly divisible into the British and Dutch elements, the percentage of other whites in 1904 being but 8.6.
The Dutch, as their usual designation, Boers, implies, are mainly farmers and stock-raisers and are still predominant elsewhere than in the Witwatersrand and Pretoria districts.
They speak the patois of Dutch known as the Taal.
Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1-62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1-14%.
Nearly half of the white community, 142,540 persons, belong to one or other of the Dutch Churches in the Transvaal, but they have only 4305 native members.
Of Dutch Churches the first and chief is the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, founded by the Voortrekkers and originally the state Church.
The " Dopper " Church, an offshoot of the Separatist Reformed Church of Holland, is distinguished from the other Dutch churches in being more rigidly Calvinistic and " Biblical," and in not using hymns.
Jealous, however, of the preference shown by the Dutch farmers in Natal to another commandant (Gert Maritz), Potgieter speedily recrossed the Drakensberg, and in November 1838 he and his followers settled by the banks of the Mooi river, founding a town named Potchefstroom in honour of Potgieter.
It was stipulated that members both of the volksraad and council should be members of the Dutch Reformed Church, and of European blood.
Having failed with Brand, the Boers invited the Rev. Thomas Francois Burgers, a member of a well-known Cape Colony family and a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, to allow himself to be nominated.
I am glad that he has sent it, because the Dutch have tired me out, and I intended to fight with them.
President Kruger had every expectation of large reinforcements from the Dutch in the two British colonies; he believed that, whatever happened, Europe would not allow Boer independence to be destroyed; and he had assured himself of the adhesion of the Orange Free State, though it was not till the very last moment that President Steyn formally notified Sir Alfred Milner of this fact.
As was to be subsequently shown, the hostilities were not confined to opposition from the fighting strength of the two, little republics alone; the British had to face Dutch opposition in their own colonies.
In the second (1901) rebellion of the Cape Dutch about 8000 joined the burgher forces.
The bulk of the Dutch levies were organized on the burgher system - that is, each district was furnished with a commandant, who had under him field-cornets and assistant field-cornets, who administered the fighting capacity of the district.
It is not too much to suppose that the executive in Pretoria had calculated that the occupation of Durban would inspire the entire Dutch nation with a spirit of unanimity which would eventually wrest South Africa' from the British.
In Natal practically the whole of the available defence force was swallowed up by the steady success of the invasion; on the western frontier two British towns were isolated and besieged; and Boer commandos were on the point of invading Cape Colony, where the Dutch population seemed on the verge of rebellion.
When Lord Roberts arrived in Cape Town on the 10th of January 1900 the three garrisons were still invested, and the relieving forces were still maintaining their role of passive resistance, while at the same time restraining the Dutch in Cape Colony.
Mr Kruger, deserting his countrymen, left for Europe in a Dutch man-of-war, and General Buller sailed for Europe.
Passing the Bloemfontein-Thaba Nchu line a third time, he crossed the Orange to join Hertzog and rouse the Cape Dutch.
Ample facilities were given for the teaching of Dutch, but it was provided that no pupil should be promoted to a higher standard unless he (or she) was making satisfactory progress in the knowledge of English.
In 1633 it was occupied by the Dutch, who remained until 1654.
His victory over the Dutch in 1665, and his drawn battle with De Ruyter in 1672, show that he was a good naval commander as well as an excellent administrator.
The tenure of the presidential office was for two years, and at every alternate election Guzman Blanco was declared to be duly and legally chosen to fill the post of chief magistrate of the republic. In 1889 there was an open revolt against the dictatorial system so long in vogue; and President Rojas Paul, Blanco's locum tenens, was forced to flee the country and take refuge in the Dutch colony of Curacoa.
The Dutch Minister was expelled, and Holland replied by the despatch of gunboats, who destroyed the Venezuelan fleet and blockaded the ports.
In the centre of this part of Pretoria is Church Square, so named from the Dutch Reformed Church which stood in it, but was demolished in 1905.
Other churches in the heart of the town include the Anglican cathedral, dedicated to St Alban, and the Presbyterian Church, both in Schoemans Street, the Roman Catholic Church in Koch Street with schools, convent buildings and extensive grounds, and the new Dutch Reformed Church in Vermeulen Street.
In Gothic it is Guth; Dutch has the same form as English; Danish and Swedish have Gud, German Gott.
The same academical influences as surrounded the Dutch and German founders of systems were doubtless partly concerned in leading him to form the plan of a comprehensive system of medicine.
Still lower down, but before the Dutch frontier is reached, come the Ruhr and the Lippe on the right, and the Erft on the left.
The boats which ply up and down the river itself, without venturing upon the open sea, are mostly craft of Too to 200 tons, owned in the great majority of cases by their captains, men principally of German or Dutch nationality.
The amount of traffic which passed the town of Emmerich near the Dutch frontier, both ways, increased from an annual average of about 6 million tons in 1881-85 to over 214 million tons in 1899.
The deep-sea fishery attracts hundreds of boats from the north of Scotland, and most of the catch is cured for the English, German and Dutch markets.
The church of Austin Friars, origin- ally belonging to a friary founded in 1253, became a Dutch church under a grant of Edward VI., and still remains so; its style is principally Decorated, but through various vicissitudes little of the original work is left.
The picture gallery contains valuable works of Dutch masters and others.
Of these last Russians and Poles numbered 21,013; Germans, 3386; Austrians and Hungarians, 2197; Dutch, 1902; Norwegians Swedes and Danes, 1341; and Rumanians, 1016.
The older portions of the city are reminiscent of Dutch colonial days, and some fine specimens of the Dutch and later colonial architecture are still standing.
Albany's authentic history, however, may be dated from 1614, when Dutch traders built on Castle Island, opposite the city, a post which they named Fort Nassau.
Three years later the fort was removed to the mainland, and near here in 1618 the Dutch made their first treaty with the Iroquois.
In 1624 arrived eighteen families of Dutch Walloons, the first actual permanent settlers, as distinguished from traders.
At first it was known by the Dutch simply as the "fuyck" (hoop), from the curve in the river at this point, whence was soon derived the name Beverfuyck or Beverwyck.
In 1673 the town was again for a short time under Dutch control.
In 1804 he was knighted, and in 1805-1806, being by now a lieutenant-general, he commanded the expedition against the Cape of Good Hope with complete success, capturing Cape Town and forcing the Dutch general Janssens to surrender.
The use of threads and prunts is illustrated by the development of the " Roemer," so popular as a drinking-glass, and as a feature in Dutch studies of still life.
Owing to theAfashion of Dutch and Flemish painters introducing glass vases and drinking-glasses into their paintings of still life, interiors and scenes of conviviality, Holland and Belgium at the present day possess more accurate records of the products of their ancient glass factories than any other countries.
In 1486, however, it is referred to in such a way as to suggest that it was superior to " Dutch, Venice or Normandy glass."
It is of typically Dutch appearance, with low, brightly coloured houses.
The first settlers came from the New Haven Colony in 1640; but the Dutch, on account of the exploration of Long Island Sound by Adrian Blok in 1614, laid claim to Greenwich, and as New Haven did nothing to assist the settlers, they consented to union with New Netherland in 1642.
Greenwich then became a Dutch manor.
By a treaty of 1650, which fixed the boundary between New Netherland and the New Haven Colony, the Dutch relinquished their claim to Greenwich, but the inhabitants of the town refused to submit to the New Haven Colony until October 1656.
Its formal, straight streets, crossing one another regularly at right angles, and its uniform, two-storeyed houses were built in imitation of the Dutch style, under the direction of Jeronimo, marquis de Grimaldi (1716-1788), ambassador of Charles III.
The Norwalk Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution has erected here a drinking fountain in memory of Nathan Hale, who obtained in Norwalk his disguise as a Dutch school teacher and then started on his fatal errand to Long Island.
During the tsar's first foreign tour, Menshikov worked by his side in the dockyards of Amsterdam, and acquired a thorough knowledge of colloquial Dutch and German.
The town grew up around three forts established in close proximity - St James (British), Crevecoeur (Dutch) and Christiansborg (Danish).
By the peace of Copenhagen in 1441, after the unsuccessful war of the League with Holland, the attempted monopoly of the Baltic was broken, and, though the Hanseatic trade regulations were maintained on paper, the Dutch with their larger ships increased their hold on the herring fisheries, the French salt trade, and the Baltic grain trade.
But while it was found impossible to enforce the staple or to close the Sound against the Dutch, other features of the monopolistic system of trade regulations were still upheld.
The natives are governed by rajas (orang kajas), the Dutch government being represented by a posthouder.
To such compilations the name of Oranda fusetsu-sho (Dutch Reports) was given.
Many pieces were exported by the Dutch, and some also were specially manufactured to their order.
Specimens of the latter are still preserved in European collections, where they are classed as genuine examples of Japanese ceramic art, though beyond question their style of decoration was greatly influenced by Dutch interference.
His brother, Charles Washington Baird (1828-1887), a graduate of New York University (1848) and of the Union Theological Seminary (1852), and the minister in turn of a Dutch Reformed church at Brooklyn, New York, and of a Presbyterian church at Rye, New York, also was deeply interested in the history of the Huguenots, and published a scholarly work entitled The History of the Huguenot Emigration to America (2 vols., 1885), left unfinished at his death.
The town of Gouda is laid out in a fine open manner and, like other Dutch towns, is intersected by numerous canals.
The family was one of the wealthiest and most influential in the colony and was closely related by marriage to the Van Rensselaers, Van Cortlandts and other representatives of the old Dutch aristocracy.
A Dutch periodical called Elpis, algemeen tijdschrift voor Zuid Afrika (1857 -1861) appealed to the farming community.
The waterways which traverse and surround it and the character of its numerous gabled medieval houses give it the appearance of an old Dutch, rather than of a German, town.
In 1595 Emden became a free imperial city under the protection of Holland, and was occupied by a Dutch garrison until 1744 when, with East Friesland, it was transferred to Prussia.
The British Foreign Office report, Draining of the Zuiderzee (1901), gives full particulars of the Dutch government's scheme and a retrospect of all former proposals.
The startling successes of the French produced a revolution among the Dutch people, who naturally turned for help to the scion of the house of Orange.
The French army could not advance, while the French and English fleets were defeated by the Dutch admiral, De Ruyter.
The French evacuated Dutch territory early in 1674, but continued to hold places on the Rhine and in Flanders.
In spite of strong personal opinions to the contrary, he accepted the Triennial Act (1694), the vote reducing the army to io,000 men (1697), the vote disbanding his favourite Dutch Guards (1699) and even (November 1699) a bill re- scinding the grants of forfeited Irish estates, which he had made to his favourites.
He was an unfaithful husband and often treated his wife with scant consideration; he was too fond of Dutch favourites like Keppel or worthless women like Lady Orkney.
On the other hand he did not hesitate to inflict considerable injury on his own people, the Dutch, by the terms of the treaty with England (1689), when it became clear that only in this way could England's co-operation be secured.
During such periods of excitement it is even able, by the pressure of the muscles on the poison-duct, to eject the fluid to some distance; hence it shares with the cobra a third Dutch name, that of "spuw slang" (spitting snake).
Cloves, however, form its chief product, though the trade in them is less important than formerly, when the Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove-tree in all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the monopoly to Amboyna.
The population (about 39,000) is divided into two classes- orang burger or citizens, and orang negri or villagers, the former being a class of native origin enjoying certain privileges conferred on their ancestors by the old Dutch East India Company.
There are also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers.
They established a factory there in 1521, but did not obtain peaceable possession of it till 1580, and were dispossessed by the Dutch in 1609.
About 1615 the British formed a settlement in the island, at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when it was destroyed by the Dutch, and frightful tortures inflicted on the unfortunate persons connected with it.
In 1673 the poet Dryden produced his tragedy of Amboyna, or the Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants.
In 1796 the British, under Admiral Rainier, captured Amboyna, but restored it to the Dutch at the peace of Amiens in 1802.
It was retaken by the British in 1810, but once more restored to the Dutch in 1814.
The Dutch campaign of 1787, entered on for purely family reasons, was indeed successful; but Prussia received not even the cost of her intervention.
Entering the navy as a volunteer, he served in the Dutch Wars and became postcaptain in 1673.
Arguin was occupied in turn by Portuguese, Dutch, English and French; and to France it now belongs.
He strongly opposed the king's policy of alliance with France, advocating a league with the Dutch instead, and the refusal of supplies until the demands of the Commons should be complied with.
There seems little doubt, however, that it was really the work of the prince himself, with the help either of Languet (Groen van Prinsterer, Archives) or of Pierre de Villiers (Motley, Rise of the Dutch Republic; and Blok, History of the People of the Netherlands).
On the same lines the Belgian Confession of 1561, written by Guido de Bres in French, and translated into Dutch was widely accepted in the Netherlands and confirmed by the synod of Dort (1619).
Pliny's learned biographer, the Dutch scholar, Jean Masson (1709), wrongly assumed that this statement referred to the whole of the collection.
To the great joy of the Dutch people, Queen Wilhelmina, on the 30th of April 1909, gave birth to an heir to the throne, the Princess Juliana (Juliana Louise Emma Maria Wilhelmina).
The decisive blow was delivered by the Dutch marshal, Overkirk, who was sent by Marlborough with a large force (the last reserve of the Allies) to make a wide turning movement round the extreme right of the French, and at the proper time attacked them in rear.
In September 1689 he reached Batavia; spent the following winter in studying Javanese natural history; and in May 1690 set out for Japan as physician to the embassy sent yearly to that country by the Dutch.
At the age of eight he could speak German, Dutch, French and Latin.
By Englishmen the term "Dutch Wars" is usually applied to the two purely naval wars of 1652-53 and 1663-67 and to the Anglo-Dutch or naval part of the war that began in 1672.
But the last of these was part of a much wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by the genius of Turenne and Conde.
On the 12th of May 1652 an English officer, Captain Young, stopped a Dutch convoy near the Start in order to enforce the salute to the English flag, which England then demanded from all who used the seas round her coast.
Though the Dutch were still endeavouring to negotiate a peace with the Council of State which governed in the British Isles after the execution of King Charles I., they made ready for war.
The encounter, which the Dutch attributed to the English, and the English to the Dutch, made war inevitable, even if the relations of the two powers had allowed of the maintenance of peace.
Sir George Ayscue, who had lately returned from the West Indies, whither he had been sent to subdue the Royalist party in Barbados, had a sharp encounter with a Dutch convoy while on his way up Channel to the Downs, and had captured several prizes.
The Council of State, being mainly anxious to destroy the Dutch trade and fisheries, began by reinforcing Blake, and sending him north to scatter the Dutch herring fleet.
Tromp was also most intent on collecting the homecoming Dutch convoys, and seeing them safe into port.
No meeting, however, took place between him and Blake, while bad weather scattered the Dutch.
In the 27th of September the Dutch appeared in force off the mouth of the Thames, and Blake, whose fleet was collected in the Downs, stood to sea.
The English fleet standing to the north passed to west of the Dutch, and then turned.
In the close engagement which followed, the Dutch were defeated.
Blake had not remained on the coast of Holland, for the Council of State was still almost as intent as the Dutch on convoying trade or molesting the enemy's.
On the 18th of February 1653 the Dutch admiral, who had now collected the homeward-bound convoys, was off Plymouth on his way back to Holland, and was attacked by the English fleet.
The Dutch admiral brought his charge of merchant ships up Channel between him and the French shore.
On the Dutch side much damage had to be repaired, and their complicated administration, by five independent admiralty boards, rendered rapid work impossible.
In spite of their heavy losses and their awkward administration, the Dutch were at sea before the end of May, and were close to the mouth of the Thames.
Monk and Deane brought on a general action, in which the Dutch were outmatched, and forced to retreat to their own coast.
Blake, informed by the sound of the cannon, which was audible on the Thames, that an action was in progress, hurried to sea and joined Monk in the pursuit of the Dutch on the 3rd of June.
Between the 26th and the 30th of July Tromp, by a series of skilful manoeuvres, united the divided Dutch squadrons in the face of Monk's fleet, and on the 30th he stood out to sea with the wind in his favour, and gave battle.
The Dutch admiral manoeuvred to keep, and Monk to gain, the weather-gage.
The fleets passed on opposite tacks, and the Dutch tried to destroy their enemy with fire-ships without success.
At last the weatherly qualities of the ships enabled Monk to break through the Dutch line, cutting some of their ships off from the others.
The Dutch now sought peace, and Cromwell offered better terms. During the fighting in the North Sea the Mediterranean trade of England had suffered severely.
The king and his brother the duke of York (James II.), who were largely interested in the slave-trading Guinea Company, were eager to remove the Dutch ports from the slave coast.
They relied also on the known reluctance of the Dutch government to go to war.
In October 1663, therefore, a squadron was sent out under command of Sir Robert Holmes to attack the Dutch in Gambia and America.
De Ruyter re-established the Dutch posts in Gambia, and, though he failed to retake New Amsterdam, did much injury to English trade before he returned to Holland.
Numbers of Scotch sailors and of English deserters served in the Dutch fleet in this war - the bad administration of the navy and the constant ill-treatment of the crews having caused bitter discontent.
Other attacks were made on Dutch trade during 1664, but the great operations of war did not begin till May 1665.
A Dutch fleet of corresponding strength was sent to sea, under command of Baron Opdam van Wassenaer.
By the bad conduct of some of the captains in the centre of the Dutch line, the English, who fought with much spirit, were able to win a considerable victory.
But the pursuit of the English fleet was feeble, and the retreat of the Dutch was ably covered by Cornelius van Tromp, son of Martin Tromp. Much scandal was caused by the mysterious circumstances in which an order to shorten sail was given in the English flagship, and doubts were expressed of the courage of the duke of York.
On the Dutch side vigorous measures were taken to enforce good discipline.
Under his command the fleet made no attempt to blockade the Dutch coast, but was turned from its proper work to engage in a prize-hunting plot with the king of Denmark.
The object was to plunder a Dutch convoy which had taken refuge at Bergen in Norway, then united to Denmark.
Sir Thomas Teddemaii, who was sent by Sandwich to attack the Dutch at Bergen, was suspected by the Danish governor of intending to play false, was fired on by the batteries, and was beaten off.
Great injury was inflicted on English trade by Dutch cruisers, while the wasteful administration of his officers reduced the king's treasury to much embarrassment.
By May a Dutch fleet of some eighty sail was at sea, preparing to watch the English, and unite with the French.
They detached Prince Rupert into the Channel with 20 ships, leaving Monk with only 57 to face the Dutch.
On the ist the Dutch van, under Cornelius van Tromp, bore the brunt of the English attack.
Monk drew off at night without doing all the harm he had wished to the Dutch.
The Dutch remained masters of the approach to the Thames till the 21st of July.
On that and the two succeeding days the Dutch were again defeated and driven into port.
The English fleet then burnt the Dutch East India Company's dockyard at Terschelting, inflicting great loss.
Peace negotiations were begun with the Dutch, and the line-of-battle ships were put out of commission.
A light squadron was, however, kept at sea to injure the Dutch trade, and as no armistice was arranged the Republic was free to continue warlike operations.
The Dutch, being well aware of the disarmed condition of the English coast, sent out a powerful fleet again under the command of De Ruyter in June.
The Dutch were content with the injury they had done at Chatham, and dropped down the river.
In this as in former wars, attacks on Dutch commerce preceded a formal declaration of hostilities.
On the 13th of March 1672 Sir Robert Holmes fell upon a Dutch convoy under the command of Van Ness in the Channel.
The allies entered the North Sea but did not take the offensive against the Dutch.
The Dutch, who had to contend with an overwhelming French invasion on shore, nevertheless fitted out a fleet of 70 to 80 sail of the line and the command was given to De Ruyter.
Thus the allies were at once divided into two widely separated bodies, and the Dutch admiral was able to concentrate nearly his whole fo