How to use Dominion in a sentence
Having thus extended his dominion he became king of Ireland in 915.
The remainder of the population is chiefly made up of English-speaking people horn the other provinces of the Dominion, from the United States, from England and Scotland and the north of Ireland.
In that year the newly formed Dominion of Canada bought from the company its territorial and.
In the extent and importance of her colonial dominion France is second only to Great Britain.
The Dominion government maintains an experimental farm of 670 acres at Brandon.Advertisement
It was precisely at this time that Flanders, and gradually the other feudal states of the Netherlands, by marriage, purchase, treachery or force, fell under the dominion of the house of Burgundy.
But the desire for Canadian unity led the Dominion to assist a transcontinental line connecting Manitoba with eastern Canada.
He extended his dominion by conquest and became the most powerful prince in Greece.
He gradually fell under the dominion of two false assumptions.
At the time of his death The Times observed that "it is acknowledged on all hands that in him the Dominion has lost one of the ablest men that it has yet produced."Advertisement
Gian Galeazzo, partly by force and partly by intrigue, discredited these minor despots, pushed his dominion to the very verge of Venice, and, having subjected Lombardy to his sway, proceeded to attack Tuscany.
The Trans-Siberian railway was a military necessity if Russia was to exercise dominion throughout Siberia and maintain a port on the Yellow Sea or the Sea of Japan.
Sivaji's own father had founded a dominion at Tanjore in the extreme south, which, however, never had relations with the central power at Poona.
The acme of this dominion was reached about the end of the 3rd millennium B.C., and thereafter there ensued a certain, though not very serious, decline.
To most of the provinces the Achaemenid dominion was synonymous with two centuries of peace and order.Advertisement
Manitoba formerly belonged to the Hudson's Bay Company, and after the transfer of its territory to Canada was admitted in 1870 as the fifth province of the Dominion.
The last part of the peninsula to undergo the Gallicizing influence was the papal dominion.
A long struggle for dominion in Uruguay between Brazil and the revolutionary government of Buenos Aires was concluded in 1828, through the mediation of Great Britain, Uruguay being declared a free and independent state.
The king did indeed make her the confidante of his affairs and of his resentment against the cardinal, but she, far from repeating his confidences to the minister, set herself to encourage the king in his resistance to Richelieu's dominion.
There are some thriving Jewish agricultural colonies in the same dominion.Advertisement
A religious order, largely composed of immigrants from abroad, could not permanently rule a state which had developed a national feeling of its own; and the native aristocracy, both of the towns and the country, revolted against its dominion.
Iron came into general Aegean use about r000 B.C., and possibly was the means by which a body of northern invaders established their power on the ruins of the earlier dominion.
The dominion of Alp Arslan now extended over the fairest part of Asia; 1200 princes or sons of princes surrounded his throne and 200,000 warriors were at his command.
Under the dominion of the Roman republic its national league was dissolved, but was revived by Augustus, who also restored to Phocis the votes in the Delphic Amphictyony which it had lost in 346 and enrolled it in the new Achaean synod.
During the four hundred years of the Arpad dominion the nomadic Magyar race had established itself permanently in central Europe, adopted western Christianity and founded a national monarchy on the western model.Advertisement
In 1658 it surrendered to the Swedes; but by the defeat of the latter under the walls of the fortress on the 24th of November 1659, the country was freed from their dominion.
The latter claimed dominion over all the rest.
The settled Scythians would be the remains of this Iranian population, or the different tribes of them may have been connected with their neighbours beyond Scythian dominion - Thracian Getae and Arimaspi, Slavonic Neuri, Finnish Androphagi and such like.
In Palestine and western Syria, the home of pre-Christian Aramaic dialects, the vernacular Semitic speech had under Roman dominion been replaced by Greek for official and literary purposes.
The Teutonic tribes whose dim origins he records have in the course of centuries attained to world-wide dominion.Advertisement
But the history of the Crusades must be viewed rather as a chapter in the history of civilization in the West itself, than as an extension of Western dominion or religion to the East.
The Canadian churches had a good record, consummated in 1884 when they contributed 8000 members and ioo ministers to the United Methodist Church of the Dominion.
It is evident that in the course of his long struggle with the state he fell more and more under the dominion of personal motives.
Besides securing her Aegean possessions and her commerce by the defeat of Corinth and Aegina, her last rivals on sea, Athens acquired an extensive dominion in central Greece and for a time quite overshadowed the Spartan land-power.
In 78 Agricola went to Britain, and both extended and consolidated the Roman dominion in that province, pushing his arms into North Wales and the Isle of Anglesey.Advertisement
Responsible government after the British model is followed, and the revenue is chiefly derived from grants from the Dominion government.
At length in 1905 the district of Alberta was enlarged and the present province formed by the Dominion parliament.
By the original Roman law the master was clothed with absolute dominion over the slave, extending to the power of life and death, which is not surprising when we consider the nature of the patria.
In Louisiana alone (as the state is known to-day), out of all the territory acquired from France as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was the civil law so established under French and Spanish rule that it persisted under American dominion.
Great confusion prevailed in the first years of American dominion owing to the diversities of languages and the grafting of such Anglo-Saxon institutions as the jury upon the older system.Advertisement
Stoddard, Sketches of Louisiana (New York, 1811), among those just following the establishment of American dominion.
Many of the Roman Catholics withdrew into Croatia-Slavonia and south Hungary, where they ultimately fell again under Ottoman dominion.
The most powerful Thracian tribe was that of the Odrysae, whose king, Teres, .in the middle of the 5th century B.C. extended his dominion so as to include the greater part of Thrace.
The archaeological exploration of Algeria has kept pace with the expansion of French dominion.
During their dominion Merv, like Samarkand and Bokhara, was one of the great schools of learning, and the celebrated historian Yaqut studied in its libraries.Advertisement
His most important mission was in 1884, when he was sent as French minister to China to regularize the French dominion in Annam.
Writing in the palmiest days of the Maccabean dominion, he looked for the immediate advent of the Messianic kingdom.
The reason of this measure was no doubt partly disciplinary, Bologna itself having in 1506 passed under the dominion of the papacy.
Thus Spain laid claim to exclusive dominion over whole oceans, Great Britain to all her environing narrow seas and so on.
A formula was found by Bynkershoek in his De dominio maxis (1702) for the restriction of dominion over the sea to the actual distance to which cannon range could protect it.Advertisement
In the latter case the United States, after the purchase of Alaska, vainly attempted to assert dominion beyond the three-mile limit.
Slowly the Dutch lost ground and the outbreak of war with England sounded the knell of their dominion in Brazil.
The Turks regard it as one of the strongholds of their dominion and faith, and a future capital of their empire should they be forced into Asia.
Thirteen years later it recognized and received the Fatimites, and passed under various Moslem dynasties, forming part of the Seljuk dominion from 1090 to 1117.
It adds many new features to the shorter form of the story as given by Eusebius, among which is the noteworthy promise of Christ about the impregnability of the city - " Thy city shall be blessed and no enemy shall ever henceforth obtain dominion over it.
Gela enjoyed its greatest prosperity under Hippocrates (498-491 B.C.), whose dominion extended over a considerable part of the island.
The three together secured for Syracuse a continuous dominion to the south-east 2 The origin of the name is quite uncertain.
In that country much was due to the Jews, who had already established schools in places which were afterwards the seats of Moslem dominion.
In connexion with these two features of a Roman city supposed to be found in Ancient London the author argues for the continuity of the city through the changes of Roman and Saxon dominion.
The Pamphylians are first mentioned among the nations subdued by the Mermnad kings of Lydia, and afterwards passed in succession under the dominion of the Persian and Macedonian monarchs.
The Siamese who had revolted in 1771 were never afterwards subdued by the Burmans; but the latter retained their dominion over the sea-coast as far as Mergui.
After Alexander's death it was long a battle ground of rival marshals and kings, and for a time fell under Ptolemaic dominion, but finally under that of the Seleucids, who, however, never held effectually more than the eastern half.
The next two years were occupied in adding Larsa and Yamutbal to his dominion, and in forming Babylonia into a single monarchy, the head of which was Babylon.
Under this foreign dominion, which offers a striking analogy to the contemporary rule of the Hyksos in Egypt, Babylonia lost its empire over western Asia, Syria and Palestine became independent, and the high-priests of Assur made themselves kings of Assyria.
Such a region was naturally occupied from a very early period by wild and lawless races of mountaineers, who were very imperfectly reduced to subjection by the powers that successively established their dominion in Asia Minor.
In Strabo's time they had passed under the Roman dominion, though still governed by their own petty chiefs and retaining to a considerable extent their predatory habits (giving rise to such wars as that carried on by Quirinius, about 8-6 B.C.).
Nolde - who arrived there in 1893, not long after the amir had by his victory over the combined forces of Riad and Kasim brought the whole of Nejd under his dominion.
His son and successor, Abdul Aziz, in a rapid series of successful campaigns, extended his dominion and that of the reformed faith far beyond the limits of Nejd.
The Wahhabi empire had now attained its zenith, a settled government was established able to enforce law and order in the desert and in the towns, and a spirit of Arabian nationality had grown up which bade fair to extend the Wahhabi dominion over all the Arab race.
For a time it looked as if the supremacy of the Wahhabi empire was to be renewed; El Hasa, Harik, Kasim and Asir returned to their allegiance, but over Oman and Yemen Fesal never re-established his dominion, and the Bahrein sheiks with British support kept their independence.
Midhat Pasha, then governor-general, seized the occasion of asserting Turkish dominion on the Persian Gulf coast, and in 1875, in spite of British protests, occupied El Hasa and established a new province under the title of Nejd, with its headquarters at Hofuf, of which Abdallah was appointed governor.
But by the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 both powers pledged themselves not to fortify, colonize or exercise dominion over any part of Central America; and in November 1859 Great Britain delegated its protectorate to Honduras.
The tide of their dominion ebbed and flowed repeatedly, but the normal Khazari may be taken as the territory between the Caucasus, the Volga and the Don, with the outlying province of the Crimea, or Little Khazaria.
Indeed his dominion became an object of uneasiness to the jealous statecraft of Byzantium, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing for his son's instruction in the government, carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes and the Bulgarians as the forces he must rely on to restrain it.
Till the 13th century the Crimea was known to European travellers as Gazaria; the "ramparts of the Khazars" are still distinguished in the Ukraine; and the record of their dominion survives in the names of Kazarek, Kazaritshi, Kazarinovod, Kozar-owka, Kozari, and perhaps in Kazan.
Under the Byzantine dominion Pisa, like many other of the maritime cities of Italy, profited by the weakness of the government at Constantinople to reassert its strength.
The two republics contested the dominion of the sea, and both claimed supreme power over the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.
She had lost her dominion over the sea, and the Tuscan Guelphs again joined in attacking her by land.
The latter state claimed sovereignty over the Napo and Maranon rivers on the grounds of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised over this section of territory during the period of Spanish dominion, the government of Colombia asserting that these ecclesiastical rights to which Colombia became entitled after her separation from the Spanish crown carried also the right of absolute ownership. In a treaty signed by the three interested states in 1895 a compromise was effected by which Colombia withdrew a part of the claim advanced, and it was agreed that any further differences arising out of this frontier question should be submitted to the arbitration of the Spanish crown.
After the break-up of the Roman dominion Trieste shared the general fortunes of Istria and passed through various hands.
The town must have become a part of the Carthaginian dominion in 405 B.C. It was seized by Pyrrhus in 278 B.C., and was ceded to Rome at the end of the First Punic War.
During the forty-five years after the death of Omar (he died in 1822) the khanate of Khokand was the seat of continuous wars between the settled Sarts and the nomad Kipchaks, the two parties securing the upper hand in turns, Khokand falling under the dominion or the suzerainty of Bokhara, which supported Khudayar-khan, the representative of the Kipchak party, in 1858-1866; while Alim-kul, the representative of the Sarts, put himself at the head of the gazawat (Holy War) proclaimed in 1860, and fought bravely against the Russians until killed at Tashkent in 1865.
He edited La Patrie and other French papers in the Dominion; and in 1889 was appointed clerk of the Quebec legislative council.
He aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean.
Subsequently, in the time of Akbar, Dhar fell under the dominion of the Moguls, in whose hands it remained till 1730, when it was conquered by the Mahrattas.
In 1535, like the rest of Lombardy, it fell under Spanish dominion, and in 1714 under Austrian.
He became finance minister in the first Dominion ministry, but suddenly and mysteriously resigned on the 4th of November 1867.
The country districts of the Florentine dominion were now divided into departments, and levies of foot soldiers were made in order to secure a standing militia.
He was exiled from Florence and confined to the dominion for one year, and on the 17th of November was futher prohibited from setting foot in the Palazzo Pubblico.
Unc Khan reappears in Marco Polo, who tells much about him as "a great prince, the same that we call Prester John, him in fact about whose great dominion all the world talks."
There is also a group of coalfields on the Atlantic seaboard of the Dominion, principally in Nova Scotia.
When at the beginning of the 16th century the Portuguese obtained possession of the towns along the East African coast, they had been, for periods extending in some cases fully five hundred years, under Arab dominion.
In the 8th century the fertility of the valley attracted the attention of Najib-ud-daula, governor of Saharanpur, who invaded it with an army of Rohillas in 1757 and annexed it to his dominion.
In the middle ages it went through various vicissitudes; it fell under the dominion of Venice in 1511, and remained Venetian until 1797.
To the north of the district lay the district of Saskatchewan, so that when the two were united by the Dominion act of 1905, they were somewhat changed in boundaries and the name Saskatchewan was given to the new province.
So the power of the pope no longer rested upon his headship of the Church or his authority as a secular prince, but on a far more comprehensive claim to universal dominion.
In the last years of Mexican dominion it was the most prominent of the northern settlements in which the Hispano-Californian element predominated over the new American element.
The British navy cut off the French from all help from home, and after a gallant struggle, their dominion in Canada was conquered, and the French retired from the North American continent.
The fall of the French dominion on the continent of North America was practically the beginning of the existence of independent nations of European origin in the New World.
But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
Enumerations were conducted independently by the different states until 1871, when the first federal census was taken of the older parts of the Dominion.
Owing to the sparse population and difficulties of communication in a great part of the dominion, the inquiry, though referred to a single date, is not completed on that day, a month being allowed to the enumerator for the collection of his returns and their revision and transmission to the central office.
He advocated a republic under the dominion of the French in a pamphlet I Tedeschi, i Francesi, ed i Russi in Lombardia, and under the Cisalpine Republic he was named historiographer and director of statistics.
When supplied with firearms by Europeans they reduced a number of other tribes to subjection and extended their dominion over most of the territory from the St Lawrence to the Tennessee and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi.
Of the five banks of issue doing business in the dominion three are Australian and New Zealand institutions.
Macdonald took the leading part in all these discussions, and he thus naturally became the first premier of the Dominion.
The difficulties of organizing the new Dominion, the questions arising from diverse claims and the various conditions of the country, called for infinite tact and resource on the part of the premier.
To this power the successful guidance of the Dominion through its critical formative period must be ascribed.
In 1400 Timur pillaged it, and in 1517 it passed, with the rest of Syria, to the Ottoman dominion.
Even before this committee met a royal proclamation had been signed (January 30, 1854) "abandoning and renouncing all dominion" in the Sovereignty.
It is more accurate to say that as to certain matters the legislature of the Canadian Dominion is sovereign, and as to certain others that it is not (Lefroy, 244; Quick and Garran, Australian Commonwealth, 328; Dicey, 106); and as to some matters they are in fact, if not in form, universitates superiorem non recognoscentes (Quick and Garran, 319); or that they are states in process of making.
Here was a display, not only of Englishmen, Scotsmen, Irishmen, Welshmen, but of Mounted Rifles from Victoria and New South Wales, from the Cape and from Natal, and from the Dominion of Canada.
In the 15th century it fell under the dominion of Lithuania, but was retaken by the Russians.
In 1686 he became governor, with Boston as his capital, of the "Dominion of New England," into which Massachusetts (including Maine), Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire were consolidated, and in 1688 his jurisdiction was extended over New York and the Jerseys.
About this time a new dominion was founded by Louis the Bearded, who by purchase, gift or marriage obtained several counties in Thuringia.
Of no great importance in early times, in the and century B.C. it fell under the dominion of native kings whose names appear on its coins, and it was destroyed by the Getae about 50 B.C. In A.D.
He selected Freiburg in the Breisgau, as a city which was still in the dominion of the emperor, and was free from religious dissension.
In answering this question we must consider East and West separately; for their histories are no longer coincident, as they had been in the time of the Roman dominion.
In the years of conflict that followed Gregory looked far beyond this point; he set his aim ever higher; until, in the end, his idea was to concentrate all ecclesiastical power in the hands of the pope, and to raise the papacy to the dominion of the world.
While the Church was yet at the height of her power the great revolution began, which was to end in the disruption of that union between the Temporal and the Spiritual which, under her dominion, had characterized the life of the West.
Once in possession of Austrasia, Charles sought to extend his dominion over Neustria also.
But law may mean ethical rule, and the Antinomians so understood it, and interpreted Luther's declaration to mean that believers are not under the dominion of the moral law.
Kashgar and the other cities of the Tarim basin remained under Yakub Beg's rule until 1877, when the Chinese regained possession of their ancient dominion.
Originally planted on the Baltic shore for the express purpose of christianizing their savage neighbours, these crusading monks had freely exploited the wealth and the valour of the West, ostensibly in the cause of religion, really for the purpose of founding a dominion of their own which, as time went on, lost more and more of its religious character, and was now little more than a German military forepost, extending from Pomerania to the Niemen, which deliberately excluded the Sla y s from the sea and thrived 'Archbishop of Gnesen 1219-1220.
The Cossacks of the Dnieper were henceforth to be under the joint dominion of the tsar and the king of Poland.
They were incorporated by Croesus with the Lydian monarchy, with which they fell under the dominion of Persia (546 B.C.), and were included in the satrapy of Phrygia, which comprised all the countries up to the Hellespont and Bosporus.
It became a city of importance under the Roman dominion and, though nearly destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, was restored by that emperor and flourished through the Roman empire.
He had defeated all enterprises by rivals against his throne; he had broken down the power of local chiefs, and tamed the refractory tribes; so that his orders were irresistible throughout the whole dominion.
Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the Baltic. Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to clear the northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and depopulated.
In 1882 he became Conservative member for King's County, N.B., in the Dominion parliament, and in 1885 entered the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as minister of marine and fisheries; in 1888 he became minister of finance, which position he held till the defeat of his party in 1896.
All the foreign invaders who successively established their dominion over this country either crossed the Mediterranean or followed its shores.
Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia - dates back to the time of the Turkish dominion.
Two Turkish corsairs, Arouj and his brother, Khair-ed-Din (otherwise known as Barbarossa), at first established in the island of Jerba and afterwards at Jijelli, disputed with the Spaniards the dominion of the country.
In short, five years after the capitulation of Algiers, the French dominion extended as yet over only six coast towns.
The "Marriage of the Adriatic," or more correctly "of the sea" (Sposalizio del Mar) was a ceremony symbolizing the maritime dominion of Venice.
It was too far removed to the east ever to be brought under the dominion of Rome, but it has shared deeply in all the various and bloody revolutions of Asia.
As a monetary weight it seems to have spread, perhaps entirely, in consequence, of the Persian dominion; it varies from 174.
During his twenty years' reign Denmark advanced steadily along the path of greatness and prosperity marked out for her by Valdemar I., consolidating and extending her dominion over the North Baltic coast and adopting a more and more independent attitude towards Germany.
Hereupon he returned to the capital; the Juarist dominion extended rapidly; the French troops left (in one body) on the 5th of February 1867, and shortly after Maximilian took command of the army at Queretaro.
To the west there are the Broadstone station, Dominion Street, and beyond this the large workhouse, prison, asylum and other district buildings, while the Royal barracks front the river behind Albert Quay.
Brandenburg laid the foundations of her dominion in Westphalia by obtaining the counties of Mark and Ravensberg in 1614 (confirmed 1666), to which the bishopric of Minden was added by the peace of Westphalia.
But if the first human beings thus stood entirely under the dominion of the devil, the glorious spirits took them under their care from the very outset, sending aeons down to them (including Jesus), who instructed them regarding their nature, and in particular warned Adam against sensuality.
The Dominion of Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska, which belongs to the United States, and Newfoundland, still a separate colony of the British empire.
Summing up the economic features of the Cordilleran belt, it includes many of the best coal-mines and the most extensive deposits of gold, copper, lead and zinc of the Dominion, while in silver, nickel and iron Ontario takes the lead.
In Ontario the flora of the northern part is much the same as that of the Gulf of St Lawrence, but from Montreal along the Ottawa and St Lawrence valleys the flora takes a more southern aspect, and trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants not found in the eastern parts of the Dominion become common.
In 1867 the Dominion was formed by the union of the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec (Lower Canada) and Ontario (Upper Canada).
In 1871 British Columbia and in 1873 Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion.
The islands and other districts within the Arctic circle became a portion of the Dominion only in 1880, when all British possessions in North America, excepting Newfoundland, with its dependency, the Labrador coast, and the Bermuda islands, were annexed to Canada.
In that province about 87% of the population belongs to this church, which is strong in the others also, embracing over two-fifths of the population of the Dominion.
The great proportion of the foreign trade of the Dominion is with the United States and Great Britain.
Though the chief foreign commerce is with Great Britain and the United States, the Dominion has trade relations with all the chief countries of the world and maintains commercial agents among them.
Since 1903 the Dominion government has instituted a railway commission of three members with large powers of control over freight and passenger rates and other such matters.
So great is their extent that, in spite of the immigration of recent years, the Dominion government gives a freehold of 160 acres to every bona fide settler, subject to certain conditions of residence and the erection of buildings during the first three years.
Both the Dominion and the provincial governments have set apart certain areas to be preserved, largely in their wild state, as national parks.
Of these the most extensive are the Rocky Mountains Park at Banff, Alberta, owned by the Dominion government, and the "Algonquin National Park," north-east of Lake Simcoe, the property of Ontario.
These cannot be compelled to serve outside the Dominion, though special corps may be enlisted for this purpose, as was done during the war in South Africa (1899-1902).
At Quebec is a Dominion arsenal, rifle and ammunition factories.
Judges are appointed for life by the Dominion parliament, and cannot be removed save by impeachment before that body, an elaborate process never attempted since federation, though more than once threatened.
Most of this is summed up in the annual Statistical Year Book of Canada and in the Official Handbook of the Dominion of Canada, issued at frequent intervals by the Department of the Interior.
Thoroughbred and pure bred hackney stallions are maintained in private studs and by agricultural associations throughout the Dominion, and animals for cavalry and mounted infantry remounts are produced in all the provinces including those of the North-West.
With a climate which produces healthy, vigorous animals, stud farms. The total number of horses in the Dominion was estimated on the basis of census returns at 2,019,824 for the year 1907, an increase of 609,309 since 1901.
By the Meat and Canned Foods Act of 1907 of the Dominion parliament and regulations thereunder, the trade is carried on under the strictest government supervision, and no canned articles of food may be exported unless passed as absolutely wholesome and officially marked as such by government inspectors.
All parts of the Dominion are well adapted for sheep; but various causes, amongst which must be reckoned the prosperity of other branches of agriculture, including wheat-growing and dairying, have in several of the provinces contributed to prevent that attention to this branch which its importance deserves, though there are large areas of rolling, rugged yet nutritious pastures well suited to sheep-farming.
The department of agriculture of the Dominion government renders aid to agriculture in many ways, maintaining the State aid.
The last two objects are secured by act of the Dominion parliament passed in 1905.
The policy of encouraging the provision of ample cold-storage accommodation has been developed still further by the Cold Storage Act of the Dominion parliament passed in 1907, under which subsidies are granted in part payment of the cost of erecting and equipping cold-storage warehouses in Canada for the preservation of perishable foodproducts.
The census and statistics office, reorganized as a branch of the department of agriculture in 1905, undertakes a complete census of population, of agriculture, of manufactures and of all the natural products of the Dominion every ten years, a census of the population and agriculture of the three North-West Provinces every five years, and various supplemental statistical inquiries at shorter intervals.
Experimental farms were established in 1887 in different parts of the Dominion, and were so located as to render efficient help to the farmers in the more thickly settled districts, and at the same time to cover the varied climatic and other conditions which influence agriculture in Canada.
Additional branch farms in different parts of the Dominion are in process of establishment.
Farmers are invited to visit these experimental farms, and a large correspondence is conducted with those interested in agriculture in all parts of the Dominion, who are encouraged to ask advice and information from the officers of the farms.
The Dominion government makes in turn to one of the chief local agricultural exhibition societies a grant of $50,000 for the purposes of the national representation of agriculture and live-stock.
The exhibition receiving the grant loses its local character, and thus becomes the Dominion exhibition or fair for that year.
Canada suggested a wider plan to include herself and, in October 1864, a conference was held at Quebec. The conference outlined a plan of federation which subsequently, with slight modifications, passed the imperial parliament as " The British North America Act," and on the ist of July 1867, the Dominion of Canada came into existence.
This birthday of the Dominion has been fixed by statute as a public holiday, and is annually observed under the name of " Dominion Day."
The first general election for the Dominion House of Commons was held during the month of August, and except in the province of Nova Scotia was favourable to the administration, which entered upon its parliamentary work with a majority of thirty-two.
The first session of parliament was opened on the 8th of November, but adjourned on the 21st of December till the 12th of March 1868, chiefly on account of the fact that members of the Dominion parliament were allowed, in Ontario and Quebec, to hold seats in the local legislatures, so that it was difficult for the different bodies to be in session simultaneously.
Headed by Joseph Howe, the advocates of repeal swept the province at the Dominion election.
Howe enlisted the support of John Bright and other members of parliament, but the imperial government was firm, and the duke of Buckingham, as colonial secretary, soon informed the governor-general in a despatch that consent could not be given for the withdrawal of Nova Scotia from the Dominion.
Meanwhile Howe, convinced of the impossibility of effecting separation, and fearing disloyal tendencies which had manifested themselves in some of its advocates, entered into negotiations with Dr Tupper in London, and later with the Dominion government, for better financial terms than those originally arranged for Nova Scotia in the federal system.
These terms having been agreed to, Howe, as a pledge of his approval and support, accepted a seat as secretary of state in the Dominion cabinet.
By taking this course he sacrificed much of his remarkable popularity in his native province, but confirmed the work of consolidating the Dominion.
A gloom was cast over the first parliament of the Dominion by the assassination in 1868 of one of the most brilliant figures in the politics of the time, D'Arcy McGee (q.v.).
The reorganization of the various departments of state, in view of the wider interests with which they had to deal, occupied much of the attention of the first parliament of the Dominion.
In 1868 a militia system for the whole Dominion was organized, the tariff altered and systematized, and a Civil Service Act passed.
The banking system of the country was put on a sound footing by a series of acts culminating in 1871, and in the same year a uniform system of decimal currency was established for the whole Dominion.
In anticipation of the formal transfer to the Dominion an act was passed by the Canadian parliament in the same month providing for the temporary government of Rupert's Land and the North-West Territories.
Provision was made in the British North America Act to receive new provinces into the Dominion.
The clause on which there was the widest divergence of opinion was one providing that a trans-continental railway, connecting the Pacific province with the eastern part of the Dominion, should be begun within two, and completed within ten years.
The Opposition in parliament claimed that the contract was one impossible for the Dominion to fulfil.
Anticipating the order of chronology slightly, it may be mentioned here that in 1873 Prince Edward Island (q.v.), which had in 1865 decisively rejected proposals of the Quebec conference and had in the following year repeated its rejection of federation by a resolution of the legislature affirming that no terms Canada could offer would be acceptable, now decided to throw in its lot with the Dominion.
In the end the federal government assumed the railway debt, arrangements were made for extinguishing certain proprietary rights which had long been a source of discontent, and on the 1st of July 1873 the Dominion was rounded off by the accession of the new province.
Finally in 1878, in order to remove all doubts about unoccupied territory, an imperial order in council was passed in response to an address of the Canadian parliament, annexing to the Dominion all British possessions in North America, except Newfoundland.
Though not for many years a financial success, the Inter-Colonial railway, which was opened in 1876, has in a marked way fulfilled its object by binding together socially and industrially widely separated portions of the Dominion.
Within a month of the meeting of the first parliament of the Dominion a question of vast importance to the future of the 's country was brought forward by the Hon.W.McDougall in a series of resolutions which were adopted, and on y which was based an address to the queen praying that teases.
The prime minister of the Dominion, Sir John Macdonald, was asked to act as one of the imperial commissioners in carrying on these negotiations.
Much to the annoyance of the people of the Dominion the claims for the Fenian raids were withdrawn at the request of the British government, which undertook to make good to Canada any losses she had suffered.
The second general election for the Dominion took place in 1872.
Under this arrangement British Columbia became exceedingly restive, holding the Dominion to the engagement by which it had been induced to enter the union.
A representative of the government, Mr (later Sir James) Edgar, sent out to conciliate the province by some new agreement, failed to accomplish his object, and all the influence of the governor-general, Lord Dufferin, who paid a visit at this time to the Pacific coast, was required to quiet the public excitement, which had shown itself in a resolution passed by the legislature for separation from the Dominion unless the terms of union were fulfilled.
Meanwhile a policy destined to affect profoundly the future of the Dominion had, along with that of the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, become a subject of burning political discussion and party division.
The Dominion revenue showed a series of deficits for several years in succession.
In October 1878 Lord Dufferin's term of office expired, and his place as governor-general was taken by the marquess of Lorne, whose welcome to the Dominion was accentuated by the fact that he was the son-in-law of the queen, and that his viceroyalty was shared by the princess Louise.
Under his direction the great lines of policy which have governed the development of Canada as a confederated state within the empire were inaugurated and carried forward with great success, so that his name has become indissolubly connected with the history of the Dominion at its most critical stage.
Three contingents of troops were despatched to the seat of war and took an active part in the events which finally secured the triumph of the British arms. These forces were supplemented by a regiment of Canadian horse raised and equipped at the sole expense of Lord Strathcona, the high commissioner of the Dominion in London.
Each province has a lieutenant-governor and a single legislative chamber, with a representation of four members in the Senate and five in the House of Commons of the Dominion parliament.
Since confederation a series of attempts has been made with varying degrees of success to settle the questions in dispute between the Dominion and the United States, naturally arising from the fact that they divide between them with the the control of nearly the whole of a large continent and United its adjoining waters.
The dispute was finally referred to a court of arbitration, on which Sir John Thompson, premier of the Dominion, sat as one of the British arbitrators.
The constitution of the Dominion embodies the first attempt made to adapt British principles and methods of government to a federal system.
This court is presided over by a chief justice, with five puisne judges, and has appellate civil and criminal jurisdiction for the Dominion.
In The Far West, However, A Little Group Of Adventurous Fur Traders, Of Whom Sir Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson, Alexander Henry And Daniel Williams Harmon May Be Taken As Conspicuous Types, Were Unfolding The Vast Expanse Of The Future Dominion.
He was not less successful in the Dominion House of Commons, to which he was elected in 1874.
We may still hold the opinion of Dollinger that it was intended to impress the barbarian Pippin and justify in his eyes the Frank intervention in favour of the pope in Italy; or we may share the view of Loening (rejected by Brunner, Rechtsgeschichte) that the forgery was a pious fraud on the part of a cleric of the Curia, committed under Adrian I., 4 with the idea of giving a legal basis to territorial dominion which that pope had succeeded in establishing in Italy.
This analysis does not disclose, nor indeed is it possible to discover, what was the determining element for Tertullian; in fact he was under the dominion of more than one ruling principle, and he felt himself bound by several mutually opposing authorities.
But this lapse only shows how powerful a dominion Plato exercised over Aristotle's soul to the last; for it arises out of the pupil still accepting from hiAmaster the unity of the universal though now applying it, not to classes, but to essences.
Nevertheless the Seljukian dominion was petty and unimportant and did not rise to significance till his son and successor, Kilij Arslan II., had subdued the Danishmands and appropriated their possessions, though he thereby risked the wrath of the powerful atabeg of Syria, Nureddin, and afterwards that of Saladin.
In great measure owing to his energy, and in spite of much concealed opposition from the French-Canadians, the North-West Territories were purchased by the new Dominion.
His designs were unsuccessful, and during the reign of Theodosius II., son of Arcadius (who died in 408), Dalmatia was transferred to the dominion of the eastern ruler.
But in our own age conscious statecraft is also at work, as in Canada, where the genius of statesmen is gradually endowing that dominion with all the attributes of independence and power.
Whatever value may attach to the consolidation of the British Empire itself as a factor in spreading the peace which reigns within it, it is also a great contribution to the peace of the world that the British race should have founded practically independent states like the Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, the South African Union and the Dominion of New Zealand.
In 1817, at the instance of John Quincy Adams, the United States and Great Britain entered into a compact whereby the Great Lakes, and the waterways from them to the ocean by the St Lawrence river, which divide the United States from the Dominion of Canada, were practically excluded from any possible hostilities.
It is the dominion of the Sindhia family.
The establishment of Dominion government agencies, the formation of a local government, the machinery required for the government of the province, the influx of a small army of surveyors who mapped out and surveyed wide districts of the country, and the taking up of free lands in all directions by Canadian settlers, all tended to build up the hamlet of Winnipeg into a considerable town.
It was founded by Claudius, early in the period of the Roman conquest, as a municipality with discharged Roman soldiers as citizens, to assist the Roman dominion and spread its civilization.
In 374 Pelopidas restored the Theban dominion.
By this time the extension of Teutonic dominion towards the south and west had brought about its natural sequel in the occupation of the old Teutonic lands in eastern Germany, including even the basin of the Elbe, by Slavonic peoples.
In the interests of their temporal dominion, the 12th-century popes could not suffer an Italian power to dominate on the other side of the Adriatic and instal itself at Constantinople.
Inasmuch as Clement was compelled to make terms with this new power which had established itself against him in the very centre of his dominion, the victory may fairly be said to have rested with the commune.
He incurred their special reproaches by his condemnation of the irresistible evolution which impelled Rome to desire exclusive dominion over Catholic Europe and to devote her attention to earthly things.
Nevertheless, Innocent left his successors a much vaster and more stable political dominion than that which he had received from his predecessors, since it comprised both East and West; and his five immediate successors were able to preserve this ascendancy.
Though remaining leagued with the Angevins in southern Italy, they dared to look to Germany and Rudolph of Habsburg to help them in their efforts to add to the papal dominion a part of northern Italy and, in particular, Tuscany.
In spite of his instincts for dominion and the ardour of his temperament, he made no attempt to shake off the French yoke, and did not decide on hostilities with France until Philip the Fair and his legists attempted to change the character of the kingship, emphasized its lay tendencies, and exerted themselves to gratify the desire for political and financial independence which was shared by the French nation and many other European peoples.
After Martin's death the last popes of the 13th century, and notably Boniface VIII., in vain thought to find in another Capetian, Charles of Valois, the man who was to re-establish the Latin dominion at Byzantium.
The papacy was weakened by its contest with these adverse elements, and it was through its failure to triumph over them that its dream of European dominion, both temporal and spiritual, entered but very incompletely into the field of realities.
But the culminating glory of his reign was the restoration of the almost ruined papal dominion in Italy, by means of the highly-gifted Cardinal Albornoz.
After the fall of the French dominion in Italy he made his peace with the emperor at Barcelona (June 29, 1529); in return for which he received the assistance of Charles in re-establishing the rule of the Medici in Florence.
Gabinius crossed the' Euphrates (54); but the command was assumed by Crassus, who, though he seized Ichnae, &c., and Raqqa (Rakka), fell near Carrhae (53), and the Parthian dominion was confirmed.
An important epoch in the history of Silesia is marked by the year 1740, when the dominion of Austria was exchanged for that of Prussia.
How far southward this dominion at first extended is not known; but in 703 Nepal and the country of the Brahmans rebelled, and the Tibetan king, the third successor of Srong tsan gam-po, was killed while attempting to restore his power.
When the Mongol dynasty of China passed away, the Mings confirmed and enlarged the dominion of the Tibetan rulers, recognizing at the same time the chief lamas of the eight principal monasteries of the country.
His dreams of autocracy at home and farreaching dominion abroad were anachronisms in a century of constitutional ideas and national differentiation.
His preaching and lecturing drew great crowds both in the Dominion and in the United States, and he was five times president of the Canadian conference.
It was then held by the Malatesta of Rimini until 1465, when it came under the dominion of the church.
Thus in 312 Tyre was captured from Antigonus by Ptolemy I., the ally of Seleucus; in 287 it passed into the dominion of Seleucus; in 275 again it was captured by Ptolemy II.
In Spain, under Moorish dominion, most of the important works of that period were composed in Arabic, and the influence of Arabic writers both on language and method may be seen in contemporaneous Hebrew compositions.
Barcinona or Bardjaluna, as it was then called, was captured by the Moors in 713, and in 801 it passed, with the rest of Catalonia, under the dominion of the Franks.
The Australian Presbyterians have important agencies in the South Seas and in Korea, the Australian Baptists in Bengal, the Canadians of various denominations in the Far North-West of the Dominion, and in India and China.
The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks, probably without a serious struggle; and were ruled from 555 to 788 by dukes of the Agilolfing family, who were possibly of Frankish descent.
For the Etruscan dominion in the Latin plain see Etruria.
The su trema information that we have as to the districts in which p the sixteen earliest clans (tribus rusticae) 4 were settled shows us that, except along the Tiber, Rome's dominion extended hardly more than 5 m.
The donation made by Constantine to various churches of Rome of numerous estates belonging to the patrimonium Caesaris in the neighbourhood of Rome was of great historical importance, as being the origin of the territorial dominion of the papacy.
When the rest of Crete fell under the Roman dominion, Cnossus shared the same fate, and became a Roman colony.
By the 8th century the Frankish dominion was firmly established in central Germany and northern Gaul.
The extent of Asoka's dominion included all India from the thirteenth degree of latitude up to the Himalayas, Nepal, Kashmir, the Swat valley, Afghanistan as far as the Hindu Kush, Sind and Baluchistan.
By the single battle of Agnadello the Italian dominion of Venice was practically lost; but as the allies were not satisfied with merely effecting his purposes, the pope entered into a combination with the Venetians against those who immediately before had been engaged in his behalf.
But the Hohen Oermany staufen family, like their Saxon and Franconian settled, predecessors, would be content with nothing short of universal dominion; and thus the crown which had once been significant of power and splendour gradually sank into contempt.
The Russian disasters in Manchuria at the beginning of 1905 were followed by an extraordinary demonstration of the emperor Williams ideas as to the world-wide dominion of the Hohenzollerns, in a sort of imperial progress in the East, made for the purpose of impressing the Mahommedan world with the power of Germany.
On the other hand, the existence in the time of Dionysius of Halicarnassus of a treaty concluded between Tarquinius and the inhabitants of Gabii, shows that the town came under his dominion by formal agreement, not, as the tradition states, by treachery and violence.
A constitutional revolution, involving such far-reaching changes, is not likely to have been carried out in primitive times with so little disturbance by a simple resolution of the people, and it probably points to a rising of Romans and Sabines against the dominion of an Etruscan family (Tarquinii, Tarchna) at that time established at Rome.
The total mineral output of Ontario, including building materials and cement, is larger than that of any other province of the dominion, and as more careful exploration is carried on in the northern parts, no doubt many more deposits of value will be discovered.
Canals of Greenwich 88 Longitude West important cities are Ottawa (the capital of the Dominion) (59,9 28 in 1 9 01), Hamilton (52,634), London (37,981), Kingston (17,961).
There are also about 20,000 Indians, many of whom are civilized, enjoy the franchise and are enrolled in the Dominion militia.
By the British North America Act, which formed in 1867 the Dominion of Canada, the provinces have the right of direct taxation only.
Another third comes from the Dominion subsidy, granted in lieu of the power of indirect taxation, and the remainder from the sale or lease of crown lands, timber and minerals.
About three-fifths of the inhabitants are engaged in agricultural pursuits, and in 1910 the amount invested in lands, buildings, implements and stock was double that invested in the manufactures of the whole Dominion.
The lumber industry exceeds that of any other part of the Dominion, though Quebec possesses greater timber areas untouched.
The province supplies over two-thirds of the iron ore mined in the Dominion, but much is still imported.
The district around Petrolea produces about 30,000,000 gallons of petroleum yearly, practically the whole output of the dominion.
Save for the flour and grist mills, few do more than supply the markets of the Dominion, of which they control an increasing portion.
Railways gridiron the province, which contains over one-third the total mileage of the dominion; their construction is aided by provincial and municipal subsidies, in addition to that paid by the federal government.
Several questions in which Ontario and the Dominion came into conflict were carried to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, and in all of them Mowat was successful.
He certainly consolidated Venice's dominion in the East and increased its commercial prosperity to a very high degree.
For some ten years the Austrian dominion groaned under one of the worst possible forms of autocratic government.
And the influence of Greece on Sicily has been repaid in more than one shape by Sicilian rulers who have at various times held influence and dominion in Greece and elsewhere beyond the Adriatic. The connexion between Sicily and Italy begins with the primitive kindred between some of the oldest elements in each.
Neither people ever occupied the whole island, nor was either people ever able to spread its dominion over the earlier inhabitants very far inland.
Though the Greeks never spread their dominion over the island, they made a peaceful conquest of it.
This process was in no way hindered by the Roman dominion.
We must always remember that Carthage - the new city - was one of settle-'' the latest of Phoenician foundations, and that the days of the Carthaginian dominion show us only the latest form of Phoenician life.
Under his rule the city at once sprang to the first place in Sicily, and he was the first Siceliot ruler who held dominion over two Greek cities, Acragas and Himera.
One such power held dominion both in Italy and Sicily.
That city now became the centre of a greater dominion over both Greeks and Sicels than the island had ever before seen.
If Syracuse was an object of jealousy, Athens, succeeding to her dominion, creating a power too nearly alike to her own, would have provoked far greater jealousy.
That is to say, the Siceliot level represents the general Greek level as it stood before the wars in which Athens won and defended her dominion.
All chance of Athenian dominion in Sicily or elsewhere in the west came to an end.
More than half Sicily was now under barbarian dominion; several of its noblest cities had perished, and a tyrant was established in the greatest.
His dominion is Italian as well as Sicilian; his influence, as an ally of Sparta, is important in old Greece; while, as a hirer of mercenaries everywhere, he had wider relations than any earlier Greek with the nations of western Europe.
With him in truth begins that wider range of Greek warfare, policy and dominion which the Macedonian kingdoms carry on.
Before the first war his home power was all but overthrown; he was besieged in Syracuse itself Jfls war ' 'with in 403; but he lived through the storm, and extended his dominion over Naxos, Catana and Leontini.
In the first war with Carthage the Greek cities under Carthaginian dominion or dependence helped him; so did Sicans and Sicels, which last had among them some stirring leaders; Elymian Segesta clave to Carthage.
The Carthaginian dominion was cut down to what it had been before Hannibal's invasion.
The Carthaginians played off one city and party against another, and Agathocles,' following the same policy, became in 317, by treachery and massacre, undisputed tyrant of Syracuse, and spread his dominion over many other cities.
A new scheme of Sicilian union was taken up by Deinocrates, which cut short his dominion.
This was in imitation of the Macedonian leaders who divided the dominion of Alexander.
The Campanian occupation of Messana is the first of the chain of events which led to the Roman dominion in Sicily.
The dominion of the freebooters was spreading.
But he could not aspire to the dominion of earlier Syracusan rulers.
Sicily was thus won back to the Roman dominion.
The Normans held all Sicily as the centre of a dominion which stretched far beyond it.
In Italy they overthrew the Byzantine dominion; their own rule was perhaps not worse, but they were not deliverers.
On the death of his cousin Duke William of Apulia, Roger gradually founded (1127-1140) a great Italian dominion.
He thus formed a dominion which has been divided, united and handed over from one prince to another oftener than any other state in Europe, but whose frontier has hardly changed at all.
The cities, whose growing liberties had been checked by Frederick's legislation, strove for practical, if not formal, independence, sometimes for dominion over their fellows.
For a time Rostock was under the dominion of the kings of Denmark.
In 1810 he captured Multan after many assaults and a long siege, and in 1820 had consolidated the whole of the Punjab between the Sutlej and the Indus under his dominion.
From this brief re-establishment of Persian dominion (counted by Manetho as Dynasty XXXI.) no document survives except one papyrus that appears to be dated in,the reign of Darius III.
After ten years of Persian dominion the success of Heraclius restored Egypt to the empire, and for a time it again received a Greek governor.
Equally short-lived was the Danish dominion in England, which originated in a great Viking expedition of King Sweyn I.
Frederick II., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token of his right to rule the northern seas.
In a word, the monarchy had to share its dominion with the nobility; and the Danish nobility in the 16th century was one of the most exclusive and selfish aristocracies in Europe, and already far advanced in decadence.
On the other hand, if Denmark had emerged from the war with her honour and dignity unimpaired, she had at the same time tacitly surrendered the dominion of the North to her Scandinavian rival.
Hereditary sovereignty per se was not held to signify unlimited dominion, still less absolutism.
The Sassanid kings of Persia ruled a dominion which extended from the confines of Syria to those of India, and from the straits of Oman to the Caucasus.
Under Roman dominion, the rights of existing Greek sanctuaries were at first confirmed, but their number was considerably reduced by Tiberius.
He was no stranger there, but had visited the dominion twice already, being a brother-in-law of his predecessor, Lord Minto.
Malocello's enterprise not only marks the beginning of the oversea expansion of western Europe in exploration, conquest and colonization (after the age of Scandinavian world-roving had passed); it is also probably not unconnected with the great Genoese venture of 1291 (in search of a waterway to India, which soon follows), with which this attempt at Canarian discovery and dominion has been by some unjustifiably identified.
Hence arose that "adiaphoristic" controversy in connexion with which he has been misrepresented as holding among matters of indifference such cardinal doctrines as justification by faith, the number of the sacraments, as well as the dominion of the pope, feast-days, and so on.
Sakhalin, which was under Chinese dominion until the 19th century, became known to Europeans from the travels of Martin Gerritz de Vries in the 17th century, and still better from those of La Perouse (1787) and Krusenstern (1805).
In June the great popular festival "Dei Quattro Altari" is annually celebrated here in commemoration of the abolition of the feudal dominion in 1700.
The Graeco-Bactrian dominion was overwhelmed entirely about 126 B.C. by the Yue-chi, a numerous people who had been driven westwards from their settlements on the borders of China by the Hiungnu (q.v.).
From the Yue-chi arose, about the Christian era, the great Indo-Scythian dominion which extended across the Hindu Kush southwards, over Afghanistan and Sind.
Wiseman displayed calmness and courage, and immediately penned an admirable Appeal to the English People (a pamphlet of over 30 pages), in which he explained the nature of the pope's action, and argued that the admitted principle of toleration included leave to establish a diocesan hierarchy; and in his concluding paragraphs he effectively contrasted that dominion over Westminster, which he was taunted with claiming, with his duties towards the poor Catholics resident there, with which alone he was really concerned.
In due course it passed from Pergamene to Roman dominion, and according to Cicero, was plundered of many artistic treasures by Verres.
His own policy for Ireland was the gift of Dominion Home Rule.
In a threefold vision Jesus is invited to enter upon His inheritance at once; to satisfy His own needs, to accept of earthly dominion, to presume on the Divine protection.
The last stage of the history of Palestine was reached in 1516, when the war between the Ottoman sultan and the Mamelukes of Egypt resulted ir_ the transference of the country to the dominion of the Turks.
As might be expected the Berber tongue is most common in Morocco and the western Sahara - the regions where Arab dominion was least exercised.
Near the Christian era the chief of one of these, which was called Kushan, subdued the rest, and extended his conquests over the countries south of the Hindu Kush, including Sind as well as Afghanistan, thus establishing a great dominion, of which we hear from Greek writers as Indo-Scythia.
Having long suffered from a terrible disease, he died in 1773, bequeathing to his son Timur a dominion which embraced not only Afghanistan to its utmost limits, but the Punjab, Kashmir and Turkestan to the Oxus, with Sind, Baluchistan and Khorasan as tributary governments.
It has been said that the declared object of this policy had been to maintain the independence and integrity of Afghanistan, to secure the friendly alliance of its ruler, and thus to interpose a great barrier of mountainous country between the expanding power of Russia in Central Asia and the British dominion in India.
Nevertheless the correspondence between Kabul and Tashkend continued, and as the Russians were now extending their dominion over all the region beyond Afghanistan on the northwest, the British government determined, in 1876, once more to undertake active measures for securing their political ascendancy in that country.
The province of Kandahar was severed from the Kabul dominion; and the sirdar Shere Ali Khan, a member of the Barakzai family, was installed by the British representative as its independent ruler.
During the ten years following his accession in 1880 Abdur Rahman employed himself in extending and consolidating his dominion over the whole country.
In short, Abdur Rahman's reign produced an important political revolution, or reformation, in Afghanistan, which rose from the condition of a country distracted by chronic civil wars, under rulers whose authority depended upon their power to hold down or conciliate fierce and semi-independent tribes in the outlying parts of the dominion, to the rank of a formidable military state governed autocratically.