Nevertheless, Down-syndrome children often are very sociable and interested in conversational language.
This factor may be due to the characteristic facial abnormalities and relatively large tongues of Down-syndrome children.
apnea in children with Down syndrome.
abnormality of the chromosomal abnormalities in Down syndrome remains unknown.
It also means that older mothers can be given a low risk for Down syndrome without having to undergo an amniocentesis.
The extra chromosome in Down syndrome is labeled number 21.
Surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea in children with Down syndrome.
Top Our group could not find out why maternal serum HCG was used as an indicator of risk of carrying a Down syndrome baby.
obstructive sleep apnea in children with Down syndrome.
sleep apnea in children with Down syndrome.
A higher incidence of leukemia has also been observed among persons with Down syndrome and some other genetic abnormalities.
Examples of such accidents are development of an extra chromosome 18 (trisomy 18) and Down syndrome.
People with Down syndrome develop in later life the brain changes that characterize Alzheimer's disease and may develop the clinical symptoms of this disease as well.
Children with Down syndrome have varying degrees of mental retardation and may have heart defects.
Hodapp. "Maternal Attribution of Child Noncompliance in Children with Mental Retardation: Down Syndrome versus Other Causes."
In addition, there are many genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome or Turner's syndrome, which affect multiple organs and can cause congenital cardiovascular defects.
The Down syndrome adolescent with an IQ of around 50 points does not seem to progress beyond the grammatical level of the normally intelligent child at three years, with short sentences that are restricted in variety and complexity.
Children with Down syndrome are also particularly delayed in speech development.
Speech therapy can be a considerable aid to many children with language disorders For example, it can help to make a Down syndrome child's speech more intelligible.
Despite the delay, children with Down syndrome are often quite sociable and interested in language for conversation.
In about 5 percent of cases, retardation is transmitted genetically, usually through abnormalities in chromosomes, such as Down syndrome or fragile X syndrome.
Children with Down syndrome have both mental and motor retardation.
Langdon Down (the doctor for whom Down syndrome is named).
With Down syndrome and some other disorders, language delay is more severe than other mental impairments.
Children with Down syndrome also are at higher risk for hearing impairment and ear infections that cause hearing loss.
An adolescent with Down syndrome and an IQ of about 50 may speak at the grammatical level of an unaffected three-year-old, with short, repetitive, simple sentences.
The most well-known trisomy-related disorder is Down syndrome (trisomy 21), in which the developing embryo has an extra copy of chromosome 21.
The disease is sometimes associated with other congenital conditions, such as Down syndrome.
Another reason for the procedure is to confirm indications of Down syndrome and certain other defects which may have shown up previously during routine maternal blood screening.
The risk of bearing a child with a nonhereditary genetic defect such as Down syndrome is directly related to a woman's age-the older the woman, the greater the risk.
Notably, some 75% of all Down syndrome infants born in the United States each year are to women younger than 35.
A negative result for Down syndrome means that it is 99% certain that the disease does not exist.
For example, a prenatal diagnostic procedure may be done on an older woman to determine if her baby has Down syndrome.
If the risk of Down syndrome is greater than the standard risk for women who are 35 years old or older (1:270), then amniocentesis is recommended.
Again, the test has a high rate of showing an abnormal AFP level in order to prevent missing a fetus that has Down syndrome.
One reason is that the risk of certain congenital abnormalities such as Down syndrome increases with mother's age (particularly mothers over forty).
It also is associated with Down syndrome (trisomy 21).
Some children experience global developmental delay due to chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome or fragile X syndrome.
Other children at higher risk include those from poor families, Native Americans, children born with cleft palate or other defects of the facial structures, and children with Down syndrome.
For example, about 10 percent of children with the disease have Down syndrome (the most common chromosome abnormality).
In a very rare number of Down syndrome cases (about 1-2%), the original egg and sperm cells are completely normal.
The individual with this type of Down syndrome has two types of cells: those with 46 chromosomes (the normal number) and those with 47 chromosomes (as occurs in Down syndrome).
Some researchers have suggested that individuals with this type of mosaic form of Down syndrome have less severe signs and symptoms of the disorder.
Another relatively rare genetic accident which can cause Down syndrome is called translocation.
Each cell still has 46 chromosomes, but the extra piece of chromosome 21 results in the signs and symptoms of Down syndrome.
Translocations occur in about 3-4 percent of cases of Down syndrome.
Less than 25 percent of Down syndrome cases occur due to an extra chromosome in the sperm cell.
The majority of cases of Down syndrome occur due to an extra chromosome 21 within the egg cell supplied by the mother (nondisjunction).
As a woman's age (maternal age) increases, the risk of having a Down syndrome baby increases significantly.
While Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder, a baby is usually identified at birth through observation of a set of common physical characteristics.
Babies with Down syndrome tend to be overly quiet; less responsive; with weak, floppy muscles.
Other types of defects often accompany Down syndrome.
About 30 to 50 percent of all children with Down syndrome are found to have heart defects.
Another heart defect that occurs in Down syndrome is called tetralogy of Fallot.
Malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are present in about 5-7 percent of children with Down syndrome.
Development in a baby and child with Down syndrome occurs at a much slower than normal rate.
The level of mental retardation is considered to be mild-to-moderate in Down syndrome.
The actual IQ range of Down syndrome children is quite varied, but the majority of such children are in what is sometimes known as the trainable range.
This means that most people with Down syndrome can be trained to do regular self-care tasks, function in a socially appropriate manner in a normal home environment, and even hold simple jobs.
As people with Down syndrome age, they face an increased chance of developing the brain disease called Alzheimer's (sometimes referred to dementia or senility).
Most people have a six in 100 risk of developing Alzheimer's, but people with Down syndrome have a one-in-four chance of the disease.
Some researchers have shown that even Down syndrome patients who do not appear to have Alzheimer's disease have the same changes occurring to the structures and cells of their brains.
As people with Down syndrome age, they also have an increased chance of developing a number of other medical difficulties, including cataracts, thyroid problems, diabetes, and seizure disorders.
Diagnosis is usually suspected at birth, when the characteristic physical signs of Down syndrome are noted.
As of 2004 no treatment is available to cure Down syndrome.
Many Down syndrome patients need to wear glasses to correct vision.
In the mid 1900s, all Down syndrome children were quickly placed into institutions for lifelong care.
Research shows, however, that the best outlook for children with Down syndrome is family life in their own home.
The prognosis in Down syndrome is quite variable, depending on the types of complications (heart defects, susceptibility to infections, development of leukemia) of each individual baby.
Without the presence of heart defects, about 90 percent of children with Down syndrome live into their teens.
People with Down syndrome appear to go through the normal physical changes of aging more rapidly, however.
The average age at death for an individual with Down syndrome is about 50 to 55 years.
Still, in the early 2000s, the prognosis for a baby born with Down syndrome is better than ever before.
Community and family support allows people with Down syndrome to have rich, meaningful relationships and in some cases to hold jobs.
Men with Down syndrome appear to be uniformly sterile (meaning that they are unable to have offspring).
About 50 percent of these babies, however, will also be born with Down syndrome.
Efforts at prevention of Down syndrome are aimed at genetic counseling of couples who are preparing to have babies.
A counselor needs to inform a woman that her risk of having a baby with Down syndrome increases with her increasing age.
Two types of testing is available during a pregnancy to determine if the baby being carried has Down syndrome.
Screening tests are used to estimate the chance that an individual woman will have a baby with Down syndrome.
Carrying a baby with Down syndrome often causes AFP to be lower than normal.
This information alone, or along with measurements of two other hormones, is considered along with the mother's age to calculate the risk of the baby being born with Down syndrome.
Thicker measurements correlate with the possibility of Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities.
All of these screening tests are used to decide which mothers will be offered other, more definitive testing to ascertain whether the baby has Down syndrome.
The only way to definitively establish (with about 98-99% accuracy) the presence or absence of Down syndrome in a developing baby is to test tissue from the pregnancy itself.
A couple must then decide whether to use this information in order to begin to prepare for the arrival of a baby with Down syndrome or to terminate the pregnancy.
However, when the baby with Down syndrome has the type that results from a translocation, it is possible that one of the two parents is a carrier of that defect.
When one parent is a carrier of a translocation, the chance of future offspring having Down syndrome is greatly increased.
Parenting a child with Down syndrome can be both challenging and rewarding.
Children with Down syndrome have a wide range of potential outcomes.
There are many support groups available for parents and siblings of Down syndrome children.
National Down Syndrome Congress. 1370 Center Drive, Suite 102 Atlanta, GA 30338 (800) 232-6372.
National Down Syndrome Society. 666 Broadway, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10012-2317.
Alterations in chromosomes causing Down syndrome and Trisomy 18 birth defects are considered structural genetic birth defects.
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