How to use Dogma in a sentence
In place of dogma, the elements of religion were alone to be taught.
This dogma was shaken by Wohler's synthesis of urea in 1828.
He has filled the old skins of dogma with the new wine of love, and shown men what it is to believe, live and be free.
He gave a vigorous support to the promulgation of the dogma of Papal Infallibility in 1870.
The methodists agreed with the empirics in one point, in their contempt for anatomy; but, strictly speaking, they were dogmatists, though with a dogma different from that of the Hippocratic school.Advertisement
But dogma is not yet technical for what is Christian or churchly.
The increasing number of her adherents, and her inexperience of government on such a vast and complicated scale, obliged her to comply with political necessity and to adopt the system of the state and its social customs. The Church was no longer a fraternity, on a footing of equality, with freedom of belief and tentative as to dogma, but an authoritative aristocratic hierarchy.
From 1850 until his death he interfered little in affairs of dogma and church discipline, although he addressed to the powers circulars enclosing the Syllabus (1864) and the acts of the Vatican Council (1870).
The word " dogma " was however to revive, and, with more or less success, to differentiate itself from " doctrine."
He did not care for dogma, and accordingly the dogmas of Rome, which had the consent of the Christian world, were in his eyes preferable to the dogmas of Protestantism....Advertisement
Either dogma (sing.) or dogmas (plural) may be spoken of..
The " dogma " or " dogmas " of heretics are frequently mentioned by orthodox writers.
He thus differed from Sydenham, who took almost as little account of modern science as of ancient dogma.
The defect of English empiricism from the outset had been the uncritical acceptance of the metaphysical dogma of a pure unadulterated sense-experience as the criterion of truth.
There can be no question of confining even orthodox " dogma " to conciliar decisions in an age when definition is so incomplete; still, we do meet with references to the Nicene.Advertisement
At Trent, therefore, once more, dogma means doctrine.
It still means " doctrine " when the collected decreta of Trent bear on their title-page (1564) reference to an Index dogmatum et reformationis; but here " dogma " is already verging towards the narrower and more precise sense - truth defined by church authority.
Here then, under Protestant scholasticism (Lutheran and Reformed), we have the first perfectly definite conception of dogma, and the most definite ever reached.
Dogma is the whole text of the Bible, doctrinal, historical, scientific, or what not.
Thus dogma is revealed and is infallibly true.Advertisement
Every true dogma, says Johann Gerhard 8 - the most representative figure of Lutheran scholasticism - occurs in plain terms somewhere in Scripture.
The equation holds, more firmly than ever; dogma = the contents of That seems to be what is meant.
It has to be established on the Roman Catholic side that faith (or dogma; the two are inseparable) deals with divine truths historically revealed long ago but now administered with authority, according to God's will, by the church.
In Chrismann the word " dogma " has superseded the word " article "; Holden uses both, though " article " has the preponderance.
Hence in Chrismann (who is in other respects the most definite of the three) we have a view of dogma almost as clear-cut as that of the Protestant schoolmen.Advertisement
This became the standing type of an assertion which, while favoured by the church and on the very verge of dogma, was yet not a dogma 3 - till the definition came through Pius IX.
Here then the frontier of dogma had unquestionably moved forward.
It does not happen, however, that the papal definition of 1854 employs the word " dogma "; that honour was withheld from the word until the Vatican decrees of 1870 affirmed the personal infallibility of the pope as divinitus revelatum dogma.
With this, one line of tendency in Roman Catholic doctrine reached its climax; the pope and the council use " dogma " in a distinctive sense for what is definitely formulated by authority.
The same council defines not indeed dogma but faith - inseparable from dogma - as4 (1) revealed, (a) in Scripture or (b) in unwritten tradition, and (2) taught by the church, (a) in formulated decrees, or (b) in her ordinary magisterium.Advertisement
This amounts to a serious warning against trying to draw a definite line round dogma.
Thus there seems to be a measure of uncertainty as to what the Church of Rome now calls " dogma " - only in part relieved by 1 Three writers mentioned in Wetzer's and Welte's Kirchenlexikon.
The identification of dogma with revelation remains, with another distinction in support of it, between " material dogmas " (all scriptural or traditional truth) and " formal " or ecclesiastically formulated dogmas.'
It might have been best to surrender the term " dogma " to the dogmatists; but few scholars have consented to do so.
According to this definition, " dogma " means the opinion of some individual theologian of distinction.Advertisement
It has been said that persons who dislike authority often show great devotion to " authorities "; and the word dogma might make a similar transition.
Dogma stands lowest, not highest.
Loofs, has called it; 9 the doctrine enforced within any one church community is dogma.
It means that historians recognize the peculiar importance of those beliefs which are constitutive of church agreement; and it finds some support from the philosophical and political associations of ancient " dogma."
Per contra, much that was only " implicit " in the deposit of faith has become " explicit " in dogma.Advertisement
Here, church dogma has explicated what was implicit in revelation.
Schenkel, that dogma is what is enforced by civil and criminal law.
Again, can we substitute church authority for that which is always the background of " dogma " as interpreted from inside - divine authority?
Dogma is no longer 3 held to be of immediate divine authority.
Hence Catholic, and scientific or historical, definitions of dogma are on different planes.Advertisement
Thus Harnack agrees with Catholic theologians in holding that, in the fullest sense, there is no dogma except the Catholic.
He is no friend of Catholicism or of dogma.
Perhaps his detachment makes for clearness of thought; Loofs's friendliness towards dogma, but in a much humbler sense than the Catholic, involves the risk of confusion.
Both Loofs and Harnack contrast with " dogma " the work of individual thinkers, calling the latter " theology."
Hence they and other authorities wish to see " History of Dogma " supplemented by " Histories of Theology."Advertisement
In Some Dogmas of Religion (1906), he uses " dogma " of affirmations, whether supported by reasoning or merely asserted, if they claim " metaphysical " value, metaphysics being defined as " the systematic study of the ultimate nature of reality."
Briefly, a dogma is what claims ultimate, not relative, truth.
This belief may be called what Loofs has called Harnack's definition of dogma - individuell berechtigt, and perhaps nur individual.
And therefore the definition does not proceed from historical scholarship. Nor yet does it throw light upon " dogma," if dogma is to be distinguished - somehow - from doctrine.
For works on the history of dogma see THEOLOGY.
At the Vatican council he vigorously maintained the rights of the bishops, and strongly opposed the dogma of papal infallibility, against which he voted as inopportune.
When the dogma had been finally adopted, however, he was one of the first to set the example of submission.
Gierke, in his book Johannes Althusius and die Entwickelung der naturrechtlichen Staatstheorie, shows (p. 76) that the conception of a treaty or agreement as the basis of the state was in the middle ages a dogma which passed almost unchallenged, and that this theory was maintained up to a late period.
Finally, in the Vatican Council, the Jesuits saw another of their favourite theories - that of papal infallibility - elevated to the status of a dogma of the Church.
This theological "retrogression" is of much significance for the history of dogma.
The New Testament, however, does not indicate that its writers were agreed as to any formal dogma of the atonement, as regards the relation of the death of Christ to the sinner's restoration to God's favour; but various suggestions are made as to the solution of the problem.
The Western Church accepted the decisions of Nicaea, Chalcedon and Constantinople, and so the doctrines of the Trinity and of the two natures in Christ were handed down as orthodox dogma in West as well as East.
In the long strife over dogma the old belief of the Greeks in the value of knowledge had made itself felt, and this faith was not extinct in the Eastern Church.
But the strife over dogma came to an end with the 7th century.
This attitude towards dogma did not mean that it was less prized than during the period of strife.
Yet it is intelligible that religious interest should have concerned itself more keenly with the mystic rites of divine worship than with dogma.
We may gauge the energy with which the Greek intellect turned in this direction if we call to mind that the controversy about dogma was replaced by the controversy about images.
It is consistent with this circle of ideas that initiation into the profound mysteries of the liturgy was regarded, together with the preservation of dogma, as the most exalted function of theology.
Creed and dogma, above all, remained unchanged.
In so doing they set to work at the same time to complete the development of ecclesiastical dogma; the formulation of the Catholic doctrine of the Sacraments was the work of scholasticism.
Eugenius certainly owed his success merely to the political necessities of the emperor of the East, and his union was forthwith destroyed owing to its repudiation by oriental Christendom; yet at the same time his decretals of union were not devoid of importance, for in them the pope reaffirmed the scholastic doctrine regarding the sacraments as a dogma of the Church, and he spoke as the supreme head of all Christendom.
Yet we may say that this was its salvation; for the struggle against Luther drove the papacy back to its ecclesiastical duties, and the council of Trent established medieval dogma as the doctrine of modern Catholicism in contradistinction to Protestantism.
Hence the necessity for outward conformity, and the importance attached to ritual and ceremony, unity in which must be established at all costs, in contrast to dogma and doctrine, in which he showed himself lenient and large-minded, winning over Hales by friendly discussion, and encouraging the publication of Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants.
The proceedings of the council were frequently very stormy, and the opponents of the dogma of infallibility complained that they were not unfrequently interrupted, and that endeavours were made to put them down by clamour.
In brief, then, the criticism of the Old Testament seeks to discover what the words written actually meant to the writers, what the events in Hebrew history actually were, what the religion actually was; and hence its aim differs from the dogmatic or homiletic treatments of the Old Testament, which have sought to discover in Scripture a given body of dogma or incentives to a particular type of life or the like.
Just as the ancient Scriptures were considered to be the Word of God, so that what they contained was necessarily the true and inspired doctrine, so also the New Testament was available for proving the Church's dogma.
Elizabeth herself patronized Giacomo Acontio, who thought dogma a "stratagema Satanae," and her last favourite, Essex was accused of being the ringleader of "a damnable crew of atheists."
Lutheran dogma, however, had few adherents in England, though its political theory coincided with that of Anglicanism in the 16th century.
On the relation of Neoplatonism to Christianity, and the historical importance of Neoplatonism generally, see the leading church histories, and the Histories of Dogma by Baur, Nitzsch, Harnack, &c. Compare also Loffler, Der Platonismus der Kirchenvater (1782); Huber, Die Philosophie der Kirchenvdter (1859); Tzchirner, Fall des Heidenthums (1829), pp. 574618; Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantin's des Grossen (1853); Chastel, Hist.
He was prosecuted for assailing the dogma of the communion, but he returned to Sweden to defend himself, and was acquitted.
In 1869 he went to the Vatican Council as secretary to Cardinal Hohenlohe, and took an active part in opposing the dogma of papal infallibility, notably by supplying the opposition bishops with historical and theological material.
Such in brief is the Platonism of the written dialogues; where the main doctrine of forms is confessedly advanced never as a dogma but always as a hypothesis, in which there are difficulties, but without which Plato can explain neither being, nor truth nor goodness, because throughout he denies the being of individual things.
Gratry was one of the principal opponents of the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility, but in this respect he submitted to the authority of the Vatican Council.
Daub was one of the leaders of a school which sought to reconcile theology and philosophy, and to bring about a speculative reconstruction of orthodox dogma.
Combining with this the central dogma of Fechner that spirit extends throughout the world of bodily appearance, he concludes that the realities of the world are " wills," that bodies are mere appearances of " wills," and that there is one universal and all-embracing spirit which is " will."
As interpreted by Thomas Aquinas, it is now in danger of becoming a dogma.
The pope had been persuaded that the proclamation of the new dogma would be effected without difficulty and without discussion; and when the pronouncement actually met with opposition, he was both surprised and embittered.
The real causes of the controversy lay in differences as to dogma.
Though not so prominent as Huxley in detailed controversy over theological problems, he played an important part in educating the public mind in the attitude which the development of natural philosophy entailed towards dogma and religious authority.
His " philosophy " is usually summed up in the dogma " water is the principle, or the element, of things "; but, as the technical terms " principle " (apVrl) and " element " (o-TotXe70v) had not yet come into use, it may be conjectured that the phrase " all things are water" (7ravTa ubwp .uri) more exactly represents his teaching.
Aristotle's suggestion that Thales was led to his fundamental dogma by observation of the part which moisture plays in the production and the maintenance of life, and Simplicius's, that the impressibility and the binding power of water were perhaps also in his thoughts, are by admission purely conjectural..
Their hostility was increased by the Kulturkampf, due to the promulgation in 1870 of the dogma of papal infallibility.
Munich University, where Dollinger was professor, became the centre of the opposition to the new dogma, and the "old Catholics" were protected by the king and the government.
He was a broad churchman, who held what would be called a liberal theology, but the Church, its organization, its creed, its dogma, had ever an increasing hold upon him.
Aurelian's policy moreover was in effect a recognition of the Roman bishop's pretension to be arbiter for the whole Church in matters of faith and dogma.
But it is impossible for anyone who takes Pascal's simply as he finds them in connexion with the facts of Pascal's history to question his theological orthodoxy, understanding by theological orthodoxy the acceptance of revelation and dogma; it is equally impossible for any one in the same condition to declare him absolutely content with dogma and revelation.
The Old Catholics (q.v.), who seceded from the Roman Church in consequence of the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility, number roughly 50,000, with 54 clergy.
Nevertheless, it is on a false interpretation of this challenge that the dogma of the incomparable excellence of the style and diction of the Koran is based.
And if here and there, as one can scarcely doubt, there was among the old Moslems a lover of poetry who had his difficulties about this dogma, he had to beware of uttering an opinion which might have cost him his head.
We know of at least one rationalistic theologian who defined the dogma in such a way that we can see he did not believe it (Shahrastani, p. 39).
The unbounded reverence of the Moslems for the Koran reaches its climax in the dogma that this book, as the divine word, i.e.
This dogma, which was doubtless due to the influence of the Christian doctrine of the eternal Word of God, has been accepted by almost all Mahommedans since the beginning of the 3rd century.
A religion which subdues to itself a race with strongly marked individuality is always influenced in cultus and dogma by the previous views and tendencies of that race, to which it must in some measure accommodate itself.
The efforts of the several branches of the Orthodox Church to obtain a separate organization in the Turkish dominions are to be attributed exclusively to political motives, as no difference of dogma divides them.
A certain number of Bulgars at Kukush in Macedonia and elsewhere form a "uniate" church, which accepts the authority and dogma of Rome, but preserves the Orthodox rite and discipline.
In the preliminary discussions he voted against the promulgation of the dogma.
He was absent from the important sitting of the 18th of June 1870, and did not send in his submission to the decrees until 1871, when he explained in a pastoral letter that the dogma "referred only to doctrine given forth ex cathedra, and therein to the definitions proper duly, but not to its proofs or explanations."
His published work, except occasional critical studies in philosophy, dealt with church history and the history of dogma.
What in Socrates still betrays some vestiges of historical sense, his moderation, his reserve in questions of dogma, his impartiality - all this is wanting in Sozomen.
With his exegetical skill (he was inferior in pure dogma to Theodore of Mopsuestia) he united a wide sympathy and a marvellous power of oratory.
With him the "mysteries," the entire ritual, are an integral part of the Orthodox system, and all dogma culminates in image-worship. The date of his death is uncertain; it is probably about 752.
Like his brother, Amalric I., he was a clerkly and studious king versed in law, and ready to discuss points of dogma.
His earlier publications here treated of mythology and the history of dogma.
Baur's lectures on the history of dogma, Ausfiihrlichere Vorlesungen fiber die christliche Dogmengeschichte, were published later by his son (1865-1868).
Mamun interested himself too in questions of religious dogma.
An orthodox upper cadi was named instead, and the dogma of the created Koran was declared heresy; therewith began a persecution of all the adherents of that doctrine and other Motazilite tenets.
If we may pass by the doctrine of the Identity of Indiscernibles, which played a part of some importance in subsequent philosophy, and the Law of Continuity, which as Leibnitz represents it is, if not sheer dogma, reached by something very like a fallacy, Gerhardt, vi.
They also claim oneness with a long line of Christians, for in every age there have been men who have ignored the dogma and the ritual of the Church, and in contemplation and retirement have sought to know God immediately in their own experience.
Such a conception of Christianity can recognize many embodiments in ritual, organization and dogma, but its test in all ages and in all lands is conformity to the purpose of the life of Christ.
The respect for anything in books, the dogma of journalistic inerrancy which still numbers its devotees by millions, the common acceptance of even scientific conceptions upon the dicta of a small group of investigators, these are but a few of the signs of the persistence of what is surely not a medieval but a universal trait.
When the question of papal infallibility arose, he opposed the promulgation of the dogma on the ground that such promulgation was inopportune.
The opponents of the dogma complained at the very outset that he was wavering, half converted by his hosts, the members of the German College at Rome, and further influenced by his own misgivings.
This has only been possible owing to the temper of the Oriental mind which, while clinging tenaciously to its rites, values dogma only in so far as it is expressed in rites.
Laynez at the council of Trent has given one signal instance of its working, but its operations were by no means confined to the abstract field of dogma.
In other words, Bossuet only answered Santarelli by setting up the divine right of kings, However, this dogma by no means scandalized the subjects of Louis XIV., for the worship of the sovereign was one of their most cherished instincts.
Incredible and unsupported stories in history, and extravagances in dogma were the order of the day.
Here the opposition between the good spirit of light and the demons of evilbetween Ormuzd and Ahrimans till remained the principal dogma of the creed; while all other gods and angels, however estimable their aid, were but subordinate servants of Ormuzd, whose highest manifestation on earth was not the sun-god Mithras, but the holy fire guarded by his priests.
When we consider the different attitude towards dogma of Roman Catholicism, we feel constrained to question whether the expression "dogmatic theology" can be equally suitable for both communions.
Roman theologians may properly define dogmatic as the scientific study of dogmas; Protestant scholars have come to use "dogma" in ways which make that impossible.
Harnack's point is that "dogmatic theology" ought to be used in a sense corresponding to what he regards as the true meaning of "dogma" - Christian belief in its main traditional outlines.
This cosmopolitan citizenship remained all through a distinctive Stoic dogma; when first announced it must have had a powerful influence upon the minds of men, diverting them from the distractions of almost parochial politics to a boundless vista.
With him even the " physical basis " of ethics takes the form of a religious dogma - the providence of God and the perfection of the world.
It was not a religious movement; and though, as a defiance of the accepted theology, its character was mainly theological, the deistical crusade belongs, not to the history of the church, or of dogma, but to the history of general culture.
The statement in one of his works that the pope could err in matters of faith ("haeresim per suam determinationem aut Decretalem asserendo") has attracted attention; but as it is a private opinion, not an ex cathedra pronouncement, it is held not to prejudice the dogma of papal infallibility.
While retaining many local usages, the Maronite Church does not differ now in anything essential from the Papal, either in dogma or practice.
No sooner had he put in writing his theological lectures (apparently the Introductio ad Theologiam that has come down to us), than his adversaries fell foul of his rationalistic interpretation of the Trinitarian dogma.
But he put upon this fundamental dogma a new interpretation.
Its objects are to promote a high morality among Jews, regardless of differences as to dogma and ceremonial customs, and especially to inculcate the supreme virtues of charity and brotherly love.
The new type passed on into the West through Augustine, and the so-called Athanasian creed, which states an s Augustinian version of Greek dogma.
Catholicism is not dogma only, but dogma plus law plus sacrament.
Theology is now not merely the dogma of the Divine nature or of Christ's person; it is also a dogmatic 2 The term Adoptianism arose at this time.
Harnack ranks his system with Tridentine and post-Tridentine theology on the one hand, and with Protestantism on the other hand, as the third great outcome of the history of dogma.
Perhaps, indeed, it is rather a dogma hastening towards definition.
Reaction against the philosophy of Hegel and the criticism of Baur is common to all the school, though Ritschl went further back than the younger men towards critical tradition and further in some points towards orthodox dogma.
Ritschl denies natural theology 4 as well as natural religion, denies dogma outright in its Greek forms - Trinitarian and Christological; and seeks to transpose the doctrine of Atonement - Christ's Person " or " Works as he puts it - from the legal to the ethical.
Goodwin, John Goodwin (an early Arminian); for learning, John Lightfoot; for genius, John Milton; for literary and devotional power, John Bunyanalways admirable except when he talks Puritan dogma.
The name, as Huxley said, "took"; it was constantly used by Hutton in the Spectator and became a fashionable label for contemporary unbelief in Christian dogma.
The letters allude to toleration in the state and comprehension in the church, while they show an indifference to theological dogma hardly consistent with an exclusive connexion with any sect.
In the Reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the Scriptures (anonymous, 1695), Locke sought to separate the divine essence of Christ's religion from later accretions of dogma, and from reasonings due to oversight of the necessary limits of human thought.
The moral philosophy of Aquinas is Aristotelianism with a Neoplatonic tinge, interpreted and supplemented by a view of Christian dogma derived chiefly from Augustine.
Ethics in England no less than on the continent of Europe suffered until the time of Bacon from the excessive domination of theological dogma and the traditional scholastic and Aristotelian philosophy.
In other words, Zeno re-affirmed the dogma, "The Ent is, the Non-ent is not."
In a word, the fundamental dogma, "The Ent is, the Non-ent is not," which with Parmenides had been an assertion of the necessity of distinguishing between the Ent, which is, and the Non-ent, which is not, but becomes, was with Zeno a declaration of the Non-ent's absolute nullity.
By his dogma of the supreme state Robespierre founded a theocratic government with the police as an Inquisition.
The real grandeur of Averroes is seen in his resolute prosecution of the standpoint of science in matters of this world, and in his recognition that religion is not a branch of knowledge to be reduced to propositions and systems of dogma, but a personal and inward power, an individual truth which stands, distinct from, but not contradictory to, the universalities of scientific law.
It was this comparatively mild Averroism, reduced to the merely explanatory activity of a commentator, which continued to be the official dogma at Padua during the 16th century.
It was in the autumn of 1816 that he thus fell under the influence' of a definite creed, and received into his intellect impressions of dogma never afterwards effaced.
In a volume of collected essays, Feuilles detachees, published also in 1891, we find the same mental attitude, an affirmation of the necessity of piety independent of dogma.
It was dogma eat dogma until, eventually they settled on a truce and let bigots be bigots.
The wonderful dogma created by divine instruction has not deserted us, for it remains in the catholic catechism.
The idea of independent central banks has become one of the main planks of monetarist dogma.
And like all good Commies where the dogma was the political commissars weren't far behind to mop up the stragglers.
Privatization does not work, is driven by dogma and is horrendously expensive.
Apologists seek to impose a dogma rather than seek a truth.
The important is that we don't accept the dogma that comes fro!
He has been a constant source of sound advice, often challenging accepted dogma.
The RP that is now challenged only became a dogma in the late 19th century, fostered by the public school system.
A party leader who wants to avoid dogma is understandable.
We aren't tied down by the outdated dogma which holds Labor back.
The proposals are based on the neo-liberal dogma that competition is the only solution to the development of the industry.
Such finer points of Marxist dogma or strategy were confined to a minority.
Political ideological dogma is again very much to the fore.
I'm not into any specific religious dogma myself.
The Roman church sought to bring local churches, often with regional or political variations, into line with official church dogma.
Once free of the spell of market dogma, the answer appears under our noses.
Instead of accepting dogma, perhaps one ought to think through problems including the problem of prescribing opiates.
For permaculture to remain alive - and not ossify into dogma - it must also change.
But it is religious dogma par excellence for the men of the Inner Circle and for their Illuminati henchmen.
But only theological effort could define and then justify the dogma.
The infallibility of the pope was not defined until 1870 at the Vatican Council; this definition does not constitute, strictly speaking, a dogmatic innovation, as if the pope had not hitherto enjoyed this privilege, or as if the Church, as a whole, had admitted the contrary; it is the newly formulated definition of a dogma which, like all those defined by the Councils,continued to grow into an ever more definite form, ripening, as it were, in the always living community of the Church.
The controversies ' It was in this sense that it was understood by Dollinger, who pointed out that the definition of the dogma would commit the Church to all past official utterances of the popes, e.g.
Until the beginning of the 17th century the Byzantine tradition that in all matters outside the sphere of dogma the ecclesiastical is subordinate to the civil power had been observed in Russia; but the traditional conceptions had been to some extent undermined during the reign of Michael, when the metropolitan Philaret, who was the tsar's father (vide supra), became patriarch and was associated with his son in the government on a footing of equality.
For instance, the well-known description (in chap. xlvii.) of the preposition " in " occurring in a theological dogma as a " momentous particle which the memory rather than the understanding must retain " is taken directly from the first Provincial Letter.
Its introduction and six chapters present with rare lucidity the earliest conceptions of the Kingdom of Heaven, the Son of God, the Church, Christian dogma and Catholic worship; and together form a severely critico-historical yet strongly Catholic answer to Harnack's still largely pietistic Wesen des Christentums. It develops throughout the principles that "what is essential in Jesus' Gospel is what occupies the first and largest place in His authentic teaching, the ideas for which He fought and died, and not only that idea which we may consider to be still a living force to-day"; that "it is supremely arbitrary to decree that Christianity must be essentially what the Gospel did not borrow from Judaism, as though what the Gospel owes to Judaism were necessarily of secondary worth"; that "whether we trust or distrust tradition, we know Christ only by means of, athwart and within the Christian tradition"; that "the essence of Christianity resides in the fulness and totality of its life"; and that "the adaptation of the Gospel to the changing conditions of humanity is to-day a more pressing need than ever."
The classical works, though still regarded with unreasoning reverence, were found to have a germinative and vivifying power that carried the mind out of the region of dogma, and prepared the way for the scientific movement which has been growing in strength up to our own day.
His views are presented scientifically in his Evangelisch-protestantische Dogmatik (1826; 6th ed., 1870), the value of which "lies partly in the full and judiciously chosen historical materials prefixed to each dogma, and partly in the skill, caution and tact with which the permanent religious significance of various dogmas is discussed" (Otto Pfleiderer).
The question at once arises, Can the simple historic faith be maintained without adding theological interpretations, those arid wastes of dogma in which the springs of faith and reverence run dry?
Latin Fathers borrow the word " dogma," though sparingly,, and employ it in all the Greek usages.
Petavius's great work De theologicis dogmatibus (especially the 1st vol., 1644) made the word " dogma " current for doctrines which were authoritative as formulated by the church.
He differs, of course, in holding dogma to be obsolete now.
Modern Congregationalism, as highly sensitive to the Zeitgeist and its solvent influence on dogma, shared for a time the critical and negative attitude produced by the first impact of a culture determined by the conception of development as applying to the whole realm of experience.
Thus history shows how readily the term has been used in the most haphazard manner to describe even the most trivial divergence of opinion concerning points of dogma.
The Clericals started an agitation because Wahrmund, the professor of canon law at the university of Innsbruck, subjected the dogma of the Immaculate Conception to critical examination.
The proclamation of the dogma of the immaculate conception in 1854 was more than the decision of an old and vexed theological problem; it was an act of conformity to a pietistic type especially represented by the Jesuits.
Finally, in the Vatican Council, the Jesuits saw another of their favourite theories - that of papal infallibility - elevated to the status of a dogma of the Church (see Vatican Council and Infallibility).
It was about this time that some of the leading theologians of the Roman Catholic Church, conceiving that the best way of meeting present perils was to emphasize, as well as to define more clearly, the authority of the pope, advised him to make his personal infallibility a dogma of the Church, and urged strenuously on him the necessity of calling a council for that purpose.
The dogma was at length carried by an overwhelming majority, and the dissentient bishops, who - with the exception of two - had left the council before the final division, one by one submitted (see Vatican Council).
The Prussian monarchy, the traditional champion of Protestant orthodoxy, found the new Catholic elements difficult to assimilate; and premonitory symptoms were not wanting of a revival of the secular contest between the spiritual and temporal powers which was to culminate after the promulgation of the dogma of papal infallibility (1870) in the Kulturkampf.
The year 1854 was marked by his presence in Rome at the definition of the dogma of the immaculate conception of the Blessed Virgin (8th December), and by the publication of his historical romance, Fabiola, a tale of the Church of the Catacombs, which had a very wide circulation and was translated into ten languages.
The value of these works is impaired somewhat by Baur's habit of making the history of dogma conform to the formulae of Hegel's philosophy, a procedure "which only served to obscure the truth and profundity of his conception of history as a true development of the human mind" (Pfleiderer).
One of the first acts of Motawakkil was the release of all those who had been imprisoned for refusing to admit the dogma of the created Koran, and the strict order to abstain from any litigation about the Book of God.
This temper and the process in which it finds expression are well illustrated in the case of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception and in the authorization given to the cult of the Sacred Heart.
In 1854 he gave a great impulse to the cultus of the Virgin by proclaiming her Immaculate Conception a dogma of the Church (see Immaculate Conception).
From this time onward the Jansenist Church of Holland has continued as an independent body, accepting the authority of the general councils, up to and including that of Trent, but basing itself on the Gallican theory of Episcopacy and rejecting the Vatican council, the infallibility of the pope and the papal dogma of the Immaculate Conception.
Indeed, many of them bid us regard "dogmatic" as falling under the history of theology and not of dogma (see DOGMA).
The Virgin receives homage, but the dogma of her Immaculate Conception is not admitted.
In spite of his hostility to the Jesuits, his dislike of friars in general, and his jealousy of the Inquisition, he was a very sincere Roman Catholic, and showed much zeal in endeavouring to persuade the pope to proclaim the Immaculate Conception as a dogma necessary to salvation.
How refreshing to hear a politician put common sense ahead of dogma.
It will reverse the triumph of liberalism and free inquiry over entrenched authority and permit religious dogma to go unchallenged.
He appeared alongside Matt Damon and Ben Affleck in Dogma and also made appearances in the Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventures films, Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back and Jersey Girl.
Their ideals and beliefs hold to the dogma that order is necessary, and life will fall apart without it.
Other movie appearances include Dogma, Jersey Girl, and Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back.
This naturally stimulated the popular devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, which had been already widespread before the definition of the dogma.
The purely hereditary principle was of comparatively late growth, the outcome of obvious convenience, exalted under the influence of various forces into a religious or quasi-religious dogma.
The prophetic office ceased to exist when its work was done, and part of the intellectual energy of the people was thus set free for other tasks than the establishment of theistic dogma.
There are also notices of the leading systems in Milman's History of Latin Christianity; and the same writers are considered from the theological side in many works devoted to theology, and the history of dogma.
By sceptics the word " dogma " is generally used contemptuously, for an opinion grounded not upon evidence but upon assertion; and this attitude is so far justified from the purely empirical standpoint that theological dogmas deal with subjects which, by their very nature, are not susceptible of demonstration by the methods of physical science.
Dogma is doctrine, viz.
Owing principally to the fact that the system of the caliph Omar came to be treated as an immutable dogma which was clearly not intended by its originator, and to the peculiar relations which developed therefrom between the Mussulman Turkish conquerors and the peoples (principally Christian) which fell under their sway, no such thing as an Ottoman nation has ever been created.
Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.
In this work Harnack traces the rise of dogma, by which he understands the authoritative doctrinal system of the 4th century and its development down to the Reformation.
Of these the latter, who separated from the Roman communion after the promulgation of the dogma of papal infallibility, represent a pure revolt of the system of Episcopacy against that of Papalism.
There is no revulsion, as later, from dogma as such, nor is more stress laid upon one dogma than upon another; all are treated upon the same footing, and the whole dogmatic system is held, as it were, in solution by the philosophic medium in which it is presented.
The final breakdown of scholasticism as a rationalized system of dogma may be seen in Nicolas (or Nicolaus) of Cusa (1401-1464), who distinguishes between the intellectus and the discursively acting ratio almost precisely in the style of later distinctions between the reason and the understanding.
Certainly it is due to this very much more than we commonly think, and the more it is due to this the more do moral therapeutics rise in possibility and importance " (Literature and Dogma, pp. 143-144).
Therefore Protestants are not only free, but bound, to criticize it; indeed, for a Protestant Christian, dogma cannot be said to exist.
We have above all his Letters (Epistolae), difficult to date, but extremely important from the standpoint of history, dogma, or literature; see Dummler's edition in the Monumenta Germaniae historica, 1892.
The Inquisition, by its decree Lamentabili sane (2nd of July 1907), condemned sixty-five propositions concerning the Church's magisterium; biblical inspiration and interpretation; the synoptic and fourth Gospels; revelation and dogma; Christ's divinity, human knowledge and resurrection; and the historical origin and growth of the Sacraments, the Church and the Creed.
In 1869 the introduction of civil marriage did not tend to allay the strife, which reached its climax after the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility in 1870.
While most of the "Broad Churchmen" were influenced by ethical and emotional considerations in their repudiation of the dogma of everlasting torment, he was swayed by purely intellectual and theological arguments, and in questions of a more general liberty he often opposed the proposed Liberal theologians, though he as often took their side if he saw them hard pressed.
If we could come back to the Bible and use biblical terms only, as Cyril of Jerusalem wished in his early days, we know from experience that the old errors would reappear in the form of new questions, and that we should have to pass through the dreary wilderness of controversy from implicit to explicit dogma, from " I believe that Jesus is the Lord " to the confession that the Only Begotten Son is " of one substance with the Father."
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
The expression is anthropomorphic, no less than the dogma of material creation; but it is an attempt to affirm the unity of the intellectual and the material world.
He at first devoted himself more especially to the study of the history of dogma, and in 1850 published his Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte, which was placed on the Index, Expurgatorius.
In Erigena mysticism has not yet separated itself in any way from the dogma of the Church.
He was not inspiring as a leader of religion; and no dogma, no original theory of church government, no prayer-book, not even a tract or a hymn is associated with his name.
Trustworthy evidence, they said, proved to them that this pontiff accepted the dogma of the superiority of the council as it had been defined at Constance and at Basel.
The result of this was not to eliminate dogma from medicine, though it weakened the authority of the old dogma.
Though the Hippocratic medicine was so largely founded on observation, it would be an error to suppose that dogma or theory had no place.
He had a dogma of his own - one founded, according to his German expositors, on the views of the Neoplatonists, of which a few disjointed specimens must here suffice.
There was nothing in their general position to make them in- 'hospitable to ethical conceptions of the future life, as is shown by the fact that so soon as the Egyptian-Greek idea of immortality made itself felt in Jewish circles it was adopted by the author of the Wisdom of Solomon; but prior to the 1st century B.C. it does not appear in the Wisdom literature, and the nationalistic dogma of resurrection is not mentioned in it at all.
This explains the late date at which the dogma was defined, and the assertion that the dogma was already contained in that of the papal primacy established by our Lord himself in the person of St Peter.
In ecclesiastical policy his views were moderate; thus he opposed the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility both before and during the Vatican council, but was among the first to accept the dogma when decreed.
But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic, which in due course passed over into Christian.
Autour consists of seven letters, on the origin and aim of L'Evangile et l'Eglise; on the biblical question; the criticism of the Gospels; the Divinity of Christ; the Church's foundation and authority; the origin and authority of dogma, and on the institution of the sacraments.
Bishop Brooks taught me no special creed or dogma; but he impressed upon my mind two great ideas--the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and made me feel that these truths underlie all creeds and forms of worship.
There is a theory that no sweeping revolution in dogma took place, but that only a few medieval beliefs were modified or rejected owing to the practical abuses to which they had given rise.