He retained, however, his dukedom and estates.
The head of her elder brother, the boy earl marshal, had been stricken off in the cornfield under the walls of York, but her younger brother's right to his father's dukedom was allowed by parliament in 1425.
He was not released until the accession of Mary, parliament restoring his dukedom on his petition for reversal of the attainder.
The dukedom for which Arundel had petitioned Charles I.
The dukedom offered him by George II., whose ill-will his fine tact had overcome, was refused.
Of its illegitimate descendants the house of Cornwall was founded by Richard, a natural son of Richard, king of the Romans and earl of Cornwall, who was ancestor of Lord Cornewall of Fanhope, temp. Henry VI., of the Cornewalls, " barons of Burford," and other families; but the principal house is that which was founded, at a later date, by Sir Charles Somerset, natural son of Henry (Beaufort) duke of Somerset (beheaded 1464), who was created earl of Worcester in 1513, and whose descendant Henry, marquess and earl of Worcester, obtained the dukedom of Beaufort in 1682.
In his seventieth year, as lieutenant-general of the North, he led the English host on the great day of Flodden, earning a patent of the dukedom of Norfolk, dated 1 February 1513/4, and that strange patent which granted to him and his heirs that they should bear in the midst of the silver bend of their Howard shield a demi-lion stricken in the mouth with an arrow, in the right colours of the arms of the king of Scotland.
1152), and began to take an active part in administering his dukedom and extending its area.
BOUILLON, formerly the seat of a dukedom in the Ardennes, now a small town in the Belgian province of Luxemburg.
1883), married in 1913 Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife, daughter of the Princess Royal, who had succeeded in 1912 to her father's dukedom by special remainder.
In answer to his petition for the dukedom, the king had, on the 6th of June 1644, given him a patent of the earldom of Norfolk, in order, as it would seem, to flatter him by suggesting that the title of Norfolk would at least be refused to any other family.
The remote descendant of a duke, even though he may chance to be heir presumptive to the dukedom, is in no way distinguished from any other gentleman; it is even possible that he may not hold the social rank of gentleman.
The latter's son Henry (1746-1812) became 3rd duke, and in 1810 succeeded also, on the death of William Douglas, 4th duke of Queensberry, to that dukedom as well as its estates and other honours, according to the entail executed by his own great-grandfather, the 2nd duke of Queensberry, in 1706; he married the duke of Montagu's daughter, and was famous for his generosity and benefactions.
The confirmation of the dukedom and revenues of Chatelherault for the earl of Arran, in the hope of inducing him to resign the regency.
Of great importance also was the house of the counts of Anjou, which was founded in 1246, by Charles, son of the French king Louis VIII., and which, in 1630, was raised to the dignity of a dukedom.
Town and castle followed the vicissitudes of the dukedom of Norfolk, passing to the crown in 1405, and being alternately restored and forfeited by Henry V., Richard III., Henry VII., Edward VI., Mary, Elizabeth and James I., and finally sold in 1635 to Sir Robert Hitcham, who left it in 1636 to the master and fellows of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge.
James of Armagnac, grandson of Bernard VII., was made duke of Nemours in 1462, and was succeeded in the dukedom by his second son, John, who died without issue, and his third son, Louis, in whom the house of Armagnac became extinct in 1503.
The influence of the Polignacs was now at its height, and they obtained large sums of money, a dukedom, and many nominations to places.
After meeting with some success in his efforts to take possession, he was driven from Saxony, and also from his mark by Henry, and compelled to take refuge in South Germany, and when peace was made in 1142 he renounced the Saxon dukedom and received the counties of Weimar and Orlamiinde.
He was a firm supporter of the emperor Henry IV., who rewarded his fidelity by granting him the dukedom of Swabia in 1079, and giving him his daughter Agnes in marriage.
In 1497 he was expelled from Urbino by Caesar Borgia, son of Alexander VI., but regained his dukedom in 1503, after Caesar's death.
He saves his brother's life, is reinvested with the dukedom of Calabria, and, after the death of Daunus, succeeds to Apulia.
Of England (9th May 1826) elevated the duke's Hanoverian possessions to a dukedom under the title of Aremberg Meppen.
Suffolk's promotion to a dukedom in July 1448, marked the height of his power.
When Duke Henry died in 1541 he decreed that his lands should be divided equally between his two sons, but as his bequest was contrary to law, it was not carried out, and the dukedom passed almost intact to his elder son, Maurice.
For the earlier history of Naples and its territory, as a republic and a dukedom, see Naples above, and for the coming of the Normans see Sicily and Normans.
The dukedom of Albret, united to the crown of France by the accession of this prince, was granted to the family of La Tour d'Auvergne in 1651, in exchange for Sedan and Raucourt.
Saldanha was rewarded with a dukedom, and retained office until June 1849.
Those of the northern marches, Trent and Friuli, with the important dukedom of Turin, retained longer the kind of independence which marchlands usually give where invasion is to be feared.
The great dukedom of Benevento in the south, with its neighbour Spoleto, threatened at one time to be a separate principality, and even to the last resisted, with varying success, the full claims of the royal authority at Pavia.
It was ruled by the Bosnian king, Tvrtko, from 1390 to 1391; and in 1402 the famous and powerful Bosnian prince, Hrvoje or Harvoye, received the dukedom of Spalato from Ladislaus of Naples, the claimant to the Hungarian throne.
After the death of that prince, the dukedom devolved upon his brother, the count of Toulouse, subsequently passing to the latter's son, the duke of Penthievre, whose daughter married the duke of Orleans.
After the death of John Frederick's sons, it came into the possession of Duke Ernest the Pious, the founder of the line of the dukes of Gotha; and on the extinction of this family it was united in 1825 along with the dukedom to Coburg.
A scion of the house of Shang, the surname of which was Tze, was invested by King Wu-Wang with the dukedom of Sung in the present province of Ho-nan.
This was an important alliance for Sunderland and for his descendants; through it he was introduced to political life and later the dukedom of Marlborough came to the Spencers.
Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, two nephews of the cardinal, Arthur and Edmund Pole, being ardent young men, conspired to go over to the duke of Guise in France, hoping to return with an army into Wales and so promote the claims of Mary Queen of Scots to the crown of England, for which service the elder, Arthur, expected to be restored to the dukedom of Clarence.
But Edward the Black Prince was the original grantee of the principality as well as of the dukedom, under p p y the special limitations which have continued in force to the present day.
On the death of Henry, prince of Wales, whose heir was his brother Charles, duke of York - the dukedom of Cornwall would pass to him as the first-begotten son of the king of England then alive, the principality of Wales alone becoming merged in the Crown.
The dukedom of Somerset was revived in his favour.
In 1660, and, on the failure of his male descendants in the person of his son John, 4th duke, the dukedom of Somserset passed to the descendants of his brother, Francis, Baron Seymour of Trowbridge, and, on the extinction of the latter's male line to the elder branch of the Seymour family, descended from Sir Edward Seymour of Berry Pomeroy, Devon.
When Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was placed under the imperial ban in 1180, Otto's services were rewarded by the investiture of the dukedom of Bavaria at Altenburg.
The latter rights were afterwards surrendered and it was made the chief burgh of the regality and dukedom of Hamilton in 1668, the third marquess having been created duke in 1643.
Thus, while the dukedom belongs to the Agilolfing family, the duke must be chosen by the people and his election confirmed by the Frankish king, to whom he owes fealty.
The Bavarians offered no resistance to the change which thus abolished their dukedom; and their incorporation with the Frankish dominions, due mainly to the unifying influence of the church, was already so complete that Charlemagne did not find it necessary to issue more than two capitularies dealing especially with Bavarian affairs.
To John, Lord Russell, in 1547, who was created earl Of Bedford in 1550 (the dukedom dating from 1694).
An attempt, however, to perform the same service for another brother-in-law, also called Ladislaus, who had been driven from his Polish dukedom, ended in failure.
After a number of attempts to establish a hereditary dukedom, Duke Domenico Flabianico in 1032 passed a law providing that no duke was to appoint his successor or procure him to be elected during his own lifetime.
The earldom of Ulster, the old inheritance of the De Burghs, had descended to him from Lionel, duke of Clarence; the earldom of March came from the Mortimers, and the dukedom of York and the earldom of Cambridge from his paternal ancestry.
Order of the Sword, amalgamated, since 1237, with the more powerful order of the Teutonic Knights, had by the secularization of the latter order into the dukedom of Prussia (1525) become suddenly isolated in the midst of hostile Slavonians.