The southern outfall works of the London main drainage system are at Crossness in the neighbouring lowland called Plumstead Marshes.
The greater part of the state belongs to the western extension of the Brazilian plateau, across which, between the 14th and 16th parallels, runs the water-shed which separates the drainage basins of the Amazon and La Plata.
The drainage of Manitoba is entirely northeastward to Hudson Bay.
annually, but the drainage from the eastern slopes of the Andes is large enough to meet the loss from evaporation and keep these inland lakes from drying up. At an early period this depressed area drained southward to the Colorado, and the bed of the old outlet can still be traced.
The rivers belonging to this inland drainage system are the Vermejo, San Juan and Desaguadero, with their affluents, and their southward flow can be traced from about 28° S.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
The Bebedero, in San Luis, and Porongos, in Cordoba, and others, are shallow, saline lakes which receive the drainage of a considerable area and have no outlet.
Among its many small tributaries are the Catuche, Caroata and Anauco, which flow down through the city from the north and give it a natural surface drainage.
The unhealthiness of the city is chiefly due to want of proper drainage, impure drinkingwater, miasma from the disturbed rubbish heaps, and contaminated dust from the uncleansed roads and streets.
North of the Murchison, Mount Augustus and Mount Bruce, with their connecting highlands, cut off the coastal drainage from the interior; but no point on the north-west coast reaches a greater altitude than 4000 feet.
The so-called rivers have a strong flow only after heavy rains, and some of them do not ever reach the main drainage line.
broad, believed to encircle a large portion of the inland country, with drainage at one end by a marsh into Spencer Gulf.
Although not the most extensive of the great oceans, the Atlantic has by far the largest drainage area.
Below the confluence the Kabul becomes a rapid stream with a great volume of water and gradually absorbs the whole drainage of the Hindu Kush.
It collects nearly all the drainage of the Udaipur plateau with that of the eastern slopes and hill-tracts of the Aravallis, and joins the Chambal a little beyond the northeastern extremity of the Bundi state, after a course of about 300 m.
The unproductive area comprises 16% of the total area (this includes 4% occupied by lagoons or marshes, and I75% of the total area susceptible of bonificazione or improvement by drainage.
The results areaa lack of water-supply and of water-power, the streams becoming mere torrents for a short period and perfectly dry for the rest of the year; lack of a sufficient supply of timber; the denudation of the soil on the hills, and, where the valleys below have insufficient drainage, the formation of swamps.
The drainage of marshes and marshy lands has considerably extended.
proper drainage and improvement of the (generally fertile) low-lying and hitherto malarious plains.
Drought and consequent defoliation result in the same, and these considerations help us to understand how old-established trees in parks, &c., apparently in good general health, become stag-headed by the necrosis of their upper twigs and smaller branches: the roots have here penetrated into subsoil or other unsuitable medium, or some drainage scheme has deprived them of water, &c., and a dry summer just turns the scale.
Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.
Thus, for example, in a mountain range at right angles to a prevailing sea-wind, it is the land forms which determine that one side of the range shall be richly watered and deeply dissected by a complete system of valleys, while the other side is dry, indefinite in its valley systems, and sends none of its scanty drainage to the sea.
In the case of a large hollow in a very dry climate the rate of g evaporation may be sufficient to prevent the water from ever rising to the lip, so that there is no outflow to the sea, and a basin of internal drainage is the result.
These basins of internal drainage are calculated to amount to 22% of the land surface.
Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
Murray, " Drainage Areas of the Continents," Scot.
Hanoi resembles a European city in the possession of wide well-paved streets and promenades, systems of electric light and drainage and a good water-supply.
The river was also canalized, a telephone service introduced, and extensive drainage works carried out.
The general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the state is chiefly through the above-named rivers - the principal tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhao.
A considerable part of southern Goyaz, however, slopes southward and the drainage is through numerous small streams flowing into the Paranahyba, a large tributary of the Parana.
The water supply and drainage systems were introduced by the United States government, which controls the sanitation of the city, but has no other jurisdiction over it.
This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.
Drainage finding no outlet through the thick clay, the soil of the forest region is often hidden beneath extensive marshes, and the forests themselves are often mere thickets choking marshy ground; large tracts of sand appear in the W., and the admixture of boulders with the clay in the N.W.
The shortness of the summer, the deficiency of drainage and the depth to which the soil freezes in winter, are the circumstances which determine the characteristic features of the vegetation of the tundras.
in extent, characterized by wholly interior drainage, a peculiar mountain system and extreme aridity.
of the Colorado river; the northern edge being formed by the divide of the drainage basin of the Columbia river, the eastern by that of the Colorado, the western by the central part of the Sierra Nevada crest, and by other high mountains.
It is fortunate that the city is not close-built or crowded, for since the first advent of foreigners in Peking in 1860 nothing whatever had been done until 1900 to improve the streets or the drainage.
Such drainage as had at one time existed was allowed to get choked up, giving rise to typhoid fever of a virulent type.
above the sea, which receives the drainage of the eastern slopes of the Sierra and what little drainage there is in the northern half of Nevada.
- There are three drainage systems within the state.
corner of the state is the third drainage system.
The Sao Francisco forms its northern boundary, and the drainage of the northern part of the state is northward and eastward to that river.
For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
Put comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.
The city of Rome is an example of what can be done by drainage; situated in the midst of malaria, it is itself quite healthy.
The suggested causes are (I) reduction of insects by drainage, (2) reduced population, (3) the use of quinine.
I Drainage works begun.
The drainage system here, including a water-closet, is of the most complete and modern kind.
The Pontotoc ridge separates the drainage system of the Mississippi from that of the Tombigbee; extending from the northeastern part of the state southward, this ridge divides in Choctaw county, the eastern branch separating the drainage basin in the Pascagoula from that of the Pearl, and the western branch separating the drainage basin of the Pearl from that of the Big Black and the Mississippi.
On the western frontier a northern extension of the great central chain of Goyaz forms the water-parting between the drainage basins of the Sao Francisco and Tocantins, and is known at different points as the Serra do Paranan, Serra de Sao Domingos and Serra das Divisoes.
North and parallel with its course is a low watershed, which separates its drainage basin both from that of the Sao Francisco and from that of the Parnahyba, the northern confluent of the Parana.
The central and greater part of the state, however, is included in the drainage basin of the upper Sao Francisco.
South of the divide the level at once drops to the central depression of Gobi, which forms a vast interior, almost waterless space, where the local drainage is lost in deserts or swamps.
above sea, where all the main rivers flow northward to the Mediterranean, the Arctic Sea, or the Caspian; a central section of depression, where the drainage is lost in swamps or hamuns, and of which the average level probably does not exceed 2000 ft.
m., as follows: - Pacific drainage Indian Ocean.
From the north of Manchuria the Khingan range stretches southward to the Chinese frontier near Peking, east of which the drainage falls into the Amur and the Yellow Sea, while to the west is an almost rainless region, the inclination of which is towards the central area of the continent, Mongolia.
in its different parts, and broken up into several branches, enclosing among them many isolated drainage areas, from which there is no outflow, and within which numerous lakes are formed.
A line of elevation is continued west of the Altai to the Ural Mountains, not rising to considerable altitudes; this divides the drainage of south-west Siberia from the great plains lying north-east of the Aral Sea.
most important great natural mountain divisions of the boundary world, consists of two parallel chains, of which the western is the water-divide of the Pamirs, and the eastern (which has been known as the Kashgar or Kandar range) is split at intervals by lateral gorges to allow of the passage of the main drainage from the eastern Pamir slopes.
The greater part of western Asia, including the basin of the Obi, the drainage area of the Aral Sea, together with Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia and Arabia, was covered by the sea during the later stages of the Cretaceous period; but a considerable part 3f this region was probably dry land in Jurassic times.
Attica was famous for its olives and figs, but general agriculture excelled in Peloponnesus, where, by means of irrigation and drainage, all the available land was utilized.
deep. The drainage of the Great Level of the Fens was prosecuted during the 17th century, but lack of engineering skill and the opposition of the fen-men hindered the reclamation of a now fertile region.
(9) Public works, such as paved and stepped roadways, bridges, systems of drainage, &c.
Fine stone palaces, richly decorated, with separate sleeping apartments, large halls, ingenious devices for admitting light and air, sanitary conveniences and marvellously modern arrangements for supply of water and for drainage, attest this fact.
The chief objects for which the city debt was created were in 1907, in millions of dollars: highways, 24.07, parks, 16.29, drainage and sewers, 15.05, rapid transit, 13.57 and water-works, 4.53.
In the case of proposed drainage improvements, notice in writing must be given to the landlord, who may then execute the improvements himself and charge the tenant with interest not exceeding 5% per annum on the outlay, or such annual instalments, payable for a period of twenty-five years, and recoverable as rent, as will repay the outlay, with interest at the rate of 3% a year.
In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep. This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.
Shut off from the adjacent Indian Ocean by its mountain barrier, the drainage of the country is westward to the distant Atlantic. As its name implies, the chief rivers rise in Mont aux Sources.
A peculiar feature of the drainage of the state is the large number of subterranean streams and of springs, always found to a greater or less extent in limestone regions.
Florida, the richest class, which require drainage to fit them for cultivation.
It contains all the best land in Berar; it is full of deep, rich, black alluvial soil, of almost inexhaustible fertility, and it undulates sufficiently to maintain a natural system of drainage, but there is nothing picturesque about this broad strip of champaign country.
of Victoria, Espirito Santo, on the eastern slope of the Serra de Espinhago and within the drainage basin of the Rio Doce.
The city secured in 1906 a new and adequate water-supply, modern drainage works having been completed the previous year.
The tidal action of the gulf is so slight and the marshes are so low that perfect drainage cannot be obtained through tide gates, which must therefore be supplemented by pumping machinery when rains are heavy or landward winds long prevail.
There are many " bayous," several of which are of great importance, both for navigation and for drainage.
These prairies are traversed by ridges, which facilitate irrigation, and are underlaid by an impervious subsoil, which facilitates both effective storage and drainage.
The danger of floods and the difficulty of drainage make the extension of the practice unprofitable, and the opening of the prairies has made it unnecessary.
Many bayous are convertible by improvement into excellent drainage and irrigation canals.
Spain set up no claim to the region, and when Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, came down the river in 1682 from the French possessions to the north, he took possession in the name of France, which hereby gained her first title to the vast drainage basin of the Mississippi.
These pouch harbours are probably " drowned " drainage basins.
On the south bank, owing to better natural drainage and a drier subsoil, movement was fairly easy, but the Austrians found it almost impossible.
or more, and descends gradually by extremely gentle slopes towards the coasts or the bottom of the fjords on all sides, discharging a great part of its yearly drainage or surplus of precipitation in the form of icebergs in the fjords, the so-called ice-fjords, which are numerous both on the west and on the east coast.
The drainage of the interior of Greenland is thus partly given off in the solid form of icebergs, partly by the melting of the snow and ice on the surface of the ice-cap, especially near its western margin, and to some slight extent also by the melting produced on its under side by the interior heat of the earth.
It was a lake until modern times, when it was included in a scheme of drainage.
These river systems serve the threefold purpose of drainage, providing water communications (there being about 3000 m.
This lake drained southward into the Gulf of Mexico via the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, until the ice sheet which had prevented its natural drainage to the north had melted sufficiently to allow it to be drained off into Hudson Bay by way of the Nelson River.
In Brazil the trees are found in different districts, but flourish best on rich alluvial clay slopes by the side of rivers, where there is a certain amount of drainage, and the temperature reaches from 89° F.
These trenches have for successive geological periods been the drainage valleys of immense lakes (probably also of glaciers) which formerly extended over the plateau or fiords of the seas which surrounded it.
The White Horse Hills and the Chilterns strike right across the Thames basin, but almost their entire drainage from either flank lies within it, and similarly a great part of the low-lying Weald, though marked off from the rest of the basin by the North Downs, drains into it through these hills.
In this part of its course the river receives from the south the streams, often intermittent, which rise on the northern slopes of the Stormberg, Zuurberg and Sneeuwberg ranges - the mountain chain which forms the water-parting between the coast and inland drainage systems of South Africa.
Another important river is the Hlaing, which runs through the district from north to south, receiving from the east, through numerous channels, the drainage of the Pegu Yoma Mountains, which fertilizes the plain on its eastern bank.
If the Tocantins-Araguaya basin is included in the hydrographic system, the greater part of Goyaz and a small part of Maranhao should be added to this drainage area.
In the extreme north-east corner of the republic where the Brazilian Guiana plateau slopes toward the Atlantic there is a small area lying outside the drainage basin of the Amazon.
Piauhy is wholly within its drainage basin, although the river forms the boundary line between that state and Maranhao throughout its entire length.
Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.
(2) A river of the Shahabad district of Bengal, which forms the drainage channel between the Arrah canal and the Sone canals system, and finally falls into the Gangi nadi.
The Berettyo canal between the Koros and the Berettyo rivers, and the Kdrds canal along the White Kiirds were constructed in conjunction with the regulation of the Theiss, and for the drainage of the marshy region.
It receives the drainage of the northern slopes of the Satpuras, but not that of the Vindhyan tableland, the streams from which flow into the Ganges and Jumna.
The rest of the country is divided between the drainage areas of the Vaal and Limpopo.
All this region belongs to the drainage basin of the Orinoco, and rivers of large volume flow down between these spurs.
Probably not less than four-fifths of the territory of Venezuela belong to the drainage basin of the Orinoco (q.v.).
Drainage restored trade before 1634, and the act of 1773 for making Kinderley's Cut was the beginning of prosperity.
The area of the drainage basin is estimated at 56,000 sq.
- Albert Nyanza receives the whole of the drainage of Albert Edward Nyanza and the Semliki river, and with them and its own basin forms the "Albertine " Nile system.
A study of the changes going on in the rif tvalley in which the lakes lie leads, however, to the belief that the Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas are drying up, a process which the nature of the drainage areas is helping to bring about.
Albert Nyanza, on the other hand, is threatened in the distant future with destruction from another cause - the filling of its bed by the alluvium poured into it by the Semliki, the Victoria Nile and, in a lesser degree, by other streams. The Semliki receives directly or indirectly the whole of the drainage of Ruwenzori, and also that of the eastern face of the Congo mountains as well as the drainage basin of Albert Edward Nyanza.
The combined drainage area, including the water surface of Albert Edward Nyanza, the Semliki and Albert Nyanza, is some 16,600 sq.
in Swiss territory, within which its drainage basin includes about 14,059 sq.
xix., 1909), an annual publication of the London County Council, which besides these divisions shows " Water London," the London main drainage area, and the Central Criminal Court district.
The natural process of sedimentation assisted the gradual artificial drainage of the marshes by means of embankments confining the river.
Various works of a more or less imperfect character were carried out, such as the bridging over in 1637 of the Drainage.
A system of main drainage was inaugurated by the Commissioners of Sewers in 1849, but their work proceeded very slowly.
The sanitary authorities are concerned only with the supervision of house drainage, and the construction and maintenance of local sewers discharging into the main system.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.
The vestries and district boards became the authorities for local drainage, paving, lighting, repairing and maintaining streets, and for the removal of nuisances, &c.
The latter includes not only the actual excavation of the mineral, but also haulage and hoisting by which it is brought to the surface, timbering and other means of supporting the excavations, and the drainage and ventilation of mines.
Either may be used for drainage of the mine workings, in which case it becomes an adit.
As already noted large pillars must always be left to protect shafts, adits and the more important mine-passages necessary for drainage, ventilation and the haulage of mineral.
657.) Mine Drainage.
In many mining regions long tunnels have been driven at great expense to secure natural drainage.
Under modern mining conditions drainage tunnels have lost much of their former importance.
Drainage channels are provided, usually along the main haulage roads, by which the water flows to a sump excavated at the pump shaft.
In driving mine passages thatj are to be used for drainage, care is taken to maintain sufficient gradient.
As the larger part of the water in a mine comes from the surface, the cost of drainage may be reduced by intercepting this surface water, and collecting it at convenient points in the pump shaft from which it may be raised at less cost than if permitted to go to the bottom.
As he is called upon to construct lines of transport, both underground and on the surface, works for water-supply and drainage, and buildings for the handling, storage and treatment of ore, he must be trained to some extent as a civil engineer.
The Hindu Kush is, in fact, but the face of a great upheaved mass of plateau-land lying beyond it northwards, just as the Himalaya forms the southern face of the great central tableland of Tibet, and its general physiography, exhibiting long, narrow, lateral valleys and transverse lines of "antecedent" drainage, is XIII.
It marks the commencement of the water-divide which primarily separates the Gilgit basin from that of the Yashkun, or Chitral, river, and subsequently divides the drainage of Swat and Bajour from that of the Chitral (or Kunar).
The Bahr-el-Ghazal itself is described as a drainage channel rather than a true river.
Its length is 300 m., and the area of its drainage basin extends to 22,800 sq.
The drainage system is still somewhat imperfect, but the water brought from the hills or from the Arno in pipes is fairly good, and the general sanitary conditions are satisfactory.
If it allows of too free drainage drought sets in and the plants, not getting enough water for their needs, become stunted in size.
It is the business of the farmer and gardener to promote the activity of these organisms by good tillage, careful drainage and occasional application of lime to soils which are deficient in this substance.
They are, however, very readily absorbed by growing plants, so that in summer, when nitrification is most active, the nitrates produced are usually made use of by crops before loss by drainage takes place.
In the majority of cases the good results obtained are more particularly due to the setting free of " dormant " or " latent " food constituents and to the amelioration of the texture of the soil, so that its aeration, drainage, temperature and water-holding capacity are altered for the better.
The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
During the greater part of the 19th century the ideal of ploughing was to preserve the furrow-slice unbroken, and this object was attained by the use of long mould-boards which turned the slices gently and gradually, laying them over against one another at an angle of 45°, thus providing drainage at the bottom of the furrow, and exposing the greatest possible surface to the influences of the weather.
Gripping and draining ploughs are employed in opening the grips and trenches necessary both in surface and underground drainage.
He was unable, however, to proceed farther east than his predecessors, and the problem of the Jauf drainage and its possible connexion with the upper part of the Hadramut valley still remains unsolved.
officers of the Egyptian army in that district, and with that of Halevy, who makes all the drainage from Nejran northward run to the same great wadi.
Whether there be any second line of drainage in southern Nejd skirting the edge of the great desert and following the depression of the W.
Colonel Miles concluded, from his enquiries, that the low salt swamp, extending inland for some distance from Khor ed Duwan, in the bay east of El Katr, was the outlet of an extensive drainage system which may well be continuous with the W.
The Itata river, which forms the southern boundary, and its principal tributary, the Nubee, form the drainage system of the province.
Another sanitary work of great importance was the improvement carried out in the drainage system, and the regulation of the river Wien.
Its length is 247 m., and its drainage area 479 0 sq.
The grand duke Cosmo I., a genuine statesman, not only restored the university, but instituted the "uffizio dei fossi," or drainage office for the reclamation of marsh lands, and founded the knighthood of St Stephen.
The Xauxa, becoming afterwards the Mantaro, received the drainage of Xauxa, Huancavelica and Ayacucho.
It is roughly mountainous, and belongs to the closed drainage basin of western Argentina, centring in the province of Mendoza.
Since the beginning of the 10th century strenuous efforts have been made to improve the sanitary condition by a new system of drainage, a better water service, the filling up of marshes wherein the malarial mosquito breeds, and in other directions.
The rivers are small and flow chiefly to the San Juan, a part of the Panuco drainage basin.
of Tuscany (1822-1844) made the first successful efforts to counteract the malaria which has affected the district, by drainage, the filling up of swamps, and the establishment of new farms, and since his time continuous efforts have been made with considerable success.
LOCKPORT, a city of Will county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Des Plaines river and the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and the terminus of the Chicago Sanitary District Drainage Canal, about 33 m.
In 1892 work was begun on the Chicago Drainage Canal, whose controlling works are here and whose plant, developing 40,000 h.p. from the 40 ft.
For the drainage and sewerage of the city a subterranean river whose source and mouth are unknown is utilized.
GANGES (GANGA), a great river of northern India, formed by the drainage of the southern ranges of the Himalayas.
of sand, partly in the north about Urk and Enkhuizen, partly in the south along the high shores of Gooi, Veluwe, &c. The shallowness of the sea and the character of its bottom, promising fertile soil, occasioned various projects of drainage.
Drainage of land >>
This species swarms in some years in prodigious numbers; in Pennant's time amazing shoals appeared in the fens of Lincolnshire every seven or eight years, No instance of a similar increase of this fish has been observed in our time, and this possibly may be due to the diminished number of suitable breeding-places in consequence of the introduction of artificial drainage.
The city is provided with tramways, telephone service and electric lighting, but the water supply and drainage are inferior.
of which 112 are navigable; the area of its drainage basin is 3660 sq.
above high water mark, and was thus for a long period subject to inundation and epidemics, and only careful drainage rendered the site healthy.
There is a modern system of drainage for the towns, and all sewerage has been intercepted from the Grand Harbour.
Tenders were strictly enforced in letting government property and contracts; a largely increased revenue was applied on water supply, drainage and other works.
The city is also one of the filthiest in the East, as there are no means of drainage or sewerage, and garbage of every description lies in heaps in the open streets.
Through this stretch of dasht the drainage from the main water-divide breaks downwards to the plains of Herat, where it is arrested and utilized for irrigation purposes.
The city is built in a bowllike depression of the great central plateau, and the drainage from the surrounding hillsides has produced a dangerously insanitary condition, from which one or two virulent fever epidemics have resulted.
The cause of this change is not known, but it is attributed to extensive drainage and removal of vegetation in the immediate neighbourhood of the town.
The proportions of the salts of river and sea-water are quite different, as Julius Roth shows thus: - The salts of salt lakes which have been formed in the areas of internal drainage in the hearts of the continents by the evaporation of river water are entirely different in composition from those of the sea, as the existence of the numerous natron and bitter lakes shows.
to Wayne county in the south central part of Iowa, divides the state into two drainage systems. That to the E., comprising about two-thirds of the whole area, is drained by tributaries of the Mississippi, of which the Des Moines, the Skunk, the Iowa with its tributary the Cedar, and the Wapsipinicon are the largest, streams of long courses and easy fall over beds frequently pebbly in the N.
The drainage of the station is all modern, and the sewage is disposed of on a sewage farm under the direction of the war department.
Cape Town is provided with an excellent water supply and an efficient drainage system.
To the west of this ridge the water collects to form the Asan, a tributary of the Jumna; whilst to the east the Suswa receives the drainage and flows into the Ganges.
To the east the valley is characterized by swamps and forests, but to the west the natural depressions freely carry off the surface drainage.
Since that time the great changes produced by the drainage of the fen-country have banished this species from nearly the whole of it, so that R.
' In some localities it is not easy to establish irrefutably and in detail the inter-arrangement of drainage and rock structure that proves it to be a subaerial peneplain instead of an uplifted submarine platform; but the general proof is very clear.
The Valley, including the drainage basin of Lake Zumpango, has an area of 1219 sq.
Mexico was formerly one of the worst drained large cities of the New World, its subsoil being permanently saturated and its artificial drainage being through open ditches into the San Lazaro Canal which nominally discharged into Lake Texcoco.
In 1856 President Ignacio Comonfort invited tenders for drainage works conditional on the use of waste waters for irrigation purposes, and the plan executed consists of a canal and tunnel 43 m.
P Y groups: - Eskimo, on Arctic shores; Dene (Tinneh), in north-western Canada; Algonquin-Iroquois, Canada and eastern United States; Sioux, plains of the west; Muskhogee, Gulf States; Tlinkit-Haida, North Pacific coast; Salish-Chinook, Fraser-Columbia coasts and basins; Shoshoni, interior basin; California-Oregon, mixed tribes; Pueblo province, southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Nahuatla-Maya, southern Mexico and Central America; Chibcha-Kechua, the Cordilleras of South America; Carib-Arawak, about Caribbean Sea; Tupi-Guarani, Amazon drainage; Araucanian, Pampas; Patagonian, peninsula; Fuegian, Magellan Strait.
Muskhogean tribes were potters, but Siouan tribes, as a rule, in all the Mississippi drainage were not.
The Algonquin-Iroquois took up the journey at Bear Lake and its tributaries, and by means of paddling and portages traversed the area of middle and eastern Canada, including the entire St Lawrence drainage.
Algonquin-Iroquois Canada, thanks to the Geological Survey and the Department of Education in Ontario, has revealed old Indian camps, mounds and earthworks along the northern drainage of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and pottery in a curved line from Montreal to Lake of the Woods.
The fifth labour seems to symbolize some great improvement in the drainage of Elis.
It broadened and deepened many of the valleys; rounded the hills; turned aside many streams, causing changes in drainage and giving rise to innumerable waterfalls and rapids; and it formed the thousands of lakes, large and small, which dot the surface.
The drainage of New York finds its way to the sea in various directions.
Thus New York is pre-eminently a divide region, sending its drainage, by various courses, into widely separated parts of the ocean.
The Hudson (q.v.) is essentially a New York stream, though it receives some drainage from the New England States through its small eastern tributaries.
The action of the continental glacier in scouring down the passes between the St Lawrence and southern drainage, and in turning streams southward, has facilitated the building of railways across the divides.
The drainage of the Vosges valleys and of the Rhine valley is collected and carried into the Rhine about 10 m.
The whole country forms part of the drainage basin of the Orange river, its streams, with insignificant exceptions, being tributaries of the Vaal or Caledon affluents of that river.
The main range of the Rocky Mountains separates that part which is drained west into the'Columbia river and the Pacific Ocean from that which is drained east into the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and the Gulf of Mexico, and from a very small part which is drained north-east into Hudson Bay; the water-parting which in Montana separates the drainage into Hudson Bay from the drainage into the Gulf of Mexico crosses only the north-west region of Teton county.
the river bottoms the soil is for the most part a black clayey loam lacking in natural drainage, but on the " bench lands " higher up there is a deep layer of sandy loam beneath which is a bed of gravel.
A " culvert " is a bridge of small span giving passage to drainage.
With the exception of the extreme north-east, the state lies within the drainage system of the Missouri river.
There are throughout the state occasional tracts in which, owing to deficient drainage, an excess of alkali '507 has accumulated, and which require special treatment before they can be made again productive.
It occupies an area of 44 square miles and has a drainage basin of 372 square miles.
To the south of Hythe this shore borders the wide expanse of Romney Marsh, which, immediately west of Hythe, is overlooked by a line of abrupt hills, but for the rest is divided on the north from the drainage system of the Stour only by a slight uplift.
The main watershed follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of New river in Virginia; south of this the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by southeasterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the water-parting lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south.
The master streams of the present have inherited their channels from the drainage systems of the Cretaceous lowland, and though raised athwart the courses of the lowland trunk streams the great arch was developed so slowly that these channels could be maintained through pari passu deepening.
There are three drainage systems within the state: the Red river (of the North) and its tributaries, the Mouse, or Souris, river and its tributaries.
of the Mouse river valley is practically without river drainage, and for its surface and sub-surface drainage, Devils Lake, an irregular body of water about 40 m.
The drift plains also contain numerous shallow hollows, locally termed " pots and kettles," which receive the drainage of their vicinity and form sloughs.
Irrigation is confined to the western half of the state, and more especially to the north-west, being employed chiefly in the drainage basin of the Missouri river.
(For map, see Indo-China.) The country may be best considered geographically in four parts: the northern, including the drainage area of the four rivers which unite near Pak-Nam Po to form the Menam Chao Phaya; the eastern, including the drainage area of the Nam Mun river and its tributaries; the central, including the drainage area of the Meklong, the Menam Chao Phaya and the Bang Pakong rivers; and the southern, including that part of the country which is situated in the Malay Peninsula.
In the western parts of the system they mostly go to feed the Kara-muren or the Cherchen-darya, while farther east they flow down into some larger self-contained basin of internal drainage, such as the Achik-kol, the two lakes Kara-kol, or the Ghaz-kol, and even yet farther east make their way, some of them into the lakes of the Tsaidam depression or become lost in its sands or in those of the Kum-tagh desert on the north, or go to feed the headstreams of the great rivers, the Hwang-ho (Yellow River) and the Yangtsze-kiang (Blue River) in the south.
To secure perfect drainage and greater warmth a fair quantity of sand or grit should be present.
From the point of view of public convenience, too large a space is fatiguing and makes it more difficult to see the animals, whilst the expenses of maintenance, drainage and supervision increase out of proportion to the advantages.
There must be an abundant supply of fresh air and of water, and a drainage system as complete as possible.
level, greatly increasing many mine values and outputs; in 1906 the work of drainage was again taken up, and work on a long bore was begun in May 1907.
A water-parting extending from north-east to south-west and close to the Atlantic border separates the East Shore into two drainage systems, though that next to the Atlantic is insignificant.
The drainage of the region under which the caverns lie is mostly underground.
m., has a drainage basin of over 54z sq.
They may be divided into two classes; those of the plateau region which occupy lacustrine depressions and receive the drainage of the surrounding country; and the tide-water lagoons of the coast formed by the building up of new sand beaches across the indentations in the coast-line.
They receive considerable surface drainage, but are slowly diminishing in area.
Its surroundings are bleak and sterile and its waters brackish and polluted with the drainage of the neighbouring city for nearly four centuries.
Texcoco is now connected with the new drainage works of the capital and is no longer a menace to its population through inundations and pestilential fevers.
The size of this isolated drainage basin is very large, the Nazas River alone having a length of about 370 m.
The problem for the agriculturist here is not irrigation, but drainage and keeping down spontaneous growths.
The great drainage scheme which completed the works of the 17th century by taking out the surplus waters of the southern lakes of the valley of Mexico was devised in 1856, begun under Maximilian, proceeded with intermittently till 1885, then taken up with improved plans, practically completed by 1896, and inaugurated in 1900; 2 the harbour of Vera Cruz was finished in 1902; the Tehuantepec railway, likely to prove a formidable rival to any interoceanic canal, was opened on the 24th of January 1906.
by the drainage basin of the Sao Francisco river, and having a general elevation of loon to 1700 ft.
Penn westward to the Schuylkill river, and therefore possesses excellent drainage facilities.
1.2 General Topography and Drainage.
The lacustrine system of the St Lawrence flows eastward from a relatively narrow drainage area.
ment of its drainage: its chief rivers rise in the plateau belt and flow across the ridges and valleys of the stratified belt and through the uplands of the crystalline belt to the sea.
The south-east course of the middle-section rivers is the result of many changes from the initial drainage; the Mesozoic and Tertiary upwarprngs were probably very influential in determining the present general courses.
The drainage of New England is unlike that of the middle and south-western Appalachians in the occurrence of numerous lakes and falls.
In New England also a wellestablished drainage undoubtedly prevailed in preglacial times; but partly in consequence of the irregular scouring of the rock floor, and even more because of the very irregular deposition of unstratified and stratified drift in the valleys, the drainage is now in great disorder.
It is a peculiar feature of the drainage in North Carolina that the headwaters lie to the east of the highest mountains, and that the chief rivers flow north-westward through the mountains to the broad valley lowland of the stratified belt and then through the plateau, as the members of the Mississippi system.
The coastal lowland between the sea arms is so flat that, although distinctly above sea-level, vegetation hinders drainage and extensive swamps or pocossins occur.
The Great Lakes are peculiar in receiving the drainage of but a sma]l peripheral land area, enclosed by an ill-defined water-parting from the rivers that run to Hudson Bay or the Gulf of St Lawrence on the north and to the Gulf of Mexico on the south.
When the ice of the last glacial epoch had retreated so far that Its front lay on a northward slope, belonging to the drainage area of the Great Lakes, bodies of water accumulated in front of the ice margin, forming glacio-marginal lakes.
The drift deposits thereabouts are so heavy that the present divides between the drainage basins of Hudson Bay, Lake Superior and the Gulf of Mexico evidently stand in no very definite relation to the preglacial divides.
The northern part of the peninsula is composed largely of a weak limestone; here much of the lowland drainage is underground, forming many sink-holes (swallOwholes).
The lower Mississippi is the truck in which three large rivers Join; the chief figures (approximate only) regarding them are as follows: Drainage Area Percentage of (square miles).
The h L lower Mississippi receives no large tributary from the T e ower east, but two important ones come from the west; the Mississippi Arkansas drainage area being a little less than that River.
per annum, which corresponds roughly to one quarter of the total precipitation on its drainage basin.
This valley in the coastal plain, with the much narrower rock-walled valley of the upper river in the prairie states, is the true valley of the S3ississippi river; but in popular phrase the Mississippi valley is taken to include a large central part of the Mississippi drainage basin.
The floods of the Mississippi usually occur in spring or aummer; Owing to the great size of the drainage basin, it seldom happens that the three upper tributaries are in flood at the same time; the coincident occurrence of floods in only two tributaries is of serious import in the lower river, which rises 30, 40, or occasionally 50 ft.
Its total length is about 2000 m., and its drainage basin (greater than that of the Upper Mississippi) about 185,000 sq.
The cyst should be treated like a liver-abscess, by incision through the abdominal or thoracic wall, by circumferential suturing and by exploration and drainage.
The slope of the land is from north-west to south-east, but the general drainage is very inadequate.
The larch of Europe is essentially a mountain tree, and requires not only free air above, but a certain moderate amount of moisture in the soil beneath, with, at the same time, perfect drainage, to bring the timber to perfection.
Another improvement was the completion and embellishment of the Mangue canal, originally designed as an entrance to a central market for the boats plying on the bay, but now destined for drainage purposes and as a public pleasure ground.
The high land and temperate climate, and the excellent drainage and water-supply systems, make Buffalo one of the most healthy cities in the United States, its death-rate in 1900 being 14.8 per thousand, and in 1907 15.58.
The zone between Burma and Siam, established by an agreement between Great Britain and France dated the 15th of January 1896, declared " the portion of Siam which is comprised within the drainage basin of the Menam, and of the coast streams of a corresponding longitude," neutral as between them.
With the exception of the Kunhar river, which flows down the Kagan valley to the Jhelum, the whole drainage of the province eventually finds its way into the Indus.
Three miles below Lakki it is joined by the Tochi or Gambela, which carries the drainage of North Waziristan.
The greater part of the drainage is discharged into the Chambal, which forms the north-western and northern and eastern boundary.
All this drainage, collected into two rivers, the Belikh and the Khabur, is towards the left bank of the Euphrates, for the Mesopotamian watershed seems to be only some 15 m.
The length of the river is nearly 3000 m., and the area of its drainage basin 970,000 sq.
The present course of the Upper Allegheny river is the result of the glacier which blocked the northward drainage of the region through which it flows and turned it southward.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.