Ducal Sentence Examples
The ducal dignity rarely passed out of a circle of specially old and distinguished families.
The kingly power in Poland, like the ducal power at Venice, had been so narrowed that Poland, though she still kept a king, called herself a republic no less than Venice.
At Z is the treasury of St Mark, which was originally one of the towers belonging to the old ducal palace; E, site of old houses; G, clocktower; H, old palace of procurators; J, old library; M, two columns; N, Ponte della Paglia; 0, Bridge of Sighs; W, Giants' Staircase; X, sacristy of St Mark; Y, Piazzetta.
During the earlier years of the republic the ducal palace was frequently destroyed and rebuilt.
The collegiate church (Stiftskirche) dates from about 1340, and contains a number of fine ducal monuments.Advertisement
Curiously enough the cottage, a stone building, built by the same duke for Jean Jacques Rousseau, still stands in the park, while the ducal residence was burnt down by the sans-culottes.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
The government is carried on by a ministry of five, with departments for the ducal house and foreign affairs, home affairs, justice, education and public worship and finance.
The nobility and clergy were on the side of the ducal authority; its opponents were the municipalities, especially those of Flanders.
He there received the imperial crown, and summoned the Italian princes for a settlement of all disputed claims. Francesco Sforza, the last and childless heir of the ducal house, was left in Milan till his death, which happened in 1535.Advertisement
Not only the Gonzagas, but several other ancient ducal families, died out about the date which we have reached.
The eldest of the cadet branches of the ducal house has its origin in William (c. 1510-1573), eldest son of the victor of Flodden by his second marriage.
The ducal castle is now occupied by the chief court of the Palatinate.
This church was burned in 976 along with the ducal palace in the insurrection against the Doge Candiano IV.
Taken as a whole, after the ducal palace this is the noblest effect of all in Venice."Advertisement
We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499).
By the side of the sea in the piazzetta, on to which the west facade of the ducal palace faces, stand two ancient columns of Egyptian granite, one red and the other grey.
They contain the voluminous and invaluable records of the Venetian republic, diplomatic, judicial, commercial, notarial, &c. Under the republic the various departments of state stored their records in various buildings, at the ducal palace, at the Scuola di San Teodoro, at the Camerlenghi.
Contemporaneously with the restoration of the southern facade of St Mark's, the restoration of the colonnade of the ducal palace towards the Piazzetta and the Mole was undertaken at a cost of £23,000.
For the same reason the Biblioteca Marciana with its 350,000 volumes was moved to the Old Mint, opposite the ducal palace.Advertisement
Further, two ducal councillors were appointed to assist the doge, and he was compelled, not merely permitted, to seek the advice of the more prominent citizens at moments of crisis.
Moreover, still further tq limit the power of the doge, the number of ducal councillors was raised from two to six.
In 1198, on the election of Enrico Dandolo, the aristocracy carried their policy one step farther, and by the promissione ducale, or coronation oath, which every doge was required to swear, they acquired a powerful weapon for the suppression of all that remained of ancient ducal authority.
For two years the duchy was in the hands of the crown, but in 1363, the second ducal house, also Capetian, was founded by Philip the Bold, son of John II., king of France.
He was at first pantler, then carver, titles which are misleading as to the nature of his services, which were those of a diplomatist; and in 1457 he became a member of the ducal council.Advertisement
The ducal palace, standing in extensive grounds, contains a collection of historical curiosities and a gallery of pictures, which includes works by Cimabue, Lippi,Rubens,Titian and Van Dyck.
In the environs are the ducal villas of Georgium and Luisium, the gardens of which, as well as those of the neighbouring town of Worlitz, are much admired.
In that year the first plot against the Viscontian rule, hatched by the twelve and the Salimbeni and fomented by the Florentines, was violently repressed, and caused the twelve to be again driven from office; but in the following year a special balia, created in consequence of that riot, annulled the ducal suzerainty and restored the liberties of Siena.
At the coronation (19th May) he was made grand-chamberlain, a count of the empire, on which occasion he is said to have adopted the arms of the French ducal house of Biron, and was presented with an estate at Wenden with 50,000 crowns a year.
Its ancient castle is picturesquely situated on a lofty porphyry rock, and is memorable as the place from which, in 1455, Kunz von Kaufungen carried off the young princes Albert and Ernest, the founders of the present royal and ducal families of Saxony.
It is first recorded as a town in 127 4, and in the 1 4 th century was the seat of the princes of Grubenhagen, a branch of the ducal house of Brunswick.
The union of the duchy with the crown in 1477 deprived Dijon of the splendour of the ducal court; but to cbunterbalance this loss it was made the capital of the province and seat of a parlement.
Lessing was ducal librarian here, and the old library building, designed in 1723 in imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, contains a marble statue of him.
The ducal burial-vault is in the church of St Mary.
The town passed wholly into the possession of the Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel family in 1671, and for nearly one hundred years enjoyed the distinction of being the ducal capital.
In 1754, however, Duke Charles transferred the ducal residence to Brunswick.
It joined the Hanseatic League, and was later the residence of the branch of the ducal house, which received the title of elector of Hanover and ascended the British throne in the person of George I.
Finally, in the cemetery is the grand ducal family vault, in which Goethe and Schiller also lie, side by side.
Among the other prominent buildings in Weimar are the Griines Schloss (18th century), containing a library of 200,000 volumes and a valuable collection of portraits, busts and literary and other curiosities; the old ducal dower-house (Wittumspalais); the museum, built in1863-1868in the Renaissance style with some old masters and Preller's famous mural paintings illustrating the Odyssey.
As he refused to give up his duchy he was kept in prison, while Henry confiscated the estates of powerful nobles, demanded the restoration of ducal lands by the bishops, and garrisoned newly-erected forts with Swabians, who provisioned themselves from the surrounding country.
When the insurgents under Duke Otto were joined by the Thuringians, Henry was compelled in 1074 to release Magnus and to make a number of concessions as the price of the peace of Gerstungen; which, however, was short-lived, as the peasants employed in pursuance of its terms in demolishing the forts, desecrated the churches and violated the ducal tombs.
Both retained the ducal title and claimed the electoral privilege, a claim which the Lauenburg line refused to abandon when it was awarded to the Wittenberg line by the Golden Bull of 1356.
The castle, formerly the ducal residence, is in the Bergstadt, defended by moats, and surrounded by beautiful gardens.
Prince Frederick removed the ducal residence to Ballenstedt in 1765.
Tommaso greatly encouraged commerce, reconstructed the ducal palace and commenced the library.
The old ducal palace, begun by Duke Francis I.
Many of the best pictures in the ducal collection were sold in the 18th century and found their way to Dresden.
Constituted a duchy in 1452 in favour of Borso d'Este, and enlarged and strengthened by Hercules II., it became the ducal residence on the incorporation of Ferrara with the States of the Church (1598).
The ducal palace, known as the Ehrenburg, is a magnificent building, originally erected on the site of a convent of bare-footed friars by Duke John Ernest in 1549, renovated in 1698, and restored in 1816 by Duke Ernest I.
The Zeughaus (armoury) contains the ducal library of 100,000 volumes, and among other public buildings may be mentioned the Augustenstift, formerly the seat of the ministerial offices, and the Marstall (royal mews).
It is dominated by the ducal palace erected by Luciano da Laurana, a Dalmatian architect, in 1460-82, for Federigo Montefeltro, and regarded by the contemporaries of the founder as the ideal of a princely residence.
The picture of the "Last Supper" by Justus is specially valuable from its containing fine portraits of the Montefeltro family and members of the ducal court.
The cathedral, a building of no special interest, stands in the great piazza close to the ducal palace.
The French court gave her frequent presents, and in December 1673 conferred upon her the ducal fief of Aubigny at the request of Charles II.
The badge is a red enamelled cross with gold borders and double C's interlaced in the angles; in the centre a white medallion with red monogram over a green mound surmounted by the word Fidelitas in black; the cross is suspended from a ducal crown.
The badge is a blue enamelled cross dependent from a lion surmounted by the ducal crown; the angles of the cross are filled by crowned W's and the centre bears the arms of Brunswick, a crowned pillar and a white horse, between two sickles.
On the 28th of May 1572 a demand from both houses of parliament for her execution as well as Norfolk's was generously rejected by Elizabeth; but after the punishment of the traitorous pretender to her hand, on whom she had lavished many eloquent letters of affectionate protestation, !she fell into "a passion of sickness" which convinced her honest keeper of her genuine grief for the ducal caitiff.
There is also another ducal residence, a fine park and a monument of the grand duke, Frederick Francis I.
From him descend the ducal house, who bear the ancient arms of France and England, quarterly, within a bordure.
The "fox who would rob his host's hen-roost," as the old king called Louis, repaid his protector by attempting to sow discord in the ducal family of Burgundy, and then retired to the castle of Genappe in Brabant.
Pippin and his son Charles Martel, who was mayor of the palace from 717 to 741, renewed the struggle with the Germans and were soon successful in re-establishing the central power which the Merovingian kings had allowed to slip from their grasp. The ducal office was abolished in Thuringia, a series of wars reduced the Alamanni to strict dependence, and both countries were governed by Frankish officials.
In 1026, when Duke Henry of Bavaria died, he obtained the duchy for his son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry III.; later, despite the opposition of the nobles, he invested the same prince with Swabia, where the ducal family had died out.
Ducal Saxony was thus completely won for the reformed faith, and under the politic elector Joachim I.
But these divergences of opinion were not only between Roman Catholic and Lutheran or between Lutheran and Calvinist, they were, in electoral and ducal Saxony at least, between.
The grand-duchies, which, though divided between two lines of the ducal The Meckhouse, had a common constitution, were the only lenburg state in Germany in which the parliament still took the constituform of a meeting of the estatesthe nobility and the lion.
The last abbess, Augusta Dorothea of Brunswick, was a princess of the ducal house, and kept her rank till her death.
In 1288 he suppressed a rising of the people of Vienna, and he made the fullest use of the ducal power in asserting his real or supposed rights.
He began at once to enforce order in the Hauteville possessions, where the ducal power had long been falling to pieces.
The principal buildings are a ducal palace, erected 1685-1695, now used as barracks, with a park in which there is a monument to Queen Louisa of Prussia, the old town hall, two Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church and a theatre.
To gain the support of the estates of Gelderland in this war of succession, Arnold had been compelled to make many concessions limiting the ducal prerogatives, and granting large powers to a council consisting of representatives of the nobles and the four chief cities, and his extravagance and exactions led to continual conflicts, in which the prince was compelled to yield to the demands of his subjects.
In definite history, however, it is known only as a Bavarian town, and from 1353 to 1425 it was the seat of the ducal line of Bavaria-Straubing.
In 1529, however, a treaty was made which freed Pomerania from the supremacy of Brandenburg on condition that if the ducal family became extinct the duchy should revert to Brandenburg.
A preacher named Matthias Flacius held an influential position in ducal Saxony, and taught a form of Lutheranism different from that taught in electoral Saxony.
News came on the 11th that, instigated by the king of France, the people of Liege had massacred their bishop and the ducal governor.
It was the capital of a separate county which in 1227 was united to the duchy of Burgundy; it then became the first seat of the Burgundian parlement or jours generaux and a ducal residence.
Besides the sovereign dukes in Germany there are certain "mediatized" ducal houses, e.g.
Some great Italian nobles are dukes, notably the heads of the great Roman ducal families, but not all Italian dukes are great nobles.
The government is carried on by a ministry of three, holding the portfolios of finance; of home and foreign affairs; and of religion, education and justice, with which is combined the ducal household.
He graduated at the military school at Carlsruhe, and became an officer in the grand ducal service.
Even when in the second half of the 15th century the Medici in Florence attained to power, the form at least of a republic was still maintained, and not till 1J31 did one of them, supported by Charles V., assume the ducal title.
Wide tracts of waste land were planted with pinewoods by the ducal house of Medina Sidonia.
The square is crossed by the Rhein-strasse, the most important thoroughfare in the city, leading directly from the railway station to the ducal palace.
In the vicinity is the Rosenhdhe, with the mausoleum of the ducal house, with the tomb of the grand-duchess Alice, daughter of Queen.
The town hall (1619), and the ducal castle, built by Duke Eric II.
There must also be mentioned the university church, the new university buildings, which occupy the site of the ducal palace (Schloss) where Goethe wrote his Hermann and Dorothea, the Schwarzer Box Hotel, where Luther spent the night after his flight from the Wartburg, and four towers and a gateway which now alone mark the position of the ancient walls.
A ducal commission, appointed to find a means for ending the interminable strife between the rival academic parties, entrusted Eck with the preparation of fresh commentaries on Aristotle and Petrus Hispanus.
This was the beginning of a ducal dynasty of French origin, which lasted till the end of the 15th century.
From that moment the ducal power gained strength in Brittany and succeeded in curbing the feudal nobles.
The most interesting building in Celle is the former ducal palace, begun in 1485 in Late Gothic style, but with extensive Renaissance additions of the close of the 17th century.
Founded in 1292, the town was the residence of the dukes of Luneburg-Celle, a cadet branch of the ducal house of Brunswick, from the 14th century until 1705.
In 1656 he was made judge in the ducal court at Jena, and took the leading part in the numerous beneficent reforms of the duke.
Among the secular buildings are the old ducal palace, begun in 1578 by Ammanati, and now the residence of the prefect and seat of the provincial officers and the public picture gallery; the early Renaissance Palazzo Pretorio, or former residence of the podesta, now the seat of the civil and correctional courts; the palace, erected in the 15th century by a member of the Guinigi family, of brick, in the Italian Gothic style, and now serving as a poor-house; the 16th-century palace of the marquis Guidiccioni, now used as a depository for the archives, the earliest documents going back to A.D.
In East Jersey, after the return of Governor Carteret, there was a period of quiet, until the death of Sir George Carteret in 1680 gave the zealous Andros another chance to further the supposed interests of his ducal master.
The principal buildings are the Marienkirche, a Gothic building of the 13th century, the Johanniskirche, the town-hall and the grand ducal palace.
The first bishop was St Burkhard, and his successors soon acquired much temporal power; about the 12th century they had ducal authority in Eastern Franconia.
It contains the ducal cabinet of coins and the ducal library of nearly 200,000 volumes, among which are several rare editions and about 6900 manuscripts.
The principal other public buildings are the church of St Margaret with a beautiful portal and a lofty tower, founded in the 12th century, twice burnt down, and rebuilt in its present form in 1652; the church of the Augustinian convent, with an altar-piece by the painter Simon Jacobs; the theatre; the fire insurance bank and the life insurance bank; the ducal palace, in the Italian villa style, with a winter garden and picture gallery; the buildings of the ducal legislature; the hospital; the old town-hall, dating from the i ith century; the old residence of the painter Lucas Cranach, now used as a girls' school; the ducal stable; and the Friedrichsthal palace, now used as public offices.
The village of Tegernsee (pop. 1742 in 1905), on the east bank, has a parish church dating from the 15th century, a ducal castle which was formerly a Benedictine monastery, and a hospital, founded in connexion with the large ophthalmic practice of the late Duke Charles Theodore of Bavaria.
On the advice of a member of Gung'l's band who had taken up his residence in Edinburgh, Mackenzie was sent for his musical education to Sondershausen, where he entered the conservatorium under Ulrich and Stein, remaining there from 1857 to 1861, when he entered the ducal orchestra as a violinist.
The chief building is the Elisabethenburg, or the old ducal palace, containing several collections; it was built mainly about 1680, although part of it is much.
The English garden, a beautiful public park, contains the ducal mortuary chapel and several monuments, including busts of Brahms and Jean Paul Richter.
The old ducal palace - one of the largest buildings of its kind in Europe - was begun in 1302 for Guido Bonaccolsi, and probably completed in 1328 for Ludovico Gonzaga; but many of the accessory apartments are of much later date, and the internal decorations are for the most part the work of Giulio Romano and his pupils.
The interests of the town were watched at the ducal palace by a nuncio and a solicitor; and this constitution remained in force till the fall of the republic.
From the East the fashion was carried back to France; but there the erection of certain fiefs into " principalities," which became common in the 15th and 16th centuries, certainly implied no concession of independent sovereignty, and the title of " prince " thus bestowed ranked below that of " duke," being sometimes borne by cadet branches of ducal houses, e.g.
In 1541 John Frederick forced Nicholas Amsdorf into the see of Naumburg in spite of the chapter, who had elected a Roman Catholic, Julius von Pflug; and about the same time he seized Wurzen, the property of the bishop of Meissen, whose see was under the joint protection of electoral and ducal Saxony.
Hastening from southern Germany the elector drove Maurice from the land, took his ally, Albert Alcibiades, prince of Bayreuth, prisoner at Rochlitz, and overran ducal Saxony.
The war did not entirely cease, but became local and spasmodic. In Brittany the factions which supported the two claimants to the ducal title were so embittered that they never laid down their arms. In 1351 the French noblesse of Picardy, apparently without their masters knowledge or consent, made an attempt to surprise Calais, which was beaten off with some difficulty by King Edward in person.
The Poles of Hull, whose descendants rose in three generations to ducal rank, were the earliest specimens of their class.
The ducal residence is a handsome edifice in a pseudo-classical style, with a library of 75,000 volumes, and collections of coins and antiquities.
Among the educational establishments are the ducal gymnasium, which possesses a library of 15,000 volumes, a modern and a commercial school.
He created and enforced a strong ducal power which, however, was met by many baronial revolts, one being in 1078, when he demanded from the Apulian vassals an " aid " on the betrothal of his daughter.
Besides the old ducal palace, laid in ruins by the French in 1794, but restored in 1846, the secular buildings comprise the government offices, the postoffice in Italian style, the town hall on the market square, the law courts, the municipal music hall, the municipal theatre, the assembly hall of the Rhenish provincial diet, an Italian Renaissance edifice erected in 1879, the academy of art (1881; in pure Renaissance), the industrial art museum (1896), the historical museum, and the industrial art school.
The Furstenhof, at one time a ducal residence, but now occupied by the municipal authorities, is a richly decorated specimen of the Italian early Renaissance style.
When Saxony was divided in 1485 Leipzig fell to the Albertine, or ducal branch of the family, whose head Duke George gave new rights to the burghers.
It was well fortified and built, and from this period date the ducal palace (now the Municipio), the theatre designed by Scomozzi, &c. The church and the summer palace contain frescoes by the Campi of Cremona.
He embroiled himself successively with Sigismund of Austria, to whom he refused to restore his possessions in Alsace for the stipulated sum; with the Swiss, who supported the free towns of Alsace in their revolt against the tyranny of the ducal governor, Peter von Hagenbach (who was condemned and executed by the rebels in May 1474); and finally, with Rene of Lorraine, with whom he disputed the succession of Lorraine, the possession of which had united the two principal portions of Charles's territories - Flanders and the duchy and county of Burgundy.
In 1442 he obtained some small additions to his territory, and the right of succession to the duchy of Mecklenburg in case the ducal family should die out.
He did not largely increase the area of Brandenburg, but in 1524 he acquired the county of Ruppin, and in 1529 he made a treaty at Grimnitz with George and Barnim XI., dukes of Pomerania, by which he surrendered the vexatious claim to suzerainty in return for a fresh promise of the succession in case the ducal family should become extinct.
In 1537 he had concluded a treaty with Frederick III., duke of Liegnitz, which guaranteed to the Hohenzollerns the succession to the Silesian duchies of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau in the event of the ducal family becoming extinct; this arrangement is important as the basis of the claim made by Frederick the Great on Silesia in 1740.
Subsequently a quarrel over the possession of the ducal estates between the duke and the Landtag broke the peace of the duchy, but this was settled in 1872.
It contains an Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, a gymnasium, a school for non-commissioned officers, which occupies the former ducal palace, and a museum of local antiquities.
Its church contains a genealogical tree of the Mecklenburg ducal family, with portraits, dating from 1627 or earlier.
Mannheim is the seat of the central board for the navigation of the Rhine, of a high court of justice, and of the grand ducal commissioner for north Baden.
The most conspicuous building is the old ducal castle of Hohentubingen, built in1507-1535on a hill overlooking the town, and now containing the university library of 460,000 volumes, the observatory, the chemical laboratory, &c. Among the other chief buildings are the quaint old Stiftskirche (1469-1483), a Gothic building containing the tombs of the rulers of Wurttemberg, the new aula and numerous institutes of the university, all of which are modern, and the town-hall dating from 1435 and restored in 1872.
At the ducal printing office at Zweibriicken the fine edition of the classics known as the Bipontine Editions was published (1 799 sqq.).
The same architect was responsible for the lofty "Bridge of Sighs" (1595-1605), connecting the ducal palace with the state prisons (1591-97) on the opposite side of the narrow canal on the east of the Rio del Palazzo.
The ducal palace, like St Mark's, is a symbol and an epitome of the race which evolved it.
In 1032 Robert, the second son of Robert the Pious, king of the Franks, and grandson of Hugh Capet, founded the first ducal house, which ruled until 1361.
Among his other works may be mentioned the Manuel d'iconographic chretienne grecque et latine (1845), the Iconographie des chapiteaux du palais ducal de Venise (1857), and the Manuel des objets de bronze et d'orfevrerie (1859).
From 1293 onward Philip and his sons had been striving to make an end of the power of the Plantagenets in Aquitaine, sometimes by the simple argument of war, more frequently by the insidious process of encroaching on ducal rights, summoning litigants to Paris, and encouraging local magnates and cities alike to play off their allegiance to their suzerain against that to their immediate lord.
There are a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a pilgrimage chapel, dating from 1100, a ducal chateau, built by a son of the elector John George about the end of the 16th century (now utilized as government offices), classical, technical and commercial schools and a hospital.
The history of Pomerania, as distinct from that of Pomerellen, consists mainly of an almost endless succession of divisions of territory among the different lines of the ducal house, and of numerous expansions and contractions of territory through constant hostilities with the elector of Brandenburg, who claimed to be the immediate feudal superior of Pomerania, and with other neighbouring rulers.
In some cases, however, as for example in the ducal palace itself, if the clay appeared sufficiently firm, the piles were dispensed with and the foundations went up directly from the oak platform which rested immediately on the clay.
Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others, were called in to help in evolving this masterpiece of decorated architecture, affording us an example of the way in which the ducal palace and other monuments of Venice grew out of the collaboration of numerous nameless artists.