How to use Duma in a sentence
Meanwhile the political parties which were to divide the new Duma had taken shape.
In 1909 the third Duma restored the election of justices of the peace.
It was reserved for the third Duma, after the revolution, to begin the reversal of this process.'
The duma, or council, still attended to all the details of the administration; the old boyars still retained their ancient offices and dignities.
It is noteworthy that even the third Duma in its address to the throne, if it avoided the tabooed word " Constitution," avoided also all mention of autocracy.Advertisement
By the manifesto of the 17/30th of October 1905 the emperor voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma, a freely elected national assembly.
By the law of the 20th of February 1906 the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; and from this time the legislative power has been exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers.
As a legislative body the powers of the Council are co-ordinate with those of the Duma; in practice, however, it has seldom if ever initiated legislation.6 The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which forms the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consists (since the ukaz of the znd of June 1907) on the 27th of April 1906, while the name and princi p le of autocracy was jealously preserved, the word " unlimited " vanished.
For example, were there no reactionary peasant among the delegates, a reactionary majority might be forced to return a Social Democrat to the Duma.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.Advertisement
These elect their delegates to the Duma direct, and though their votes are divided into two curias (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returning the same number of delegates, the democratic colleges can at least return members of their own complexion.'
Miliukov, leader of the cadets, were both returned by the second curia of St Petersburg to the third Duma.
These ordinances must, however, be of a temporary nature, must not infringe the fundamental laws or statutes passed by the two chambers, or change the electoral system, and must be laid upon the table of the Duma at the first opportunity.
Since, however, the emperor has the power of proroguing or dissolving the Duma as often as he pleases, it is clear that these temporary ordinances might in effect be made permanent.
At the same time the Senate interpreted the law so as to exclude all but heads of families actually engaged in farming from the vote for the Duma.Advertisement
The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma.
This was made part of the general reform of Russian local government, which in the autumn of 1910 was still under the consideration of the Duma.
In addition to these, notwithstanding government opposition, a series been given to the effort for improvement, and that the question had been seriously taken in hand by the imperial administration and the Duma.
This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the 21st of December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects upon the rural economy of Russia.
The second Duma, which met on the 5th of March 1907, avoided some of the mistakes of its predecessor, but as a legislative assembly it showed itself equally incompetent, and a large section of its members were implicated in a well-organized attempt to spread sedition in the army by revolutionary propaganda.Advertisement
The third Duma was subsequently convoked for the 14th of November 1907.
In 1909 the number of exiles for political reasons from Russia was reckoned at 180,000; but the third Duma, purged and packed by an ingenious franchise system, was in its third year passing measures of beneficent legislation, in complete harmony with the government.
When, however, on the 6th of August, the new law was promulgated, it was found that the " Imperial Duma " 5 was to be no more than a consultative body, charged with the examination of legislative proposals before these came before the Imperial Council, the duty and right of passing them into law being still reserved for the autocrat alone.
The members of the Duma, moreover, were placed at the mercy of the government by a clause empowering the Directing Senate to suspend or deprive them.
Duma =council, assembly (dumat, to think over, reflect upon).Advertisement
The second Duma met on the 6th of March 1907.
The crisis came with the discovery of a treasonable plot for the subornation of the army, in which many Socialist members of the Duma were involved.
The excuse for which the government had been waiting Alteration was thus provided, and two days later the Duma was by ukaz dissolved.
An imperial ukaz fixed the new elections of the for the 14th of September, and the meeting of the electoral third Duma for the 14th of November; at the same law.
The result was that third in the third Duma, which met on the 15th of November Duma.Advertisement
On the whole, the new Duma was fairly representative of the changed temper of the Russian people, disillusioned and weary of anarchy.
The congress of zemstvos, hitherto the focus of Liberalism, had petitioned the government, before the opening of the third Duma, to take measures for the restoration of order.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
The most far-reaching of these reforms, carried in the first session of the third Duma, was the partial abolition of the communal and family ownership of land, which involved the establishment of a class of true peasant-proprietors.
The Duma endorsed this all but unanimously, and as the result the Grand-dukes Peter and Sergius resigned their posts of inspector-general of Engineers and Ordnance respectively, and the Grand-duke Nicholas his chairmanship of the Committee of National Defence.Advertisement
A year later the Duma again came into collision with the government in a matter highly illuminating of the struggle between the ancient traditions and the new ideas in Russia.
Dmowski, leader of the Polish party in the Duma, took part.
In the following year, however, the situation was completely altered, a result due to the growing anti-Polish feeling in the Duma and, more especially, to the support given by the Austrian Sla y s to the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Even the remnant of the " Cadets " had by this time renounced their sympathy with Polish aspirations, and in the matter of Finland the Duma proved itself even more imperial than the emperor himself.
That in the work of restoring its military position the Russian government had the support of the Russian parliament was proved by a subsidy of Li 1,000,000 voted by the Duma, on the 30th of December 1909, for the special service of the reorganization and redistribution of the army.Advertisement
Much was hoped from the duma, but this body has proved bitterly opposed to the Jewish claim for liberty.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
In the third Duma, elected on a restricted franchise, the Octobrists assumed the leading role.
As Stolypin became more and more violent and reactionary, the Octobrists lost their standing ground, and Guchkov eventually resigned the presidentship of the Duma.
In the elections to the fourth Duma he failed to secure a seat.Advertisement
He managed to get into the Fourth Duma through the joint protection of Bieletzky, the Russian Fouche, and Lenin.
Only Poles were elected to the first Duma in 1906.
As the imperial ukase which followed the dissolution of the second Duma in 1907 conferred more power upon the great landowners, it was modified as regards Lithuania by a nationality clause which provided that the total of electors of each class should be in proportion to the amount of land possessed by the respective nationalities in the district.
In the third Duma the five delegates allotted to the non-Russian population of Vilna government were all Poles who joined the Polish party; in Kovno government three delegates were Lithuanians, one was a Pole and one a Jew.
The result of these interviews was a series of projects of reform, including a constitutional system based on a series of dumas, the cantonal assembly (volost) electing the duma of the district, the dumas of the districts electing that of the province or government, and these electing the Duma of the empire.Advertisement
As mediating power between the autocrat and the Duma there was to be a nominated council of state.
The Duma of the empire created in 1905 bears the name suggested by Speranski, and the institution of local self-government (the zemstvos) in 1864 was one of the reforms proposed by him.
As a member of the Duma he attained a certain notoriety by impassioned speeches and appeals for root-and-branch reform, but he was never conspicuous for steady work or constructive statesmanship. When the first Revolutionary Government was formed people were astonished to hear that Kerensky had been nominated Minister of Justice.
In 1907 he was elected member of the third and subsequently of the fourth State Duma, where he joined the left wing of the Octobrist (Moderate Liberal) party.
Later be became vicepresident of the State Duma.
At a stormy meeting held at the Duma he was asked by his political friends to resign his post, and when he refused to do so they struck his name off the list of members of the party.
Hated by the Liberal circles and the Duma, Protopopov not only supported the reactionary policy of Sturmer and Prince Galitzin with the utmost energy, but he is said also to have been one of the secret organizers of the disturbances of Feb.
However, what the first Duma did was to split those who wanted change.
The two contending candidates were the former speaker of the state Duma, Gennady Seleznyov (KPRF ), and General Boris Gromov.
He did all he could to discredit the work of a Duma heavily slanted in favor of the left.
Thus, the Duma's approval of START II would not end the stalemate on strategic arms reductions.
The members of the Duma are elected by electoral colleges in each government, and these in their turn are elected, like the zemstvos (see below), by electoral assemblies chosen by the three classes of landed proprietors, citizens and peasants.
It should be noted, none the less, that the third Duma succeeded in establishing its position, and that in view of its useful activities even the extreme Right came to realize that there could be no return to the old undisguised absolutist regime (see History, below, ad fin.).
The executive is in the hands of an elective mayor and an uprava, which consists of several members elected by the duma.
The ukaz of November 1906 had provided that the various strips of land held by each peasant should be merged into a single holding; the Duma, however, on the advice of the government, left this to the future, as an ideal that could only gradually be realized.
When the Boyar Duma became the Senate, and the Prikazi or administrative departments were organized under the name of Colleges, and when every important town was endowed with a Rathhaus, a Polizeimeister, gilds, aldermen, and all the municipal paraphernalia of western Europe, the vices of the old institutions survived in the new.
Notwithstanding the unsatisfactory results of the October manifesto the tsar kept his promise of convoking a legislative assembly, and on the 10th of May 1906 the first Duma was opened by his majesty in person; but it was so systematically and violently hostile to the government and so determined to obtain executive, in addition to its legislative, functions, that it was dissolved on the 23rd of July without any legislative work being accomplished.
The Octobrists, on the other hand, supported Count Witte's moderate programme, the most important provisions of which were the extension (r1 December 1905) of the suffrage under the stillborn constitution of August, and (20 February 1906) the reorganization of the Duma as the Lower House, and of the Imperial Council (half of which was to be elective) as the Upper House 2 in the new parliament.
Thus a step forward was made in securing the freedom of conscience proclaimed in the October manifesto and denounced by a synod of Orthodox bishops at Kiev in 1908, though the rights granted by the Duma were seriously curtailed in the Imperial Council, and have been largely rendered a dead letter by the action of the administration.
Here it may suffice to mention, as illustrating the changed temper of the Russian national assembly, The Duma that the Russian majority of the Duma included and among the imperial questions in Finland which the Finland.
Petersburg, and he worked a good deal behind the scenes, inciting to violence, advising a boycott of the Duma, hostility to the Cadets, etc. But he did not play any part in the Soviet of workmen, and disappeared as soon as it became clear, after the crushing of the outbreak in Moscow, that the troops and the people were not on the side of the revolutionaries.
Thus, the Duma 's approval of START II would not end the stalemate on strategic arms reductions.