The fate of the Dorian invaders was represented as differing locally.
Whatever the racial affinities of the early inhabitants may have been, it is certain that in historic times Rhodes was occupied by a Dorian population, reputed to have emigrated mainly from Argos subsequently to the "Dorian invasion" of Greece.
of the kneeling posture of the images of Damia and Auxesia, of the use of native ware instead of Athenian in their worship, and of the change in women's dress at Athens from the Dorian to the Ionian style.
In favour of Ageladas it may be said that the influence of the many Dorian schools is certainly to be traced in some of his work.
The three cities founded by these settlers - Lindus, Ialysus and Camirusbelonged to the "League of Six Cities," by which the Dorian colonists in Asia Minor sought to protect themselves against the barbarians of the neighbouring mainland.
1: 58), where he says that Plautus was regarded as a second Epicharmus: Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi - a passage which is important as suggesting that Plautus was under some obligation to the Sicilian representatives of the old Dorian comedy; cf.
Although of Dorian stock, he wrote in the Ionic dialect, like all the physiologi (physical philosophers).
The Dorian dynasts in Crete seem in some sort to have claimed descent from Minos, and the Dorian legislators sought their sanction in the laws which Minos was said to have received from the hands of the Cretan Zeus.
The remarkable remains recently brought to light on Cretan soil tend to show that already some 2000 years before the Dorian conquest the island was exercising a dominant influence in the Aegean world.
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
The origin of the Cretan laws was of course attributed to Minos, but they had much in common with those of the other Dorian states, as well as with those of Lycurgus at Sparta, which were, indeed, according to one tradition, copied in great measure from those already existing in Crete.'
If we fix its introduction to about loon B.C. and make it coincident with the incursion of northern tribes, remembered by the classical Greeks as the Dorian Invasion, we must allow that this incursion did not altogether stamp out Aegean civilization, at least in the southern part of its area.
Moreover the Dorian population of Delphi constantly strove to establish its independence and about 590 B.C. induced a coalition of Greek states to proclaim a "Sacred War" and free the oracle from Phocian supervision.
The Ionians in turn succumbed to the Dorians of Argos, who, according to the legend, were led by Deiphontes; and from that time the city continued to preserve its Dorian character.
Lysander restored the island to its Dorian possessors, but it never recovered its former prosperity.
The ?rbrXos (also called kvos and Oapos in Homer) was the sole indispensable article of dress in early Greece, and, as it was always retained as such by the women in Dorian states, is often called the " Doric dress " (&)Oils &opts).
Aegina), the details of which are to all appearance legendary, in order to account for a change in the fashion of female dress which took place at Athens in the course of the 6th century B.C. Up to that time the " Dorian dress " had been universal, but the Athenians now gave up the use of garments fastened with pins or brooches, and adopted the linen chiton of the Ionians.
In working from early Dorian models they introduced refinements of their own, with the result that they produced beautiful, but somewhat vapid and academic types.
Sybaris (721) and Crotona (703) were Achaean settlements; Locri Epizephyrii (about 710) was settled by Ozolian Locrians, so that, had it not been for the Dorian colony of Tarentum, the southern coast of Italy would have been entirely occupied by a group of Achaean cities.
After the Achaean cities had combined to destroy the Ionic Siris, and had founded Metapontum as a counterpoise to the Dorian Tarentum, there seems to have been little strife among the Italiotes.
In Hellenic times a small district known as Doris in north Greece, between Mount Parnassus and Mount Oeta, counted as " Dorian " in a special sense.
Practically all Peloponnese, except Achaea and Elis, was " Dorian," together with Megara, Aegina, Crete, Melos, Thera, the Sporades Islands and the S.W.
coast of Asia Minor, where Rhodes, Cos, Cnidus and (formerly) Halicarnassus formed a " Dorian " confederacy.
" Dorian " colonies, from Corinth, Megara, and the Dorian islands, occupied the southern coasts of Sicily from Syracuse to Selinus.
Dorian states usually had in common the " Doric " dialect, a peculiar calendar and cycle of festivals of which the Hyacinthia and Carneia were the chief, and certain political and social institutions, such as the threefold " Dorian tribes."
The worships of Apollo and Heracles, though not confined to Dorians, were widely regarded as in some sense " Dorian " in character.
The northern Doris, for example, spoke Aeolic, while Elis, Phocis, and many non-Dorian districts of north-west Greece spoke dialects akin to Doric. Many Dorian states had additional " nonDorian tribes "; Sparta, which claimed to be of pure and typical Dorian origin, maintained institutions and a mode of life which were without parallel in Peloponnese, in the Parnassian and in the Asiatic Doris, and were partially reflected in Crete only.
Services rendered to Aegimius by Heracles led (I) to the adoption of Hyllus, son of Heracles, by Aegimius, side by side with his own sons Dymas and Pamphylus, and to a threefold grouping of the Dorian clans, as Hylleis, Dymanes and Pamphyli; (2) to the association of the people of Aegimius in the repeated attempts of Hyllus and his family to recover their lost inheritance in VIII.
The last of these attempts resulted in the " Dorian conquest " of the "Achaeans " and " Ionians " of Peloponnese, and in the assignment of Argolis, Laconia and Messenia to the Heracleid leaders, Temenus, Aristodemus and Cresphontes respectively; of Elis to their Aetolian allies; and of the north coast to the remnants of the conquered Achaeans.
Corinth, Sicyon and Megara, with similar political compromises, mark the limits of Dorian conquest; a Dorian invasion of Attica (c. 1066 B.C.) was checked by the self-sacrifice of King Codrus: "Either Athens must perish or her king."
The following are the problems: - (1) Was there a Dorian invasion as described in the legends; and, if not, how did the tradition arise?
(2) Who were the Dorian invaders, and in what relation did they stand to the rest of the population of Greece?
(3) How far do the Dorian states, or their characteristics, represent the descendants, or the culture, of the original invaders?
All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
Here, in the 8th-6th centuries, all the Dorian states were in the hands of exclusive aristocracies, which presented a marked contrast to the subject populations.
So long as the Homeric poems were believed to represent Hellenic (and mainly Ionian) beliefs of the 9th century or later, the historical value of the traditions of a Dorian invasion was repeatedly questioned; most recently and thoroughly by J.
Such legends often arise to connect towns bearing identical or similar names (such as are common in Greece) and to justify political events or ambitions by legendary precedents; and this certainly happened during the successive political rivalries of Dorian Sparta with non-Dorian Athens and Thebes.
The legend of a Dorian invasion appears first in Tyrtaeus, a 7thcentury poet, in the service of Sparta, who brings the Spartan Heracleids to Peloponnese from Erineon in the northern Doris; and the lost Epic of Aegimius, of about the same date, seems to have presupposed the same story.
In the 5th century Pindar ascribes to Aegimius the institutions of the Peloponnesian Dorians, and describes them as the " Dorian folk of Hyllus and Aegimius," and as " originating from Pindus " (Pyth.
Moreover, many independent considerations suggest that in its main outlines the Dorian invasion is historical.
Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This distribution makes it clear (r) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2) that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, -n and -w which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that those parts of " Dorian " Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian population " Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic -a and -ov; (4) that as we go north, similar though more barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5) that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in the northern Doris.
But this distribution does not by itself prove that Doric speech was the language of the Dorian invaders.
The common calendar and cycle of festivals, observed by all Dorians (of which the Carneia was chief), and the distribution in Greece of the worships of Apollo and Heracles, which attained pre-eminence mainly in or near districts historically " Dorian," suggest that these cults, or an important element in them, were introduced comparatively late, and represent the beliefs of a fresh ethnic superstratum.
The social and political structure of the Dorian states of Peloponnese presupposes likewise a conquest of an older highly civilized population by small bands of comparatively barbarous raiders.
Language is no better guide, for it is not clear that the Dorian dialect is that of the most recent conquerors, and not rather that of the conquered Achaean inhabitants of southern Greece; in any case it presents no such affinities with any non-Hellenic speech as would serve to trace its origin.
The doubt already suggested as to language applies still more to such characteristics as Dorian music and other forms of art, and to Dorian customs generally.
In the Homeric poems Corinth is a mere dependency of Mycenae; nor does it figure prominently in the tradition of the Dorian migrations.
Though ultimately conquered by the invaders it probably retained much of its former "Ionian" population, whose god Poseidon continued to be worshipped at the national Isthmian games throughout historic times; of the eight communal tribes perhaps only three were Dorian.
ALCMAEONIDAE, a noble Athenian family, claiming descent from Alcmaeon, the great-grandson of Nestor, who emigrated from Pylos to Athens at the time of the Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus.
The thoroughly national character of Heracles is shown by his being the mythical ancestor of the Dorian dynastic tribe, while revered by Ionian Athens, Lelegian Opus and Aeolo-Phoenician Thebes, and closely associated with the Achaean heroes Peleus and Telamon.
As the Dorian tutelar he aids Tyndareus and Aegimius.
About the foundation of Halicarnassus various traditions were current; but they agree in the main point as to its being a Dorian colony, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena and Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen and Argos.
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
Some scholars suppose them to have been of Achaean race, but they were more probably the aborigines of Laconia who had been enslaved by the Achaeans before the Dorian conquest.
559), a small Peloponnesian city, in the prehistoric period of the Achaean race, long before the Dorian immigration.
The palace was probably burnt at the time of the Dorian conquest.
The "Boeotian" population seems to have entered the land from the north at a date probably anterior to the Dorian invasion.
Then at the beginning of the 8th century B.C. the colonial power of Tyre began to decline; on the mainland and in Cyprus the Assyrians gained the Upper hand; in the Greek islands the Phoenicians had already been displaced to a great extent by the advancing tide of Dorian colonization.
Along with Halicarnassus and Cos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindus, Camirus and Ialysus it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.
Every fourth year the festival was celebrated with peculiar magnificence; gymnastic sports were added to the horse races; and there is little doubt that Peisistratus aimed at making the penteteric Panathenaea the great Ionian festival in rivalry to the Dorian Olympia.
As the historical city was peopled by Dorians, the manners, customs and political institutions of its inhabitants were all Dorian.
Both Ionian and Dorian colonies were planted, both from the older Greek lands and from the older Sicilian settlements.
Here, between Naxos and Syracuse, arose the Ionian cities of Leontini and Catana (728 B.C.), and the Dorian Megara Hyblaea (726 B.C.).
On the whole, setting aside the impassable barrier between Greek and Phoenician, other distinctions of race within the island were breaking down through the spread of the Hellenic element, but among the Greek cities themselves the distinction between the Dorian and the Ionian or Chalcidian settlements was still keenly felt.
At the very beginning of the war the Lacedaemonians looked for help from the Dorian Siceliots.
Potidaea, a Dorian town on the western promontory of Chalcidice in Thrace, a tributary ally of Athens - to which however Corinth as metropolis still sent annual magistrates - was induced to revolt,' with the support.
about 1300 B.C. They found the land occupied by a people known by the ancients as Pelasgians, who continued down to classical times the main element in the population even in the states under Achaean and later under Dorian rule.
the Penestae in Thessaly, the Helots in Laconia and the Gymnesii at Argos, whilst it practically composed the whole population of Arcadia and Attica, which never came under either Achaean or Dorian rule.
Whether Hera was also worshipped by the early Dorians is uncertain; after the Dorian invasion she remained the chief deity of Argos, but her cult at Sparta was not so conspicuous.
3) is very improbable, and we may either regard it as an immemorial Dorian institution (with C. O.
Though organized on similar lines, with a citizen population divided into three Dorian tribes (and one containing other elements), with a class of Perioeci (neighbouring dependents) and of serfs, the Argives had no more constant foe than their Lacedaemonian kinsmen.
In the period of Dorian supremacy, in spite of the new cults which were introduced by these people, the Heraeum maintained its supreme importance: it was here that the tablets recording the succession of priestesses were kept which served as a chronological standard for the Argive people, and even far beyond their borders; and it was here that Pheidon deposited the 6/3EAcvKot when he introduced coinage into Greece.
After the death of Aegimius, his two sons, Pamphilus and Dymas, voluntarily submitted to Hyllus (who was, according to the Dorian tradition in Herodotus v.
According to the story, it was prophesied at the time of the Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus (c. 1068 B.C.) that only the death of their king at the enemy's hands could ensure victory to the Athenians.
Devoting himself to his country, Codrus, in the disguise of a peasant, made his way into the enemy's camp, and provoked a quarrel with some Dorian soldiers.
364 seq.) that they were the original Achaean inhabitants of the country, that for the first generation after the Dorian invasion they shared in the franchise of the invaders, but that this was afterwards taken from them and they were reduced to a subject condition and forced to pay tribute.
The only force in Greek history which we know that could have produced this change was that of the Dorian conquest.
As everywhere in the Peloponnese, except at Argos, there seems to have been a sudden break with the earlier civilization, which can have been occasioned only by the semi-barbarous Dorian tribes, so the same result seems to have followed from the same cause in Thera.
139), San was only the Dorian name for the letter which the Ionians called Sigma.
In the Peloponnesus the face of things was completely altered by the Dorian conquest, no trace of which is found in Homer.
He may be compared with the Clarian and the Lycian god, but he is unlike the Apollo of Dorian times, the " deliverer " and giver of oracles.
The tendency of modern dialectologists is to divide the Greek dialects into Dorian and non-Dorian.
After the Dorian invasion the community was divided anew into the ordinary three Dorian tribes and an equally privileged tribe of Ionians, besides which a class of rcopvvrtcao,00e or Karwvauochopoe lived on the land as serfs., For some centuries Sicyon remained subject to Argos, whence its Dorian conquerors had come; as late as 50o B.C. it acknowledged a certain suzerainty.
Besides reforming the city's constitution to the advantage of the Ionians and replacing Dorian cults by the worship of Dionysus, Cleisthenes gained renown as the chief instigator and general of the First Sacred War (5go) in the interests of the Delphians.
After the fall of the tyrants their institutions survived till the end of the 6th century, when the Dorian supremacy was re-established, perhaps by the agency of Sparta, and the city was enrolled in the Peloponnesian League.
From the mention in the letters of towns (Phintia, Alaesa and Tauromenium) which did not exist in the time of Phalaris, from the imitations of authors (Herodotus, Democritus, Euripides, Callimachus) who wrote long after he was dead, from the reference to tragedies, though tragedy was not yet invented in the lifetime of Phalaris, from the dialect, which is not Dorian but Attic, nay, New or Late Attic, as well as from absurdities in the matter, and the entire absence of any reference to them by any writer before Stobaeus (c. A.D.
called Cherson) was a Dorian colony of Heraclea in Bithynia, founded in the 5th century B.C. in the Crimea about 2 m.
In much of his writings, and in his general attitude, there was to most people an undertone of rather nasty suggestion which created prejudice against him, and his novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891), with all its sparkle and cleverness, impressed them more from this point of view than from its purely literary brilliance.
Epicharmus was the chief representative of the Sicilian or Dorian comedy.
After the Dorian migration Pylos declined, and it is referred to by Thucydides (iv.
A larger collection, possibly more extensive than that of Artemidorus, and including poems of doubtful authenticity, was known to Suidas, who says: ` L' Theocritus wrote the so-called bucolic poems in the Dorian dialect.
Their chief occupation was the cultivation of the shares (KAilpot) of the Dorian aristocracy, but they lived in households of their own and were considered as subjects rather of the Cretan commonwealths than of private men.
Consequently the same population, whose origins Greek tradition removed back into the world's earliest days, held the land throughout historic times, without even an admixture of Dorian immigrants.
On the west its natural boundary is the Corinthian Gulf, so that it would include Megaris; indeed, before the Dorian invasion, which resulted in the foundation of Megara, the whole country was politically one, in the hands of the Ionian race.
It is only for geographical purposes that we include this district under Attica, for both the Dorian race of the inhabitants, and its dangerous proximity to Athens, caused it to be at perpetual feud with that city; but its position as an outpost for the Peloponnesians, together with the fact of its having once been Ionian soil, sufficiently explains the bitter hostility of the Athenians towards the Megarians.
The origin of the name has given rise to much speculation; the current theory is that the Achaeans were driven back into this region by the Dorian invaders of the Peloponnese.
As the league was originally made up of neighbours, the Dorian tribe must have comprised simply the inhabitants of Doris; the Locrians were probably the eastern (Opuntian) branch; and the Ionians were doubtless limited to the adjacent island of Euboea.
In the same way Doris held one Dorian vote and the other passed in rotation among the Dorian cities of Peloponnesus; and the east and west Locrians came to have one each.
2608, note 2) draws attention to the instructive parallel furnished by the Greek legends of the Dorian invasion of the Peloponnesus (the "return" of the Heracleidae, the partition of the land by lot, &c.).
Eighty years after the Trojan War, according to the traditional chronology, the Dorian migration took place.
The Aetolians settled in Elis the Dorians pushed up to the headwaters of the Alpheus, where they divided into two forces, one of which under Cresphontes invaded and later subdued Messenia, while the other, led by Aristodemus or, according to another version, by his twin sons Eurysthenes and Procles, made its way down the Eurotas valley and gained Sparta, which became the Dorian capital of Laconia.
In reality this Dorian immigration probably consisted of a series of inroads and settlements rather than a single great expedition, as depicted by legend, and was aided by the Minyan elements in the population, owing to their dislike of the Achaean yoke.
72) to Cleomenes I.: "I am no Dorian, but an Achaean."
A fresh struggle, the great Peloponnesian War (q.v.), broke out in 431 B.C. This may be to a certain extent regarded as a contest between Ionian and Dorian; it may with greater truth be called a struggle between the democratic and oligarchic principles of government; but at bottom its cause was neither racial nor constitutional, but economic.
He doesn't totally understand coz he didn't know Dorian.
notoriety with the publication of " The Picture Of Dorian Gray " .
Expelled by the Achaeans (who seem to have entered Peloponnese about four generations before the Dorian Invasion) they invaded and dominated Attica; and about the time of the Dorian Invasion took the lead under the Attic branch of the Neleids of Pylus (Hdt.
Later the commoner antithesis is between Ionian and Dorian, first (probably) in the colonial regions of Asia Minor, and later more universally.
The early inhabitants, whose race is unknown, were extirpated or absorbed in the Dorian migration, for in historic times the city had a homogeneous Dorian population.
The discovery in the island of a number of gold ornaments belonging to the latest period of Mycenaean art suggests the inference that the Mycenaean culture held its own in Aegina for some generations after the Dorian conquest of Argos and Lacedaemon (see A.
On this conquest seems to have ensued a long period of unrest and popular movements, known to Greek tradition as the Ionian Migration and the Aeolic and Dorian "colonizations"; and when once more we see the Aegean area clearly, it is dominated by Hellenes, though it has not lost all memory of its earlier culture.
The Dorian Greeks, however, as Herodotus tells us (i.
Most non-Dorian Greeks, in fact, seem to have accepted much as Dorian which was in fact only Spartan: this was particularly the case in the political, ethical and aesthetic controversies of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. Much, however, which was common (in art, for example) to Olympia, Argolis and Aegina, and might thus have been regarded as Dorian, was conspicuously absent from the culture of Sparta.
Since the kinship of the latter with the members of adjacent non-Dorian states was admitted, two different explanations seem to have been made, (I) on behalf of the non-Dorian populations, either that the Dorians were no true sons of Hellen, but were of some other northerly ancestry; or that they were merely Achaean exiles; and in either case that their historic predominance resulted from an act of violence, ill-disguised by their association with the ancient claims of the Peloponnesian Heraclidae; (2) on behalf of the Dorian aristocracies, that they were in some special sense " sons of Hellen," if not the only genuine Hellenes; the rest of the European Greeks, and in particular the anti-Dorian Athenians (with their marked likeness to Ionians), being regarded as Hellenized barbarians of " Pelasgian " origin (see Pelasgians).
The Cretan cities, irrespective of origin, exhibit serfage, militant aristocracy, rigid martial discipline of all citizens, and other marked analogies with Sparta; but the Asiatic Dorians and the other Dorian colonies do not differ appreciably in their social and political history from their Ionian and Aeolic neighbours.
The Greeks who migrated to Cyprus, possibly as the result of the Dorian invasion, adopted a syllabary, not an alphabet (see Plate; also Writing).
Lili St. Cyr did interpretive striptease based on Salome, Carmen, The Picture of Dorian Gray, and Sadie Thompson.
The tabs themselves are clearly laid out with chord letters placed at relevant positions, and an indication of the scale used, in this case E Dorian.
Another Golden Glitch - In the Imperial City Talos District, find Dorian's House.
Once inside, get Dorian as angry as possible by threatening him.
MIT Open Courseware offers an introduction to fiction course that uses examples from classic works such as Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to teach the characteristics of good fiction writing.
Birki's Women's Dorian Clog: What strikes one most about this shoe is its appealing blue, yellow and pink floral detail.
When Dorian Lord became involved with David Vickers, One Life to Live spoilers speculated on everything from who they would cheat with to what backstabbing they would participate in.
However, in typical soap opera style, matriarch Dorian Lord managed to take over the company, ousting all of the Buchanan heirs from the firm.
The Lords, the central family for many decades, remains represented by the Buchanans (Viki Lord Buchanan) and the Cramers (Dorian Cramer Lord), the Lord name is no longer a centerpiece of the show.
On One Life to Live, Victoria Lord Buchanan and Dorian Cramer Lord have been with the show since the beginning.
Is marriage in the cards for Clint and Dorian?
Viewers tuned in to listen to Karen Wolek's confessions on the stand, to watch Viki and Niki reunite and to see Dorian and David plot, fall in love and much more.
Dorian Cramer Lord, Viki's rival and former step-mother hides many secrets, among them her family's struggles with catatonia and psychotic breaks.
Nieces Kelly and Blair struggle with their problems and dysfunctions while Kelly's mother Melinda languishes in a mental institution and Dorian's own daughter Cassie struggled with a psychotic break.
Her relationship with Clint has led to at least two marriages and two near reconciliations, but his relationships with Lindsay Rappaport and Dorian Lord effectively turned Viki off from reconciling with her former husband.
Dorian's knowledge of Charlie's secret drove a wedge between Viki and Charlie for a time, but when Charlie remodeled Carlotta's diner in Angel's Square after the Bonjour Café, he and Viki reconnected.
Dorian fans will publish Dorian spoilers in a far different light from fans who hate Dorian.
Through the decades, the Llanview Banner has been at the center of multiple storylines from Viki's first love affair with star Banner reporter Joe Riley to her struggles with former mother-in-law Dorian Lord.
The Sun was once known as the Intruder and was owned by Dorian Lord for over six years.
In 1979, Dorian founded a newspaper called the Lord Press.
Dr. Dorian Cramer moved to Llanview with her sister Melinda.
Dorian was later suspended when the truth came out.
Dorian believed Viki was behind the reveal.
Dorian became Victor Lord’s private physician, married him and worked to take his fortune.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.