Dukes Sentence Examples

dukes
  • These dukes all bore the name of Godfrey (Godefroy) and the fifth of them was the great crusader.

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  • His descendants made themselves quasi-independent and called themselves princes of Sedan and dukes of Bouillon, and they were even recognized by the king of France.

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  • In 1717, however, Cardinal Alberoni retook Cagliari for Spain; but this state of things was short-lived, for in 1720, by the treaty of London, Sardinia passed in exchange for Sicily to the dukes of Savoy, to whom it brought the royal title.

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  • The old castle of Schwanenburg (formerly the residence of the dukes of Cleves), has a massive tower (Schwanenturm) 180 ft.

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  • He took part in the nomination of the counts and dukes; in the king's absence he presided over the royal tribunal; and he often commanded the armies.

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  • It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.

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  • His descendants held the borough and the manor of Horsham, and through them they passed to the family of Mowbray, afterwards dukes of Norfolk.

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  • The Madonna della Steccata (Our Lady of the Palisade), a fine church in the form of a Greek cross, erected between 1521 and 1539 after Zaccagni's designs, contains the tombs and monuments of many of the Bourbon and Farnese dukes of Parma, and preserves its pictures, Parmigiano's "Moses Breaking the Tables of the Law" and Anselmi's "Coronation of the Virgin."

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  • Although under the sway of the dukes of Pomerania, the city was able to maintain a marked degree of independence, which is still apparent in its municipal privileges.

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  • Lauenburg, or Saxe-Lauenburg, as it is generally called, became a separate duchy ruled by his son John, and had its own lines of dukes for over 400 years, one of them, Magnus I.

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  • The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.

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  • He wrote also Bellum scodrense (1474), on account of the siege of Scodra (Scutari) by the Turks, and Antiquitates vicecomitum, the history of the Visconti, dukes of Milan, down to the death of Matteo the Great (1322).

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  • From the earls of Cork it descended by marriage to the dukes of Devonshire.

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  • Vevey was a Roman settlement [Viviscus] and later formed part of the barony of Vaud, that was held by the counts and dukes of Savoy till 1536, when it was conquered by Bern.

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  • His son, Jean de Chabannes, left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the countship to Philippe de Boulainvilliers, by whose heirs it was sold in 1 554 to the dukes of Montmorency.

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  • Goch became a town in 1231 and belonged to the dukes of Gelderland and later to the dukes of Cleves.

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  • From the 11th to the 14th century it belonged to Pisa, and in 1399 came under the dukes of Piombino.

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  • Matthias consolidated his position by alliances with the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria, with the Swiss Confederation, and the archbishop of Salzburg, and was henceforth the greatest potentate in central Europe.

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  • Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.

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  • At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.

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  • After this event, the semi-independent chiefs of the Lombard tribe, who borrowed the title of dukes from their Roman predecessors, seem to have been contented with consolidating their power in the districts each had occupied.

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  • Internally Charles left the affairs of the Italian kingdom much as he found them, except that he appears to have pursued the policy of breaking up the larger fiefs of the Lombards, substituting counts for their dukes, and adding to the privileges of the bishops.

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  • The hierarchy of dukes and marquises and counts consisted of foreign soldiers imposed on.

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  • The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.

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  • When the Visconti dynasty ended by the dukes death in 1447, he pretended to espouse the cause of the Milanese republic, which was then re-established; but he played his cards so subtly as to make himself, by the help of Cosimo de Medici in Florence, duke de facto if not de jure.

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  • By removing the capital from Chambry to Turin, he completed the transformation of the dukes of Savoy from Burgundian into Italian sovereigns.

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  • Cesare dEste had to content himself with Modena and Reggio, where his descendants reigned, as dukes till 1794.

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  • Its head, the duke of Norfolk, is the first of the dukes and the hereditary earl marshal of England, while the earls of Suffolk, Carlisle and Effingham and the Lord Howard of Glossop represent in the peerage its younger lines.

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  • By the admiral's wife Alice, sister and heir of Sir Robert de Boys, the Howards had the Boys manor of Fersfield, near Diss, which is still among the possessions of the dukes of Norfolk.

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  • The last of the dukes of Norfolk had left a child heir, Anne Mowbray, married to the infant duke of York, the younger of the princes doomed by Richard in the Tower.

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  • In 1777 Edward, the ninth of the Howard dukes, died childless in his ninety-second year.

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  • The town was the capital of the former duchy of Zweibrucken, and the Alexander-Kirche contains the tombs of the dukes.

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  • If Normans, as Normans, now exist anywhere, it is certainly only in that insular fragment of the ancient duchy which still cleaves to the successor of its ancient dukes.

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  • The one claimed an existing kingdom, and obtained full possession of it in a comparatively short time; the other formed for himself a dominion bit by bit, which rose to the rank of a kingdom I Roger de Hauteville, the conqueror of Sicily, was a brother of the first four dukes or counts of Apulia, and was invested with the countship of Sicily by the pope before starting on his adventure.

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  • The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.

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  • In medieval times the Propylaea served (Redrawn from the Athenische Mitteilungen by permission of the Kaiserliches Archaeologisches Institut.) as the palace of the dukes of Athens; they were much damaged by the explosion of a powder magazine in 1656.

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  • The castle, which occupies the site of a former Cistercian monastery, was, from 1622 to 1779, the residence of the dukes of HolsteinSonderburg-Gliicksburg, passing then to the king of Denmark and in 1866 to Prussia.

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  • Under the Lombards the town was the seat of dukes and counts; in the 12th and 13th centuries it formed a flourishing republic, busied in surrounding itself with walls (1229), controlling the Crostolo and constructing navigable canals to the Po, coining money of its own, and establishing prosperous schools.

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  • The fine old palace of the Caraffa family, once dukes of Maddaloni, the old college now named after Giordano Bruno, and the institute for the sons of soldiers are the chief points of interest.

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  • He arrogated to himself the privileges of royalty, made servants attend him upon their knees, compelled bishops to tie his shoelatchets and dukes to hold the basin while he washed his hands, and considered it condescension when he allowed ambassadors to kiss his fingers; he paid little heed to their sacrosanct character, and himself laid violent hands on a papal nuncio.

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  • Here is Badminton House, the seat of the dukes of Beaufort, standing in a park some io m.

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  • This is a Grecian building (1785), with a richly ornamented ceiling and inlaid altarpavement; it also contains much fine sculpture in the memorials to former dukes, and is the burial-place of Field Marshal Lord Raglan, who was the youngest son of the 5th duke of Beaufort.

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  • The duchy was held by various families during the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, and at length in 1335 was bestowed by Louis the Bavarian on the dukes of Austria.

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  • Robert's two sons, Odo or Eudes, and Robert II., succeeded their father successively as dukes, and, in 887, some of the Franks chose Odo as their king.

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  • Scarcely second to the royal house is the branch to which belonged the dukes of Burgundy.

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  • Members of this family sat upon the thrones of two kingdoms. The counts and dukes of Anjou were kings of Naples from 1265 to 1442.

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  • The later text, known as the Lex Alamannorum, dates from a period when Alamannia was independent under national dukes, but recognized the theoretical suzerainty of the Frankish kings.

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  • It dates unquestionably from a period when the Frankish authority was very strong in Bavaria, when the dukes were vassals of the Frankish kings.

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  • The town achieved some prosperity under the dukes of Normandy, who improved its harbour, but after the annexation of Normandy to France it was overshadowed by the rising port of Havre.

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  • His son Paul, called the duc de Beauvillier, was several times ambassador to England; he became' chief of the council of finance in 1685, governor of the dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berri from 1689 to 1693, minister of state in 1691, and grandee of Spain in 1701.

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  • The Ypodigma purports to be a history of the dukes of Normandy, but it also contains some English history and its value is not great.

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  • The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V., caused that pontiff's successor, Eugenius IV., to think that the synod of Basel was doomed to certain failure.

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  • In 1233 the place came into the possession of the dukes of Gelderland and received the status of a town in 1247.

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  • Hagenau dates from the beginning of the 12th century, and owes its origin to the erection of a hunting lodge by the dukes of Swabia.

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  • The castle of Bourbon l'Archambault, which belonged to the dukes of Bourbon, dates from the 13th and 15th centuries.

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  • Kingston House, long the seat of the dukes of Kingston, is a beautiful example of early 17th-century domestic architecture.

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  • In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.

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  • This acquisition brought the Norman frontier almost to the Loire and isolated Brittany, long coveted by the Norman dukes, from the rest of France.

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  • Above the Piazza della Signoria, at the highest point of the town, is the Palazzo Ducale, erected by the dukes of Urbino in 1474-1480; the architect was, in all probability, Lucio da Laurana, to whom is due the palace at Urbino, which this palace resembles, especially in its fine colonnaded court.

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  • In 1387, after various political changes, it surrendered to Antonio da Montefeltro of Urbino, and remained under the dominion of the dukes of Urbino until, in 1624, the whole duchy was ceded to the pope.

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  • The chief ancient buildings of Gandia are the Gothic church, the college, founded by San Francisco de Borgia, director-general of the order of Jesus (1510-1572), and the palace of the dukes of Gandia - a title held in the i 5th and 16th centuries by members of the princely house of Borgia or Borja.

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  • A Jesuit convent, the theatre, schools and the palace of the dukes of Osuna, are modern.

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  • In this quarter are the remains (16th century) of the château of the dukes of Bar, dismantled in 1670, the old clock-tower and the college, built in the latter half of the 16th century.

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  • In the IIth century its lords were only counts by title; they belonged to the house of Mousson (which also possessed the countships of Montbeliard and Ferrette), and usually fought in the French ranks, while their neighbours, the dukes of Lorraine, adhered to the German side.

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  • Yolande of Anjou, who in 1444 had married Ferri of Lorraine, count of Vaudemont, became heiress of Nicholas of Anjou, duke of Calabria and of Lorraine, in 1473, and of Rene of Anjou, duke of Bar, in 1480; thus Lorraine, with Barrois added to it, once more returned to the family of its ancient dukes.

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  • It was formerly a walled town, and contains some ancient buildings, such as the castle, erected in 1309, formerly a seat of the dukes of Ormonde, now belonging to the Butler family, a branch of which takes the title of earl from the town.

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  • In 1385 the town was almost entirely destroyed by an act of incendiarism, but was subsequently rebuilt by the dukes of Savoy, who surrounded it with ramparts of which little is left.

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  • In later times it was held in fief, first from the dukes of Brabant, then from the dukes of Gelderland.

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  • On the 8th February the body of Nelson was borne with great pomp from the Admiralty to St Paul's Cathedral, where it was interred in the presence of the prince of Wales and the royal dukes.

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  • The French lost 5000 of noble birth killed, including the constable, 3 dukes, 5 counts and 90 barons; 1000 more were taken prisoners, amongst them the duke of Orleans (the Charles d'Orleans of literature).

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  • The most prominent building is the palace, formerly the residence of the dukes of Liegnitz, rebuilt after a fire in 1835 and now used as the administrative offices of the district.

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  • The Roman Catholic church of St John, with two fine towers, contains the burial vault of the dukes.

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  • In 1163 it became the seat of the dukes of Liegnitz, who greatly improved and enlarged it.

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  • The dukes were members of the illustrious Piast family, which gave many kings to Poland.

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  • Local tradition attributes the establishment of a permanent camp at this spot to Julius Caesar, but Louvain only became important in the nth century as a place of residence for the dukes of Brabant.

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  • Some ruins on a hill exist of the old castle of the counts of Louvain whose title was merged in the higher style of the dukes of Brabant.

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  • The Pitti collection is in the royal palace (formerly the residence of the grand dukes), and a fine new stairway and vestibule have been constructed by royal munificence.

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  • It existed as a town as early as the 11th century, and in 1259 it was sold by the abbot of Fulda to the bishop of Minden, afterwards passing under the protection of the dukes of Brunswick.

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  • It is surrounded by Roman walls, which were partly rebuilt by the Moors, and it contains an interesting fortified palace, owned by the dukes of Medinaceli.

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  • With the object of combating the duke of Burgundy's preponderant influence, a league was formed at Gien, including the duke of Orleans and his father-inlaw, the dukes of Berry, Bourbon and Brittany, the count of Alengon and all the other discontented nobles.

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  • The town, which obtained civic rights in 1200, also became the seat of the dukes of Schleswig, but its commerce gradually dwindled owing to the rivalry of Lubeck, the numerous wars in which the district was involved, and the silting up of the Schlei.

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  • The castle dates from the days of the dukes of Zaringen (11th-12th centuries), the last of whom (Berchtold V.) built walls round the town at its foot, and granted it a charter of liberties.

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  • The Bavarian dukes of the Wittelsbach house occasionally resided at Munich, and in 1255 Duke Louis made it his capital, having previously surrounded it with walls and a moat.

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  • When counties were first organized in New York, in 1683, Nantucket and the neighbouring islands were erected into Dukes county, but in 1695, after annexation to Massachusetts, Nantucket Island, having been set apart from Dukes county, constituted Nantucket county, and in 1713 Tuckernuck Island was annexed to it.

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  • During the differences that arose in 1485 between the regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the dukes of Orleans, Brittany and Alengon, Imbert de Batarn y kept the inhabitants of Orleans faithful to the king.

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  • This ceremony, according to the historian Widukind, was followed by a banquet at which the new king was waited upon by the dukes of Lorraine, Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia.

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  • The deaths of Giselbert of Lorraine and of Eberhard of Franconia, quickly followed by those of two other dukes, enabled Otto to unite the stem-duchies more closely with the royal house.

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  • Of its secular buildings the most noticeable are the town hall and the Leuchtenberg palace, once the residence of the prince bishops and later of the dukes of Leuchtenberg (now occupied by the court of justice of the district), with beautiful grounds.

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  • During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.

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  • The Protestant Reformation met an early and general welcome in Styria, but the dukes took the most stringent measures to stamp it out, offering their subjects recantation or expatriation as the only alternatives.

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  • Of the ancient palace of the dukes of Burgundy there remain two towers, the Tour de la Terrasse and the Tour de Bar, the guard-room and the kitchens; these now form part of the hotel de ville, the rest of which belongs to the 17th and 18th centuries.

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  • This building contains an archaeological museum with a collection of Roman stone monuments; the archives of the town; and the principal museum, which, besides valuable paintings and other works of art, contains the magnificent tombs of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, dukes of Burgundy.

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  • During the middle ages the fortunes of Dijon followed those of Burgundy, the dukes of which acquired it early in the 11 th century.

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  • The communal privileges, conferred on the town in 1182 by Hugh III., duke of Burgundy, were confirmed by Philip Augustus in 1188, and in the 13th century the dukes took up their residence there.

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  • The period of war began with the Ditmarsh expedition, when the independent peasant-republic of the Ditmarshers of West Holstein, which had stoutly maintained its independence for centuries against the counts of Holstein and the Danish kings, was subdued by a Dano-Holstein army of 20,000 men in 1559, Frederick and his uncles John and Adolphus, dukes of Holstein, dividing the land between them.

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  • The other provinces were governed by dukes and magistri militum, titles which were generally, but not always, borne by the same person.

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  • In 1038 this countship was purchased by the dukes of Aquitaine and counts of Poitiers.

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  • The title of count of Agenais, which the kings of England had allowed to fall into desuetude, was revived by the kings of France, and in 1789 was held by the family of the dukes of Richelieu.

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  • Just outside the town rises the Moritzburg, built in 1564 by the dukes of Saxe-Zeitz, on the site of the bishop's palace; it is now a reformatory and poorhouse.

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  • From 1653 till 1718 Zeitz was the capital of the dukes of Saxe-Zeitz or Sachsen-Zeitz.

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  • He feebly asked Austria if he might maintain the constitution, and the Austrian premier, Prince Schwarzenberg, advised him to consult the pope, the king of Naples and the dukes of Parma and Modena.

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  • He became chemist and apothecary to the dukes of Lauenburg, and then to the elector of Saxony, Johann Georg II., who put him in charge of the royal laboratory at Dresden.

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  • But the officials charged with the rule of these parts gradually became semi-independent, particularly the Bavarian dukes in the region north of Trent.

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  • Bowden, to the south of the hills, was the birthplace of the poets Thomas Aird (1802-1876) and James Thomson, and its parish church contains the burial-place of the dukes of Roxburghe.

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  • The seigneurs of Bethune, avoues (advocati) of the great abbey of Saint-Vaast at Arras from the I 1 th century, were the ancestors of a great French house whence sprang the dukes of Sully, Charost, Orval, and Ancenis; the marquises of Rosny, Courville and Chabris; the counts of Selles and the princes of Boisbelle and Henrichemont.

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  • Kulmbach and Plassenburg belonged to the dukes of Meran, and then to the counts of Orlamunde, from whom they passed in the 14th century to the Hohenzollerns, burgraves of Nuremberg, and thus to the margraves of Bayreuth.

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  • Besides homagium ligeum, there was a kind of homage which imposed no feudal duty; this was homagium per paragium, such as the dukes of Normandy rendered to the kings of France, and as the dukes of Normandy received from the dukes of Brittany.

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  • In 1257 the twelve peers were the chiefs of the great feudal provinces, the dukes of Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse, Champagne and Flanders, and six spiritual peers, the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Laon, Chalons-sur-Marne, Beauvais, Langres and Noyon.

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  • It was from these two dukes that the rival houses of Lancaster and York derived their respective claims to the crown.

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  • Founded about 1210, Parchim was during part of the 14th century the residence of one branch of the family of the dukes of Mecklenburg.

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  • It afterwards became the seat of the dukes of Bavaria, and one of the main bulwarks of the East Frankish monarchy; and it was also the focus from which Christianity spread over southern Germany.

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  • Amesbury Abbey, a beautiful house built by Inigo Jones for the dukes of Queensberry, stands close to the village, in a park watered by the river Avon, here famous for its trout.

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  • The branch of the dukes of Luxemburg-Piney became extinct in 1697.

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  • He urged the separation of the High Lutheran party from Melanchthon (1557), got the Saxon dukes to oppose the Frankfort Recess (1558) and continued to fight for the purity of Lutheran doctrine.

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  • The use of crowns by dukes originated in 1362, when Edward III.

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  • Previous to this dukes had been invested at their creation by the girding on of a sword only.

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  • The golden circlet was confined to dukes and marquesses till 1 444, when Henry VI.

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  • It belonged to the family of Welf, then to the bishops of Hildesheim, and then, in 1369, it came again into the possession of the Welfs, now dukes of Brunswick.

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  • Until 16 3 7, when it passed to Brandenburg, the town was generally in the possession of the dukes of Pomerania.

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  • Grisegonelle (Greytunic) (c. 960-21st of July 987), who inaugurated a policy of expansion, having as its objects the extension of the boundaries of the ancient countship and the reconquest of those parts of it which had been annexed by the neighbouring states; for, though western Anjou had been recovered from the dukes of Brittany since the beginning of the 10th century, in the east all the district of Saumur had already by that time fallen into the hands of the counts of Blois and Tours.

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  • The edict of Worms was entirely in harmony with the laws of Western Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes in Germany at that time who really understood or approved Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless - if we except the elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand - the princes, including the ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to publish the edict, much less to enforce it.

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  • These included Ferdinand, duke of Austria, the two dukes of Bavaria, the archbishops of Salzburg and Trent, the bishops of Bamberg, Spires, Strassburg and others.

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  • This was signed by the elector of Saxony and his son and successor, John Frederick, by George, margrave of Brandenburg, two dukes of Luneburg, Philip of Hesse and.

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  • The fact that the conservative princes, especially the dukes of Bavaria, were opposed to any strengthening of the emperor's power, and were in some cases hereditary enemies of the house of; Habsburg, served to protect the Protestant princes.

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  • In its long struggle with its bishops and with the dukes of Savoy, Geneva had turned to her neighbours for aid, especially to Bern, with which an alliance was concluded Geneva in 1526.

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  • A vague tradition connects the house with the Colonna family of Rome, or the Colalto family of Lombardy; but one more definite unites the Hohenzollerns with the Burkhardingers, who were counts in Raetia during the early part of the 10th century, and two of whom became dukes of Swabia.

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  • The Schloss was originally the residence of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic order and later of the dukes of Prussia.

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  • From 1457 it was the residence of the grand master of the Teutonic Order, and from 1525 till 1618 of the dukes of Prussia.

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  • Douai, the site of which was occupied by a castle (Castrum Duacense) as early as the 7th century, belonged in the middle ages to the counts of Flanders, passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, and so in 1477 with the rest of the Netherlands to Spain.

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  • At the partition of Saxony in 1485 Weimar, with Thuringia, fell to the elder, Ernestine, branch of the Saxon house of Wettin, and has been the continuous residence of the senior branch of the dukes of this line since 1572.

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  • Rothenburg-ob-der-Tauber, mentioned in the chronicles in 804 as Rotinbure, was probably a residence of the dukes of Franconia.

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  • The old town, built on and around a rocky hill almost encircled by the river, contains a castle of the 16th century, formerly the residence of the dukes of Nassau-Weilburg, and later of the grand-dukes of Luxemburg.

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  • George William based his claim upon a treaty of mutual succession made in 1369 between his ancestor Magnus II., duke of Brunswick, and the reigning dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.

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  • Eisenach fell in in 1644 and Altenburg in 1672, thus leaving the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Gotha to become the ancestors of the modern ruling houses.

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  • The house of Beauharnais is still represented in Russia by the dukes of Leuchtenberg, descendants of Prince Eugene.

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  • In 1817 the death of Princess Charlotte (only child of the prince regent, afterwards George IV., and wife of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, afterwards king of the Belgians), had left the ultimate succession to the throne of England, in the younger generation, so uncertain that the three unmarried sons of George III., the dukes of Clarence (afterwards William IV.),.

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  • There was a touching incident when the queen's uncles, the dukes of Cumberland and Sussex, two old men, came forward to perform their obeisance.

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  • The dukes of Edinburgh, Connaught and Albany were each voted an income of £15,000, and £10,000 on marrying.

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  • On the 11th of February 1477 she was compelled to sign a charter of rights, known as "the Great Privilege," by which the provinces and towns of the Netherlands recovered all the local and communal rights which had been abolished by the arbitrary decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create in the Low Countries a centralized state.

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  • On its flags were fought out many feuds between rival gilds; Egmont and Horn, and many other gallant men whose names have been forgotten, were executed here under the shadow of its ancient buildings, and in more recent times Dumouriez proclaimed the French Republic where the dukes of Brabant and Burgundy were wont to hold their jousts.

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  • Having fixed their seat of government at Brussels the dukes of Brabant proceeded to build a castle and.

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  • In north German politics he interfered vigorously to protect his brotherin-law the Margrave Louis of Brandenburg against the lords of Mecklenburg and the dukes of Pomerania, with such success that the emperor, Charles IV., at the conference of Bautzen, was reconciled to the Brandenburger and allowed Valdemar an annual charge of 16,000 silver marks on the city of Lubeck (1349) Some years later Valdemar seriously thought of reviving the ancient claims of Denmark upon England, and entered into negotiations with the French king, John, who in his distress looked to this descendant of the ancient Vikings for help. A matrimonial alliance between the two crowns was even discussed, and Valdemar offered, for the huge sum of 600,000 gulden, to transport 12,000 men to England.

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  • Valdemar's skilful diplomacy, reinforced by golden arguments, did indeed induce the dukes of Brunswick, Brandenburg and Pomerania to attack the confederates in the rear; but fortune was persistently unfriendly to the Danish king, 1 Rostock, Greifswald, Wismar and Stralsund.

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  • Having formed part of the Frankish realm, it was ruled after 1204 jointly by, the dukes of Brabant and the prince-bishops.

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  • He subdued also the Germanic tribes; annexed Frisia, where Christianity was beginning to make progress; put an end to the duchy of Alemannia; intervened in the internal affairs of the dukes of Bavaria; made expeditions into Saxony; and in 738 compelled some of the Saxon tribes to pay him tribute.

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  • Its industries include the manufacture of buttons, shoes, cigars and soap. The town dates from about 110o and was early an important fortified place; until 1371 it was the residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland.

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  • In 1785 the prince of Wales joined, and later his brothers the dukes of Clarence and Sussex became members.

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  • Saarburg, which has been identified with the Pons Saravi of the Romans, belonged to France from 1661 to 1871, its earlier owners having been the bishops of Metz and the dukes of Lorraine.

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  • The palace of the former dukes of Nassau occupies a fine position on the river bank, and the shady gardens and groves attract large numbers of visitors during the summer.

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  • He died on Naushon Island, Dukes county, Massachusetts, on the r ith of October 1811.

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  • The old castle of Vilvorde, which often gave shelter to the dukes of Brabant in their days of trouble, is now used as a prison.

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  • He hastened back to Stockholm, after burying his father, summoned a Riksdag, which met at Arboga on the 15th of April 1561, and adopted the royal propositions known as the Arboga articles, considerably curtailing the authority of the royal dukes, John and Charles, in their respective provinces.

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  • This act was a flagrant breach of that paragraph of the Arboga articles which forbade the royal dukes to contract any political treaty without the royal assent.

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  • The royal dukes, John and Charles, had already taken measures to depose him; and in July the rebellion broke out in Osterg3tland.

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  • Eric at first offered a stout resistance and won two victories; but on the 17th of September the dukes stood before Stockholm, and Eric, after surrendering Gdran Persson to the horrible vengeance of his enemies, himself submitted, and resigned the crown.

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  • Sheep-raising, especially for wool, is an industry of considerable importance, and Dukes county is one of the three most important counties of the state in this industry.

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  • In 1671 Governor Francis Lovelace, of New York, appointed Mayhew governor for life of Martha's Vineyard; in 1683, the island, with Nantucket, the Elizabeth Islands, No Man's Land, and Chappaquiddick Island were erected into Dukes county, and in 1695 the county was re-incorporated by Massachusetts with Nantucket excluded.

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  • This had long given its name to the countship of Bitsch, which was originally in the possession of the dukes of Lorraine.

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  • It has a fine southern Romanesque cathedral of the end of the 11th century, with a modernized interior, and a castle which from 1456 belonged to the Acquaviva family, dukes of Atri and counts of Conversano.

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  • The subsequent earls and dukes of Lancaster were all recognized as stewards of England, the office apparently being treated as annexed to the earldom, or honor, of Leicester.

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  • Finally it became a fief of the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein, though often hypothecated for loans advanced to these princes by the free city of Hamburg.

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  • In 1641 Coburg fell to the dukes of SaxeAltenburg.

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  • In 1835 it became the residence of the dukes of Saxe-Coburg.

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  • The magnificent library formed by the Montefeltro and Della Rovere dukes was removed to Rome, and incorporated in the Vatican library (but with a separate numbering) in 1657.

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  • Most of the finest pieces of Urbino ware were made specially for the dukes, who covered their sideboards with the rich storied piatti di pompa.

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  • The History of the Dukes of Normandy by Benoit de SainteMore is based on the work of Wace.

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  • In the interior of the church are some beautiful stained glass windows, both ancient and modern, the tombstones of several of the dukes of Zahringen, statues of archbishops of Freiburg, and paintings by Holbein and by Hans Baldung (c. 1 47 0 - 1 545), commonly called Griin.

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  • The death of Waldemar in 1293, the starving to death of Dukes Waldemar and Eric in 1318, the marriage and the deaths both of Charles IX.

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  • The independent dynasty which was then established was drawn under the influence of the German king, Frederick Barbarossa, and two princes who in 1163 divided the sovereignty among themselves as dukes of Upper and Lower Silesia inaugurated the policy of inviting German colonists to their vacant domains.

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  • It contained an ancient abbey and a hunting château belonging to the dukes of Brabant.

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  • Her son, ancestor of the dukes of Richmond, was born in 1672.

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  • The shields of arms are for the dukes of f iilich and Berg, counts of Ravensberg, and for the electors of Bavaria.

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  • In the 17th and 18th centuries it was often the residence of the dukes of Brieg and of the Sobieski family.

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  • After the fall of the Western empire it was pillaged by the Longobardi and the Goths; it was annexed to the Frankish kingdom by Pippin in 789; and about the middle of the 10th century it fell into the hands of the dukes of Carinthia.

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  • Fortune after that, however, led it successively through the hands of the dukes of Meran, the duke of Bavaria and the patriarch of Aquileia, to the republic of Venice.

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  • The Order of Albert the Bear, a family order or Hausorden, was founded in 1836 by the dukes Henry of Anhalt-Kothen, Leopold Frederick of Anhalt-Dessau and Alexander Charles of Anhalt-Bernburg.

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  • The Order of the Zdhringen Lion was founded in 1812 in commemoration of the descent of the reigning house of Baden from the dukes of Zahringen.

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  • The grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz possess jointly the Order of the Wendish Crown, founded in 1864 by the grand dukes Frederick Francis II.

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  • Herford was a member of the Hanseatic League, and its suzerainty passed in 1547 from the abbesses to the dukes of Juliers.

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  • The principal buildings are the royal palace, built in1837-1840as a residence for the dukes of Nassau, and now a residence of the king of Prussia; the Court Theatre (erected 1892-1894); the new Kurhaus, a large and handsome establishment, with colonnades, adjoining a beautiful and shady park; the town-hail, in the German Renaissance style (1884-1888); the government offices and the museum, with a picture gallery, a collection of antiquities, and a library of 150,000 vols.

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  • The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks, probably without a serious struggle; and were ruled from 555 to 788 by dukes of the Agilolfing family, who were possibly of Frankish descent.

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  • For a century and a half a succession of dukes resisted the inroads of the Slavs on their eastern frontier, and by the time of Duke Theodo I., who died in 717, were completely independent of the feeble Frankish kings.

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  • When Charles Martel became the virtual ruler of the Frankish realm he brought the Bavarians into strict dependence, and deposed two dukes successively for contumacy.

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  • The efforts of the dukes to increase their power and to give unity to the duchy had met with a fair measure of success; but they were soon vitiated by partitions among different members of the family which for 250 years made the history of Bavaria little more than a dejune chronicle of territorial divisions bringing war and weakness in Division their train.

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  • Neighbouring states encroached upon its borders, and the nobles ignored the authority of the dukes, who, deprived of the electoral vote, were mainly occupied for fifty years with intestine strife.

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  • The towns, assuming a certain independence, became strong and wealthy as trade increased, and the citizens of Munich and Regensburg were often formidable antagonists to the dukes.

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  • The most prominent buildings are the handsome law-courts by Schinkel and the imposing château of the dukes of Ratibor, which occupies a commanding position on the right bank of the Oder.

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  • A little to the south of the town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of Normandy.

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  • In 1907 the grand dukes of both duchies promised a constitution to their subjects.

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  • The duchies had always been under a government of fetidal character, the grand dukes having the executive entirely in their hands (though acting through ministers), while the duchies shared a diet (Landtag), meeting for a short session each year, and at other times represented by a committee, and consisting of - the proprietors of knights estates (Rittergitter), known as the Ri.iterschaft, and the Landschaft or burgomasters of certain towns.

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  • It was almost entirely destroyed in the war of Charlemagne against Tassilo III., duke of Bavaria; and after the dissolution and division of that empire, it fell into the hands of the dukes of Swabia.

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  • Auxonne, the name of which is derived from its position on the Saone (ad Sonam), was in the middle ages chief place of a countship, which in the first half of the 13th century passed to the dukes of Burgundy.

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  • The town received a charter in 1229 and derived some importance from the mint which the dukes of Burgundy founded in it.

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  • By a treaty concluded by Philip at Amiens in April 1423 with the dukes of Brittany and Bedford, John, duke of Bedford, married Philip's sister Anne, and Arthur of Brittany, earl of Richmond, became the husband of Philip's sister Margaret.

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  • They lived in very different circles, one surrounded by dukes and earls, the other by starving pamphleteers and indexmakers.

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  • From 548 the Alamanni were ruled by a succession of dukes who soon made themselves independent; and in 555 a duke of the Bavarians, who exercised his authority without regard for the Frankish supremacy, is first mentioned.

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  • Hardly any rebellion against the dukes of the Franks, or against King Pippin, took place in Germany without the Saxons coming Torward to aid the rebels.

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  • The tribal dukes had all disappeared, and their duchies were split up into districts ruled by counts (q.v),whose tendencies to independence the emperor tried to check by the visits of the missi dominici.

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  • In Saxony, for example, we hear of Duke Otto the Illustrious, who also ruled over Thuringia; and during the early years of the 10th century dukes appear id Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine.

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  • These dukes acquired large tracts of land of which they gave grants on conditions of military service to persons on whom they could rely; while many independent landowners sought their protection on terms of vassalage.

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  • In this manner the feudal tenure of land began to prevail in almost all parts of Germany, and the elaborate social system which became known as feudalism was gradually built up. The dukes became virtually independent, and when Louis the Child died in 911, the royal authority existed in name only.

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  • The dukes of Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine were displeased at this election, probably because Conrad was likely to prove considerably more powerful than they wished.

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  • The rise of the dukes had been watched with extreme jealousy by the leading prelates.

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  • Hence they had done everything they could to prevent the dukes from extending their authority, and as the government was carried on during the reign of Louis the Child mainly by Hatto I., archbishop of Mainz, they had been able to throw considerable obstacles in the way of their rivals.

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  • Almost immediately he overcame the opposition of the dukes of Swabia and Bavaria; some time later, taking advantage of the troubled state of France, he accepted the homage of the duke of Lorraine, which for many centuries afterwards remained a part of the German kingdom.

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  • Although these preparations were carried on directly under Henrys supervision, only in Saxony and Thuringia the neighboring dukes were stimulated to follow his example.

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  • He was twenty-four years of age, and at the coronation festival, which was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, the dukes performed for the first time the nominally menial offices known as the arch-offices of the German kingdom.

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  • Reversing his fathers policy, Otto resolved that the dukes should act in the strictest sense as his vassals, or lose their dignities.

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  • It was, however, in his other duchy of Saxony that the latter dukes most important work was done.

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  • The chief prelates of Saxony and many of the late dukes most important feudatories were made virtually independent of all control save that of the crown.

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  • As we have seen, Bavaria popula- was shorn of extensive lands, over which new dukes tb,,.

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  • Thus there were archbishops, bishops, abbots, dukes, Inargraves, landgraves, countsforming together a large body each of whom claimed to have no superior save the emperor, whose authority they and their predecessors had slowly destroyed.

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  • For the rest the sovereigns of Wflrttemberg and Saxony retained the title of king bestowed upon them by Napoleon, and this title was also given to the elector of Hanover; the dukes of Weimar, Mecklenburg and Oldenburg became grand dukes; and LUbeck, Bremen, Hamburg and Frankfort were declared free cities.

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  • The present line of circumvallation dates from 1626-1632, the period when the independence of Genoa was threatened by the dukes of Savoy.

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  • The Palazzo Municipale, built by Rocco Lurago at the end of the 16th century, once the property of the dukes of Turin, has a beautiful entrance court and a hanging terraced garden fronting a noble staircase of marble which leads to the spacious council chamber.

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  • The interests of the Austrian margraves and dukes were not confined to the acquisition of wealth either in land or chattels.

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  • In 1335 the duchy of Carinthia, and a part of Carniola, were inherited by Dukes Albert II.

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  • The university of Rostock was founded in 1418 by Dukes Johann III.

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  • According to Selden it denotes "an excellency or pre-eminence only, not a superiority or power over other dukes, as in archbishop it doth over other bishops."

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  • The house of Habsburg, therefore, did not acquire this title with the inheritance of the dukes of Lorraine.

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  • Nor does it occur in any of the charters granted to the dukes of Austria by the emperors; though in that creating the first duke of Austria the archiduces palatii, i.e.

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  • Eastern Denmark was in the hands of one magnate; another magnate held Jutland and Fiinen in pawn; the dukes of Schleswig were practically independent of the Danish crown; the Scandian provinces had (1332) surrendered themselves to Sweden.

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  • The elder of the two surviving sons, James, earl of Dalkeith (1674-1705) had a son Francis (1695-1751), who through his grandmother, inherited the title of duke of Buccleuch in 1732, and was the ancestor of the later dukes.

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  • These two are the first dukes in Scotland.

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  • In politics, the queen-mother, who had the private guardianship of her boys, the king and the dukes of Albany and Ross, turned from the Lancastrian to the Yorkist side, while Kennedy and his party (Lancastrians) were accused of endangering Scotland to please France.

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  • Hildburghausen (in records Hilpershusia and Villa Hilperti) belonged in the 13th century to the counts of Henneberg, from whom it passed to the landgraves of Thuringia and then to the dukes of Saxony.

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  • It more than once passed out of the power of the French kings, notably in 1435, when, by the treaty of Arras, it came into the possession of the dukes of Burgundy, to whom it belonged till 1477.

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  • In the 12th century the town passed into the hands of the dukes of Carinthia; in 1270 it was taken by Ottocar of Bohemia; and in 1277 it came under the Habsburgs.

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  • Weis stands on the site of the Roman Ovilaba, and was in the 8th century the residence 'of the dukes of Lambach-Wels.

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  • Treaties to enforce the public peace were concluded in 1291 and 1338 with the dukes of Brunswick, Mecklenburg and Pomerania, and the count of Holstein.

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  • On a hill overlooking Landshut is the castle of Trausnitz, called also Burg Landshut, formerly a stronghold of the dukes of Lower Bavaria, whose burial-place was at Seligenthal also near the town.

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  • Landshut was founded about 1204, and from 1255 to 1503 it was the principal residence of the dukes of Lower Bavaria and of their successors, the dukes of Bavaria-Landshut.

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  • In 1689 he was appointed sub-preceptor of the dukes of Burgundy, of Anjou, and of Berry, and thus became intimately associated with Fenelon, their chief tutor.

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  • Under the dukes of Normandy, and particularly under William the Conqueror, it rapidly increased.

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  • She preferred, however, to remain in France, where she enjoyed the favour of Charles VI., the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, the duchess of Bourbon and others.

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  • From 1311 to 1675 Brieg was the capital of an independent line of dukes, a cadet branch of the Polish dukes of Lower Silesia, by one of whom the castle was built in 1341.

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  • The origin of modern dukes is twofold.

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  • The number of dukes continually increased, and in the 6th and 7th centuries there were duces at Rome, Naples, Rimini, Venice and Perugia.

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  • The sphere of the dukes was never rigidly fixed, and their commission was sometimes permanent, sometimes temporary.

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  • Under the Carolingians the functions of the dukes remained substantially the same; but with the decay of the royal power in the 10th century, both dukes and counts gained in local authority; the number of dukes became for the time fixed, and finally title and office were made hereditary, the relation to the crown being reduced to that of more or less shadowy vassalage.

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  • Sometimes the dukes so chosen succeeded in making their power permanent without taking the style of king.

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  • To this national category belong, besides the great German dukedoms, the dukes of Normandy, and the Lombard dukes of Spoleto and Benevento, who traced their origin, not to an administrative office, but to the leadership of Teutonic war bands.

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  • By the 13th and 14th centuries the title had become purely territorial, and implied no necessary overlordship over counts and other nobles, who existed side by side with the dukes as tenants-in-chief of the crown.

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  • The abolition of the Holy Empire in 1806 removed even the shadow of vassalage from the German reigning dukes, who retain their sovereign status under the new empire.

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  • Besides the sovereign dukes in Germany there are certain "mediatized" ducal houses, e.g.

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  • Some great Italian nobles are dukes, notably the heads of the great Roman ducal families, but not all Italian dukes are great nobles.

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  • In France the title duke at one time implied vast territorial power, as with the dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, Aquitaine and Brittany, who asserted a practical independence against the crown, though it was not till the 12th century that the title duke was definitely regarded as superior to others.

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  • In England the title of duke was unknown till the Toth century, though in Saxon times the title ealdorman, afterwards exchanged for "earl," was sometimes rendered in Latin as dux,' and the English kings till John's time styled themselves dukes of Normandy, and dukes of Aquitaine even later.

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  • British dukes rank next to princes and princesses of the blood royal, the two archbishops of Canterbury and York, the lord Chancellor, etc., but beyond this precedence they have no special privileges which are not shared by peers of lower rank.

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  • In the middle ages Arlon was the seat of a powerful countship (later marquisate), held after 1235 by the dukes of Luxemburg.

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  • The ruined citadel, the theatre, and the palace of the dukes of Arcos are the only other noteworthy buildings.

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  • Lauchstadt was a popular watering-place in the 18th century, the dukes of Saxe-Merseburg often making it their summer residence.

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  • Brodick Castle, the ancestral seat of the dukes of Hamilton, is a splendid mansion on the northern shore of Brodick Bay.

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  • During a last moment of returning consciousness, and by the advice of the whole council, who had been joined on their own initiative by the Whig dukes Argyll and Somerset, she placed the lord treasurer's staff in the hands of the Whig duke of Shrewsbury, and measures were immediately taken for assuring the succession of the elector.

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  • In the middle ages it belonged to the dukes of Aquitaine and then to the kings of England, one of whom, John, granted it full communal rights in 1216.

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  • The White House was built in1792-1799from designs by James Hoban, who closely followed the plans of the seats of the dukes of Leinster, near Dublin, and in 1902-1903, when new executive offices and a cabinet room were built and were connected with the White House by an esplanade, many of the original features of Hoban's plan were restored.

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  • In the early middle ages Assisi was subject to the dukes of Spoleto; but in the nth century it seems to have been independent.

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  • To this family belonged the lines of the counts of Joigny, the marquises of Royan and counts of Olonne, and the marquises and dukes of Noirmoutier.

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  • Like other Florentine nobles the Corsini had at first no titles, but in more recent times they received many from foreign potentates and from the later grand dukes of Tuscany.

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  • He then tried to win recognition as dukes of Aquitaine for the sons of his wife Agnes by William the Great, who were still minors, but Fulk Nerra promptly took up arms to defend his suzerain William the Fat, from whom he held the Loudunois and a tan g S h= - Saintonge in fief against his son.

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  • In 1036 Geoffrey Martel had to liberate William the Fat, on payment of a heavy ransom, but the latter having died in 1038, and the second son of William the Great, Odo, duke of Gascony, having fallen in his turn at the siege of Mauze (loth of March 1039) Geoffrey made peace with his father in the autumn of 1039, and had his wife's two sons recognized as dukes.

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  • Thenceforth, in spite of attempts to set aside the grant, the earls and subsequently the dukes of Cornwall were the lords of Saltash.

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  • Denmark was also compelled to recognize, practically, the independence of the dukes of HolsteinGottorp. The Russian War was terminated by the Peace of Kardis (July 2, 1661), confirmatory of the Peace of Stolbova, whereby the tsar surrendered to Sweden all his Baltic provinces - Ingria, Esthonia and Kexholm.

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  • Cannstatt (Condistat) is mentioned early in the 8th century as the place where a great court was held by Charlemagne for the trial of the rebellious dukes of the Alamanni and the Bavarians.

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  • It was for a time the residence of the dukes of Brunswick-Luneburg.

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  • There are a Lutheran and two Roman Catholic churches, one of which, the parish church, contains the monuments of seven Silesian dukes.

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  • The castle passed with the lordship or seigniory of Gower, of which it was the caput, into the hands of the De Braose family in 1203 (by grant from King John) and eventually it came by marriage to the Somersets and is still held by the dukes of Beaufort, whose title of barons de Gower dates from 1506.

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  • From 1657 to 1 738 it was the residence of the dukes of Saxe-Merseburg.

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  • The dukes formed a standing army, and succeeded in levying hearth taxes (fouages) throughout Brittany.

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  • The town has a Roman Catholic and five Protestant churches, among the latter the town-church with the burial vault of the dukes of Luneburg-Celle.

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  • Founded in 1292, the town was the residence of the dukes of Luneburg-Celle, a cadet branch of the ducal house of Brunswick, from the 14th century until 1705.

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  • It was once the seat of the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, who resided here from 1721 to 1773, and became the residence of Prince Henry of Prussia.

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  • After the short and cruel reign of Cleph, the successor of Alboin, the Lombards (as we may begin for convenience sake to call them) tried for ten years the experiment of a national confederacy of their dukes (as, after the Latin writers, their chiefs are styled), without any king.

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  • The independence of the dukes was surrendered to the king.

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  • Their old enemies the Franks on the west, and the Sla y s or Huns, ever ready to break in on the north-east, and sometimes called in by mutinous and traitorous dukes of Friuli and Trent, were constant and serious dangers.

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  • The cities which the bishops had made thus independent of the dukes and counts next sought to be free from the bishops; in due time they too gained their charters of privilege and liberty.

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  • From the beginning of the 12th century to 1637 it was the residence of the dukes of Pomerania, one of whom, Duke Barnim gave it municipal rights in 1243.

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  • King Sigismund of Poland, the dukes Louis and William of Bavaria, several other German princes, as well as several Bohemian noblemen, of whom Leo of Rozmital was the most important, were also candidates.

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  • Towards the end of the century, the family took the part of the dukes of Burgundy, but returned to the side of France on the death of Charles the Bold.

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  • Taken in 890 by the Scandinavian chief, Rollo, it was soon after peopled by the Normans and became a residence of the dukes of Normandy, one of whom, Richard I., built about 960 a castle which survived till the 18th century.

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  • The Marmions claimed descent from the lords of Fontenay, hereditary champions of the dukes of Normandy, and held the castle of Tamworth, Leicestershire, and the manor of Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire.

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  • Clisson, Bureau de la Riviere, Jean de Mercier, and the other marmousets were driven from office, and the royal dukes regained their power.

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  • The dukes gradually extended their power over all Tuscany, but after the death of the famous Matilda the city began to constitute itself an independent community, and in 1160 it obtained from Welf VI., duke of Bavaria and marquis of Tuscany, the lordship of all the country for 5 m.

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  • The town, which is said to occupy the site of the Roman Neomagus, belonged in the middle ages to the dukes of Lorraine, ruins of whose chateau are still to be seen.

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  • The palace of the dukes of Anhalt, standing on an eminence, contains a library and collections of various kinds, including a good picture gallery.

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  • On the extinction of that line Gotha came into the possession of the electors of Saxony, and it fell later to the Ernestine line of dukes.

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  • After the death of John Frederick's sons, it came into the possession of Duke Ernest the Pious, the founder of the line of the dukes of Gotha; and on the extinction of this family it was united in 1825 along with the dukedom to Coburg.

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  • The lords of the different territories belonged to five orders of nobility, corresponding closely to the dukes, marquises, earls, counts and barons of feudal Europe.

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  • These enterprises on several occasions planted Angevin domination in the south of the Italian peninsula, and their most decisive result was the assuring of Provence to the dukes of Anjou and afterwards to the kings of France.

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  • The former palace of the dukes of Anhalt-Cothen, in the old town, has fine gardens and contains collections of pictures and coins, the famous ornithological collection of Johann Friedrich Naumann (1780-1857), and a library of some 20,000 volumes.

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  • Under this regime Neapolis retained independence for nearly four hundred years, though constantly struggling against the powerful Lombard dukes of Benevento, who twice unsuccessfully besieged it.

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  • After the dissolution of the monasteries the manor was sold in 1542 to Henry Clifford, 2nd earl of Cumberland, whose descendants, the dukes of Devonshire, now hold it.

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  • The male line of the dukes of Jiilich-Berg-Ravensberg became extinct in 4511, and the duchy passed by marriage to John III.

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  • In the 11th century, with the growth of feudalism, all feudatories holding in chief of the Crown ranked as " princes," from dukes to simple counts, together with archbishops, bishops and the abbots of monasteries held directly of the emperor.

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  • These non-royal princes are ranked in the Almanach de Gotha with British and French dukes and Italian princes.

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  • In Great Britain " prince " and " princess " as titles are confined to members of the royal family, though non-royal dukes are so described in their formal style (see Duke).

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  • It has thus occasionally happened that the dukes of Cornwall have not been princes of Wales, as Henry VI.

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  • The cathedral of St Lazare, once the chapel attached to the residence of the dukes of Burgundy, is in the highest part of the town.

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  • The counts of Autun in 880 became dukes of Burgundy, and the town was the residence of the latter till 1276.

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  • He is more concise than Monstrelet, but is equally partial to the dukes of Burgundy.

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  • After the Norman conquest the city remained for a short time in the hands of the dukes of Apulia.

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  • He also made alliances with several of the dukes and counts of the Netherlands, and with the emperor Louis the Bavarian, obviously with the intention of raising trouble for France on her northern and eastern frontiers.

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  • Only Bishop Courtenay refused to be terrorized; he chose this moment to open a campaign against the dukes ally, John Wycliffe, who was arraigned for heresy before the ecclesiastical courts.

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  • Disarmed, however, by the dukes frank submission they wisely resolved not to push him to extremes, and the first council which was appointed to act for the new monarch was a sort of coalition ministry in which Lancasters followers as well as his foes were represented.

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  • The tiresome and monotonous domestic history of England during the next twenty years consisted of little else than quarrels between Gloucester and the lords of the council, of whom the chief was the dukes halfuncle Henry Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, the last to survive of all the sons of John of Gaunt.

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  • The refusal of the Italians to take back the Austtian grand dukes made the execution of these arrangements impracticable.

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  • From 1316 to 1436 the town was the residence of the princes of the Wends, and from 1556 to 1695 of the dukes of Mecklenburg-Giistrow.

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  • When Seurre passed into the possession of the princes of Conde they in the same way acquired the title of dukes of Bellegarde.

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  • This Conrad, his son Otto and his grandson Conrad are sometimes called dukes of Franconia; and in 1024 his greatgrandson Conrad, also duke of Franconia, was elected German king as Conrad II.

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  • About James I.'s reign the site and territories were alienated to the Prestons of Preston-Patrick, from whom they descended to the dukes of Devonshire.

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  • In 1807 it came into the possession of the grand dukes of Berg, but was transferred to Prussia in 1814.

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  • Wace's second work, the Roman de Rou, written between 1160 and 1174, has a less fabulous character than the Brut, being a chronicle of the Norman dukes from Rollo to Robert Curthose.

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  • The hotel de ville was formerly a palace of the dukes of Brabant.

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  • The provincial government house occupies the site of the former palace of the dukes of Gelderland.

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  • The first account of it is in connexion with a tournament given there by Reinald I., count of Gelderland, in the beginning of the 14th century, and it ever after remained the favourite residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland.

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  • It was the seat of an independent lordship until 1402, after which time it was held in fief from the dukes of Gelderland.

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  • The duchess had made over to him the papers of her father and uncle, from which he compiled the Memoirs of the Lives and Actions of James and William, dukes of Hamilton and Castleherald.

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  • We find the dukes actually raising troops without the royal sanction, and even against the king.

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  • The Church, too, never failed to oppose itat first not so much on account of her own ambitions as in a more Christian spiritand proceeded to weaken the royal jurisdiction by repeated interventions on behalf of those under sentence, afterwards depriving it of authority over the clergy, and then setting up ecclesiastical tribunals in opposition to those held by the dukes and counts.

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  • Pippin it was, in short, who governed, who set in order the social confusions of Neustria, who, after long wars, put a stop to the malpractices of the dukes and counts, and summoned councils of bishops to make good regulations.

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  • Meanwhile from the south attacks were being made by the rebel dukes of Spoleto and Beneventum.

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  • There were no provincial assemblies, no municipal bodies, no merchant-gilds, no autonomous churches; the people had no means of making themselves heard; they had no place in an administration which was completely in the hands of a central hierarchy of officials of all ranks, from dukes to scabini, with counts, viscounts and centenarii in between.

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  • Through marriages, conquests and inheritance, the dukes of Burgundy had enormously increased their influence; while during the Hundred Years War they had benefited alternately by their criminal alliance with the English and by their self.

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  • But the taking of, La Rochelle allowed Louis to force the pass of Susa, to induce the duke of Savoy to treat with him, and to isolate the Spaniards in Italy by a great Italian league between Genoa, Venice and the dukes of Savoy and Mantua (April 1629).

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  • Weimar; by that of Rivoli he united against Spain the dukes of Modena, Parma and Mantua; he signed an open alliance with The the league of Heilbronn, the United Provinces and Frwch Sweden and after these alliances military operations Thirty began, Marshal de la Force occupying the duchy of Lor Years raine.

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  • Rashi's commentary on the Bible has been translated into Latin by Breithaupt (1710-1714); and into German (Pentateuch) by Dukes (1833-38) and others.

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  • After the fall of the Western empire Tuscia, with other provinces of Italy, came successively under the sway of Herulians, Ostrogoths, and Greek and Lombard dukes.

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  • By this document the dukes of Brabant undertook to maintain the integrity of the duchy, and not to wage war, make treaties, or impose taxes without the consent of their subjects, as represented by the municipalities.

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  • At the beginning of the 16th century the dukes of Brunswick made a new settlement here, and under their directions the mining, which had been begun by the monks, was carried on more energetically.

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  • The duchy of Teschen belonged to the dukes of Upper Silesia, and since 1298 it stood under the suzerainty of Bohemia.

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  • It became a direct apanage of the Bohemian crown in 1625 at the extinction of the male line of its dukes, and since 1766 it bore the name of Saxe-Teschen, owing to the fact that Prince Albert of Saxony, who married a daughter of Maria Theresa, received it as part of his wife's dowry.

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