Dorsal Sentence Examples
The lungs are small and occupy only the dorsal portion of the thoracic cavity.
The line of the genital openings is usually dorsal to the lateral nerve.
A ventral vessel occurs on the anterior side of the metasome and forms a loop extending down the entire length of the stalk, while a " heart " projects into the cavity of the pericardium, probably connected on the ventral side of the notochord with the ventral vessel, and on its dorsal side with the dorsal vessel.
Vascular system complicated without regular connexion between dorsal and ventral vessels, except in anterior segments.
There are two chitinous jaws in the buccal cavity, a dorsal and a ventral, which are of specially complicated structure in Cirrodrilus.Advertisement
The median lacuna no longer exists, but is represented by a dorsal and ventral sinus.
The former lodges the dorsal, the latter the ventral, bloodvessel.
The three pairs of pigmented spots show the position of the eyes on the dorsal surface.
In favour of regarding the vascular system as totally absent, is the fact that the median coelomic channels contain no dorsal and ventral vessel.
The pallial cavity, with its organs, is by this torsion moved up the right side of the larva to the dorsal surface, and thus the left organs become right and vice versa.Advertisement
E, The trochosphere passing to the veliger stage, dorsal view showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.
These facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass in Gastropods.
As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.
Laterally the foot gives rise to a pair of mobile fleshy lobes, the parapodia (ep), which can be thrown up so as to cover in the dorsal surface of the animal.
The dorsal surface of the kidney extends to the left beyond the shell-chamber beneath the skin in the space between the shell-chamber and the left parapodium.Advertisement
Thus the base of the gill passes in a slanting direction across the right-hand side of the kidney, the posterior end being dorsal to the apex of the gland, and the anterior end ventral to the right-hand corner.
The vascular system is not extensive, the arteries soon ending in the well-marked spongy tissue which builds up the muscular foot, parapodia, and dorsal body-wall.
Spengel's observation of the osphradium and its nervesupply in these forms; the nerve to that organ, which is placed somewhat anteriorly - on the dorsal surface - being given off from the hinder part (visceral) of the right compound ganglion - the fellow to that marked A in fig.
The Eolid-like Nudibranchs, amongst other specialities of structure, possess (in some cases at any rate) apertures at the apices of the " cerata " or dorsal papillae, which lead from the exterior into the hepatic caeca.
Cephalic shield continuous with dorsal integument; no shell; ctenidium projecting from mantle cavity.Advertisement
Dorsal respiratory appendages frequently present.
Visceral commissure reduced; nervous system concentrated on dorsal side of oesophagus.
No anterior tentacles, and no dorsal appendages; body laterally compressed, transparent; pelagic. Phyllirhoe.
Head broad, surrounded by a funnel-shaped velum or hood; no radula; dorsal appendages foliaceous.
Anterior tentacles forming a scalloped frontal veil; dorsal appendages and tentacles similarly ramified.Advertisement
Body flattened, the two dorsal borders prominent and foliaceous.
External to the branchia are seen ten club-like processes of the dorsal wall, these are the " cerata " which are characteristically developed in another sub-order of Opisthobranchs.
Dorsal papillae spindle-shaped or clubshaped.
Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single pair; spicules in the integument.
Bases of the rhinophores surrounded by a sheath; dorsal papillae tuberculated and club-shaped, in a single row on either side of the dorsum; no cnidosacs.
Dorsal papillae with a membranous expansion; male and female apertures at some distance from each other; pelagic. Fiona.
Liver ramifies in integuments and extends into dorsal papillae, but there are no cnidosacs.
Foot narrow; dorsal papillae linear or fusiform, in several - series.
Foot broad; dorsal papillae flattened and foliaceous.
Karl Semper has shown that these slugs have, in addition to the usual pair of cephalic eyes, a number of eyes developed upon the dorsal integument.
These dorsal eyes are very perfect in elaboration, possessing lens, retinal nerve-end cells, retinal pigment and optic nerve.
Semper, pursued as food by the leaping fish Periophthalmus, and the dorsal eyes are of especial value to them in aiding them to escape from this enemy.
In addition to the wings there are smaller dorsal outgrowths of the thorax in many insects.
In the abdominal exoskeleton the segmental structure is very clearly marked, a series of sclerites - dorsal terga and abdominal sterna - being connected by pale, feebly chitinized cuticle, so that considerable freedom of movement between the segments is possible.
The dorsal vessel is prolonged anteriorly into an aorta, through which the blood is propelled into the great After Miall and Denny, The Cockroach, Lovell body-cavity or haemoReeve & Co.
Wheeler, the amnion is ruptured and turned back from covering the germ band, enclosing the yolk dorsally and becoming finally absorbed, as the ectoderm of the germ band itself spreads to form the dorsal wall.
But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed towards the upper air.
There are two dorsal fins, the anterior near the head, composed of 11-14 feeble spines, the second near the tail with all the rays soft except the first, and behind the second dorsal five or six finlets.
The ventral is immediately below the second dorsal, and is also followed by finlets.
This is brought about by a double commissure, of which the ventral portion is considerably thicker than the dorsal, and which, together with the brain-lobes, constitutes a ring through which both proboscis and proboscidian sheath pass.
The brain-lobes are generally four in number, a ventral and a dorsal pair, respectively united together by the above-mentioned commissures, and moreover anteriorly interfusing with each other, right and left.
In most Heteronemertines it is found to be an elongated slit with corrugated borders; in the Metanemertines it is smaller and rounded; in Malacobdella and Akrostomum it, moreover, serves for the extrusion of the proboscis, which emerges by a separate dorsal opening just inside the mouth.
The median dorsal vessel, however, remains distinct, but instead of continuing its course beneath the proboscidian sheath it is first enclosed by the ventral musculature of this organ, and still farther forwards it even bulges out longitudinally into the cavity of the sheath.
The two external openings of the nephridia are situated sometimes more 2 towards the ventral, at other times more towards the dorsal side.
But should the "bell" swallow any of the ova, or even one of the younger embryos, these are passed back into the body cavity through the second and dorsal opening.
The head is rather short and rounded; the fore limbs or paddles are small and broad compared with those of most dolphins; and (as in the beluga) a dorsal fin, found in nearly all other members of the group, is wanting.
The English setter should have a silky coat with the hair waved but not curly; the legs and toes should be hairy, and the tail should have a bushy fringe of hairs hanging down from the dorsal border.
The dorsal fin, near the middle of the back, is low and triangular.
It is distinguished from the common porpoise externally by its black hue and the absence of a dorsal fin.
The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
In 1883-1886 Bateson showed by his embryological researches that the Enteropneusta exhibit chordate (vertebrate) affinities in respect of the coelomic, skeletal and nervous systems as well as in regard to the respiratory system, and, further, that the gill-slits are formed upon a plan similar to that of the gillslits of Amphioxus, being subdivided by tongue-bars which depend from the dorsal borders of the slits.
The proboscis-gut occurs as an outgrowth from the anterior dorsal wall of the collar-gut, and extends forward into the basal (posterior) region of the proboscis, through the neck into the proboscis-coelom, ending blindly in front.
In one family, the Ptychoderidae, the medullary tube of the collar is connected at intermediate points with the epidermis by means of a variable number of unpaired outgrowths from its dorsal wall, generally containing an axial lumen derived from and in continuity with the central canal.
These hollow roots terminate blindly in the dorsal epidermis of the collar, and place the nervous layer of the latter in direct connexion with the fibres of the nerve-tube.
In the neck of the proboscis the fibrous layer is greatly thickened, and other intensifications of this layer occur in the dorsal and ventral middle lines of the trunk extending to the posterior end of the body.
The dorsal epidermal nerve-tract is continued in front into the ventral wall of the collar nerve-tube, and at the point of junction there is a circular commissural thickening following the posterior rim of the collar and affording a special connexion between the dorsal and ventral nervetracts.
The gill-pores occur on each side of the dorsal aspect of the worm in a longitudinal series at the base of a shallow groove, the branchial groove.
An important feature is the occurrence in some species (Ptychoderidae) of paired longitudinal pleural or lateral folds of the body which are mobile, and can be approximated at their free edges so as to close in the dorsal surface, embracing both the median dorsal nerve-tract and the branchial grooves with the gill-pores, so as to form a temporary peri-branchial and medullary tube, open behind where the folds cease.
On the other hand, they can be spread out horizontally so as to expose their own upper side as well as the dorsal surface FIG.
Correlated with the presence of the genital pleurae there is a pair of vascular folds of the basement membrane proceeding from the dorsal wall of the gut in the postbranchial portion of the branchio-genital region, and from the dorsal angles made by the pleural folds with the body-wall in the pharyngeal region; they pass, in their most fully developed condition, to the free border of the genital pleurae.
It is within the bounds of possibility that Tornaria actually does indicate a remote affinity on the part of the Enteropneusta to the Echinoderms, not only on account of its external form, but also by reason of the possession of a dorsal water-pore communicating with the anterior body-cavity.
Interior of dorsal valve, showing muscular impressions and labial appendages.
The valves are distinguished as dorsal and ventral.
These irregularities are likewise, at times, reproduced on the upper or dorsal valve.
In addition to these, there exists in the interior of the dorsal valve of some genera a variously modified, thin, calcified, ribbon-shaped skeleton for the support of the ciliated arms, and the form of this ribbon serves as one of the chief generic characters of both recent and extinct forms. This brachial skeleton is more developed in some genera than in others.
Dorsal valve, showing calcareous spiral coils.
Interior of dorsal valve, to show the position of the labial appendages.
The intestine is slung by a median dorsal and ventral mesentery which divides the body cavity into two symmetrically shaped halves; it is " stayed " by two transverse septa, the anterior or gastroparietal band running from the stomach to the body wall and the posterior or ileoparietal band running from the intestine to the body wall.
It consists of a definite contractile sac or sacs lying on the dorsal side of the alimentary canal near the oesophagus, and in preparations of Terebratulina made by quickly removing the viscera and examining them in sea-water under a microscope, he was able to count the pulsations, which followed one another at intervals of 30-40 seconds.
A vessel - the dorsal vessel - runs forward from the heart along the dorsal surface of the oesophagus.
Anteriorly the dorsal vessel splits into a right FIG.
Interior of dorsal small arm-sinus and, running valve.
The heart gives off posteriorly a second median vessel which divides almost at once into a right and a left half, each of which again divides into two vessels which run to the dorsal and ventral mantles respectively.
The dorsal branch sends a blind twig into each of the diverticula of the dorsal mantle-sinus, the ventral branch supplies the nephridia and neighbouring parts before reaching the ventral lobe of the mantle.
Both dorsal and ventral branches supply the generative organs.
The divaricators proper are stated by Hancock to arise from the ventral valve, one on each side, a little in advance of and close to the adductors, and after rapidly diminishing in size become attached to the cardinal process, a space or prominence between the sockets in the dorsal valve.
The dorsal adjustors are fixed to the ventral surface of the peduncle, and are again inserted into the hinge-plate in the smaller valve.
The central and umbonal muscles effect the direct opening and closing of the shell, the laterals enable the valves to move forward and backward on each other, and the transmedians allow the similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated, that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve.
There are four of such masses, two dorsal and two ventral, and as a rule they extend between 1.
The nerves running to the dorsal parts are white, with black edges; those running to the ventral parts are solid black.
The chaetae drop off, and the lophophore is believed to arise from thickenings which appear in the dorsal mantle lobe.
By this time the eyes have disappeared, the four bundles of chaetae have dropped off, and the lophophore has begun to appear as an outgrowth of the dorsal mantle lobe.
The pro-deltidium, a term introduced by Hall and Clarke, signifies a small embryonic plate originating on the dorsal side of the body.
Pro-deltidium attached to dorsal valves.
The pro-deltidium originating on the dorsal surface later becomes anchylosed with the ventral valve.
In it the hairs are confined to the dorsal middle line and the creeping setae are hooked, of a finer structure than in Chaetosoma, and situated so far forward that the vagina opens amongst them.
Their movement in an upward or downward direction in Limulus and Mygale must exert a pumping action on the blood contained in the dorsal arteries and the ventral veins respectively.
The great dorsal contractile vessel or " heart " of Limulus is closely similar to that of Scorpio; its ostia or incurrent orifices are FIG.
Entap4, Fourth dorsal entapophysis of left side.
On the other hand, an unusually large tergal plate, whether terminal or in the series, is not always due to fusion of the dorsal plates of once-separate somites, but is of ten a case of growth and enlargement of a single somite without formation of any trace of a new somite.
The dorsal aspect is presented showing the prosomatic shield with paired compound eyes and the prosomatic appendages II.
A, Ventral view of prosoma and of anterior region of opistho soma with the appendages cut off near the base; a and b, B, Dorsal view.
Dorsal view of male, enlarged five times linear.
Opisthosoma confluent throughout its breadth with the prosoma, with the dorsal plate of which its anterior tergal plates are more or less fused; at most ten opisthosomatic somites traceable; the generative aperture thrust far forwards between the basal segments of the 6th appendages.
E, Lateral view of the whole body and two 1st appendages, showing the fusion of the dorsal elements of the prosoma into a single plate, and of those of the opisthosoma into an imperfectly segmented plate continuous with that of the prosoma.
A, Lateral view with appendages III to VI removed; 1, plate covering the whole dorsal area, representing the fused tergal sclerites of the prosoma and opisthosoma; 2, similarly-formed ventral plate; 3, tracheal stigma.
The lower jaw projects more or less beyond the upper, the mental barble is small, sometimes rudimentary, the vent is below the posterior half of the first dorsal fin, and there is a dark spot in the axil of the pectoral fin.
The former bears two terminal suckers on the flattened dorsal and ventral surfaces, the latter six hooks near the tip of the tail.
In such cases the male organs are regarded as indicating the dorsal surface, the female organs as belonging to the ventral surface.
In most endoparasitic Trematodes the accessory gonopore is a median and dorsal structure.
A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth; p, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.
Lastly the nervous system is well developed and consists of a pair of well-marked and interconnected ganglia placed near the anterior end and dorsal to the oesophagus.
The excretory system opens to the exterior by a pair of dorsal pores at the level of the pharynx.
A, Dorsal view showing the nervous system and digestive system; a, mouth; b, pharynx; c, d, e, gut; E, post-genital union of two limbs of gut; f, excretory pore; g, vaginal pore; h, j, k, brain and nerves; 1, dorsal nerves; m, ventral nerves; n, adoral sucker; o, posterior sucker; p, hooks on posterior sucker; r, vitello-intestinal duct.
If successful, the larva throws off its cilia and develops a dorsal papilla, a median ventral sucker and an additional pair of lateral suckers.
Should it, however, encounter another Diporpa, the mid-ventral sucker of either is applied to the dorsal papilla of the other, and complete fusion takes place across the junction.
A canal (Laurer's canal) leads from the oviduct or yolk-duct to the dorsal surface.
The first dorsal fin and the ventrals are transformed into pointed formidable spines, and joined to firm bony plates of the endoskeleton.
The ten-spined stickleback (Gastrosteus pungitius) is so called from the number of spines usually composing its first dorsal fin, which, however, may be sometimes reduced to eight or nine or increased to eleven.
The body is divided into eleven segments and the protrusible proboscis apparently into two, and the cuticle of the central segment is thickened to form three plates, one dorsal and two ventrolateral.
The insect is fixed by this rostrum, which is inserted into the root of the vine for the purpose of sucking the sap. The abdomen consists of seven segments, and these as well as the anterior segments bear four rows of small tubercles on their dorsal surface.
Dorsal and lumbar vertebrae together always nineteen, though the former may vary from twelve to fifteen.
The small ova are crowded beneath the dorsal part of the valves.
In 1892 he distinguished the former as those in which the first antennae of the male have both members modified for holding the female, and the genital openings of the female have a ventral position, sometimes in close proximity, sometimes strongly lateral; the latter as those in which the first antennae of the male are similar to those of the female, the function of holding her being transferred to the male maxillipeds, while the genital openings of the female are dorsal, though at times strongly lateral.
The eggs are minute, and pass out into the sea-water through the dorsal or exhalent siphon.
The shell is developed on the dorsal surface behind the velum, the foot on the opposite or ventral surface behind the mouth.
There is a broad dark median dorsal stripe.
There is a dorsal interruption to the disk, in volving both trochus and cingulum and groove in this case the two halves of the disk may be developed in lobes, flower-shaped in Melicerta ringens, but often rounded and projecting like kettledrums. These give a strong impression of two crown wheels revolving in the same sense.
In most Ploima the dorsal gap is not well marked, and the trochus is broken up into a number of lobes, often furnished with vibratile styles, in front and at the sides, but ventrally passing into the uniformly ciliated oral funnel.
They are six in number, median, ventral and dorsal, and two unequal lateral pairs.
Above this point springs the large median dorsal limb, which terminates in groups of long setae.
The ventral fins are slightly anterior to the origin of the dorsal fin; and the spine consists of from fortyseven to forty-nine vertebrae.
For many years only the dorsal surface of Trilobites was known, nothing having been ascertained of the ventral surface and appendages.
A pair of the latter was articulated to the sides of a moderately wide dorsal plate on each segment of the body, and similar limbs were attached to the ventral surface of the head-shield behind the mouth.
One flagellum is entirely free and directed forwards; the other at once turns backwards and is attached to the convex or dorsal side of the body for the greater part of its length.
Along the dorsal side runs the characteristic fin-like expansion of the body, the undulating-membrane, which is the organella principally concerned in locomotion.
The variety most highly prized has an extremely short snout, eyes which almost wholly project beyond the orbit, no dorsal fin, and a very long threeor four-lobed caudal fin (Telescope-fish).
The vena cava (vc) is always found to the right of the Spigelian lobe and dorsal to the stalk of the caudate.
A dorsal contractile heart, with symmetrical right and left auricles receiving aerated blood from the ctenidia and mantle skirt, is present, being unequally developed only in those few forms which are inequivalve.
A further variation consists in the development of additional shelly plates upon the dorsal line between the two large valves (Pholadidae).
In Pholas dactylus we find a pair of umbonal plates, a dors-umbonal plate and a dorsal plate.
It is to be remembered that the whole of the cuticular hard product produced on the dorsal surface and on the mantle-flaps is to be regarded as the " shell," of which a median band-like area, the ligament, usually remains uncalcified, so as to result in the production of two valves united by the elastic ligament.
This byssus is not homologous with that of other Lamellibranchs, but originates from a single glandular epithelial cell embedded in the tissues on the dorsal anterior side of the adductor muscle.
Pectinidae.-Shell with radiating ribs; dorsal border with two auriculae.
Shell with a pallial sinus; dorsal region protected by accessory plates.
At the base of each wing projects a dorsal lobe - the jugumand the neuration is predominantly longitudinal, resembling so closely that of the lower Lepidoptera (q.v.) that a nearer relationship of the Trichoptera to that order than to any group of the old Linnean Neuroptera is certain.
Lying dorsal to the genital ridge in the intermediate cell mass is the mesonephros, consisting FIG.
As a result, the Coelomata, and with them the Mollusca, present (in the first instance) the general condition of body known as bilateral symmetry; the dorsal is differentiated from the ventral surface, whilst a right and a left side similar to, or rather the complements of, one another are permanently established.
The muscular tissue of the dorsal body-wall is much reduced and the integument here is thin and FIG.
The external epithelium of the dorsal region secretes the shell.
The dorsal border of this groove is extended outwards and downwards as a fold of the integument.
The heart is situated in the pericardium on the dorsal side of the intestine and at the posterior end of the animal.
In the primitive form a single anterior aorta is given off from the ventricle, the two together representing the dorsal blood-vessel of Chaetopods.
The dorsal half of the collar is the cerebral commissure, the ventral the labial commissure.
The pallial cords are united to one another posteriorly, dorsal to the rectum.
E, The Trochosphere passing to the Veliger stage, dorsal view showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.
The metameric repetition of the shellplates and of the ctenidia are probably special modifications, but it is difficult to explain the spicules of the dorsal integument except as a condition more primitive than the shell itself.
The mouth is ventral, the otolith dorsal.
The dorsal and lumbar vertebrae are very numerous, 28 to 30, of which 21 or 22 bear ribs.
The fish is characterized by its large scales (34 to 40 in the lateral line), its long dorsal fin, the first ray of which is stiff and serrated, and the presence of two small barbels on each side of the mouth.
At the end of four weeks after it was first purchased the dorsal or upper surface of its external gills developed a small amount of dark pigment.
Within the next few weeks this increased in quantity and the dorsal surface of the head and of the front end of the trunk began to be pigmented.
But the author of this article has quite recently reared some albinoes in which the familiar shoulder hood and dorsal stripe of the piebald rat is perfectly obvious, in spite of the absence of the slightest pigmentation.
The weevers are poisonous and the venom is concentrated principally in the six spines of the first dorsal fin.
If the view that the sole is protected by the blackness of the pectoral fin resembling the blackness of the dorsal fin of the weever, be correct, these fishes furnish an instance of Batesian mimicry.
It is probable that the resemblance between Uranoscopus and Trachinus with respect to the colour of the dorsal fin is mutually beneficial to the two fishes.
In one of these (Heteronotus trinodosus), the dorsal area of the forepart of the thorax is developed into a plate which projects backwards over the body of the insect, which retains its normal form, and conceals all but the head, wings and, legs.
The legs and lower part of the body are dark coloured, but the dorsal surface of the thorax and abdomen is coloured green and is raised so as to form a crest with jagged edges exactly reproducing the irregular margin of a fragment of leaf cut out by the mandibles of the ant.
When the larvae are disturbed the similarity is produced with startling suddenness by the telescopic contraction of the anterior segments in such a manner as to suggest a triangular, pointed head with two large dorsal eyes.
The dorsal integument or mantle bears, not a simple shell, but eight calcareous plates in longitudinal series articulating with each other.
Dorsal view of Chiton Wosnessenksii, Midd., showing the eight shells.
In some species there is a second dorsal pair.
The pericardium is ciliated internally on its dorsal and lateral walls.
There is a heart in the pericardium consisting of a median ventricle attached, except in Neomenia, to the dorsal wall of the pericardium, and in Neomenia a pair of auricular ducts returning blood from the gills to the ventricle.
There is also in some genera a median retractile sensory papilla on the dorsal posterior surface above the rectum, not covered by the cuticle.
Later the ciliated ring or velum disappears and seven imbricated calcareous plates, made up of flattened spicules, are formed on the dorsal surface.
Apart from black and white face-markings, and the black tail and dorsal stripe, the prevailing colour of the Alpine chamois is chestnut brown in summer, but lighter and greyer in winter.
The body is composed of a large number of segments; the prostomium bears a pair of tentacles; the nervous system consists of a brain and longitudinal ventral nerve cords closely connected with the epidermis (without distinct ganglia), widely separated in Saccocirrus, closely approximated in Protodrilus, fused together in Polygordius; the coelom is well developed, the septa are distinct, and the dorsal and ventral longitudinal mesenteries are complete; the nephridia are simple, and open into the coelom.
The vent is below the anterior half of the first dorsal fin.
A so-called heart lies on the dorsal surface of the oesophagus; it is closed behind, but in front it opens into a circumoesophageal ring, which gives off vessels into the lophophore and tentacles.
There is a welldeveloped brain dorsal, to the mouth; this gives off a pair of oesophageal commissures, which surround the oesophagus and unite in a median ventral nerve-cord which runs between the longitudinal muscles to the posterior end of the body.
The outer ear lies in a recess which can be closed tightly by a dorsal flap of skin.
A somewhat rare fish is the Polypterus, which has thick bony scales and 16 to 18 long dorsal fins.
The thallus is somewhat spherical and unicellular, exhibiting a distinction between anterior and posterior extremities, and dorsal and ventral surfaces.
The fish resembles a sprat in having a forked tail and a single dorsal fin, but the body is round and slender.
Another explanation is based on the late appearance of the petals in the floral development and their origin from the backs of the primordia of the stamens; it is then assumed that three alternating whorls only are present, namely, sepals, stamens bearing petal-like dorsal outgrowths, and carpels.
It has the same moderately long, plump body, with a low dorsal crest, the continuation of the membrane bordering the strongly compressed tail; a large thick head with small eyes without lids and with a large pendent upper lip; two pairs of well-developed limbs, with free digits; and above all, as the most characteristic feature, three large appendages on each side of the back of the head, fringed with filaments which, in their fullest development, remind one of black ostrich feathers.
But a year later, the second generation having reached sexual maturity, new broods were produced, and out of these some individuals lost their gills and dorsal crest, developed movable eyelids, changed their dentition, and assumed yellow spots, - in fact, took on all the characters of Amblystoma tigrinum.
It is smaller than the true civet, and wants the dorsal crest.
The irregular flowers have five sepals united at the base, the dorsal one produced into a spurred development of the axis; of the five petals the two upper are slightly different and stand rather apart from the lower three; the eight stamens are unequal and the pistil consists of three carpels which form a fleshy fruit separating into three one-seeded portions.
The back of the body is occupied by a crest, called the dorsal fin, consisting of a hollow ridge, the cavity of which is divided into about 250 compartments or fin chambers, into each of which, with the exception of those near the anterior and posterior end of the body, projects a stout pillar composed of characteristic laminar tissue, the fin ray.
The dorsal crest is continued round both extremities, becoming expanded to form the rostral fin in front and the caudal fin behind.
The ventral side of the body in the atrial region is broad and convex, so that the body presents the appearance of a spherical triangle in transverse section, the apex being formed by the dorsal fin and the angles bordered by two hollow folds, the metapleural folds, each of which contains a continuous longitudinal lymph-space, the metapleural canal.
The primary and secondary bars which separate and divide the successive gill-clefts from one another are traversed by blood-vessels which run from a simple tubular contractile ventral branchial vessel along the bars into a dorsal aorta.
First, its dorsal wall (which is grooved to form the hyperpharyngeal groove) is closely adherent to the sheath of the notochord; and secondly, the pharynx is attached through the intermediation of the primary bars.
These are suspended to the muscular bodywall by a double membrane, called the ligamentum denticulatum, which forms at once the roof of the atrial chamber and the floor of a persistent portion of the original body-cavity or coelom (the dorsal coelomic canal on each side of the pharynx).
At the top of each of these pouches there is a minute orifice, the aperture of a small tubule lying above each pouch in the dorsal coelom.
At the level of its posterior end a pair of funnel-shaped pouches of the atrium are produced forwards into the dorsal coelom.
Corresponding with each pair of myotomes, and subject to the same alternation, two pairs of spinal nerves arise from the neurochord, namely, a right and left pair of compact dorsal sensory roots without ganglionic enlargement, and a right and left pair of ventral motor roots composed of loose fibres issuing separately from the neurochord and passing directly to their termination on the muscle-plates of the myotomes.
The first dorsal spinal nerve coincides in position with the myocomma which separates the first myotome from the second on each side, and thereafter the successive dorsal roots pass through the substance of the myocommata on their way to the skin; they are therefore septal or intersegmental in position.
After invagination is completed, the embryo begins to elongate, the blastopore becomes narrower, and the dorsal wall of the gastrula loses its convexity, and becomes flattened to form the dorsal plate, the outer layer of which is the primordium of the neurochord and the inner layer the primordium of the notochord.
In the Entomobryidae the body is elongate and clearly segmented, but the dorsal region (tergum) of the prothorax is much reduced and the head downwardly directed; the spring is well developed.
Perhaps the most constant and obvious distinction between this species and the next is the arrangement of the stripes on the hinder part of the back, where there are a number of short transverse bands reaching to the median longitudinal dorsal stripe, and unconnected with the uppermost of the broad stripes which pass obliquely across the haunch from the flanks towards the root of the tail.
There is a strongly marked median longitudinal ventral black stripe, to which the lower ends of the transverse side stripes are usually united, but the dorsal stripe (also strongly marked) is completely isolated in its posterior half, and the uppermost of the broad haunch stripes runs nearly parallel to it.
The number of vertebrae is - in the cervical region 7, dorsal 13, lumbar 6, sacral 2, caudal varying according to the length of the tail, but generally from 21 to 25.
The flipper is short, broad, and truncated, and the dorsal fin a mere low protuberance.
A dorsal and a ventral plate are often distinguished, known respectively as the tergum and the sternum, and the tergum may overhang the insertion of the limb on each side as a free plate called the pleuron.
The mouth is overhung by a large labrum or upper lip, and the integument of the dorsal surface of the body forms a more or less definite dorsal shield.
With the elongation of the body, the dorsal shield begins to project posteriorly as a shell-fold, which may increase in size to envelop more or less of the body or may disappear altogether.
The head is somewhat rudimentary and without eyes, but bears two dorsal appendages produced into numerous long filaments.
The shell is narrower at the posterior end and is slightly curved to the dorsal side.
The edge of the mantle at the anterior aperture is very thick and muscular; at the posterior aperture also there is a circular muscle, and here the edge is interrupted by a ventral sinus and is provided internally with a dorsal and ventral valve which can be applied to each other so as to close the aperture.
Two retractor muscles pass back from the base of the foot to the dorsal side of the shell.
This buccal sac is provided with a dorsal mandible and a ventral radula.
The head is situated on the dorsal side of the body anteriorly within the anterior aperture of the mantle, from which it cannot be protruded.
The shell-gland is formed on the dorsal surface, and the mantle arises as two lateral lobes which afterwards unite by their ventral edges to form the tubular mantle of the adult.
The dorsal surface is smooth; ventrally there are five pairs of parapodia, armed with supporting and hooked setae, by means of which the worm adheres to its host.
The paired ovaries discharge their products into a median coelemic chamber with lateral branches (C), often called the uterus, from which the ripe ova are discharged by a median dorsal pore into the terminal region of the rectum (cloaca).
Dorsal way that this object is aspect as seen from above.
Dorsal aspect as seen from and in this respect reabove.
Dorsal and ventral aspects as seen from behind; showing auger-like conformation of wing.
Dorsal and ventral aspects, as seen from behind.
When terminal the awn has three fibro-vascular bundles, when dorsal only one; it is covered with stomate-bearing epidermis.
It is divided longitudinally by a partition separating a so-called" ventral "or prorachidial canal from a so-called" dorsal "or metarachidial canal.
This theca grows in the direction of the apex of the sicula, to which it adheres by its dorsal wall.
A fine cylindrical rod or fibre (the so-called solid axis or virgula) becomes developed in a median groove in the dorsal wall of the polypary, and is sometimes continued distally as a naked rod.
In the family of the Diplograptidae the branches are reduced to two; these also coalesce similarly by their dorsal walls, and the polypary thus becomes biserial (diprionidian), and the line of the nema is taken by a long axial tube-like structure, the nemacaulus or virgular tube.
The Graptoloidea have also been regarded by some as benthonic organisms. A more prevalent view, however, is that the majority were pseudo-planktonic or drifting colonies, hanging from the underside of floating seaweeds; their polyparies being each .suspended by the nema in the earliest stages of growth, and, in later stages, some by the nemacaulus, while others became adherent above by means of a central disk or by parts of their dorsal walls.
To render the organization of this creature perfect in relation to its wants, it is provided with three long filaments inserted along the middle of the head, which are, in fact, the detached and modified three first spines of the anterior dorsal fin.
That part of the theca below the origins of the free arms is called the "dorsal cup"; the ventral part above the origins of the arms, serving as cover to the cup, is known as the "tegmen."
Jaekel (1894) has divided the crinoids into the orders Cladocrinoidea and Pentacrinoidea, the former being the Camerata of Wachsmuth and Springer (Monocyclica Camerata, Adunata and Dicyclica Camerata of the present classification), and the latter comprising all the rest, in which the arms are either free or only loosely incorporated in the dorsal cup. In minor points there is fair agreement between the American, German and British authors.
There are a few large dorsal, lateral and ventral armplates, and at the angles of the latter emerge FIG.
In the Argasidae the anterior portion of the dorsal surface of the body is extended forwards above the capitulum, so that this structure is concealed from above; the integument is fairly uniformly granular or coriaceous above and below; the palpi are simple and unmodified; there is no sucker beneath the claws in the adult, and there is only a slight structural difference between the sexes.
In the Ixodidae the capitulum is not overlapped by a forward extension of the dorsal area, which is smooth and firmly chitinized either in front or all over; the palpi are usually modified, that is to say, their second and third segments are usually excavated internally to form a sheath for the hypostome; there is a distinct sucker beneath the claws and the difference between the sexes is well marked, the males having the dorsal integument thickly and continuously chitinized, whereas in the females only its anterior portion bears a chitinous plate, the rest of the integument being soft to admit of its distension by the blood which is imbibed in quantity by members of this sex.
In Sphenophyllum fertile both the ventral lobes of the sporophyll (corresponding to the sporangiophores in other species) and the dorsal lobes, which in other species are sterile, were developed as peltate sporangiophores.
Nostoc colonies are constantly present in a special cavity of the dorsal lobe of the leaf in Azolla.
The plants grow as a rule in marshy places, though some species of Marsilia are xerophytic. The creeping stem produces roots from the ventral surface and leaves from the dorsal surface; the leaves when young are circinately coiled.
It seems probable that there are branchial plumes or filaments in some Arthropoda (some Crustacea) which can be identified with the distinct branchial organs of Chaetopoda, which lie dorsal of the parapodia and are not part of the parapodium.
In Scutigera there are seven unpaired dorsal stigmata, each leading into a sac whence a number of air-holding tubes project into the pericardial blood-sinus.
In other cases (some larvae) stigmata are absent; in other cases again a single stigma is developed, as in the smaller Arachnida and Chilopoda, in the median dorsal line or other unexpected position.
The aurochs was a black animal, with a lighter dorsal streak, and horns directed upwards in the shape of a pitchfork, black at their tips, but otherwise whitish.
The part which lies at the base of the epistome is morphologically dorsal in position.
The praeseptal cavity is a vascular space, since it is in free communication with the dorsal vessel of the larva, and it persists in part as the two lophophoral vascular crescents of the adult.
In spite of these difficulties it must be conceded that the dorsal flexure of the alimentary canal of the Pterobranchia is very Phoronis-like.
A long dorsal fln, high and pointed anteriorly, runs along nearly the whole length of the back; the caudal is strong and deeply cleft.
From its habit of coming to the surface in calm weather, showing its high dorsal fin above the water, it has also received the name of "sun-fish," which it shares with Orthagoriscus and the basking shark.
After a brief existence the pupa emerges from the ground, and, holding on to a plant stem by means of its powerful front legs, sets free the perfect insect through a slit along the median dorsal line of the thorax.
Though existing horses are usually not marked in any definite manner, or only irregularly dappled, or spotted with light surrounded by a darker ring, many examples are met with showing a dark median dorsal streak like that found in all the other members of the genus, and even with dark stripes on the shoulders and legs.
The vertebral column consists of seven cervical, eighteen dorsal, six lumbar, five sacral, and fifteen to eighteen caudal vertebrae.
The dorsal surface generally is soft and smooth.
These papillae, which are found everywhere, are the primary papillae; they are covered with small, scale-like projections called secondary papillae, and are specially developed on the dorsal surface, less so on the ventral.
It is marked by a number of rings of papillae placed transversely to its long axis, the dorsal of which are pigmented like the dorsal surface of the body, and the ventral like the ventral surface.
Dorsal surface arched and more darkly pigmented than the flat ventral surface.
B, Endoderm has separated from the dorsal and ventral ectoderm.
The somite is represented as having divided on the left side into a dorsal and ventral portion.
The dorsal part of the somite has travelled dorsalwards, and now constitutes a small space (triangular in section) just dorsal to the gut.
In marginal placentation the part of the carpel bearing the placenta is the inner or ventral suture, corresponding to the margin of the folded carpellary leaf, while the outer or dorsal suture corresponds to the midrib of the carpellary leaf.
At other times they are vertical, as in Datura, where the ovary, in place of being two-celled, becomes four-celled; in Cruciferae, where the prolongation of the placentas forms a vertical partition; in Astragalus and Thespesia, where the dorsal suture is folded inwards; and in Oxytropis, where the ventral suture is folded inwards.
The dorsal suture may be marked by a slight projection or by a superficial groove.
The recently discovered species, Sphenophyllum fertile, while resembling Bowmanites Romeri in its peltate, bisporangiate sporangiophores, is peculiar in the fact that both dorsal and ventral lobes of the sporophyll were fertile, dividing in a palmate manner into several branches, each of which constitutes a sporangiophore.
The dorsal segments are sterile, corresponding to the bracts of Sphenophyllum Dawsoni, while the ventral segments constitute peltate sporangiophores, each bearing four sporangia, just as in a ax FIG.
In others, which represent the perichordal type, the greater share of the formation of the whole vertebra falls to the (paired) dorsal cartilage, but there is in addition a narrow ventral or hypochordal cartilage which fuses with the dorsal or becomes connected with it by calcified tissue; the notochord is thus completely surrounded by a thick sheath in tadpoles with imperfectly developed limbs.
The genital glands, ovaries and testes, are attached to the dorsal wall of the body-cavity, in the immediate vicinity of the kidneys, with which the male glands are intimately connected.
A major focus of his work is on the formation of the dorsal aorta and the generation of adult blood stem cells during embryogenesis.
Both dorsal fins have a dark blotch at the rear.
Mature males can be one and a half times the length of mature females and the females often have calluses on their dorsal humps.
In breeding coloration the male fish has a dark blotch at the rear of the first dorsal fin.
Older male Gaurs have a big dorsal ridge along the length of their backs and huge dewlaps.
The third region is located in the right dorsal (posterior) frontal cortex (bottom lateral view of brain ).
The bite had left a sub-circular depressed fracture about 6mm across on the dorsal surface of the shaft, just above the distal epiphysis.
The shoes will show deformation by a substantial bunion or dorsal exostosis.
As we moved slowly toward the blows a whale arched its back, showing a strongly falcate dorsal fin.
On their backs they have a fin called a dorsal fin which helps them to swim in a straight line.
The dorsal fin is also level with the pelvic fin in roach, in rudd it is behind the pelvic fin.
The cell bodies of these sensory nerves are grouped together in a small swelling called the dorsal root ganglion.
The main difference between the species is that the first dorsal fin of the black goby is elongated.
The dorsal horns are where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord.
These fish are both notable for their large dorsal fins, and are generally peaceful aquarium inhabitants.
In severe anxiety and depression states, lack of descending inhibition is enough to maintain the dorsal horn in its sensitized state.
Of the remaining preganglionic motoneurons, roughly 20% of the total are located dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus.
Replicate high-density rat genome oligonucleotide microarrays reveal hundreds of regulated genes in the dorsal root ganglion after peripheral nerve injury.
As it was speeding up, the tall dorsal fin of a male orca could be seen right next to it.
Dorsal Stream Occipital cortex to posterior parietal and frontal lobes.
The dorsal fin is also level with the pelvic fin in roach, in rudd it is behind the pelvic fin in roach, in rudd it is behind the pelvic fin.
The Risso's dolphin is a large dolphin with a robust, stocky body that becomes more slender behind the dorsal fin.
It appears that the elongated first dorsal fin spines are not always present.
A dorsal stripe runs the length of the body to the tip of the tail.
With the dorsal turret removed she would have been capable of around 350 mph +. Two 650 hp Mercury VIS engines gave adequate power.
The cervical, dorsal and lumber vertebrae are normal and extremely straight, which is unusual.
The dorsal fin of the lesser weever is all black, while that of the greater weever is dark only at the tip.
The most conspicuous blood vessel possessed by Cephalodiscus is the dorsal vessel (d.b.v.).
The dorsal or hyomandibular portion of this same arch is transformed into the auditory chain, ending in the fenestra ovalis.
The atlas is composed of three pieces; a pair of lateral ele ptz pt.z W " ments (the right and left dorsal arch pieces) joining above the spinal cord, and a ventral piece equivalent to the first basiventral elements, i.e.
Dorsal and ventral bending, even in the extended wing, is almost impossible.
Their transverse dorsal connexion is the posterior commissure; otherwise the whole roof portion of the midbrain is reduced to a thin membrane, continuous with that which covers the Sylvian aqueduct, and this ventricle sends a lateral cavity into each optic lobe, as is the case in reptiles.
The fifth abdominal segment has a pair of strong dorsal hook-like processes, by means of which the larva supports itself in the burrow which it excavates in the earth, the great head blocking the entrance with the mandibles ready to seize on any unwary insect that may venture within reach.
Its body is well-proportioned, rather elongate, and somewhat like that of the European barbel, but covered with very large scales, of which there are only twentyfive or twenty-seven placed along the lateral line; the dorsal fin is armed with a long and strong spine, and the mouth provided with four slender and short barbels.
The ctenidium is atrophied, and the edge of the mantle-skirt is fused to the dorsal integument by concrescence, except at one point which forms the aperture of the mantle-chamber, thus converted into a nearly closed sac. Air is admitted to this sac for respiratory and hydrostatic purposes, and it thus becomes a lung.
A wing is an outgrowth from the dorsal and pleural regions of the thoracic segment that bears it, and microscopic examination shows it to consist of a double layer of cuticularized skin, the two layers being in contact except where they are thickened and folded to form the firm tubular nervures, which serve as a supporting framework for the wing membrane, enclose air-tubes, and convey blood.
On this view Wheeler, however, compares with the " dorsal organ " the peculiar the entire food-canal in most Hexapoda must be regarded as of extra embryonic membrane or indusium which he has observed ectodermal origin, the " endoblast " represents mesoderm only, between serosa and amnion in the embryo of the grasshopper and the median furrow whence it arises can be no longer compared Xiphidium.
Graber has described a similar method of dorsal closure in the saw-fly Hylotoma.
I), the flowering glume having its dorsal rib prolonged into an awn (fig.
The blood, which is a non-corpuscular fluid, is propelled forwards by the contractile dorsal vessel and collected into the central bloodsinus; this lies over the stomochord, and is surrounded on three sides by a closed vesicle, with contractile walls, called the pericardium (Herzblase).
The tergites, or chitinized dorsal halves of the body rings, are fused to form a " prosomatic carapace," or carapace of the prosoma, in both Limulus and Scorpio (see figs, 7 and 8).
Valves of the Shell of alimentary tract altogether, and must Cytherea (one of the Si be regarded as a special and peculiar palliate Isomya), from the development of the median anterior part pa dorsal aspect.
Furthermore, there is a common littoral fish in the Mediterranean (Uranoscopus scaber), belonging to the same family as Trachinus, exhibiting the same habits and living on the same ground, which also has a jet black erectile dorsal fin, and is believed to be poisonous.
In these grooves lie two cilia, attached at the point of meeting on the dorsal surface.
During segmentation of the dorsal cartilages mentioned above, which send out the transverse processes of diapophyses, there appears between each two centra an intervertebral cartilage, out of which the articulating condyle of the centrum is formed, and becomes attached B A 6 .?..
Activity dependent excitability changes of nociceptors and mechanoreceptors Sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion are functionally heterogeneous.
The Risso 's dolphin is a large dolphin with a robust, stocky body that becomes more slender behind the dorsal fin.
Propulsion is by undulations of the small dorsal fin.
The concave dorsal fin begins above the base of the ventral fins.
The volar approach avoids dorsal blood supply, Percutaneous fixation is possible in undisplaced fractures.
Surgical options for chronic spasticity include selective dorsal rhizotomy and tendon release surgery.
Selective dorsal rhizotomy surgery, also called selective posterior rhizotomy, involves a surgical resection of part of the spinal nerve.
The most commonly used surgical procedures are tenotomy, tendon transfer, and dorsal rhizotomy.
A neurosurgeon performing dorsal rhizotomy carefully cuts selected nerve roots in the spinal cord to prevent them from stimulating the spastic muscles.
Dorsal rhizotomy-A surgical procedure that cuts nerve roots to reduce spasticity in affected muscles.
Shusui - These koi are similar to the Asagi, but these are doitsu koi, meaning that they have scales only along their dorsal and lateral lines.
These processes stretch across the body cavity to be inserted in the dorsal and ventral middle lines.
This is due to the fact that while young the turgidity and consequent growth are greater in the dorsal side of the leaf, so that it becomes rolled up. As it develops the maximum turgidity and growth change to its upper side, and so it becomes unfolded or expanded.
All the fins have a rounded outline; the short dorsal fin is without a spine, but the males possess a very thick and flattened outer ray in the ventral fins.
The vascular system is simple with as a rule direct communication between dorsal and ventral vessels in each segment.
The visceral commissure, while still surrounding the digestive tract, becomes looped; its right half, with its proper ganglion, passes to the left side over the dorsal face of the alimentary canal (whence the name supra-intestinal), while the left half passes below towards the right side, thus originating the name infra-intestinal given to this half and to its ganglion.
These diverticula extend usually one into each of the dorsal papillae or " cerata " when these are present.
Body depressed, without dorsal papillae, but with two very large lateral expansions, with dorsal plications.
At their opposite ends the dorsal and ventral vessels are probably connected with one another by means of a splanchnic sinus surrounding the stomach.
Beneath the epidermis is a longitudinal layer of muscle-fibres which are separated into four distinct groups by the dorsal, ventral and lateral areas; these are occupied by a continuation of the epidermic layer; in the lateral areas run two thin-walled tubes with clear contents, which unite in the anterior part of the body and open by a pore situated on the ventral surface usually about a quarter or a third of the body length from the anterior end.
Dorsal vertebrae frequently have a ventral outgrowth of the centrum; these hypapophyses may be simple vertical blades, I-shaped, or paired knobs; they serve for the attachment of the thoracic origin of the longus collianticus muscle, reaching their greatest development in Sphenisci and Colymbidae.
There is a well-marked processus lateralis anterior (the right and left together equivalent to the mammalian manubrium), which is the product of two or three ribs, the dorsal parts of which reduced ribs remain as cervico-dorsal ribs.
The ulna is curved and rather stout; it articulates with both carpal bones; the cubital quills often cause rugosities on its dorsal surface.
Further, according to these muscles being inserted only upon the dorsal, or only upon the ventral, or on both ends of the semi-rings, we distinguish between an-, kat- and diacromyodi.
On the other hand, the diacromyodian type can have been developed only from a strong muscular basis which could split into a dorsal and a ventral mass; moreover, no Passeres are known to be intermediate between those that are diacromyodian and those that are not.
When Hydrophilus dives it carries a supply of air between the elytra and the dorsal surface of the abdomen, while air is FIG.
After eating the contents of the egg, the larva moults and becomes a fleshy grub with short legs and with paired spiracles close to the dorsal region, so that, as it floats in and devours the honey, it obtains a supply of air.
Thus, among the Oligochaeta there are often a series of dorsal pores, or a single head pore, present also among the Polychaeta (in Ammochares).
The dorsal vessel also communicates with the ventral vessel indirectly by the intestinal sinus, which gives off branches to both the longitudinal trunks, and by tegementary vessels and capillaries which supply the skin and the nephridia.
It has been asserted (and denied) that the cellular rod which is known as the "Heart-body" (Herzkorper), and is to be found in the dorsal vessel of many Oligochaeta and Polychaeta, is formed of cells which are continuous with the chloragogen cells, thus implying the existence of apertures of communication with the coelom.