at the time of the Domesday survey.
The church of All Saints is mentioned in Domesday, and tradition ascribes the building of its nave to King John, while the western side of the tower must be older still.
The mention of four burgesses at Bridlington (Brellington, Burlington) in the Domesday survey shows it to have been a borough before the Conquest.
It is mentioned in Domesday only as a bailiwick of Newbold belonging to the king, and granted to William Peverell.
Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone, Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne.
An early form of the name is Patricsey or Peter's Island; the manor at the time of the Domesday survey, and until the suppression of the monasteries, belonging to the abbey of St Peter, Westminster.
The Domesday Survey contains a long account of the laws, customs and values of the salt-works at that period, which were by far the most profitable in Cheshire.
Pudsey is mentioned in Domesday.
Chatham (Ceteham, Chetham) belonged at the time of the Domesday Survey to Odo, bishop of Bayeux.
Teignmouth is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but in 1276 what is now West Teignmouth appears as a mesne borough held by the dean and chapter of Exeter; what is now East Teignmouth continuing with the bishop, who was accused in that year of holding in his manor a market which should be held in the borough.
William the Conqueror revived it immediately of ter his accession, as a convenient method of national taxation, and it was with the object of facilitating its collection that he ordered the compilation of Domesday Book.
In the reign of Alfred the abbey was destroyed by the Danes, but it was restored by Edred, and an imposing list of possessions in the Domesday survey evidences recovered prosperity.
Honiton (Honetona, Huneton) is situated on the British Icknield Street, and was probably the site of an early settlement, but it does not appear in history before the Domesday Survey, when it was a considerable manor, held by Drew (Drogo) under the count of Mortain, who had succeeded Elmer the Saxon, with a subject population of 33, a flock of 80 sheep, a mill and 2 salt-workers.
Derbyshire probably originated as a shire in the time of ZEthelstan, but for long it maintained a very close connexion with Nottinghamshire, and the Domesday Survey gives a list of local customs affecting the two counties alike.
The two shire-courts sat together for the Domesday Inquest, and the counties were united under one sheriff until the time of Elizabeth.
The early divisions of the county were known as wapentakes, five being mentioned in Domesday, while 13th-century documents mention seven wapentakes, corresponding with the six present hundreds, except that Repton and Gresley were then reckoned as separate divisions.
The greatest landholder in Derbyshire at the time of the Domesday Survey was Henry de Ferrers, who owned almost the whole of the modern hundred of Appletree.
Another great Domesday landholder was William Peverel, the historic founder of Peak Castle, whose vast possessions were known as the Honour of Peverel.
from Domesday tenants.
The lead mines were worked by the Romans, and the Domesday Survey mentions lead mines at Wirksworth, Matlock, Bakewell, Ashford and Crich.
Ashley's Economic History, while Vinogradoff's Villenage in England and The Growth of the Manor, as well as Maitland's Domesday Studies, are of great importance to the student of early economic institutions.
Beaulieu) is probably referred to in the Domesday survey as "another Ribbesford," and was held by the king.
Wareham was accounted a borough in Domesday Book, and the burgesses in 1176 paid 20 marks for a default.
At the time of the Conquest West Ham belonged to Alestan and Leured, two freemen, and at Domesday to Ralph Gernon and Ralph Peverel.
Helston (Henliston, Haliston, Helleston), the capital of the Meneage district of Cornwall, was held by Earl Harold in the time of the Confessor and by King William at the Domesday Survey.
At the time of the Domesday Survey Tateshall (now Tanshelf, a suburb of the town) was the chief manor and contained 60 burgesses, while Kirkby, which afterwards became the borough of Pontefract, was one of its members.
Being under the rule of the earls of Northumbria, York is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey.
At the time of the Domesday Survey all the salt springs belonged to the king, who received from them a yearly farm of X65, but the manor was divided between several churches and tenants-in-chief.
The burgesses of Droitwich are mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but they probably only had certain franchises in connexion with the salt trade.
In the Domesday Survey it appears as a me g ne borough under Juhel of Totnes, founder of the castle and priory; it had 95 burgesses within and 15 without the borough, and rendered military service according to the custom of Exeter.
Ashford (Esselesford, Asshatisforde, Essheford) was held at the time of the Domesday survey by Hugh de Montfort, who came to England with William the Conqueror.
Bradford appears as a borough in the Domesday survey, and is there assessed at 42 hides.
At the time of the Domesday survey Ashby-de-la-Zouch formed part of the estates of Hugh de Grentmaisnel.
Thus were formed the vast but straggling fiefs which are recorded in Domesday.
Domesday Book shows that in his confiscations he can have paid little attention to abstract justice.
While the danger was still impending he took in hand the compilation of Domesday Book.
It is probable that William never saw the Domesday Book as we possess it, since he left England in the summer of 1086 and never returned.
Domesday Book was edited in 1783-1816 by H.
Of commentaries the following are important: Domesday Studies (ed.
Round (London, 1895); Domesday Book and Beyond, by F.
The manor at the Domesday Survey was in the possession of the nunnery at Barking, but the borough includes several estates, such as the manor of Lyllestone in the west, the name of which is preserved in Lisson Grove.
Folkestone (Folcestan) was among the possessions of Earl Godwine and was called upon to supply him with ships when he was exiled from England; at the time of the Domesday Survey it belonged to Odo, bishop of Bayeux.
It was assessed at 50 hides in the Domesday survey and was then held by the bishop of Lincoln.
There is no description of Tamworth in Domesday, but its burgesses are incidentally mentioned several times.
The second division is formed by the convention between the English and the Welsh Dunsaetas, the law of the Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, the fragments of local custumals entered in Domesday Book.
Domesday Book, i.
Maitland, Domesday and Beyond (Cambridge, 1897); H.M.
It is mentioned in the Domesday Survey as subject to a reduced assessment on account of its exposed position and liability to Danish attacks.
Maitland's Domesday Book and Beyond (Cambridge, 1897) is indispensarle; and the same remark applies to his History of English Law before the time of Edward I.
Hadleigh, called by the Saxons Heapde-leag, appears in Domesday Book as Hetlega.
Barton appears in Domesday, when the ferry over the Humber existed.
Tn the Domesday Survey it is included in the manor of Maesbury, which Rainald, sheriff of Shropshire, held of Roger, earl of Shrewsbury; but Rainald or his predecessor Warm had already raised a fortification at Oswestry called Louvre.
The town, which is very ancient, being mentioned in Domesday, obtained a grant for a market and fair in 1251, and received its charter of incorporation in 1887.
According to Domesday, Ashburton was held in chief by Osbern, bishop of Exeter, and rendered geld for six hides.
At the time of the Domesday Survey the manor was owned by King William.
See Sir Henry Ellis, General Introduction to Domesday Book; W.
In Domesday it was royal demesne and during the following centuries figures in numerous grants generally as the dowry of queens.
The New Forest is one of the five forests mentioned in Domesday.
All that is certainly known, however, is that in Domesday the manor is assigned to one Roger, who took his surname from it.
The village appears in Domesday, and the manor belonged to the Archbishops of Canterbury until the time of Henry VIII., when it passed by exchange to the Crown.
The manor of Ealing early belonged to the see of London; but it is not mentioned in Domesday and its history is obscure.
Included in Kingsbridge is the little town of Dodbrooke, which at the time of the Domesday Survey had a population of 42, and a flock of 108 sheep and 27 goats; and in 1257 was granted a Wednesday market and a fair at the Feast of St Mary Magdalene.
According to the Domesday, Amesbury was a royal manor and did not pay geld, but was under the obligation of providing one night's entertainment for the king.
In 1072 he had presided over the great Kentish suit between the primate and Bishop Odo, and about the same time over those between the abbot of Ely and his despoilers, and between the bishop of Worcester and the abbot of Ely, and there is some reason to think that he acted as a Domesday commissioner (1086), and was placed about the same time in charge of Northumberland.
The bishop, who attended the Conqueror's funeral, joined in the great rising against William Rufus next year (1088), making Bristol, with which (as Domesday shows) he was closely connected and where he had built a strong castle, his base of operations.
Giles; Domesday Book.
Tintagel (Tintajol, Dundagel) is a parish a portion of which appears in the Domesday Survey as Bossiney (Botcinnu).
Warminster appears in Domesday, and was a royal manor whose tenant was bound to provide, when required, a night's lodging for the king and his retinue.
The various inquiries instituted during the middle ages, such as the Domesday Book and the Breviary of Charlemagne, were so far on the Roman model that they took little or no account of the population, the feudal system probably rendering information regarding it unnecessary for the purposes of taxation or military service.
At the time of the Domesday Survey of 1086 it already ranked as a borough, with a castle, a market paying 4 shillings, and four burgesses.
Burslem is mentioned in Domesday.
At the time of the Domesday Survey Kent comprised sixty hundreds, and there was a further division into six lests, probably representing the shires of the ancient kingdom, of which two, Sutton and Aylesford, correspond with the present-day lathes.
The Domesday Survey, besides testifying to the agricultural activity of the country, mentions over one hundred salt-works and numerous valuable fisheries, vines at Chart Sutton and Leeds, and cheese at Milton.
Larking, The Domesday Book of Kent (1869); R.
In the Domesday Survey of 1086 half the church of Stoke and lands in Stoca are said to have belonged to Robert of Stafford.
Although not mentioned in Domesday, Boston was probably granted as part of Skirbeck to Alan, earl of Brittany.
south of the town, but its authentic history begins with the Domesday survey, which relates that the manor had been royal demesne of Edward the Confessor and now paid X10 a year to the Conqueror.
ISLINGTON (in Domesday and later documents Iseldon, Isendon and in the 16th century Hisselton), a northern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E.
1898; see also his article English Law in this encyclopaedia), Domesday Book and Beyond (1897), Township and Borough (1898), Canon Law in England (1898), English Law and the Renaissance (1901), the Life of Leslie Stephen (1906), besides important contributions to the Cambridge Modern History, the English Historical Review, the Law Quarterly Review, Harvard Law Review and other publications.
At the time of the Domesday Survey it was owned by the abbey, which continued to be the overlord until the dissolution.
There was a church here at the time of the Domesday Survey, and the earliest mention of a rector is found in the year 1331-1332.
The name Knutsford (Cunetesford, Knotesford) is said to signify Cnut's ford, but there is no evidence of a settlement here previous to Domesday.
After the Norman Conquest the ceorls were reduced to a condition of servitude, and the word translates the villanus of Domesday Book, although it also covers classes other than the villani.
Though there is evidence of an early settlement in the neighbourhood, the town of Farnham (Ferneham) seems to have grown up round the castle of the bishops of Winchester, who possessed the manor at the Domesday Survey.
Round the abbey the town of Malmesbury grew up, and by the time of the Domesday Survey it had become one of the only two Wiltshire boroughs.
Camborne (Cambron, Camron) formed a portion of the extensive manor of Tehidy, which at the time of the Domesday Survey was held by the earl of Mortain and subsequently by the Dunstanville and Basset families.
Domesday Book mentions Salford as held by Edward the Confessor and as having a forest three leagues long and the same broad.
Northallerton (Alvetune, Allerton) is said to have been a Roman station and afterwards a Saxon "burgh," but nothing is known with certainty about it before the account given in the Domesday Survey, which shows that before the Conquest Earl Edwin had held the manor, but that the Normans had destroyed it so utterly that it was still waste in 1086.
At the time of the Domesday survey Bodmin, which treasured the saint's remains, had become the chief centre of religious influence.
By the daughter of Ernulf de Hesdin (in Picardy), a Domesday baron, he was father of at least three sons: Jordan, who succeeded to the family office of steward of Dol; William, who inherited Mileham and other estates in England, and who founded the great baronial house of Fitz Alan (afterwards earls of Arundel); and Walter, who was made by David I.
The principal manor of Enfield, which was held by Asgar, Edward the Confessor's master of horse, was in the hands of the Norman baron Geoffrey de Mandeville at the time of Domesday, and belonged to the Bohun family in the 12th and 13th centuries.
At the time of Edward the Confessor, Archbishop Stigand owned the manor, which according to Domesday passed to Ralf de Insula.
In Domesday Book the heavy plough with eight oxen seems to be universal, and it can be traced back in Kent to the beginning of the 9th century.
Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond (Cambridge, 1897); F.
When the borough originated is not known, but Domesday Book mentions two hundred and seventy-six burgesses and land in commune burgensium, a phrase that may point to a nascent municipal corporation.
In spite of the Roman remains on Borough Hill, nothing is known of the town itself until the time of the Domesday Survey, when the manor consisting of eight hides belonged to the countess Judith, the Conqueror's niece.
The etymology of the name may be Saxon, but there is no evidence of a Saxon settlement, and the place is not mentioned in Domesday.
Ulverston, otherwise Vlureston, Olvestonum, occurs in Domesday Book, where Vlurestun is named as a manor in possession of Turulf, who was probably the original Saxon owner.
The testimony of Domesday also establishes the existence in the reign of Edward the Confessor of what Stubbs describes as a " large class " of landholders who had commended themselves to some lord, and he regards it as doubtful whether their tenure had not already assumed a really feudal character.
At the time of the Domesday survey Ilbert de Lacy held Barnsley by gift of William the Conqueror as part of the honour of Pontefract, and the overlordship remained in his family until the reign of Stephen, when it was granted by Henry de Lacy to the monks of Pontefract.
Sutton Coldfield (Svtone, Sutton in Colefeud, Sutton Colfild, King's Sutton) is mentioned in the Domesday Survey as a possession of the Conqueror and as having been held before that time by Edwin, earl of Mercia.
No mention occurs in Domesday, but it is given in a list of serjeanties of the reign of Henry III.
According to Domesday, Axminster was held by the king.
The market held here on Friday of each week is not mentioned in Domesday Book, but seems to be of early origin.
Previous to the Conquest, Macclesfield (Makesfeld, Mackerfeld, Macclesfeld, Meulefeld, Maxfield) was held by Edwin, earl of Mercia; and at the time of the Domesday Survey it formed a part of the lands of the earl of Chester.
At the Domesday Survey, Kidderminster was still in the hands of the king and remained a royal manor until Henry II.
Atherstone is mentioned in Domesday among the possessions of Countess Godiva, the widow of Leofric. In the reign of Henry III.
Brixton and Kennington are mentioned in Domesday; and in Vauxhall is concealed the name of Falkes de Breaute, an unscrupulous adventurer of the time of John and Henry III.
In 1866 a list of the Conqueror's followers, compiled from Domesday and other authentic records, was set up in Dives church by M.
That a lady of this name existed in the early part of the 11th century is certain, as evidenced by several ancient documents, such as the Stow charter, the Spalding charter and the Domesday survey, though the spelling of the name varies considerably.
She probably died a few years before the Domesday survey (1085-1086), and was buried in one of the porches of the abbey church.
At the time of the Domesday Survey East Looe was assessed under Pendrym, which was of the king's demesne and West Looe under Hamelin's manor of Trelowia.
The town (Gumencestre, Gomecestre) belonged to the king before the Conquest and at the time of the Domesday survey.
Eyton in his history of Shropshire identifies it with one of the "Ludes" mentioned in the Domesday Survey, which was held by Roger de Lacy of Osbern FitzRichard and supposes that Roger built the castle soon after 1086, while a chronicle of the FitzWarren family attributes the castle to Roger earl of Shrewsbury.
Congleton (Congulton) is not mentioned in any historical record before the Domesday Survey, when it was held by Hugh, earl of Chester, and rendered geld for one hide.
In the reign of Edward the Confessor Wem was held as four manors, but at the time of the Domesday Survey William Pantulf was holding the whole as one manor of Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, from whom it passed to the Botelers, barons of Wem.
In the Domesday Survey Caine appears as a royal borough; it comprised forty-seven burgesses and was not assessed in hides.
It is mentioned in Domesday Book as the head of a hundred.
The church dedicated to St Elphin is mentioned in Domesday Book, and was in early times head of the ancient deanery of Warrington.
At the time of the Domesday survey the canons of St Stephen held Launceston, and the count of Mortain held Dunheved.
At the Domesday Survey much of the land was still uncultivated, but its prosperity increased, and in 126 9 each of the twelve prebends of the collegiate church had a house and farmland within the parish.
The final result is a settlement report, which records, as in a Domesday Book, the entire mass of agricultural statistics concerning the district.
The hundred of East Grinstead (Grenestede, Estgrensted) was in the possession of the count of Mortain in 1086, but no mention of a vill or manor of East Grinstead is made in the Domesday Survey.
At Domesday the manor of Willesden and Harlesden was held by the canons of St Paul's.
Carisbrooke is not mentioned by name in the Domesday Survey, but Bowcombe, its principal manor, was a dependency of the royal manor of Amesbury, and was obtained from the king by William Fitz Osbern in exchange for three Wiltshire manors.
Domesday Book; Liebermann, Glossary to the Gesetze der Angelsachsen, s.v.
In the terminology of the Domesday Inquest we find the villeins as the most numerous element of the English population.
Out of about 240,000 households enumerated in Domesday ioo,000 are marked as belonging to villeins.
Thus the terminology of Domesday takes note of two kinds of differences in the status of rustics: a legal one in connexion with the right to dispose of property in land, and an economic one reflecting the opposition between the holders of shares in the fields and the holders of auxiliary tenements.
The feature of personal serfdom is also noticeable, but it provides a basis only for the comparatively small group of servi, of whom only about 25,000 are enumerated in Domesday Book.
It is also to be noticed that the Domesday Survey constantly mentions the terra villanorum as opposed to the demesne in the estates or manors of the time, and that the land of the rustics is taxed separately for the geld, so that the distinction between the property of the lord and that of the peasant dependent on him is clearly marked and by no means devoid of practical importance.
The Domesday Survey puts before us the state of things in England as it was at the very beginning of the Norman and at the close of the Saxon period.
Technically this right was limited to the inhabitants of manors entered in the Domesday Survey as terra regis of Edward the Confessor.
As is shown by the Hundred Rolls, the Domesday of St Paul, the Surveys of St Peter, Glouc., Glastonbury Abbey, Ramsey Abbey and countless other records of the same kind, the customary conditions of villenage did not tally by any means with the identification between villenage and slavery suggested by the jurists.
Maitland, Domesday and Beyond (1897), Essay I.
It appears in Domesday, but the derivation of the name is unknown.
DOMESDAY BOOK, or simply Domesday, the record of the great survey of England executed for William the Conqueror.
We learn from the English Chronicle that the scheme of this survey was discussed and determined in the Christmas assembly of 1085, and from the colophon of Domesday Book that the survey (descriptio) was completed in 1086.
But Domesday Book (liber) although compiled from the returns of that survey, must be carefully distinguished from them; nor is it certain that it was compiled in the year in which the survey was made.
The Inquisitio Eliensis, the "Exon Domesday" (so called from the preservation of the volume at Exeter), and the second volume of Domesday Book, also all contain the full details which the original returns supplied.
The original MS. of Domesday Book consists of two volumes, of which the second is devoted to the three eastern counties, while the first, which is of much larger size, comprises the rest of England except the most northerly counties.
For the object of the survey we have three sources of information: (1) the passage in the English Chronicle, which tells us why it was ordered, (2) the list of questions which the jurors were asked, as preserved in the Inquisitio Eliensis, (3) the contents of Domesday Book and the allied records mentioned above.
The Domesday survey therefore recorded the names of the new holders of lands and the assessments on which their tax was to be paid.
The great bulk of Domesday Book is devoted to the somewhat arid details of the assessment and valuation of rural estates, which were as yet the only important source of national wealth.
Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of the towns, which were probably made because of their bearing on the fiscal rights of the crown therein.
Although unique in character and of priceless value to the student, Domesday will be found disappointing and largely unintelligible to any but the specialist.
II.) it is spoken of as a record from the arbitrament of which there was no appeal (from which its popular name of "Domesday" is said to be derived).
As Domesday normally records only the Christian name of an under-tenant, it is vain to seek for the surnames of families claiming a Norman origin; but much has been and is still being done to identify the under-tenants, the great bulk of whom bear foreign names.
Domesday Book was originally preserved in the royal treasury at Winchester (the Norman kings' capital), whence it speaks of itself (in' one later addition) as Liber de Wintonia.
The printing of Domesday, in "record type," was begun by government in 1773, and the book was published, in two volumes fol.
in 1783; in 1811 a volume of indexes was added, and in 1816 a supplementary volume, separately indexed, containing (I) the "Exon Domesday" (for the south-western counties), (2) the Inquisitio Eliensis, (3) the Liber Winton (surveys of Winchester early in the 12th century), and (4) the Boldon Book - a survey of the bishopric of Durham a century later than Domesday.
Photographic facsimiles of Domesday Book, for each county separately, were published in 1861-1863, also by government.
Kelham, Domesday Book, illustrated (1788); H.
Ellis, General Introduction to Domesday Book (1833), 2 vols., containing valuable indexes to the names of persons; N.
Seebohm, The English Village Community (1883); Domesday Studies, 2 vols.
(1888, 1891), on the occasion of the Domesday Commemoration (1886), by various writers, with bibliography to date; J.
Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond (1897) P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England (1892) and Growth of the Manor; A.
Ballard, The Domesday Boroughs (1904) and The Domesday Inquest (1906), an excellent summary; W.
Stevenson, "A contemporary description of the Domesday Survey" in The English Historical Review (the general index to which should be consulted) (1907).
The Victoria County History contains a translation of the Domesday text, a map, and an explanatory introduction for each county.
Newport is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but at the time of the Conquest formed part of the manor of Edgmond, which William I.
The site was probably chosen partly on account of the fisheries, which are mentioned in the Domesday Survey, one of the chief services of the burgesses being that of taking fish to the king's court wherever it might be.
Higham (Hecham, Heccam, Hegham Ferers) was evidently a large village before the Domesday Survey.
The manor is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but formed part of the lordship of Holderness which William the Conqueror granted to Odo, count of Albemarle.
In the Domesday survey it appears as a royal manor containing two mills, but it was bestowed by Henry I.
(I) The first, which occurs in old law, is from a Law-Latin averagium, and is connected with the Domesday Book avera, the "day's work which the king's tenants gave to the sheriff"; it is supposed to be a form of the O.
Wigan, otherwise Wygan and Wigham, is not mentioned in Domesday Book, but three of the townships, Upholland, Dalton and Orrel are named.
In the time of Edward the Confessor the town seems to have consisted of the mill and a fortification or earthwork which was probably thrown up by Alfred as a defence against the Danes; but it had increased in importance before the Conquest, and appears in Domesday as a thriving borough and port.
Saltash (Esse, 1297; Ash, 1302; Assheburgh, 1392) belonged to the manor of Trematon and the latter at the time of the Domesday Survey was held by Reginald de Valletort of the count.
The town of Smethwick is a modern growth about an ancient village, the name of which appears in Domesday.
7Ethelfleda is also said to have founded a town, but it is not noticed in Domesday.
It was probably the "Bectune" mentioned in Domesday.
Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond, 244 ff.
The Anglo-Saxon church of Steyning (Stoeningas, Stoeningum, Staninges, Stenyges, Stenyng) mentioned in Domesday is attributed to St Cuthman, who is said to have settled here before the 9 th century, and whose shrine became a resort for pilgrims. The later prosperity of the town was due to its harbour.
The name, which occurs in Domesday, indicates the position of the village on the river Wandle, a small tributary of the Thames.
Twickenham at the Domesday survey was included in Isleworth.
Liskeard (Liscarret) was at the time of the Domesday Survey an important manor with a mill rendering 12d.
The flour mill at Lamellion mentioned in the charter of 1275, and probably identical with the mill of the Domesday Survey, is still driven by water.
Wanstead is mentioned in Domesday, and the name is considered by some to be derived from Woden's stead or place, indicating a spot dedicated to the worship of Woden.
It belonged before the time of Edward the Confessor to the monks of St Peter's, Westminster, acid afterwards to the bishop of London, of whom it was held at the time of the Domesday Survey by Ralph Fitz Brien.
A similar name occurs in a Saxon charter of the r rth century and in Domesday; in the 16th century it is Chelcith.
The interpretation of certain figures given in the Domesday Survey (which do not cover certain parts of modern England nor take account of the ecclesiastical population) is a matter of widely divergent opinion; but a total population of one million and a half has been accepted by many for the close of the 11th century.
At the time of the Domesday Survey, Thirsk (Treske) was a manor of little importance belonging partly to the king and partly to Hugh, son of Baldric. Soon afterwards it was granted to Robert de Mowbray, who often resided there, and is said to have raised the castle round which the borough grew up. His estates, being forfeited for treason against William Rufus, were restored by Henry I.
According to the Domesday survey it had always been a royal manor, and comprised three mills and a market.
At the time of the Domesday survey the king owned the manor.
Aylesbury evidently had a considerable market from very early times, the tolls being assessed at the time of Edward the Confessor at 25 and at the time of the Domesday survey at £Io.
The name of Staines appears in the Domesday Survey, and it has been supposed that the town is so called from a stone which marks the limit of the former jurisdiction of the City of London over the lower Thames.
Before the Norman Conquest seven thanes held it of Edward the Confessor as seven manors, but William the Conqueror granted the whole to Ilbert de Lacy, and at the time of the Domesday Survey it was held of him by Ralph Paganel, who is said to have raised Leeds castle, possibly on the site of an earlier fortification.
The place is not mentioned in Domesday, but appears to have belonged to the barony of Dudley.
Trowbridge (Trubrig, Trobrigg, Trowbrigge) was probably mentioned in Domesday under the name of Straburg, a manor held by one Brictric together with Staverton and Trowle, now both included within its limits.
Godalming (Godelminge) belonged to King Alfred, and was a royal manor at the time of Domesday.
There was no organized resistance to the conqueror within Bedfordshire, though the Domesday survey reveals an almost complete substitution of Norman for English holders.
From the Domesday survey it appears that in the 11th century there were three additional half hundreds, viz.
The manor of Bolton Abbey with the rest of the district of Craven was granted by William the Conqueror to Robert de Romili, who evidently held it in 1086, although there is no mention made of it in the Domesday survey.
The name appears in Domesday and later as Stevenhethe.
They are classified as sokemen in opposition to the villani in Domesday Book, and are chiefly to be found in the Danelaw and in East Anglia.
Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond, 66 ff.; P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England, I 13 ff., 196 ff.; English Society in the ith Century, 431 ff.
When we turn to the social divisions we find in Domesday and other documents classes of society in these districts bearing purely Norse names, dreng, karl, karlman, bonde, thrall, lysing, hold; in the system of taxation we have an assessment by carucates and not by hides and virgates, and the duodecimal rather than the decimal system of reckoning.
granted the manor to Ilbert de Laci, of whom the Saxon tenant Godwin was holding as underlord at the time of the Domesday Survey.
Although the neighbourhood abounds in British earthworks and barrows, and there are traces of a Roman road leading from Poole to Wimborne, Poole (La Pole) is not mentioned by the early chroniclers or in Domesday Book.
According to Domesday, Streatham included several manors, two of which, Tooting and Balham (to follow the modern nomenclature), belonged to the abbot of St Mary de Bec in Normandy.
The population was absolutely exterminated, and the great Domesday survey, made nearly twenty years later, shows the greater part of Yorkshire as waste.
But it would be wrong to assert that all traces of the - Domesday.
The famous Domesday Book (q.v.) of 1086 iS in its essential nature an inquiry into the state of England at the moment of the Conquest, compiled in order that the king may have a full knowledge of the rights that he possesses as the heir of King Edward.
a tax on every ploughiand which replaced the rough calculation of Domesday Bookknights elected by the shires shared in all the calculations then made for the new impost.
Domesday Book is unique as a source of medieval history, but it does not count in the development of English historical writing.
The first need of a government is finance; the earliest organized machinery for exerting its will is the exchequer; and the earliest great record in English history is Domesday Book.
to Edward I.), Maitlancis Domesday Book and Beyond, and Ansons Law and Custom of the Constitution; for economic history, Cunninghams Growth of Industry and Commerce, and Ashleys Economic History; for ecclesiastical history, Stephens and Hunts series (7 vols.); for foreign and colonial, Seeleys British Foreign Policy and Expansion of England.
Old pedigree-makers from the 14th century onward have made of Harding a younger son of a king of Denmark and a companion of the Conqueror, while modern historians assert his identity with one Harding who, although an English thane, is recorded by Domesday Book in 1086 as a great landowner in Somerset.
Berkeley had already given a surname to an earlier family sprung from Roger, its Domesday tenant, whose descendants, seem to have been ousted by the partisan of the Angevin.
Round's introduction to the Somerset Domesday, V.C.H.
The estates of the clerks of Handone are enumerated in Domesday.
Amersham (Elmodesham, Agmondesham, Hagmondesham, Aumundesham, Homersham) at the time of the Domesday Survey was divided into no less than six holdings.
As early as Domesday, where it is several times mentioned, there were forty burgesses within the town and nine without, who rendered 40s.
About the year of the battle of Hastings was born Ari Fr061 Thorgilsson (1067-1148), one of the blood of Queen Aud, who founded the famous historical school of Iceland, and himself produced its greatest monument in a work which can be compared for value with the English Domesday Book.
Though retaining no relics of antiquity, the town is very ancient, appearing in Domesday.
At the time of the Domesday Survey, the church of Avebury (Avreberie, Abury), with two hides attached, was held in chief by Rainbold, a priest, and was bestowed by Henry III.
Cricklade was a borough by prescription at least as early as the Domesday Survey, and returned two members to parliament from 1295 until disfranchised by the Redistribution Act of 1885.
It is not mentioned in pre-Conquest records, but at the Domesday survey most of the land was held by Robert Malet, a Norman.
Diceto's fragmentary Domesday of the capitular estates has been edited by Archdeacon Hale in The Domesday of St Paul's, pp. 109 ff.
Although there is no mention of Scarborough (Scardeburc, Escardebuc, Scardeburg, Scardeburk, Scartheburg, Schardeburg) in the Domesday Survey the remains of Roman roads leading to the town indicate that it was in early times a place of importance.
Uxbridge is an ancient borough, stated to have been one of those originated by Alfred the Great, but it is not mentioned in Domesday.
The county offered no active resistance to the Conqueror, and though Hereward appears in the Domesday Survey as a dispossessed under-tenant of the abbot of Peterborough at Witham-on-the-Hill, the legends surrounding his name do not belong to this county.
In his northward march in 1068 the Conqueror built a castle at Lincoln, and portioned out the principal estates among his Norman followers, but the Domesday Survey shows that the county on the whole was leniently treated, and a considerable number of Englishmen retained their lands as subtenants.
Lindsey in Norman times was divided into three ridings - North, West and South - comprising respectively five, five and seven wapentakes; while, apart from their division into wapentakes, the Domesday Survey exhibits a unique planning out of the ridings into approximately equal numbers of i 2-carucate hundreds, the term hundred possessing here no administrative or local significance, but serving merely as a unit of area for purposes of assessment.
In Kesteven the wapentakes of Aswardhurn, Aveland, Beltisloe, Haxwell, Langoe, Loveden, Ness, Winnibriggs, and Grantham Soke have been practically unchanged, but the Domesday wapentakes of Boothby and Graffo now form the wapentake of Boothby Graffo.
In Northriding Bradley and Haverstoe have been combined to form Bradley Haverstoe wapentake, and the Domesday wapentake of Epworth in Westriding has been absorbed in that of Manley.
At the time of the Domesday Survey there were between 400 and 500 mills in Lincolnshire; 2111 fisheries producing large quantities of eels; 361 salt-works; and iron forges at Stow, St Mary and at Bytham.
Smith, A Translation of that portion of the Domesday Book which relates to Lincolnshire and Rutlandshire (London, 1870); G.
It is not mentioned in Domesday.
Cirencester (Cirneceaster, Cyrenceaster, Cyringceaster) is described in Domesday as ancient demesne of the crown.
Besides the "new market" of Domesday Book the abbots obtained charters in 1215 and 1253 for fairs during the octaves of All Saints and St Thomas the Martyr.
It formed part of the estates of Algar, earl of Mercia; at the time of the Domesday Survey it was held by the king; later it passed to the Ferrers family and was included in the honour of Tutbury.
Domesday describes Woodstock (Wodestock, Wodestok', Wodestok) as a royal forest; it was a royal seat from early times and 'Ethelred is said to have held a council there, and Henry I.
The village of Chigwell appears in the Domesday survey.
The original site, farther west than the present town, is mentioned in Domesday Book.
In Domesday Book the manor only is mentioned, but in 1199 the men of Wycombe paid tallage to the king.
Bexley, which is mentioned in Domesday Book, has had a church since the 9th century.
Bideford (Bedeford, Bydyford, Budeford, Bytheford) is not mentioned in pre-Conquest records, but according to Domesday it rendered geld for three hides to the king.
It is uncertain when the town first became a borough, but the Domesday statement that the men paid 20s.
In Domesday he is recorded as having over 100 manors worth around £ 156 making him the 31st wealthiest baron in the land.
At Domesday survey, the manor, which had belonged to Earl Alger, was part of the royal demesne.
domesday entry for Lewes (link to transcript ). Catalog reference: E 31/2/1 f.26.
In the Domesday Book he appears as holding six lordships in Essex, and 117 in Suffolk.
He was immensely proud of his " A " classification accorded by the " New Domesday scribe " .
The town is not mentioned in Domesday Book, but the Rape of Bramber, in which it lies, belonged at that time to William de Braose.
At the time of the Domesday Survey Tibeste was amongst the most valuable of the manors granted to the count of Mortain.
"Franci" and "Angli" are often opposed in Domesday and other documents, and the formula went on in charters long after all real distinction had passed away.
The name appears in Domesday, the suffix designating -the former insular, marshy character of the district; while the prefix is generally taken to indicate the name of a Saxon overlord, Beormund.
The Beauchamps of Elmley, Worcestershire, the greatest house of the name, were founded by the marriage of Walter de Beauchamp with the daughter of Urise d'Abetot, a Domesday baron, which brought him the shrievalty of Worcestershire, the office of a royal steward, and large estates.
But four years afterwards the chronicler tells us " the holy monastery of St Paul, the episcopal see of London, was burnt, and many other monasteries, and the greatest and fairest part of the whole 1 A valuable article on " The Conqueror's Footprints in Domesday " was published in the English Historical Review in 1898 (vol.
The Domesday survey of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, Norfolk, &c., shows remarkable deviations in local organization and justice (lagmen, sokes), and great peculiarities as to status (socmen, freemen), while from laws and a few charters we can perceive some influence on criminal law (nidingsvaerk), special usages as to fines (lahslit), the keeping of peace, attestation and sureties of acts (faestermen), &c. But, on the whole, the introduction of Danish and Norse elements,apart from local cases, was more important owing to the conflicts and compromises it called forth and its social results, than on account of any distinct trail of Scandinavian views in English law.
He was disliked by the barons, who nicknamed him Flambard in reference to his talents as a mischief-maker; but he acquired the reputation of an acute financier and appears to have played an important part in the compilation of the Domesday survey.
Pluquet, in his Essai historique sur la vale de Bayeux (Caen, 1829), was the first to reject this belief, and to connect it with the Conqueror's half-brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and this view, which is now accepted, is confirmed by the fact that three of the bishop's followers mentioned in Domesday Book are among the very few named figures on the tapestry.
Parry, Select Illustrations of Bedfordshire (London, 1827); Bedfordshire Domesday Book (Bedford, 1881); Visitation of Bedford, 1566, 1582, and 1634, in Harleian Society's Publications, vol.
The number of freemen began to decrease, from the encroachments of the landowner, and continued to dwindle for many years: even in districts where Domesday Book shows them surviving in considerable numbers, it is clear that a generation or two lat.~r they had largely disappeared, and became merged in the vihein class.
In Domesday the manor is mentioned as consisting of 63 acres of land.
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