Duchy sentence example
In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient duchy of Bouillon.
Weissenfels is a place of considerable antiquity, and from 1656 till 1746 it was the capital of the small duchy of Saxe-Weissenfels, a branch of the electoral house of Saxony, founded by Augustus, second son of the elector John George I.
In 1619 he received by bequest, ratified in 1620 by royal grant, the duchy of Angouleme.
In 1394 the countship came to the house of Orleans, a member of which, Francis I., became king of France in 1515 and raised it to the rank of duchy in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy.
The duchy afterwards changed hands several times, one of its holders being Charles of Valois, natural son of Charles IX.Advertisement
From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
Otto died at Pfullendorf in 1183, and was succeeded in the duchy by his son, Louis I.
Some of them were baptized; the territory which was afterwards known as the duchy of Normandy was ceded to them; but the story of the marriage of their chief Rollo with a sister of the king, related by the chronicler Dudo of Saint Quentin, is very doubtful.
Throughout the revolutionary years he supported his brother's policy, became a member of the Erfurt parliament, and, after the collapse of the national movement, returned to the service of the duchy of Nassau.
It then passed to the counts of La Marck and was made a duchy in 1417, being united with the neighbouring duchies of Jiilich and Berg in 1521.Advertisement
The French held Cleves from 1757 to 1762 and in 1 795 the part of the duchy on the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France; the remaining portion suffered a similar fate in 1805.
This treaty provided that Maximilian's daughter Margaret should marry Charles, the dauphin of France, and have for her dowry Artois and FrancheComte, two of the provinces in dispute, while the claim of Louis on the duchy of Burgundy was tacitly admitted.
At this time Bianca's uncle, Ludovico Sforza, was invested with the duchy of Milan in return for the substantial dowry which his niece brought to the king.
The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops.
The barony of Widnes in1554-1555was declared to be part of the duchy of Lancaster.Advertisement
It again returned, however, to the Lacys in 1287, was granted in parcels, and like their other lands became merged in the duchy of Lancaster.
It fell into the power of Alboin in 569 and became the seat of a Lombard duchy; it was still one of the wealthiest cities of Aemilia in the Lombard period.
Antonio and Francesco both having died childless, the duchy passed to Charles of Bourbon (Don Carlos), infante of Spain, who, becoming king of Naples in 1734, surrendered Parma and Piacenza to Austria, but retained the artistic treasures of the Farnese dynasty which he had removed from Parma to Naples.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
Avranches, an important military station of the Romans, was in the middle ages chief place of a county of the duchy of Normandy.Advertisement
About the middle of the 12th century the country was subdued by the duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, who founded a bishopric at Ratzeburg, and after Henry's fall in 1180 it formed part of the smaller duchy of Saxony, which was governed by Duke Bernhard.
Lauenburg, or Saxe-Lauenburg, as it is generally called, became a separate duchy ruled by his son John, and had its own lines of dukes for over 400 years, one of them, Magnus I.
The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
In 1803 the duchy was occupied by the French, and in 1810 it was incorporated with France.
Having nominally become king in 1799, that prince created the estate of Ile-Jourdain a duchy, under the title of Avaray, in favour of the comte d'Avaray,, whom he termed his "liberator."Advertisement
The convex side rests upon the duchy of Coburg and is in part bounded by Bavaria, while the concave side, turned towards the north, contains portions of four other Thuringian states and Prussia between its horns, which are 46 m.
The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
The raising of cattle, pigs and sheep is a fairly important branch of industry throughout the duchy; horses are bred in Kamburg.
The mineral wealth of the duchy is not inconsiderable.
The capital of the duchy is Meiningen; the other principal towns are Salzungen, Hildburghausen, Eisfeld, Sonneberg, Saalfeld, Pdssneck and Kamburg.
By this time the duchy had increased considerably in extent, but petty wars with the other Saxon princes combined with the extravagance of the court and the desolation caused by the Seven Years' War to plunge it into distress and bankruptcy.
With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia.
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
Chief among these states were the duchy of Brabant, the counties of Flanders, Hainault, Holland, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg, and the bishoprics of Utrecht and Liege.
On the death in 1430 of his cousin Philip, duke of Brabant, he took possession of Brabant and Limburg; the duchy of Luxemburg he acquired by purchase, 1 443.
Not long after it had been sacked by Totila Benevento became the seat of a powerful Lombard duchy and continued to be independent until 1053, when the emperor Henry III.
The Terre d'Auvergne was first an appanage of Count Alphonse of Poitiers (1241-1271), and in 1360 was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duch y -pairie) by King John II.
Hesse-Nassau was formed in 1867-1868 out of the territories which accrued to Prussia after the war of 1866, namely, the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel and the duchy of Nassau, in addition to the greater part of the territory of Frankfort-on-Main, parts of the grand-duchy of Hesse, the territory of Homburg and the countship of HesseHomburg, together with certain small districts which belonged to Bavaria.
In 1801 Austria was forced to cede it to Ercole III., duke of Modena, in compensation for the duchy of which Napoleon had deprived him.
The duchy of Benevento remained tributary, but independent.
It saved Rome from becoming a duchy in the hands of the Tusculum house.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
This, while the elder branch of the Hauteville family still held the title and domains of the Apulian duchy; but in 1127, upon the death of his cousin Duke William, Roger united the whole of the future realm.
She was the last heiress of the great house of Canossa, whose fiefs stretched from Mantua across Lombardy, passed the Apennines, included the Tuscan plains, and embraced a portion of the duchy of Spoleto.
This is the meaning of the three leagues, in the March, in the duchy of Spoleto and in Tuscany, which now combined the chief cities of the papal territory into allies of the holy see.
These five powers were the kingdom of Naples, the duchy of Milan, the republic of Florence, the republic of Venice and the papacy.
The last member of the Visconti family of whom we had occasion to speak was Azzo, who bought the city in 1328 from Duchy of Louis of Bavaria.
Gian Galeazzos duchy was a masterpiece of mechanical contrivance, the creation of a scheming intellect and lawless will.
Giovanni, a monster of cruelty and lust, was assassinated by some Milanese nobles in 1412; and now Filippo set about rebuilding his fathers duchy.
Once seated in the duchy of Milan, he displayed rare qualities as a ruler; for he not only entered into the spirit of the age, which required humanity and culture from a despot, but he also knew how to curb his desire for territory.
Thus the limitation of the Milanese duchy under Filippo Maria Visconti, and its consolidation under Francesco Sforza, were equally effectual in preparing the balance of power to which Italian politics now tended.
They were not valid, for the investiture of the duchy had been granted only to male heirs.
The Este family received a confirmation of their duchy of Modena and Reggio, and were invested in their fief of Ferrara by the pope.
The marquessate of Mantua was made a duchy; and Florence was secured, as we have seen, to the Medici.
It was his ambition to create a duchy for his family; and with this object he Pont!!!
He already wore the crown of the Two Sicilies, and ruled the duchy of Milan.
Under the same pontiff, the Holy See absorbed the duchy of Urbino on the death of Francesco Maria II., the last representative of Montefeltro and Della Rovere.
He hoped to secure this duchy for his son, Don Carlos; and Elisabetta further brought with her a claim to the grand-duchy of Tuscany, which would soon become vacant by the death of Gian Gaston.e de Medici.
The duchy of Savoy in his days became a kingdom, and Sardinia, though it seemed a poor exchange for Sicily, was a far less perilous possession than the larger and wealthier island would have been.
In the duchy of Parma Don Carlos had already been proclaimed.
Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were formed into a duchy for Don Philip, brother of Charles III.
The duchy of Modena was placed under the protection of the French.
The former possessed the rich duchies Frecch of Milan (including Mantua) and Tuscany; while Revolu through a marriage alliance with the house of Este UoI, of Modena (the Archduke Ferdinand had married the heiress of Modena) its influence over that duchy was supreme.
The Spanish Bourbons held Naples and Sicily, as well as the duchy of Parma.
Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrangements (1816-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca.
The duchy of Lucca was given to Marie Louise of BourbonParma, who, at the death of Marie Louise of Austria, would return to Parma, when Lucca would be handed over to Tuscany.
In the duchy of Modena an insurrection had broken out, and after Magenta Duke Francis joined the Austrian army in Lombardy, leaving a regency in charge.
In exchange he received the duchy of Valentinois, as well as military assistance for his own enterprises.
Cesare's dominion at once began to fall to pieces; Guidobaldo, duke of Urbino, returned to his duchy with Venetian help; and the lords of Piombino, Rimini and Pesaro soon regained their own; Cesena, defended by a governor faithful to Cesare, alone held out.
The town was the capital of the former duchy of Zweibrucken, and the Alexander-Kirche contains the tombs of the dukes.
If Normans, as Normans, now exist anywhere, it is certainly only in that insular fragment of the ancient duchy which still cleaves to the successor of its ancient dukes.
The Conqueror beyond doubt sincerely aimed at being a religious reformer both in his duchy and in his kingdom, while it is needless to say that his immediate successor was exceptionally ungodly, whether among Normans or among other men.
Still there was a wide difference between the duke of the Normans and the duke of Apulia, between an hereditary prince of a hundred and fifty years' standing and an adventurer who had carved out his duchy for himself.
At the time of her accession the duchy was ruled by a son of the Polish king Augustus III., and he gave a pretext for aggression by refusing to allow Russian troops returning from the Seven Years' War to pass through his territory.
Bishop Georg von Polentz embraced the Reformation in 1523, and in 1525 the district was incorporated with the duchy of Prussia.
The Save or Sau rises within the duchy, and is formed by the junction at Radmannsdorf of its two head-streams the Wurzener Save and the Wocheiner Save.
He kept in touch, however, with foreign politics, and having refused to join the ministry of George Canning in 1827, became a member of the cabinet of the duke of Wellington as 'chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in January 1828.
In 1625 the whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Brandenburg claimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571..
At the peace of Westphalia they claimed the duchy, in opposition to the elector of Brandenburg, and the result was that the latter was obliged to content himself with eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern), and to see the western part (Vorpommern) awarded to Sweden.
Then Sweden assigned her German possessions to Denmark in exchange for Norway, whereupon Prussia, partly by purchase and partly by the cession 4 r of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole of Pomerania under her rule.
During the 13th and 14th centuries the castle and lordship changed hands very frequently; they were granted successively to Hubert de Burgh, whose son forfeited them after the battle of Evesham, to Richard, earl of Cornwall, whose son Edmund died without issue; to Piers Gaveston, and lastly to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and so to the Crown as parcel of the duchy of Lancaster.
The duchy of Aquitaine required a strong ruler, and the union with Anjou was eminently desirable.
One of the most ancient towns in Thuringia, Saalfeld, once the capital of the extinct duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, is still partly surrounded by old walls and bastions, and contains some interesting medieval buildings, among them being a palace,, built in 1679 on the site of the Benedictine abbey of St Peter, which was destroyed during the Peasants' War.
In 1680 it became the capital of a separate duchy, but in 1699 it was united with Saxe-Coburg, passing to Saxe-Meiningen in 1826.
In the Merovingian period it formed a duchy attached to the kingdom of Austrasia, and was governed by the descendants of duke Eticho, one of whom was St Odilia.
But the duchy was re-established after the death of the German king Henry I., and became hereditary in the Hohenstaufen family, and then in the house of Austria, which succeeded in 1273 to the imperial dignity.
When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.
He even allowed the latter to send delegates to confer with those of the duchy at Modena, with the result that a political union was decreed in a state called the Cispadane Republic (16th of October 1796).
The duchy of Berg, along with the eastern part of Cleves and other annexes, now went to Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon (March 1806); and that melodramatic soldier at once began to round off his eastern boundary in a way highly offensive to Prussia.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
The duchy of Warsaw and the fortress of Danzig formed new outworks of his power and enabled him to overawe Russia.
The House of Habsburg now ceded Salzburg and the Inn-Viertel to Napoleon (for his ally, the king of Bavaria); a great portion of the spoils which Austria had torn from Poland in 1795 went to the grand duchy of Warsaw, or Russia; and the cession of her provinces Carinthia, Carniola and Istria to the French empire cut her off from all access to the sea.
The addition of large territories to the grand duchy of Warsaw after the war of 1809 aroused the fears of the tsar respecting the Poles; and he regarded all Napoleon's actions as inspired by hostility to Russia.
Marie Louise was to have the duchy of Parma for herself and her son.
He was transferred to the sinecure office of the Duchy of Lancaster, but held it only till Nov., when, on the appointment of a small war committee of the Cabinet from which he was excluded, he resigned, being unwilling to accept a position of general responsibility for war policy if he had no effective control.
First, however, Charles cleared Livonia of the invader (July 1701), subsequently occupying the duchy of Courland and converting it into a Swedish governor-generalship. In January 1702 Charles established himself at Bielowice in Lithuania, and, after issuing a proclamation declaring that "the elector of Saxony" had forfeited the Polish crown, set out for Warsaw, which he reached on the 14th of May.
The Spaniards invaded the duchy from Lombardy, and although the duke was defeated several times he fought bravely, gained some successes, and the terms of the peace of 1618 left him more or less in the status quo ante.
In 1628 he was in alliance with Spain in the war against France; the French invaded the duchy, which, being abandoned by Spain, was overrun by their armies.
To the west the new duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti, was steadily piecing together the fragments of his father's shattered duchy.
To the north of the valley of the Drave the duchy is occupied by the Hohe Tauern and the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, which belong to the central zone of the Eastern Alps.
The principal river is the Drave, which flows from west to east through the length of the duchy, and receives in its course the waters of all the other streams, except the Fella, which reaches the Adriatic by its junction with the Tagliamento.
The duchy was held by various families during the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, and at length in 1335 was bestowed by Louis the Bavarian on the dukes of Austria.
In 1810 it was divided by Napoleon between the grand duchy of Berg and France, but was, in 1815, restored to the duke of Arenberg as a fief under Prussian sovereignty.
It became a town in 1336; weaving was introduced here towards the end of the 18th century, and having belonged for a long time to the duchy of Juliers it came into the possession of Prussia in 1815.
In 1803, having formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he took the title of Louis I., grandduke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined the allies.
In the 10th century the duchy of Burgundy fell into the hands of Hugh the Great, father of Hugh Capet, on whose death in 956 it passed to his son Otto, and, in 965, to his son Henry.
For two years the duchy was in the hands of the crown, but in 1363, the second ducal house, also Capetian, was founded by Philip the Bold, son of John II., king of France.
On the death of Guy II., last duke of the house of la Roche, in 1308, the duchy passed to his cousin, Walter of Brienne.
He was expelled in 1311 by his Catalonian mercenaries; the mutineers bestowed the duchy " of Athens and Neopatras " on their leader, Roger Deslaur, and, in the following year, on Frederick of Aragon, king of Sicily.
We possess an important law of the Bavarians, whose duchy was situated in the region east of the Lech, and was an outpost of Germany against the Huns, known later as Avars.
He studied law and from 1871 to 1882 held various administrative offices in the Grand Duchy of Baden.
In 1886 he was made under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was president of the Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet (1905) he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he was appointed British ambassador at Washington, and took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in Dublin - a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Mr Birrell.
In reward for his devotion to the court party during the Fronde he obtained many signal favours, and Saint Aignan was raised to a duchy in the peerage of France (duchepairie) in 1663.
The name of Hesse, now used principally for the grand duchy formerly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, refers to a country which has had different boundaries and areas at different times.
By the treaty of Verdun in 843 it fell to Louis the German, and later it seems to have been partly in the duchy of Saxony and partly in that of Franconia.
Hesse-Nassau is a province of Prussia formed in 1866 from part of Hesse-Cassel and part of the duchy of Nassau.
It passed into the hands of the houses of Rieux and Lorraine, and was raised to the rank of a duchy in the peerage of France by Henry III.
Cesare, who renounced his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new king Louis XII., in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino) and a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of Romagna; he married a princess of Navarre.
Returning to Normandy, Charles was partly responsible for some unrest in the duchy, and in April 1356 he was treacherously seized by the French king at Rouen, remaining in captivity until November 1357, when John, after his defeat at Poitiers, was a prisoner in England.
A new cause of trouble arose when the duchy of Burgundy was left without a ruler in November 1361, and was claimed by Charles; but, lacking both allies and money, he was unable to prevent the French king from seizing Burgundy, while he himself returned to Navarre.
Margaret Fell (1614-1702), wife of Thomas Fell (1598-1658), vice-chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and afterwards of George Fox, opened her house, Swarthmore Hall near Ulverston, to these preachers and probably contributed largely to this fund.
His estates were restored to his brother Henry, earl of Lancaster, on the accession of Edward III., and the manor has since then formed part of the duchy of Lancaster.
In 1371 it fell to the duchy of Cleves, and passed with it in 1609 to Brandenburg.
Previously the several districts formally recognized were Latium, the Marittima (or sea-board) and Campagna, the patrimony of Saint Peter, the duchy of Castro, the Orvietano, the Sabina, Umbria, the Perugino, the March of Ancona, Romagna, the Bolognese, the Ferrarese, and the duchies of Benevento and of Pontecorvo.
It was raised to the rank of a duchy in 1528 by Francis I.
During the "Frankish" period the island formed part of the duchy of Naxos, except for the few years (1341-1383) when it was a separate lordship under Marco Sanudo and his daughter.
But Robert only returned to the duchy a month after Henry's coronation.
This country, north of the Main and the first residence of the Franks, then received the name of Francia Orientalis, and became the origin of one of the duchies into which Germany was divided in the Toth century - the duchy of Franconia (Franken).
The population of the duchy in 1900 was 809,918, which is equivalent to 174.8 inhabitants per sq.
The local diet, of which the bishop of Linz is a member ex officio, is composed of 50 members and the duchy sends 22 members to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
It became a town in 1027, and was soon the principal place in the duchy of Swabia.
In 1407 William was succeeded by his nephew Frederick, called the Warlike, who in 1423 received from the emperor Sigismund the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
The mark then became merged in the duchy of Saxony, and at the partition of 1485 fell to the Albertine line.
In 1387, after various political changes, it surrendered to Antonio da Montefeltro of Urbino, and remained under the dominion of the dukes of Urbino until, in 1624, the whole duchy was ceded to the pope.
Bar-le-Duc was at one time the seat of the countship, later duchy, of Bar, the history of which is given below.
In 1419 Louis of Bar, brother of the last-named, a cardinal and bishop of Chalons, gave the duchy of Bar to Rene of Anjou, the grandson of his sister Yolande, who married Isabella, duchess of Lorraine.
The break-up of the duchy of Franconia had increased the influence of the count palatine of the Rhine, and the importance of his position among the princes of the empire is shown by Roger of Hoveden, who, writing of the election to the German throne in 1198, singles out four princes as chief electors, among whom is the count palatine of the Rhine.
Having assumed the title of king of Jerusalem and Sicily, Conradin took possession of the duchy of Swabia in 1262, and remained for some time in his dukedom.
He then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to cast aside the senseless rules of his order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into an hereditary duchy for himself.
After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.
Having married Gertrude, the widow of Henry the Proud, he was invested in 1143 with the duchy of Bavaria, and resigned his office as count palatine.
As compensation for this, Austria, the capital of which had been transferred to Vienna in 1146, was erected into a duchy.
He himself was safe in the independent duchy of Lorraine with Emilie de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet,' with whom he began to be intimate in 1733; he had now taken up his abode with her at the château of Cirey.
Having graduated and begun to give lectures at Jena in 1605, he in 1606 accepted the invitation of John Casimir, duke of Coburg, to the superintendency of Heldburg and mastership of the gymnasium; soon afterwards he became general superintendent of the duchy, in which capacity he was engaged in the practical work of ecclesiastical organization until 1616, when he became theological professor at Jena, where the remainder of his life was spent.
In 1808 Beugnot, who had meanwhile been appointed administrator of the duchy of Berg-Cleves, received the cross of officer of the Legion of Honour with the title of count.
On the death of the last duke of Liegnitz in 1675, the duchy came into the possession of the Empire, which retained it until the Prussian conquest of Silesia in 1742.
Constance profited by his absence by governing the duchy, and in 1194 she had Arthur proclaimed duke of Brittany by an assembly of barons and bishops.
We find the Longobards in Tuscany in 570, and mention is made of one Gudibrandus Dux civitatis Florentinorum, which suggests that Florence was the capital of a duchy (one of the regular divisions of the Longobard empire).
Thus Florence lost her liberty, and came to be the capital of the duchy (afterwards grand-duchy) of Tuscany (see Tuscany).
In Roman Gaul this territory formed part of the diocese of Auch (civitas Ausciorum), which corresponded roughly with the later duchy of Gascony.
In the middle ages Ivrea was the capital of a Lombard duchy, and later of a marquisate; both Berengar II.
In this way the feudal county, or duchy, formed itself, corresponding in most cases only roughly to the old administrative divisions of the state, for within the bounds of the county there had often formed private feudal possessions too powerful to be forced into dependence upon the count, sometimes the vice-comes had followed the count's example, and often, on the other hand, the count had attached to his county like private possessions of his own lying outside its boundaries.
Under the Lombards Chieti formed part of the duchy of Benevento; it was destroyed by Pippin in 801, but was soon rebuilt and became the seat of a count.
In the prosecution of this enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge from Sigismund, who further rewarded him in January 1423 with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; and Frederick's formal investiture followed at Ofen on the 1st of August 1425.
Born in September 1157, he received at the age of eleven the duchy of Aquitaine, and was formally installed in 1172.
Richard was soon pardoned and reinstated in his duchy, where he distinguished himself by crushing a formidable revolt (1175) and exacting homage from the count of Toulouse.
Some of those on the right bank of the river were given to Prussia and to Hesse; others were formed into a grand duchy for Dalberg.
Henry took refuge with Louis of France, but was soon restored to favour and entrusted with the duchy of Lorraine, where, however, he was unable to restore order.
In 944 Lorraine was given to Conrad, surnamed the Red, who in 947 married the king's daughter Liutgard; Franconia was retained by Otto in his own hands; Henry married a daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, and received that duchy in 947; and Swabia came in 949 to the king's son Ludolf, who had married Ida, a daughter of the late duke, Hermann.
From him Louise received the county of Angouleme, which was erected into a duchy, the duchy of Anjou, and the counties of Maine and Beaufort.
In 1817 it was given, with the duchy of Leuchtenberg, as a mediatized domain under the Bavarian crown, by the king of Bavaria to his son-in-law Eugene de Beauharnais, ex-viceroy of Italy, henceforth styled duke of Leuchtenberg.
The duchy of Coburg is bounded on the S.E., S., and S.W.
Lying on the south slope of the Thuringian Forest, and in the Franconian plain, the duchy of Coburg is an undulating and fertile district, reaching its highest point in the Senichshohe (1716 ft.) near Mirsdorf.
Coburg (pop. 1905, 24,289) and Gotha (36,893) are the chief towns of the duchies, to which they respectively give name; the latter is the capital of the united duchy.
Of these 71,512 were in Coburg and 170,920 in Gotha; the relative density in either duchy being about equal.
For its own immediate affairs each duchy has a separate diet, but in more important and general matters a common diet, formed of the members of the separate diets and meeting at Coburg and Gotha alternately, exercises authority.
The ministry has special departments for each duchy, but is under a common president.
The united duchy is represented in the imperial Bundesrat by one member and in the Reichstag by two members, one for each duchy.
By treaty with Prussia in 1867 the troops of the duchy are incorporated with the Prussian army.
The budget is voted in either duchy for four years, a distinction being made between domain revenue and state revenue.
In 1554 it became a separate duchy, its line of rulers being founded by Duke John Frederick, a son of the dispossessed elector of Saxony, John Frederick, and becoming extinct in 1638.
In 1855 his second son, Prince Alfred, had been declared heir to the duchy, and he succeeded his uncle in 1893.
A part, however, of the eastern slope of the Black Forest belongs to the basin of the Danube, which there takes its rise in a number of mountain streams. Among the numerous lakes which belong to the duchy are the Mummel, Wilder, Eichener and Schluch, but none of them is of any size.
Mannheim is the great emporium for the export of goods down the Rhine and has a large river traffic. It is also the chief manu facturing town of the duchy and the seat of administrative government for the northern portion of the country.
The supreme courts of justice of the duchy are in Karlsruhe, Freiburg, Offenburg, Heidelberg, Mosbach, Waldshut, Constance and Mannheim, whence appeals lie to the Reichsgericht (supreme tribunal of the empire) in Leipzig.
The outcome was of importance far beyond the narrow limits of the duchy; for all Germany watched the constitutional experiments of the southern states.
Louis invested him with the duchy of Valois, and gave him as tutor Marshal de Gie, and, after Gie's disgrace in 1503, the sieur de Boisy, Artus Gouffier.
At first the identity of Styria is lost in the great duchy of Carinthia, corresponding more or less closely to the Upper Carinthian mark.
This duchy, however, afterwards fell to pieces, and a distinct mark of Styria was recognized, taking its name from the margrave Ottacar of Steier (1056).
A century or so later it was created a duchy.
In 1192 the duchy of Styria came by inheritance to the house of Austria, and from that time it shared the fortunes of Upper and Lower Austria, passing like them to the Habsburgs in 1282.
The union of the duchy with the crown in 1477 deprived Dijon of the splendour of the ducal court; but to cbunterbalance this loss it was made the capital of the province and seat of a parlement.
Flensburg is a busy centre of trade and industry, and is the most important town in what was formerly the duchy of Schleswig.
The town was the seat of a Hebrew printing-press founded in 1472, but suppressed in 1597, when the Jews were expelled from the duchy of Milan.
He took part in the war against the Hussites, but became estranged from Sigismund when in 1423 the king invested Frederick of Wettin, margrave of Meissen, with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
He then retired to his estate in the Posen province, and occupied himself in writing pamphlets, memoirs, &c. When his estates passed into the grand duchy of Warsaw, he chose to remain a Prussian subject, and on the outbreak of the war of liberation he asked in vain for a post on the Prussian staff.
The union between the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania was brought about on Feb.
At the end of the 6th century the exarchate included Istria; the maritime part of Venetia as distinct from the interior which was in the hands of the Lombard kings at Pavia; the exarchate proper, or territory around Ravenna on the eastern side of the Apennines, to which was added Calabria, which at that period meant the heel and not the toe of the boot; the Pentapolis, or coast from Rimini to Ancona with the interior as far as the mountains; the duchy of Rome, or belt of territory connecting the Pentapolis with the western coast, the coast of Naples, w i th Bruttium the toe of the boot, the modern Calabria, and Liguria, or the Riviera of Genoa.
About 740 it consisted of Istria, Venetia (the maritime portion of which was ceasing to be a province and was becoming a protected state, the forerunner of the future republic of Venice), Ferrara, Ravenna (the exarchate in the limited sense), Pentapolis, Perusia, Rome, the coast of Naples and Calabria (in the sense of the toe and not the heel of the boot) which was being overrun by the Lombards of the duchy of Beneventum, which with Spoletum held the interior.
Early in the next year he was made Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, but when the first Coalition Ministry was formed he returned to his former post at the Treasury.
Wolfenbuttel, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Brunswick, situated on both banks of the Oker, 7 m.
He neglected .to make good the claims which he might have enforced to the duchy of Milan on the death of Filippo Maria, the last Visconti (1447).
Emmanuel could not take possession of the duchy at once, but continued to serve the emperor as governor-general of the Low Countries.
The Spaniards invaded the duchy, but after several years of hard fighting the peace of 1618 left his territory almost intact.
In 1210 it was joined to the Latin duchy of the Morea, and subsequently was contended for by various Italian pretenders.
Before the truce expired a disputed succession to the duchy of Brittany gave Edward an excuse for renewing hostilities with France.
This category contains places located in the Kingdom of WÃ¼rttemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Prussian province of Hohenzollern, and the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
The Danish army at once dispersed and the duchy of Bremen was recovered by the Swedes, who in the early autumn swarmed over Jutland and firmly established themselves in the duchies.
Another attempt by the Lorraine family to reconquer their duchy was thus foiled, and at the same time a second imperial army under the duke of Saxe-Eisenach, which had crossed the Rhine by Philipsburg, was shut up in an island of the Rhine and forced to make terms with the French.
Laying more stress on his position as duke of Saxony than king of Germany, he conferred great benefits on his duchy.
His reading in Livy taught him to admire the Roman system of employing armies raised from the body of the citizens; and Cesare Borgia's method of gradually substituting the troops of his own duchy for aliens and mercenaries showed him that this plan might be adopted with success by the Italians.
Giuliano was offered and refused the duchy of Urbino.
Later on, Leo designed for him a duchy in Emilia, to be cemented out of Parma, Piacenza, Reggio and Modena.
Supported by the power of the papacy, with the goodwill of Florence to back him, Giuliano would have found himself in a position somewhat better than that of Cesare Borgia; and Borgia's creation of the duchy of Romagna might have served as his model.
The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.
Arichis submitted without a struggle, though the basis of Frankish authority in his duchy was far from secure; but in conjunction with Adalgis he sought aid from Constantinople.
His father, John of Gaunt, had died in the interval, and the king, troubled with a rebellion in Ireland, and sorely in want of money, had seized the duchy of Lancaster as forfeited property.
Then he passed into the royal service, and being employed in the administration of Normandy was eventually made chancellor of the duchy.
Avallon (Aballo) was in the middle ages the seat of a viscounty dependent on the duchy of Burgundy, and on the death of Charles the Bold passed under the royal authority.
Through the marriage of Sigismund's daughter, Elizabeth, with the German king, Albert II., Luxemburg, which had been made a duchy in 1354, passed to the house of Habsburg, but was seized in 1443 by Philip III.
Regained by the Habsburgs in 1477 when Mary, daughter and heiress of duke Charles the Bold, married the German king Maximilian the duchy passed to Philip II.
The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it, and assigned it to William king of the Netherlands, in return for the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had confistated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king of Prussia.
The hills in the south of the duchy are a continuation of the Lorraine plateau, and the northern districts are crossed in all directions by outrunners from the Ardennes.
The Sure or Sauer, the most important stream in the duchy, rises at Vaux-les-Rosieres in Belgian Luxemburg, crosses the duchy, and forms the eastern boundary from the confluence of the Our till it joins the Moselle after a course of 50 m., during which it receives the Wiltz, Attert, Alzette, White and Black Ernz, &c. The soil of Luxemburg is generally good; the southern districts are on the whole the most fertile as well as the most populous.
Building materials of all sorts are obtained throughout the duchy.
By her marriage with Claude of Lorraine, duke of Chevreuse, Marie de Rohan, the widow of the first duke of Luynes, acquired in 1655 the duchy of Chevreuse, which she gave in 1663 to Louis Charles d'Albert, her son by her first husband; and from that time the title of duke of Chevreuse and duke of Luynes was borne by the eldest sons of the family of Luynes, which also inherited the title of duke of Chaulnes on the extinction of the descendants of Honore d'Albert in 1698.
In 1581 it was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duche-pairie) for Albert de Gondi, marshal of France and general of the galleys.
William the Aetheling having perished in the wreck of the "White Ship" (25th of November 1120), Fulk, on his return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land (1120-1121), married his second daughter Sibyl, at the instigation of Louis VI., to William Clito, son of Robert Courteheuse, and a claimant to the duchy of Normandy, giving her Maine for a dowry (11 22 or 1123).
Finally, in 114 9, after crushing a last attempt at revolt, he handed over the duchy to his son Henry "Curtmantel," who received the investiture at the hands of the king of France.
On his death (29th of April 1417) she took upon herself the guardianship of their young son Louis III., and in her capacity of regent defended the duchy against the English.
The duchy of Anjou then passed to his cousin Rene, second son of Louis II.
After making an inventory of all his possessions, he left the duchy in October 1471, taking with him the most valuable of his treasures.
On hearing this, King Louis XI., who was the son of one of King Rene's sisters, seeing that his expectations were thus completely frustrated, seized the duchy of Anjou.
On her death, in September 1531, the duchy returned into the king's possession.
From the point of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the senechaussees of Angers, Saumur, Beauge, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; there were besides presidial courts at Château-Gontier and La Fleche.
In 1844 he was appointed vice-chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, a well-paid post which enabled him to enjoy his popularity in London society.
It had previously narrowly escaped absorption by Napoleon, who passed through the town during the pursuit of the Prussians after the battle of Jena in 1806, and was only dissuaded from abolishing the duchy by the tact and courage of the duchess Louisa.
This treaty, which constituted the kingdom of Westphalia and the duchy of Warsaw, registers the nadir of Prussia's humiliation under Napoleon.
In the war which followed between Charles of Blois and John de Montfort, for the possession of the duchy of Brittany, he served his apprenticeship as a soldier (1341).
In 1373, when the duke of Brittany sought English aid against a threatened invasion by Charles V., Du Guesclin was sent at the head of a powerful army to seize the duchy, which he did; and two years later he frustrated the attempt of the duke with an English army to recover it.
Beuthen is an old town, and was formerly the capital of the Bohemian duchy of Beuthen, which in 1620 was ultimately granted, as a free lordship of the Empire, to Lazarus, Baron Henckel von Donnersmarck, by the emperor Ferdinand II., and parts of which, now mediatized, are held by two branches of the counts Henckel von Donnersmarck.
Nearly the entire course of the Weser lies in Prussia, but it also touches part of Brunswick and Lippe, and after flowing through Bremen expands into an estuary separating the duchy of Oldenburg from the Prussian province of Hanover.
The first was the district in the north-west of Germany, inhabited originally by the Saxons, which became a duchy and attained its greatest size and prosperity under Henry the Lion in the 12th century.
As he refused to give up his duchy he was kept in prison, while Henry confiscated the estates of powerful nobles, demanded the restoration of ducal lands by the bishops, and garrisoned newly-erected forts with Swabians, who provisioned themselves from the surrounding country.
In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.
The title duke of Saxony was given to Bernard, the sixth son of Albert the Bear, together with the small territories of Lauenburg and Wittenberg, which were thus the only portions of the former duchy which now bore the name of Saxony.
As Albert had no sons the duchy was soon divided into two parts, until on the death of duke Eric III., a grandson of John II., in 1401, it was reunited by Eric IV., a grandson of Eric I.
Francis, who did something to improve the administration of his duchy, was succeeded in turn by his two sons and his two grandsons; but on the death of Julius Francis, the younger of his grandsons, in 1689 the family became extinct.
George William, however, took Ratzeburg, and held it against the troops of a third claimant, Christian V., king of Denmark; and in 1702 he bought off the claim of John George, his successor being invested with the duchy in 1728.
This prince succeeded after some fighting in temporarily obtaining the duchy of Luneburg for his house; he took part in the election of Wenceslaus as German king in 1376; and was followed in 1388 by his eldest son Rudolph III.
A new era in the history of Saxony dates from 1423, the year when the emperor Sigismund bestowed the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg upon Frederick, margrave of Meissen.
All the lands torn from John Frederick were not, however, assigned to Maurice; he was forced to acknowledge the superiority of Bohemia over the Vogtland and the Silesian duchy of Sagan.
In 1807 his submission was rewarded with the duchy of Warsaw (to which Cracow and part of Galicia were added in 1809) and the district of Cottbus, though he had to surrender some of his former territory to the new kingdom of Westphalia.
Saxe-Gotha was even more subdivided; and the climax was reached about 1680, when Gotha, Coburg, Meiningen, Romhild, Eisenberg, Hildburghausen and Saalfeld were each the capital of a duchy.
In 1147 he made a formal claim on this duchy, and in 1151 sought to take possession, but failing to obtain the aid of his uncle Welf, did not effect his purpose.
Chateau-Thierry was formerly the capital of the district of Brie Pouilleuse, and received the title of duchy from Charles IX.
The prince of Wales, in addition to the revenues of the duchy of Cornwall, had L40,000 a year, the princess £Io,000, and an addition of L36,000 a year for their children was granted by parliament in 1889.
A conference met in London, and the difficulty was settled by neutralizing the duchy and ordering the evacuation of the Prussian troops who kept garrison there.
About 804 Charlemagne, in order to defend the line of the Saale against the Sla y s, founded the Thuringian mark, which soon became practically coextensive with the former duchy.
In 1805, after the foundation of the French empire, Napoleon bestowed upon her the principality of Piombino and shortly afterwards Lucca; in 1808 her importunities gained for her the grand duchy of Tuscany.
Desiderius gave it to the church with the duchy of Ferrara.
The Belgian Ardennes may be said now to extend from the Meuse above Dinant on the west to the grand duchy of Luxemburg and Rhenish Prussia as far north as the Baraque de Michel on the east, and from a line drawn eastward from Dinant through Marche, Durbuy and Stavelot to the Hautes Fagnes on the north, to the French frontier roughly marked by the Semois valley in the south.
In the grand duchy the forest has almost entirely disappeared, but owing to the compulsory law of replanting in Belgium this fate does not seem likely to attend the Belgian Ardennes.
In 1917 he was appointed officer in charge of the Canadian war records, and in 1918 entered the Government as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in succession to Lord Cawley and director of the Ministry of Information in succession to Sir Edward Carson, but resigned in Oct.
In 1430 died Philip, last duke of Brabant as a separate ruler, and the duchy was merged in the possessions of the duke of Burgundy.
Constituted a duchy in 1452 in favour of Borso d'Este, and enlarged and strengthened by Hercules II., it became the ducal residence on the incorporation of Ferrara with the States of the Church (1598).
Duke Henry had decreed that his lands should be divided between his two sons, but as a partition was regarded as undesirable the whole of the duchy came to his elder son.
He subdued also the Germanic tribes; annexed Frisia, where Christianity was beginning to make progress; put an end to the duchy of Alemannia; intervened in the internal affairs of the dukes of Bavaria; made expeditions into Saxony; and in 738 compelled some of the Saxon tribes to pay him tribute.
There was, for instance, Mendovg (1240-1263), who submitted to baptism for purely political reasons, checkmated the Teutonic Knights by adroitly seeking the protection of the Holy See, and annexed the principality of Plock to his ever-widening grand duchy, which already included Black Russia, and formed a huge wedge extending southwards from Courland, thus separating Poland from Russia.
By this time, however, the prudent Jagiello had become convinced that Lithuania was too strong to be ruled by or from Poland, and yet not strong enough to stand alone, and by the compact of Vilna (January 18, 1401,1401, confirmed by the compact of Radowo, March 10) he surrendered the whole grand duchy to Witowt, on the understanding that the two states should have a common policy, and that neither of them should elect a new prince without the consent of the other.
In the reign of Sigismund was effected the incorporation of the duchy of Masovia with the Polish crown, after an independent existence of five hundred years.
Ketteler, who had adopted Lutheranism during a visit to Germany in 1553, now professed the Augsburg Confession, and became the first duke of a new Protestant duchy, which he was to hold as a fief of the Polish crown, with local autonomy and absolute freedom of worship. The southern provinces of the ancient territory of the Order, Courland and Semgallen, had first been ceded on the 24th of June 1559 to Lithuania on similar conditions, the matter being finally adjusted by the compact of March 1562.
Henceforth the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania were to constitute one inseparable and indivisible body politic, under one1569.
The Russians occupied Warsaw on the 18th of February 1813 and overran the grand duchy, which thus came into their possession by conquest.
In Italy Austria retained her hold on Lombardy and Venetia, Genoa was assigned to the kingdom of Sardinia, while Parma went to Marie Louise, the legitimate heir, Carlo Ludivico, having to be content with the reversion after her death, the congress meanwhile assigning Lucca to him as a duchy; the claims of the young Napoleon to succeed his mother in Parma were only destroyed by the efforts of France and England.
In 1546 he was present at Luther's deathbed at Eisleben, and preached the funeral sermon; but in the same year was banished from the duchy by Maurice, duke (later elector) of Saxony.
The final overthrow of the French supremacy at the battle of Waterloo secured him, however, in the undisturbed possession of his grand duchy during the remainder of his life.
The place belonged to various noble Bohemian families, and in the 17th century came into the hands of Wallenstein, who made it the capital of the duchy of Friedland and did much to improve and extend it.
This category includes German places in the Kingdom of Saxony, in the Prussian province of Saxony, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, in the Duchies of Anhalt, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Meiningen, and in the Principalities of Reuss, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
It was here that a treaty over the succession to the duchy of Jiilich was made in March 1611 between Saxony and Brandenburg, and here in November 1644 the Swedes defeated the Imperialists.
The population of the duchy in 1900 was 193,247, which is equivalent to 69 inhabitants per square mile.
The duchy contains also a great number of mineral springs, as the celebrated springs at Gastein, alkaline springs at Mauterndorf and at St Wolfgang, and saline springs at Golling and Hallein.
The duchy is divided into six departments, of which the capital, Salzburg, is one and its environs the second.
The local diet, of which the archbishop is a member ex-officio, is composed of 28 members, and the duchy sends 7 members to the reichsrat at Vienna.
For the history of the archbishopric and duchy see the article on the town of Salzburg.
It is formed out of the former lordships of Dachstuhl and Oberstein, of part of the ancient countship of Sponheim, and sections of the duchy of Jiilich, which were granted to the grand-duke of Oldenburg by the congress of Vienna in 1815.
Under the Empire, Roederer, whose public influence was very considerable, was Joseph Bonaparte's minister of finance at Naples (1806),(1806), administrator of the grand duchy of Berg (181o), and imperial commissary in the south of France.
On the death of Guiscard in 1085, his younger son Roger, born "in the purple" of a Lombard princess Sicelgaeta, succeeded to the duchy of Apulia and Calabria, and a war arose between Bohemund (whom his father had destined for the throne of Constantinople) and Duke Roger.
An army of io,000 men was immediately sent by Eric to John's duchy of Finland, and John and his consort were seized, brought over to Sweden and detained as prisoners of state in Gripsholm Castle.
The ancient duchy and the Napoleonic kingdom of the same name, neither of which was conterminous with the modern province, are dealt with in the historical part of this article.
Thus the former duchy of Westphalia and the bishoprics of Munster and Paderborn which remained in ecclesiastical hands are almost entirely Roman Catholic, while the secularized bishopric of Minden and the former counties of Ravensberg and Mark, which fell or had fallen to Brandenburg, and the Siegen district, which belonged to Nassau, are predominantly Protestant.
Westphalia, "the western plain" (in early records Westfalahi), was originally the name of the western province of the early duchy of Saxony, including the western portion of the modern province and extending north to the borders of Friesland.
When Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony fell under the ban of the empire in 1 i 80, and his duchy was divided, the bishops of Munster and Paderborn became princes of the empire, and the archbishop of Cologne, Philip of Heinsberg, received from the emperor Frederick I.
Within the duchy were some independent secular territories, notably the county of Mark, while other districts were held as fiefs from the archbishops, afterwards electors.
The duchy received a constitution of its own, and was governed for the elector by a marshal (Landmarschall, after 1480 Landdrost) who was also stadtholder, and presided over the Westphalian chancellery.
By Maximilian's administrative organization of the empire in 1500 the duchy of Westphalia was included as an appanage of Cologne in the scattered circle of the Lower Rhine.
By the settlement of 1803 the church lands were secularized, and Prussia received the bishopric of Paderborn and the eastern part of Munster, while the electoral duchy of Westphalia was given to Hesse-Darmstadt.
The castle from which Chateauroux takes its name was founded about the middle of the 10th century by Raoul, prince of Deols, and during the middle ages was the seat of a seigniory, which was raised to the rank of countship in 1497, and in 1616, when it was held by Henry II., prince of Conde, to that of duchy.
As a reward Richelieu gave him Aiguillon, erected into a duchy.
Gregson's Fragments relative to the Duchy of Lancaster, p. 166 (1817); Liverpool Repository, i.
On the third partition of Poland in 1795 Austria took possession of Cracow; but in 1809 Napoleon wrested it from that power, and incorporated it with the duchy of Warsaw, which was placed under the rule of the king of Saxony.
In the campaign of 1812 the emperor Alexander made himself master of this and the other territory which formed the duchy of Warsaw.
It passed with that duchy to France in 1766.
From 1805 to 1807 he was commander-in-chief of the Swedish forces in Pomerania, where he displayed great ability and retarded the conquest of the duchy as long as it was humanly possible.
He introduced German settlers and customs. into the duchy, founded many towns, and was extremely generous towards ecclesiastical foundations.
Both before and after he became king of Bohemia in succession to his father in September 1253 Ottakar was involved in a dispute with Bela IV., king of Hungary, over the possession of Styria, which duchy had formerly been united with Austria.
After studying at Bologna, he became professor of mathematics at Modena, and in 1831 was appointed inspector-general of studies in the duchy.
From the Mallets it went to the Gournays, but in 1536 it reverted to the crown, and it is now included in the duchy of Cornwall.
It was erected into a duchy and county palatine in 1353, and when the house of Lancaster succeeded to the throne their Lancashire possessions were kept separate.
Salford and Pendleton are still parts of the ancient duchy of Lancaster, belonging to the English crown.
Conrad's son Frederick inherited the duchy of Franconia which his father had received in 1115, and this was retained by the Hohenstaufen until the death of Duke Conrad II.
In 1152 Frederick received the duchy of Swabia from his cousin the German king Frederick I., and on his death in 1167 it passed successively to Frederick's three sons Frederick, Conrad and Philip. The second Hohenstaufen emperor was Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI., after whose death a struggle for the throne took place between Henry's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
From 1377 to 1396 Gorlitz was a separate duchy ruled by John, a son of the emperor Charles IV., and, like Lower Lusatia, Upper Lusatia owned the authority of Matthias Corvinus from 1469 to 1490, both districts passing a little later with the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia to the German king, Ferdinand I.
The name Hanover (Hohenufer = high bank), originally confined to the town which became the capital of the duchy of Luneburg-Calenberg, came gradually into use to designate, first, the duchy itself, and secondly, the electorate of Brunswick-Luneburg; and it was officially recognized as the name of the state when in 1814 the electorate was raised to the rank of a kingdom.
The early history of Hanover is merged in that of the duchy of Brunswick (q.v.), from which the duchy of Brunswick-Liineburg and its offshoots, the duchies of LUneburg-Celle and Luneburg-Calenberg have sprung.
In addition to these four princes Duke William left three other sons, and in 1610 the seven brothers entered into a compact that the duchy should not be divided, and that only one of them should marry and continue the family.
When Christian Louis died George William succeeded him in Luneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus (1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabruck.
In 1689 George William was one of the claimants for the duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, which was left without a ruler in that year; and after a struggle with John George III., elector of Saxony, and other rivals, he was invested with the duchy by the emperor Leopold I.
The result of the congress, however, was not unfavourable to the new kingdom, which received East Friesland, the secularized bishopric of Hildesheim, the city of Goslar, and some smaller additions of territory, in return for the surrender of the greater part of the duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg to Prussia.
Owing to this attitude the German imperial government refused to allow him to take possession of the duchy of Brunswick, which he inherited on the extinction of the elder branch of his family in 1884, and again in 1906 when the same subject came up for settlement on the death of the regent, Prince Albert of Prussia.
After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II., the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
After his death in 1559, Renee returned to France and turned her duchy of Montargis into a centre of Protestant propaganda.
In 1525 More was appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and no pains were spared to attach him to the court.
It came, by succession and marriage, into the possession of the crown under Henry IV., andwasincluded in the duchy of Lancaster.
At the end of 1810 he became French resident at Warsaw and was for a couple of years supreme in the affairs of the grand duchy.
His marriage with the heiress of the old Norman kings had made him master of Sicily and the duchy of Apulia and Calabria, and he succeeded in conquering and retaining almost, all the remainder of the peninsula.
He is said to have rejoiced privately over Swedish victories, and certainly it was unerring instinct which told him that the great European conflict was no longer religious but dynastic. Anti-Spanish to the core, he became the greatest papal militarist since Julius II.; but Tuscany, Modena and Venice checkmated him in his ambitious attempt to conquer the duchy of Parma.
Besides the bulk of the old duchy of Silesia, it comprises the countship of Glatz, a fragment of the Neumark, and part of Upper Lusatia, taken from the kingdom of Saxony in 1815.
The actual duchy is only a very small part, which was left to Austria after the Seven Years' War, from its former province of the same name.
It formed, with Moravia, a single province until 1849, when it was created a separate duchy.
But between 1248 and 1252 Henry alienated Montfort from his cause by taking the side of the Gascons, whom the earl had provoked to rebellion through his rigorous administration of their duchy.
Ill-health compelled his resignation of office in 1871, but next year he returned to the ministry as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.
It was the capital of the little duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, the rulers of which afterwards became electors of Saxony; and it continued to be a Saxon residence under the Ernestine electors.
He took a considerable part in the demonstrations of 1848, and was regarded as the leader of the "Eiderdanen," that is, of the party which regarded the Eider as the boundary of Denmark, and the duchy of Schleswig as an integral part of the kingdom.
The submission of the whole grand duchy would be the natural consequence of such a success, and, Finland once secured, Sprengtporten proposed at the head of his Finns to embark for Sweden, meet the king and his friends near Stockholm, and surprise the capital by a night attack.
Of the various orders founded by the houses of HesseCassel and Hesse-Darmstadt the following are still bestowed in the grand duchy of Hesse.
The collar is composed of three members alternately, the imperial eagle bearing on a red medallion a figure of St George slaying the Dragon, the badge of the grand duchy of Moskow, the cipher of the emperor Paul I.
On the fall of the latter in 1529, he was made chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and the same year speaker of the House of Commons, presiding over the famous assembly styled the Black or Long Parliament of the Reformation, which abolished the papal jurisdiction.
In 1412, on his brother's death, Filippo united the whole duchy under his sole rule, and attempted to carry out his father's policy of aggrandizement, but without success.
His son Galeazzo Maria (1466-1476) left a son, Gian Galeazzo, a minor, whose guardian and uncle Lodovico (il Moro) usurped the duchy (1479-1500).
Thus they won the duchy of Austria with Styria in 1282, Carinthia and Carniola in 1335, Tirol in 1363, and the Vorarlberg in bits from 1375 to 1523, not to speak of minor " rectifications " of frontiers on the northern slope of the Alps.