The ibis is chiefly an inhabitant of the Nile basin from Dongola southward, as well as of Kordofan and Sennar; whence about midsummer it moves northwards to Egypt.
Nubia at once submitted, the Shagia Arabs immediately beyond the province of Dongola were worsted, the remnant of the Mamelukes dispersed, and Sennr reduced without a battle.
The authorities in Egypt, headed by General Stephenson, subsequently fupported by the Admiral Lord John Hay, who sent a naval)fflcer to examine the river as far as Dongola, were unanimous n favor of the Suakin-Berber route.
The question of routes continued to be the subject of animated discussion, and on the 29th of July a committee of three officers who had served in the Red River expedition reported: We believe that a brigade can easily be.conveyed in small boats from Cairo to Dongola in the time stated by Lord Wolseley; and, further, that should it be necessary to send a still larger force by water to Kbartum, that operation will present no insuperable difficulties.
He considered it necessary to hold Dongola, and he reported that he was distributing this army along the left bank of the Nile, on the open reach of water between the Hannek cataract and Abu Dom, opposite Merawi.
Buller reported that the difficulties of reoccupation would be great, and that if Dongola was to be held, a fresh expedition would be required.
On the 22nd of June, before the British rearguard had left Dongola, the mahdi died.
Dongola was bombarded by the gunboats and captured by the army on the 23rd of September.
On the Nile north of Khartum at the towns of Berber, Abu Hamed, Merawi (Merowe), Dongola and Wadi Haifa.
The date-palm is cultivated along the Nile valley below Khartum, especially on the west bank in the Dongola mudiria and in the neighbouring oases.
The Dongola breed of horses is noted for its strength and hardness.
The camels are bred in the desert north of Berber, between the Nile and Red Sea, in southern Dongola, in the Hadendoa country and in northern Kordofan.
There is lignite in the Dongola mudiria and iron ore is found in Darfur, southern Kordofan and in the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
Following the Nile route he occupied Dongola without opposition, the Mamelukes fleeing before him.
Ismail remained in the Dongola province till February 1821, when he crossed the Bayuda Desert and received the submission of the meks (kings) of Berber, Shendi and Halfaya, nominal vassals of the king of Sennar.
In February 1822 he set out on his return to Sennar and Dongola, having received reports of risings against Egyptian authority.
The fall of Khartum was followed by the withdrawal of the British expedition, Dongola being evacuated in June 1885.
The relief of the Egyptian garrisons was successfully accomplished, and Gordon visited the provinces of Berber and Dongola, whence he had again to return to the Abyssinian frontier to treat with King John.
General Stephenson, who was in command of the British troops in Egypt, wished to send a brigade at once to Dongola, but he was overruled, and it was not until the beginning of November that the British relief force was ready to start from Wadi Halfa under the command of Lord Wolseley.