Weissenfels is a place of considerable antiquity, and from 1656 till 1746 it was the capital of the small duchy of Saxe-Weissenfels, a branch of the electoral house of Saxony, founded by Augustus, second son of the elector John George I.
Of Sweden, and conquered the duchy of Bremen.
In 1619 he received by bequest, ratified in 1620 by royal grant, the duchy of Angouleme.
In 1394 the countship came to the house of Orleans, a member of which, Francis I., became king of France in 1515 and raised it to the rank of duchy in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy.
The duchy afterwards changed hands several times, one of its holders being Charles of Valois, natural son of Charles IX.
From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient duchy of Bouillon.
Otto died at Pfullendorf in 1183, and was succeeded in the duchy by his son, Louis I.
Some of them were baptized; the territory which was afterwards known as the duchy of Normandy was ceded to them; but the story of the marriage of their chief Rollo with a sister of the king, related by the chronicler Dudo of Saint Quentin, is very doubtful.
In 1820 he retired with a pension his estate at Hornau, near Hochst, in Hesse-Darmstadt; but as a member of the first chamber of the states of the grand-duchy he continued to take an active share in the promotion of measures for the welfare of his country.
In 1821 he began his official career as a lawyer in the grand-duchy of Hesse, and in 1832 was elected to the second chamber.
Throughout the revolutionary years he supported his brother's policy, became a member of the Erfurt parliament, and, after the collapse of the national movement, returned to the service of the duchy of Nassau.
In the 18th century concordats are numerous: there are two for Spain, in 1737 and 1753; two for the duchy of Milan, in 1757 and 1784; one for Poland, in 1736; five for Sardinia and Piedmont, in 1727, 1741, 1742, 1750 and 1770; and one for the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1741.
It had to be replaced by new concordats concluded with Wurttemberg in 1857 and the grand-duchy of Baden in 1859; but these conventions, not having been ratified by those countries, never came into force.
Cleve or Kleve), a town of Germany in the kingdom of Prussia, formerly the capital of the duchy of its own name, 46 m.
It then passed to the counts of La Marck and was made a duchy in 1417, being united with the neighbouring duchies of Jiilich and Berg in 1521.
The French held Cleves from 1757 to 1762 and in 1 795 the part of the duchy on the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France; the remaining portion suffered a similar fate in 1805.
This treaty provided that Maximilian's daughter Margaret should marry Charles, the dauphin of France, and have for her dowry Artois and FrancheComte, two of the provinces in dispute, while the claim of Louis on the duchy of Burgundy was tacitly admitted.
At this time Bianca's uncle, Ludovico Sforza, was invested with the duchy of Milan in return for the substantial dowry which his niece brought to the king.
The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops.
The barony of Widnes in1554-1555was declared to be part of the duchy of Lancaster.
It again returned, however, to the Lacys in 1287, was granted in parcels, and like their other lands became merged in the duchy of Lancaster.
1207 it was divided between four Italian adventurers; after forming part of the duchy of Naxos in 1537, it passed under Turkish rule in 1566.
It fell into the power of Alboin in 569 and became the seat of a Lombard duchy; it was still one of the wealthiest cities of Aemilia in the Lombard period.
Antonio and Francesco both having died childless, the duchy passed to Charles of Bourbon (Don Carlos), infante of Spain, who, becoming king of Naples in 1734, surrendered Parma and Piacenza to Austria, but retained the artistic treasures of the Farnese dynasty which he had removed from Parma to Naples.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
M.) formed part of the duchy, but it was transferred in 1847 to Modena in exchange for the communes of Bagnone, Filattiera, &c., which went to constitute the Lunigiana Parmense.
Avranches, an important military station of the Romans, was in the middle ages chief place of a county of the duchy of Normandy.
LAUENBURG, a duchy of Germany, formerly belonging with Holstein to Denmark, but from 1865 to Prussia, and now in cluded in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
About the middle of the 12th century the country was subdued by the duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, who founded a bishopric at Ratzeburg, and after Henry's fall in 1180 it formed part of the smaller duchy of Saxony, which was governed by Duke Bernhard.
Lauenburg, or Saxe-Lauenburg, as it is generally called, became a separate duchy ruled by his son John, and had its own lines of dukes for over 400 years, one of them, Magnus I.
The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
In 1803 the duchy was occupied by the French, and in 1810 it was incorporated with France.
Biog.) to have been "at once admitted to the privy council"; but probably this is a mistake for the ordinary council, of which Morton might well have been made a member when he was appointed master in chancery and chancellor of the duchy of Cornwall.
Having nominally become king in 1799, that prince created the estate of Ile-Jourdain a duchy, under the title of Avaray, in favour of the comte d'Avaray,, whom he termed his "liberator."
Sachsen-Meiningen), a duchy in Thuringia, forming an independent member of the German empire and consisting chiefly of an irregular crescent-shaped territory, which, with an average breadth of 10 m., stretches for over 80 m.
The convex side rests upon the duchy of Coburg and is in part bounded by Bavaria, while the concave side, turned towards the north, contains portions of four other Thuringian states and Prussia between its horns, which are 46 m.
The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
The raising of cattle, pigs and sheep is a fairly important branch of industry throughout the duchy; horses are bred in Kamburg.
The mineral wealth of the duchy is not inconsiderable.
The capital of the duchy is Meiningen; the other principal towns are Salzungen, Hildburghausen, Eisfeld, Sonneberg, Saalfeld, Pdssneck and Kamburg.
By this time the duchy had increased considerably in extent, but petty wars with the other Saxon princes combined with the extravagance of the court and the desolation caused by the Seven Years' War to plunge it into distress and bankruptcy.
With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia.
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
Chief among these states were the duchy of Brabant, the counties of Flanders, Hainault, Holland, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg, and the bishoprics of Utrecht and Liege.
On the death in 1430 of his cousin Philip, duke of Brabant, he took possession of Brabant and Limburg; the duchy of Luxemburg he acquired by purchase, 1 443.
Not long after it had been sacked by Totila Benevento became the seat of a powerful Lombard duchy and continued to be independent until 1053, when the emperor Henry III.
EDUARD SCHONFELD (1828-1891), German astronomer, was born at Hildburghausen, in the duchy of Meiningen, on the 22nd of December 1828.
The Terre d'Auvergne was first an appanage of Count Alphonse of Poitiers (1241-1271), and in 1360 was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duch y -pairie) by King John II.
There are small detached portions in Waldeck, Thuringia, &c.; on the other hand the province enclaves the province of Oberhessen belonging to the grand-duchy of Hesse, and the circle of Wetzlar belonging to the Rhine Province.
Hesse-Nassau was formed in 1867-1868 out of the territories which accrued to Prussia after the war of 1866, namely, the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel and the duchy of Nassau, in addition to the greater part of the territory of Frankfort-on-Main, parts of the grand-duchy of Hesse, the territory of Homburg and the countship of HesseHomburg, together with certain small districts which belonged to Bavaria.
BREISGAU, a district of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden.
In 1801 Austria was forced to cede it to Ercole III., duke of Modena, in compensation for the duchy of which Napoleon had deprived him.