Documents sentence example
He snatched the documents he needed and closed the door to the safe.
It is possible that Minehead had a corporate existence during the 15th century, as certain documents executed by the portreeve and burgesses at that date are preserved, but no record of the grant of a charter has been found.
It is no longer suggested in responsible quarters that they are party documents sacrificing truth to " tendency."
As a court of justice its main drawback is that it is wholly unable to cope with the vast mass of documents representing appeals from all parts of the empire.
The present condition of the peasants - according to official documents - appears to be as follows.Advertisement
The department is authorized, on receipt of such report, to direct an inquiry to be made into the cause of any accident so reported, and the inspector appointed to make the inquiry is given power to enter any railway premises for the purposes of his inquiry, and to summon any person engaged upon the railway to attend the inquiry as a witness, and to require the production of all books, papers and documents which he considers important for the purpose.
The most important documents are contained in MSS.
Before the Norman Conquest England had two official tongues; documents Sicily.
French documents are unknown till the days of French fashion had come in, that is, till deep in the 13th century.
Documents were drawn up in such and so many of these tongues as was convenient for the parties concerned; not a few private documents add a fourth tongue, and are drawn up in Greek, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew.Advertisement
Without his assent and blessing no important decisions were taken, all state documents emanating from the highest authority bore his signature, and he was regarded, both in the official world and by the xxru.
Documents relating to the political and social movements in Russia (London, 1897).
An English translation of the embassy to Constantinople is in Ernest Henderson's Select Documents of the Middle Ages (Bohn series, 1896).
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
The documents underlying the Pentateuch and book of Joshua, represented by the ciphers J, E, D and P, are assumed to have been drawn up in the chronological order in which those ciphers are here set down, and the period of their composition extends from the 9th century B.C., in which the earlier portions of J were written, to the 5th century B.C., in which P finally took shape.Advertisement
The Tell el-Amarna despatches are crowded with evidences of Canaanite forms and idioms impressed on the Babylonian language of these cuneiform documents.
The existence of " high places " is presupposed in those two ancient codes and is also presumed in the narratives of the documents E and J which contain them.
From it have been transferred to the fireproof building of the Registry of Deeds many interesting historical documents, among them the records of the Plymouth colony, the will of Myles Standish, and the original patent.
The true nature of this relation can be readily observed in other fields (ancient Britain, Greece, Egypt, &c.), where, however, the native documents and sources have not that complexity which characterizes the composite biblical history.
In the hundred and seventieth year (142 B.C.) the yoke of the heathen was taken away from Israel and the people began to date their legal documents "in the first year of Simon the great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews."Advertisement
These clay archives are almost exclusively inventories and business documents.
The script also recurs on walls in the shape of graffiti, and on vases, sometimes ink-written; and from the number of seals originally attached to perishable documents it is probable that parchment or some similar material was also used.
The west side of the palace contained a series of 18 magazines with great store jars and cists and large hoards of clay documents.
While Scotland and England were preparing for the " First Bishops' War," Henderson drew up two papers, entitled respectively The Remonstrance of the Nobility and Instructions for Defensive Arms. The first of these documents he published himself; the second was published against his wish by John Corbet (1603-1641), a deposed minister.
Harrison-Ainsworth in his novel Crichton (new ed., 1892) reprints and translates some documents relating to Crichton, as well as some of his poems.Advertisement
Captivite de la famille royale au Temple (2 vols., 1852, and many subsequent editions), containing copies Of original documents, and essential to the study of the question, although its sentimental pictures of the boy martyr can no longer be accepted.
According to early documents the name was at first W2clinga (or Wzetlinga) strxt; its derivation is unknown, but an English personal name may lie behind it.
The original sources are very scanty, besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon.
In other cases he tampers with the documents which he inserts (as, for instance, with the text of Magna Carta).
The most important state documents passed through his hands.
His works can scarcely be entitled original compositions, his labour having consisted chiefly in the arrangement of his materials, but on this very account they are of considerable value as convenient books of reference, easier of access and almost as trustworthy as the original documents.
The early divisions of the county were known as wapentakes, five being mentioned in Domesday, while 13th-century documents mention seven wapentakes, corresponding with the six present hundreds, except that Repton and Gresley were then reckoned as separate divisions.
Domitian was the first emperor who arrogated divine honours in his lifetime, and caused himself to be styled Our Lord and God in public documents.
After a highly useful career, under the presidency till 1813 of Sir John Sinclair, the Board of Agriculture was dissolved in 1819, but left in its statistical account, county surveys and other documents much interesting and valuable information regarding the agriculture of the period.
Historical documents, however detailed, rarely show all the factors we have to deal with or fully explain a given situation.
He began other accounts of the campaigns of his own age; but they are marred by his having had few trustworthy documents and statistics at hand.
The Aegean written documents have not yet proved (by being found outside the area) epistolary correspondence with other lands.
About institutions we have less certain knowledge, there being but little evidence for the earlier periods; but in the documents relating to religion, the most significant of all, it can at least be said that there is no trace of sharp change.
A system of pictographic writing came into use early in this Palace period, but only a few documents, made of durable material, have survived.
In numerous documents from the 12th to the 15th century the almucium is mentioned, occasionally as identical with the hood, but more often as a sort of cap distinct from it, e.g.
In spite of this very limited reception the Formula Concordiae has always been reckoned with the five other documents as of confessional authority.
Bertolotti's Francesco Cenci e la sua famiglia (2nd ed., Florence, 1879), containing a number of interesting documents which place the events in their true light; cf.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
They made their own treaties with the Mahommedans, or attacked them in spite of the king's treaties; they dated their documents by the year of their own reign, and they had each their separate laws or assizes.
The documents bearing on the history of the Crusades and the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem are various.
Thanks to a skilful use of forged documents, the primate carried the council's verdict upon every point.
This consists of a medley of documents of the most heterogeneous character.
Special commissioners were to have concurrent jurisdiction with the U.S. circuit and district courts and the inferior courts of Territories in enforcing the law; fugitives could not testify in their own behalf; no trial by jury was provided; i The precise amount of organization in the Underground Railroad cannot be definitely ascertained because of the exaggerated use of the figure of railroading in the documents of the "presidents" of the road, Robert Purvis and Levi Coffin, and of its many "conductors," and their discussion of the "packages" and "freight" shipped by them.
The later middle ages are represented by several monasteries, and many castles, such as those of Dervent, Doboj, Maglaj, Zepee and Vranduk, on the Bosna; Bihac, on Owing to the scarcity of authoritative documents, it is impossible to describe in detail the events of the next three centuries.
By this treaty the annual tribute payable by Austria was abolished, but an indemnity of 200,000 florins was paid "once for all " by the emperor, who was henceforth to be given his proper imperial title (padishah) in Turkish official documents.
The Ottoman government, seeking to gain time, proposed a " mixed commission " of inquiry; and to this France agreed, on condition that no documents later than 1740 should be admitted as evidence.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
The abundant documents in the hands of her descendants, the families of Broglie and Haussonville, have indeed furnished material for books and papers, but these are almost wholly on the social aspect of Mme de Stael, not on her literary merit.
The presentation was accompanied by a kind of mathematical performance, in which Leonardo solved several hard problems proposed to him by John of Palermo, an imperial notary, whose name is met with in several documents dated between 1221 and 1240.
In documents of the first half of the 12th century the name is variously spelt as Kairdif, Cairti and Kardid.
They still maintain the high standard of honesty mentioned by historical documents, and never will take anything left in the tundra or about the houses by their neighbours.
The next day royalty was abolished, and on the 22nd it was decided that all documents should be henceforth dated from the year I.
Two highly important documents purporting to have been written by Patrick have come down to us.
Even his attempted flight on the 10th of June 1791 did not entirely turn the nation against him, although he left documents which proved his opposition to the whole Revolution.
For the vestment question in the Church of England see the Report of the sub-committee of Convocation on The Ornaments of the Church and its Ministers (1908); Hierurgia Anglicana, documents and extracts illustrative of the ceremonial of the Anglican Church after the Reformation, new ed.
The Archivio Comunale contains documents on watermarked paper of local manufacture going back to the 13th century.
Sittingbourne (Sc dungburna, Sidyngbourn) is mentioned in Saxon documents in 989 and frequently in contemporary records of the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Vatican library contains a volume of manuscript letters and other documents written by him in connexion with his various missions against Luther.
This work does not go beyond the end of the 13th century; it contains a large number of documents.
Loisy recognizes two eye-witness documents, as utilized by all three synoptists, while Matthew and Luke have also incorporated Mark.
His chief peculiarity consists in clearly tracing a strong Pauline influence, especially in Mark, which there remodels certain sayings and actions as these were first registered by the eye-witness documents.
The first volume (in two parts) is a detailed biography of the great astronomer; the second includes some of his minor writings and correspondence, family records, and historical documents of local interest.
Before we discuss these three documents we shall mention other members of this literature, which, though derivable ultimately from Jewish sources, are Christian in their present form.
For a complete discussion of the various documents see Lipsius, Apokryphen A postelgeschichte, i.
His essential functions were judicial and executive, and in documents he is often described as the king's agent (agens publicus) or royal judge (judex publicus or fiscalis).
As early as the 13th century the vulgar tongue was already well established at Siena, being used in public documents, commercial records and private correspondence.
Joao III (1844), prepared Herculano for his life's work, and the year 1846 saw the first volume of his History of Portugal from the Beginning of the Monarchy to the end of the Reign of Affonso III., a book written on critical lines and based on documents.
But he incorporates many documents in the latter part of his book.
By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by i»rapxos lieutenant, governor," in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, " governor "; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III.
After a careful investigation of the official documents, Cobden became convinced that those were utterly unrighteous proceedings.
Count Francis was the principal founder of the Society of the Bohemian Museum, devoted to the collection of documents bearing on Bohemian history, with the object of reawakening national sentiment by the study of the national records.
Signatures to documents of the period are rare; seals served instead of signatures, because most of the nobles were unable to sign their names.
In 1849 Stephen Ladislaus Endlicher (1804-1849), better known as a botanist than as a historian, published a collection of documents, Rerum hungaricarum monumenta Arpadiana.
Later collections are Documents of the Angevin Period, ed.
Numerous documents have also been issued in the various publications of the Hungarian Academy and the Hungarian Historical Society.
That it was used also in official documents and ordinances is shown by copies of formularies of oaths, the import of which proves beyond a doubt that the originals belonged 1301- to the reigns of Louis I.
This article, which was based upon a mass of incriminating documents supplied to Friedjung by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office, had been timed to coincide with the outbreak of hostilities against Serbia, and was to have been the first of a series convicting the Serbian Government and dynasty of aggressive and even murderous designs.
Despite the Ballplatz's efforts at postponement, the trial took place in Vienna in Dec. 1909, and revealed the documents upon which Friedjung had relied, as impudent forgeries concocted by subordinate officials of the Austro-Hungarian legation in Belgrade, with the connivance of the minister, Count Forga.cs.
Barac, Croats and Slovenes Friends of the Entente (1919, contains important original documents); The Southern Slav Library (8 pamphlets published by the Yugoslav Committee 1915-8).
On Banat, see Radonic, Histoire des Serbes de Hongrie (1919, with documents).
Here are kept very complete and curious documents of the Inquisition, showing all its workings from the 15th to the 19th century.
Of the large number of Apocryphal books existing in Syriac8 the majority have been translated from Greek, one or two (such as Bar Sira or Ecclesiasticus) from Hebrew, while some (like the Doctrine of Addai above referred to) are original Syriac documents.
Among such documents connected with the early history of Edessa we have, besides the Doctrine of Addai, certain martyrdoms, those of Sharbel and Barsamya assigned to the reign of Trajan, and those of Gurya and Shamona and of the Deacon Habbibh under Diocletian and Licinius.
All these documents, like Addai, belong probably to the 2nd half of the 4th century, and are quite unreliable in detail for the historian,' though they may throw some light on the conditions of life at Edessa under Roman government.
The same was the case of the festivals of St Stephen, St James and St John, and St Peter and St Paul, as is shown by the liturgical documents, but these festivals were held in connexion with that of Christmas (26th, 27th and 28th December), and were not strictly speaking anniversaries.
The same idea that the perfect ones are christs as having received the Paraclete is met with in early Christian documents, and still survives among the Syriac-speaking shepherds on the hills north of Mardin.
Clad in full armour they are sent forth 1 The form valectus led to the spelling valect in transcribing from Latin documents.
Blumenthal returned and read the letter, and without troubling to disturb his chief he dealt with the matter himself in what is certainly one of the most remarkable documents ever issued in a grave crisis by a responsible staff officer.
His chief interest was the study of ancient documents, and he was sent to search the archives of Switzerland, France and Germany for charters relating to the history of Savoy.
It includes a museum containing ancient documents and specimens of articles seized by the customs authorities.
The fire of 1666 destroyed all the documents of the Parish Clerks Company, and in its hall in Silver Street only printed tables from about the year 1700 are to be found.
The variations in the degree to which these appear in different passages are in the main to be accounted for by his having before him in many cases documents or oral reports, which he repro duces with only slight alterations in the language, while at other times he is writing freely.
But it has been and is still held by many critics that the author of Acts is a different person, and that as in the Third Gospel he has used documents for the Life of Christ, and perhaps also in the earlier half of the Acts for the history of the beginnings of the Christian Church, so in the "we" sections, and possibly in some other portions of this narrative of Paul's missionary life, he has used a kind of travel-diary by one who accompanied the Apostle on some of his journeys.
He accompanied the chancellor on all his journeys; was present at all the conferences that preceded and followed the war; no political secrets were hidden from him; and his hand drafted all important diplomatic documents.
It is, indeed, the very impartiality and objectivity of his attitude that make the writings of Gentz such illuminating documents for the period of history which they cover.
And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.
It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pali title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents.
No treaty was obtained or insisted upon, - the British government being content with the tacit acquiescence of the king of Burma without such documents; but its resolution was declared, that any active demonstration of hostility by him would be followed by retribution.
It would be useless to attempt to trace in a brief sketch the history of the legal principles embodied in the documents of Anglo-Saxon law.
The points mentioned are not many, but, apart from their intrinsic importance in any system of law, they are, as it were, made prominent by the documents themselves, as they are constantly referred to in the latter.
The early existence of an accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in which it was not only needful that commercial and legal documents should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer easily to the dates of former business transactions.
A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.
Their power extended to the Mediterranean, and we possess a large number of contemporaneous monuments in the shape of contracts and similar business documents, as well as chronological tables, which belong to their reigns.
Aramaic endorsements on business documents repeating in Aramaic transliteration the names of parties mentioned in the texts have also been of service in fixing the phonetic readings of names.
Fortunately, in the case of a large number of names occurring on business documents as the interested parties or as scribes or as witnesses - and it is through these documents that we obtain the majority of the Babylonian-Assyrian proper names - we have variant readings, the same name being written phonetically in whole or part in one instance and ideographically in another.
Certain classes of names being explained in this way, legitimate and fairly reliable conclusions can be drawn for many others belonging to the same class or group. The proper names of the numerous business documents of the Khammurabi period, when phonetic writing was the fashion, have been of special value in resolving doubts as to the correct reading of names written ideographically.
Though he recognized the legality of the Stamp Act of 1765, he considered the measure inexpedient and impolitic and urged its repeal, but his attitude was misunderstood; he was considered by many to have instigated the passage of the Act, and in August 1765 a mob sacked his Boston residence and destroyed many valuable manuscripts and documents.
For a considerable time the town dated its public documents from the event.
We may say, however, that they fall into two classes, general and specific. The general included all that might come under the idea of loyalty, seeking the lord's interests, keeping his secrets, betraying the plans of his enemies, protecting his family, &c. The specific services are capable of more definite statement, and they usually received exact definition in custom and sometimes in written documents.
The materials were supplied in the first place by oral tradition, in the second by the dictata of older scholars, and finally by various kinds of documents, such as treaties, letters, collections of poetry and genealogical lists.
The entire construction of the history is based, as has already been said, on a critical examination and chronological arrangement of the available documents.
Of his purely historical works special mention must be made of his Memoire sur les actes d'Innocent III (1857), and his Memoire sur les operations financieres des Templiers (1889), a collection of documents of the highest value for economic history.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.
The standard modern work on Savonarola is Pasquale Villari's, La Storia di Fra Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1887) based on an exhaustive study of the original authorities and containing a number of new documents (English translation by Linda Villari, London, 1889).
Flodoard had been given charge of the episcopal archives, and constructed his history out of the original texts, which he generally reproduces in full; the documents for the period of Hincmar being especially valuable.
The name Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charlemagne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the most populous at least of the numerous villages of the Main district.
The questions which lived in the earlier and more formative period of his life concerned mainly the idea of the church, the historical interpretation of the documents which described the persons who had created the Christian religion, especially the person and work of its founder; but those most alive in his later and maturer time chiefly related to the philosophy of religion and ethics.
But the evidence of old documents seems to show that these syllabaries had a gradual evolution and that neither was the outcome of a single scholars inventive genius.
The Bibliotheque Nationale, the National Archives, &c., contain a mass of unpublished documents.
The Archivio storico, consisting of reprints of documents with historical dissertations, dates from 1842, and was founded by Vieusseux and Gino Capponi.
The same patient investigator gave his New Documents on Andre Chenier to the world in 1875.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
Local tradition asserts that Frome was a medieval borough, and the reeve of Frome is, occasionally mentioned in documents after the reign of Edward I., but there is no direct evidence that Frome was a borough and no trace of any charter granted to it.
In official Hungarian documents of the 13th and 14th centuries the Carpathians are named Thorchal or Tarczal, and also Monies Nivium.
Books and documents were read aloud to him, while notes were made by him with eyes shut, and were afterwards deciphered and read aloud to him till he had mastered them.
Ommanney, who was successful in the discovery of new documents, notably early commentaries, which contained the text of the creed embedded in them, and thus supplied independent testimony to the fact that the creed was becoming fairly widely known at the end of the 8th century.
It is more probable that Leidrad was interested in the growing use of the creed as a canticle, and was consulted in the preparation of the famous Golden Psalter, now at Vienna, which contains the same collection of documents as an introduction.
This would explain the quotation of the two documents together by the council of Toledo, since the heresy lasted on for a long time in Spain.
Many of the documents are strictly historical in their character, giving full and accurate contemporary accounts of events that occurred some thousands of years ago.
Monarchs whose very names had been forgotten are restored to history, and the records of their deeds inscribed under their very eyes are before us, - contemporary documents such as neither Greece nor Rome could boast, nor any other nation, with the single exception of Egypt, until strictly modern times.
These had been sacred to almost a hundred generations of men, and it was difficult for the eye of faith to see them as other than absolutely infallible documents.
Here we have documents in abundance that deal specifically with events more or less referred to in the Bible.
We have seen that written documents have been preserved in Mesopotamia to which such a date as 4500 B.C. may be ascribed with a good deal of confidence; and that from the third millennium B.C. a flood of contemporary literary records comes to us both from Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Indeed, in the wonderful Tel-el-Amarna collection there is a suggestive absence of literary documents from the Aegean that demands a word of notice.
This monarch had retired from Thebes and established his court on the site now known as Tel el-Amarna, where he founded the city which existed only during the brief period of thirty years ending with the death of the monarch about 1370 B.C. The date of the documents found in the royal library is, therefore, fixed within very narrow limits.
The documents in question consist chiefly of letters, and constitute one of the most important of archaeological finds.
A knowledge of the different epochs which have been chosen for the commencement of the year in different countries is indispensably necessary to the right interpretation of ancient chronicles, charters and other documents in which the dates often appear contradictory.
The Armenians also make use of the mundane era of Constantinople, and sometimes conjoin both methods of computation in the same documents.
Many of the Massachusetts revolutionary documents, including the famous "Massachusetts Resolves" and the circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies, are from his pen; but owing to the fact that he usually acted as clerk to the House of Representatives and to the several committees of which he was a member, documents were written by him which expressed the ideas of the committee as a whole.
The nature of these documents - authentic, forged, or partly forged, partly genuine - has been the theme of much discussion.
At this point comes in the evidence - unknown to Froude, Skelton, Hosack, and Henderson in his book The Casket Letters - of a number of documents, notes of information, and indictments of Mary, written for or by the earl of Lennox.
Not one of the Lennox documents is dated; all but one are endorsed in an English hand of the period.
There remains what looks like absolute proof that, in essence, Crawford's Declaration and Letter Il.are independent documents.
Twenty-two volumes of official documents bearing on Bolivar's career were officially published at Caracas in 1826-1833.
The place is mentioned in documents in 1317, and became a royal free town in 1328, being therefore one of the oldest free towns in Hungary.
Hippolyte de Bethune, count of Selles and marquis of Chabris, who died in 1665, bequeathed to the king a magnificent collection of historical documents and works of art.
There are relatively few traces of it in Nehemiah's memoirs and in the Aramaic documents, but elsewhere the sources are largely coloured, if not written from the standpoint of his age.
Papyri from a Jewish colony in Elephantine (407 B.C.) clearly show the form which royal permits could take, and what the Jews were prepared to give in return; the points of resemblance are extremely interesting, but compared with the biblical documents the papyri reveal some striking differences.
It is absent from the so-called Synopsis of Athanasius, the Stichometry of Nicephorus, the List of Sixty Books and other authoritative documents.
He shows instances, in documents of the 15th century, of the association of Prester John with the Caucasus.
Feuillet des Conches Louis X VI., Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, lettres et documents inedits (6 vols., Paris, 1864-1873), while most of the works on Marie Antoinette published before the appearance of Arneth's publications (1865, &c.) are based partly on these forgeries.
Assuming the genuineness of the documents mentioned, we now proceed to collect the scanty information which they afford with regard to Polycarp's career.
After 1867 the greatest of modern Hungarian statesmen, Francis Peak, attached Csengery to his personal service, and many of the momentous state documents inspired or suggested by Peak were drawn up by Csengery.
It gives copious details, and, as he had access to the correspondence and official documents of the Spanish leaders, it is, although necessarily possessing bias, the fullest and most authentic record existing of the events it relates.
Although disposed at first to divide the various documents into three classes, he finally adopted a classification into two - the African or older family of documents, and the Asiatic, or more recent class, to which he attached only a subordinate value.
It is thus styled in a charter granted by Henry VIII., but by Elizabeth's time the town was invariably termed Aberystwyth in all documents.
Spencer, Constitutional Conflict in Provincial Massachusetts (Columbus, 0., 1905); and the annual Public Documents of Massachusetts, embracing the reports of all state officers and institutions.
Though the name Trecht or Trajectum is almost universally found in old documents and on coins, the town was known by another name among the Frisians and Franks.
The distribution of the material between the two documents is uncertain; but some such scheme as the following is not improbable.
Naturally, when both documents made statements which were nearly identical, one might be omitted; so that neither account need be given in full in the composite passage.
Miss Strickland was a warm partisan on the side of royalty and the church, but she made industrious study of "official records and other public documents," gave copious extracts from them, and drew interesting pictures of manners and customs. While engaged on this work.
The documents discovered by Dom Germain Morin, the Belgian Benedictine, about 1888, point to the conclusion that Guido was a Frenchman and lived from his youth upwards in the Benedictine monastery of St Maur des Fosses where he invented his novel system of notation and taught the brothers to sing by it.
He addressed a letter to a person named Vussin, whom he calls fili and mi nate, but, as Vussin is not mentioned in documents in which his interests as Einhard's son would have been concerned, it is possible that he was only a young man in whom he took a special interest.
In the regions where census tables and interpretations are derived from registration records kept by the several states or cities they are often made more complete than those in the state or municipal documents.
Claquin, Klesquin, Guescquin, Glayaquin, &c. The familiar form is found on his monument at St Denis, and in some legal documents of the time.
Important documents for Congregational Faith and Order, with historical introductions, are printed in Williston Walker's Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (New York, 1893).
During the prosecution Giolitti abused his position as premier to abstract documents bearing on the case.
The evidence contained in these state records so clearly marks the difference between the policy of Mr Kruger and the pacific, commercial policy of President Brand and his followers, that the documents call for careful consideration.
But until all the documents are accessible this must remain doubtful.
A closer examination of those parts of Ezra and Nehemiah which are not extracted from earlier documents or original memoirs leads to the conclusion that Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah was originally one work, displaying throughout the peculiarities of language and thought of a single editor, who, however, cannot be Ezra himself as tradition would have it.
An entire action may be referred, if all parties consent, or if it involves any prolonged examination of documents, or scientific or local examination, or consists wholly or partly of matters of account.
These sub-apostolic epistles are veritable "human documents," with the personal note running through them.
Gielguch, with documents relating to his negotiations with Pitt, and conversations with Palmerston in 1832 (2 vols., London, 1888) .
The real name of the city is Genava, that being the form under which it appears in almost all the known documents up to the lsfory.
Documents of various kinds, including gospels and apostolic epistles, circulated widely.
The documents comprise imperial edicts, rescripts, &c., liturgies, acts of councils, decretals and letters of bishops, references in contemporary heathen writings, and above all the works of the Church Fathers.
There are three original documents at its base.
The name of Linz appears in documents for the first time in 799 and it received municipal rights in 1324.
Moore, a contemporary collection, has been superseded to a great extent by the official records, but is still valuable as a collection of unofficial documents of all kinds.
The town of Ghardaia (in the local documents Taghardeit) is situated on a mosque-crowned hill in the middle of the Wadi Mzab, 1755 ft.
Hebrew writers, however, exhibit usually such strongly marked individualities of style that the documents or sources, thus combined, can generally be distinguished from each other, and from the comments or other additions of the compiler, without difficulty.
Sometimes, for instance, the excerpts from the older documents form long and complete narratives; in other cases (as in the account of the Flood) they consist of a number of short passages, taken alternately from two older narratives, and dovetailed together to make a continuous story; in the books of Judges and Kings the compiler has fitted together a series of older narratives in a framework supplied by himself; the Pentateuch and book of Joshua (which form a literary whole, and are now often spoken of together as the Hexateuch) have passed through more stages than the books just mentioned, and their literary structure is more complex.
Moses had used different documents, and that of these the two chief were distinguished by their use of different divine names - Elohim and Yahweh; by the use of this clue he gave a detailed analysis of the passages belonging to the several documents.
He carries through, as Astruc had done, the analysis of Genesis into (primarily) two documents; he draws the distinction between the Priests' Code, of the middle books of the Pentateuch, and Deuteronomy, the people's law book; and admits that even the books that follow Genesis consist of different documents, many incomplete and fragmentary (whence the theory became known as the " Fragment-hypothesis "), but all the work of Moses and some of his contemporaries.
He carried criticism beyond literary analysis and literary appreciation to the task of determining the worth of the documents as records, the validity of the evidence.
Some of the earliest documents which we possess are dated by the year in which some noticeable event took place, as in contract-tablets of the age of Sargon of Agade 1 To avoid any possibility of overstating the case, it is necessary to refer here to the fact that Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.
It was thus that St Paul came to write his two epistles to the Thessalonians, the oldest Christian documents that we possess.
Our Matthew and our Luke are just combinations, differently constructed, of these two documents, with a certain amount of additional matter which the editors had collected for themselves.
There is probably some truth in the view that the Church clung to its Four Gospels as a weapon against Gnosticism; it could not afford to reduce the number of its documents.
The corner-stone of his reconstruction of early Christian history is derived not so much from philosophical principles as from a fresh study of the documents.
From the study of these contemporary and genuine documents, he elaborated the theory that the earliest Christianity, the Christianity of Jesus and the original apostles, was wholly Judaistic in tone and practice.
The various documents which make up the New Testament were to be dated mainly by their relation to the great dispute.
Several discoveries of important missing documents and MSS.
In the meantime Chalmers applied himself with great diligence and assiduity to the investigation of the history and establishment of the English colonies in North America; and enjoying free access to the state papers and other documents preserved among what were then termed the plantation records, he became possessed of much important information.
Independently of its value as being compiled from original documents, it bears evidence of great research, and has been of essential benefit to later writers.
The most important collection of documents is at Hatfield, where there are some ten thousand papers covering the period down to Burghley's 1 This was the form always used by Cecil himself.
The word occurs in the Regula Columbani (c. 7), and du Cange gives a few other cases of its use in Latin documents, but it never came into vogue in the West.
The notes were generally compiled from original documents, references to which are usually given, so that they remain useful to the present day.
They are derived from the same period in which the underlying idea of the Gnostic systems also originated, namely, the time at which the ideas of the Persian and Babylonian religions came into contact, the remarkable results of which have thus partly found their way into the official documents of Parsiism.
Even in the 10th century Lord Kingsborough spent a fortune in printing a magnificent compilation of Mexican picture-writings and documents in his Antiquities of Mexico to prove the theory advocated by Garcia a century earlier, that the Mexicans were the lost tribes of Israel.
Thus actual documents of native Aztec history, or copies of them, are still open to the study of scholars, while after the conquest interpretations of these were drawn up in writing by Spanish-educated Mexicans, and histories founded on them with the aid of traditional memory were written by Ixtilxochitl and Tezozomoc. In Central America the rows of complex hieroglyphs to be seen sculptured on the ruined temples probably served a similar purpose.
The documents written by natives in later times thus more or less represent real records of the past, but the task of separating myth from history is of the utmost difficulty.
Among the most curious documents of early America is the Popol-Vuh or national book of the Quiche kingdom of Guatemala, a compilation of traditions written down by native scribes, found and translated by Father Ximenez about 1700, and published by Scherzer (Vienna, 1857) and Brasseur de Bourbourg (Paris, 1861).
Facsimiles of several of these interesting documents, with their translations, may be seen in Kingsborough; splendid reproductions of the beautiful Mexican and Mixteco-Zapotecan codices have also been published at the expense of the duke of Loubat and by the " Junta Colombina " (Mexico, 1892).
His works on Polish history are based on minute and critical study of the documents; they were collected under the title Polska, dzieje i rzeczy jej rozpatrzywane (Poland, her History and Affairs surveyed), in 20 vols.
Although his search among documents was undoubtedly wide, its results are by no means always accurate, and his admirers themselves admit great inequalities of style in him.
These documents have naturally excited considerable interest and raised many questions.
The second Gospel fragment (1907) seems to be of later origin than the documents already mentioned.
The volume is interspersed, far more extensively and richly than any other treatise on the war, with reproductions of contemporary plans, maps, documents, portraits and prints.
A careful biography is appended, founded mainly on his private notes and other authentic documents.
In 14th-century documents it is described as a town or borough governed by a portreeve, who frequently came into conflict with the parson of St John's church, who had become lord of the manor of Yeovil during the reign of Henry III.
This site seems to agree better with the indications of medieval documents.
The monastic library contains some valuable MSS., especially a number of bilingual documents in Greek and Arabic, the earliest being dated 1144.
His Histoire de Marie Stuart (2 vols., 1851) is well worth reading; the author made liberal use of some important unpublished documents, taken for the greater part from the archives of Simancas.
At the same time he had been commissioned to publish the diplomatic acts relating to the War of the Spanish Succession for the Collection des documents inedits; only four volumes of these Negotiations were published (1835-1842), and they do not go further than the peace of Nijmwegen; but the introduction is celebrated, and Mignet reprinted it in his Mélanges historiques.
The many topographical details furnished by exploration when compared with the building inscriptions and the indications given by deeds of sale will doubtless enable us ultimately to map out the principal features of the ancient city, but much more systematic exploration is needed, as well as further publication of existing documents.
In genuine Manichaean documents we only find the name Mani, but Manes, Maims, Manichaeus, meet us in 4th-century Greek and Latin documents.
It will be seen that the commercial1789-1818consult Adam Seyberts Statistical Annals (Philadelphia, 1818), which are based upon official documents, a large part of which are no longer in existence.
They have now become very long and elaborate documents, seven, eight or ten times as long as the Federal Constitution, and containing a vast number of provisions on all sorts of subjects, many of them partaking of the nature of ordinary statutes passed by a legislature rather than safeguards suitable to a fundamental instrument.
It is, on the whole, admirably clear, definite and concise, probably superior in point of technique to all the documents since framed on its model.
For the executive departments the Annual Reports of each and numerous executive documents are useful.
Considered solely as French documents, lettres de cachet may be defined as letters signed by the king of France, countersigned by one of his ministers, and closed with the royal seal (cachet) .
On one point, however, a fair amount of agreement seems now to have been reached, a result due to the labour in collating documents of Scheffer-Boichorst, namely, that the style of the Constitutum is generally that of the papal chancery in the latter half of the 8th century.
The legislature of 190o-1901 established a department of archives and history whose aim is to preserve documents and historical records.
General Pelham Burn said that he saw loot in Hodson's boxes when he accompanied him from Fatehgarh to take part in the siege of Lucknow, and Sir Henry Daly said that he found "loads of loot" in Hodson's boxes after his death, and also a file of documents relating to the Guides case, which had been stolen from him and of which Hodson denied all knowledge.
Sweetman's Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, vol.
Delisle's Catalogue desactes de Philippe Auguste (Paris, 1856) are the most important guides to the documents.
The more accurate form is then generally the later, found in documents written by Greeks in familiar intercourse with Egyptians, the less accurate is traditional from an older date in the mouths of pure Greeks and Hellenists, and is used in literary writings.
Mazarin's Lettres, which must be carefully studied by any student of the history of France, have appeared in the Collection des documents inedits, 9 vols.
Foley's narrative includes copies of the most important documents connected with his trial, and gives full information of the original sources.
In the archives of Paris Du Cange was able to consult charters, diplomas, manuscripts and a multitude of printed documents, which were not to be met.
On the isthmus are distinct traces of the canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine art and rich collections of documents.
The legends of the monks attribute the first religious settlements to the age of Constantine (274-337), but the hermitages are first mentioned in historical documents of the 9th century.
The muniment rooms of the monasteries contain a marvellous series of documents, including chrysobulls of various emperors and princes, sigilla of the patriarchs, typica, irades and other documents, the study of which will throw an important light on the political and ecclesiastical history and social life of the 852 East from the middle of the 10th century.
For this second part he has consulted historical documents, but he stops at the year 1087, just when he has reached the period about which he might have been able to give us some first-hand information.
He published a great number of documents relating to the history of Dauphine, e.g.
Similarly, in Notre Dame de Lorette; etude critique sur l'authenticite de la Santa Casa (1906), he dissipated by the aid of authentic documents the legend which had embellished and falsified the primitive history of that sanctuary.
Although documents might be known and used, they would not be regarded as the authorities for that which was independently remembered, and would not, therefore, necessarily be mentioned.
Various forms of the same saying occurring in different documents, or remembered from oral tradition and through catechetical instruction, would sometimes be purposely combined.
After this time it becomes manifest that, as we should expect, documents were the recognized authorities for the Gospel history; but there is still some uncertainty as to the documents upon which reliance was placed, and the precise estimation in which l For the only two that can be held to be such in the first half of the 2nd century, and the doubts whether they refer to our present Gospels, see Mark, Gospel Of, and Matthew, Gospel Of.
There are, however, instances in which no such explanation will serve, and it is possible that our first and third evangelists may have used two documents which were not in all respects identical, but which corresponded very closely on the whole.
Solovev, Public Readings on Peter the Great (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1903); Documents relating to the Great Northern War (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1892, &c.).
This elder Alan, whose name occurs in Breton documents before r080, went on crusade in 1097, and was apparently succeeded by his brother Flaald, whose son, the younger Alan, enjoyed the favour of Henry I., who bestowed on him Mileham and its barony in Norfolk, where he founded Sporle Priory.
Reprints were made by Hearne (Oxford, 1716), by Lewis (1729, 1731), who added an appendix of documents, and by Singer (1817, 1822) and for the King's Library (1902).
John Bruce, " Inedited documents rel.
The ex-queen, on whose premises arms and ammunition and a number of incriminating documents were found, was arrested and was imprisoned for nine months in the former palace.
For other documents and modern authorities see under HENRY IV.
The Bogomils are identified with the Massaliani in Slavonic documents of the 13th century.
According to Slavonic documents the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968).
In English documents also we find eponymous national ancestors grouped together in genealogical trees, and there is reason to believe that the common origin of the various Teutonic peoples was remembered to a certain extent until comparatively late in the middle ages.
There is not a word, in the documents concerning the relations of Philip Augustus with Rome, from which we may conclude that the Capetian crown submitted, or that the papacy wished to impose upon it the effective suzerainty of the Holy See.
The feud between Italian and Frenchman broke out in a violent form; and it was in vain that St Catherine of Siena proffered her mediation in the bloody strife betwixt the pope and the Florentine republic. The letters that she addressed to the pontiff, on this and other occasions, are documents, which are, perhaps, unique in their kind, and of great literary beauty.
The absence of any equivalent names in Babylonian or Assyrian documents is noteworthy, 3 especially as the Babylonians spoke of the "Sea-Country" (mat Tamtim).
In the bilingual Hittite inscription of Tarqudimme the land is called "the land of the city of Metan," just as in the Hittite documents the Hittite country in Asia Minor is called "the land of the city of Khatti."
The documents from the ancient Tirqa said to have been found at Ishara, a few miles belowKarkisiya, are referred to below (§ 4).
On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.
The Apostolic Letters alone may be ex cathedra documents, and may have the privilege of infallibility, if the matter admit of it.
There are also certain differences between the two sorts of documents with regard to their penal consequences.
Their deliberations are secret and are based on prepared documents bearing on the case, written, or more often printed, which are distributed to all the cardinals about ten days in advance.
His Tibetische Studien (1851-1868) is a valuable collection of documents and observations.
Aurel Stein in Khotan seem to include very early, if not the earliest known, Tibetan documents.
Both the personal character and the literary accuracy of Llorente have been assailed, but although he was not an exact historian there is no doubt that he made an honest use of documents relating to the Inquisition which are no longer extant.
At all events when the word forum 3 begins to appear for the first time in documents of the 10th century in the sense of a liberty or 1 The nature of the evidence may be gathered from Savigny, Gesch.
In the course of the 12th and 13th centuries the number of such documents increased very rapidly; that of Toledo especially, granted to the Mozarabic population in 1 101, but greatly enlarged and extended by Alphonso VII.
Le Clerc's new edition of the Apostolic Fathers of Johann Cotelerius (1627-1686), published in 1698, marked an advance in the critical study of these documents.
He ultimately reached a point at which the Bible became for him simply one of many ancient documents.
In cases where such an explanation is precluded by the nature of the details foreshadowed, the evidence is found to be defective, generally from the absence of contemporary documents.
He spent his leisure and his fortune in the search for documents bearing on the old Basque and Bearnese provinces; and the fruits of his studies in the archives of Bayonne, Toulouse, Pau, Perigord and other cities were embodied in forty-five MS. volumes, which were sent by his son Gabriel to Colbert.
They kept the keys of the treasury and had charge of its contents, including not only coin and bullion but also the military standards and a large number of public documents, which in later times comprised all the laws as well as the decrees of the senate.
They rode out in state together, and if he kept cap in hand as a subject she would snatch it from him and clap it on his head again; while in graver things she took all due or possible care to gratify his ambition, by the insertion of a clause in their contract of marriage which made their joint signature necessary to all documents of state issued under the sign-manual.
They complied by the production of an indictment under five heads, supported by the necessary evidence of documents.
The most important original authorities are the voluminous State Papers of the period, with other MS. documents preserved at the British Museum, the Cambridge University Library, Hatfield and elsewhere.
Turnbull in Letters of Mary Queen of Scots (London, 1845), and by Agnes Strickland in Letters of Mary Queen of Scots and Documents connected with her Personal History (3 vols., London, 1842).
As to the so-called Decretum Gelasii de libris recipiendis et non recipiendis, it also is a compilation of documents anterior to Gelasius, and it is difficult to determine Gelasius's contributions to it.
The documents are interesting as marking the beginning of a revolution which eventually emancipated the monks altogether from the control of their diocesans and brought them under the direct authority of the Holy See.
Deliberate inversion certainly occurs in the Sumerian documents, and it is highly probable that this was a priestly mode of writing, but never of speaking; at any rate, not when the language was in common use.
The university library, incorporated with the former Classen library, collected by the famous merchants of that name, contains about 200,000 volumes, besides about 4 000 manuscripts, which include Rask's valuable Oriental collection and the Arne-Magnean series of Scandinavian documents.
With the exception of one or two glimpses of him that we obtain from authentic historical documents, the recorded events of his later as of his earlier life rest on no more certain authority than that of Blind Harry.
In 1630 a professor of Louvain, Erycius Puteanus (van Putte), published a treatise, De Begginarum apud Belgas instituto et nomine suiragium, in which he produced three documents purporting to date from the i ith and 12th centuries, which seemed conclusively to prove that the Beguines existed long before Lambert le Begue.
The confusion caused by the spurious documents of Puteanus, however, led, even when the legend of St Begga was rejected, to other suggestions for the derivation of the name, e.g.
The use of Flemish in public documents, in judicial procedure and in official correspondence was hereafter required in the Flemish provinces, and Belgium became officially bi-lingual.
His Historia Ecclesiastica, in eighteen books, brings the narrative down to 610; for the first four centuries the author is largely dependent on his predecessors, Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret and Evagrius, his additions showing very little critical faculty; for the later period his labours, based on documents now no longer extant, to which he had free access, though he used them also with small discrimination, are much more valuable.
If, by the advice of the cardinals who have examined the documents, the pope pronounce his approval, the servant of God receives the title of "Venerable," but is not entitled to any manifestation of cultus.
Fontanini, Codex Constitutionum quas summi pontifices ediderunt in solemni canonizatione sanctorum (Rome, 1729, a collection of original documents); Pr.
The draft code of civil procedure, which was published in December 1872, introduced many important reforms, especially by substituting public and verbal procedure for the older German system, under which the proceedings were almost entirely carried on by written documents.
The two chief collections which were issued by the philosopher are the Accessiones historicae (1698-1700) and the Scriptores reruni Brunsvicensium; the latter of these, containing documents centring round the history of the Weif family, was published in three volumes at Hanover (1707-1711).
But these collections are merely heaps of historical material, good and bad; the documents therein were not examined and they are now quite superseded.
The Monumenta is a critical and ordered collection of documents relating to the history of Germany between 500 and 1500.
Lastly, many documents relating to the great families of Germany, among them those of Hohenzollern and of Wittelsbach, have been carefully edited and given to the world.
Apart from political histories there are useful collections of laws and other official documents of importance, and also a large number of valuable works on the laws and constitutions of the Germans and on German institutions generally.
Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt; Historical Documents ii.
It possesses one church, of the Byzantine period, which is mentioned in 13thcentury documents as even then of great age.
He became bankrupt in 1822, but during the following years he accomplished one of his best pieces of work, The History of the Commonwealth, founded on pamphlets and original documents, which still retains considerable value.
Officially the word " Austria " is not found, and though the sovereign is emperor of Austria, an Austrian empire appears not to exist; the territories are spoken of in official documents as " the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath."
Before the combination of Clericals and Federalists the ministry broke down; they were divided among themselves; Counts Taaffe and Alfred Potocki, the minister of agriculture, wished to conciliate the Slav races - a policy recommended 1 The documents are printed in Baron de Worms, op. cit.
They determined (I) that all correspondence and documents regarding every matter The brought before the government officials should be language conducted in the language in which it was first intro- ordinances duced.
Many further authorities, whether works, memoirs or collections of documents, are referred to in the lists appended to the articles in this book on the various Austrian sovereigns and statesmen.
The Lombard element, during the Norman reign, shows itself, not in whole documents or inscriptions, but in occasional words and forms, as in some of the mosaics at Monreale.
The languages of inscriptions and documents are Greek, Arabic and Latin, in private writings sometimes Hebrew.
In the spring of this year Garrison issued his Thoughts on African Colonization, in which he showed by ample citations from official documents that the American Colonization Society was organized in the interest of slavery, and that in offering itself to the people of the North as a practical remedy for that system it was guilty of deception.
That a lady of this name existed in the early part of the 11th century is certain, as evidenced by several ancient documents, such as the Stow charter, the Spalding charter and the Domesday survey, though the spelling of the name varies considerably.
To this piecemeal method of composition, in which narrative alternated with tirades on political and social questions, was added the further disadvantage of the lack of exact information, which, owing to the dearth of documents, could only have been gained by personal investigation.
The attribution of the Crucifixion to the Jews appears in several 2nd-century documents; Justin actually uses the words "He was pierced by you" in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew.
Unfortunately in a question of this kind the dating of our documents is the first matter of importance, and it seems that we can only assign dates to the different parts of the Avesta by processes of finedrawn conjecture.
But here, too, the preliminary classification of the documents is beset with doubt.
If the journals of accounts, the letters and business documents, had come down to us en masse, they would no doubt have yielded to research the history and life of Egypt day by day; but those that now represent a thousand years of the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom together would not half fill an ordinary muniment chest.
In rare cases during the Middle Kingdom (inscriptions in the tomb of Ameni at Beth Hasan, graffiti in the quarries of Hanub) documents were dated in the years of reign of these feudatory nobles.
Two wills exist on papyrus of the XIIth Dynasty, but they are isolated, and such are not again found among native documents, though they occur in Greek in the Ptolemaic age.
From the time of the XXVth Dynasty there is a great increase in written documents of a legal character, sales, loans, &c., apparently due to a change in law and custom; but after the reign of Darius I.
Such men, who, capable in every field, designed the Great Pyramids and bestowed the highest monumental fame on their masters, must surely have had an insight into scientific principles that would hardly be credited to the Egyptians from the written documents alone.
In general it may be said of Egyptian literary compositions that apart from their interest as anthropological documents they possess no merit which would entitle them to survive.
Revillout addressed himself with success to the task of interpreting the legal documents of demotic which had been almost entirely neglected for thirty years.
Apart from their philological interest, as giving the history of a remarkable language during a period of several thousand years, the grammatical studies of the last quarter of the I9th century and afterwards are beginning to bear fruit in regard to the exact interpretation of historical documents on Egyptian monuments and papyri.
Language and WritingThe history of the Egyptian language is evidenced by documents extending over a very long range of time.
The bulk of the hieroglyphic inscriptions are written in a more or less artificial literary language; but in business documents, letters, popular tales, &c., the scribes often adhered closely to the living form of the tongue, and thus reveal its progressive changes.
With progressive changes, this form of the language is found in documents reaching down to the fall of Paganism in the 4th century AD.
Under the later Ptolemies and the Roman rule documents in Greek are more abundant than in demotic, and the language of the ruling classes must have begun to penetrate the masses deeply.
Christian Coptic, though probably at first contemporary with some documents of Old Coptic, contrasts strongly with the latter.
Such are found from the 6th century n.c. in the inscription of Abu Simbel, from the 5th in Herodotus, &c., and abound in Ptolemaic and later documents from the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. onwards.
Whether they all sprang from one common I stock of picture-writing we shall perhaps never know, nor can we as yet trace the influence which one great system may have had on another, owing to the poverty of documents from most of the countries concerned.
In business and literary documents red ink was used for contrast, especially in headings; in demotic, however, it is very rarely seen.
From the Middle Kingdom onward to the Roman period, the dates upon Egyptian documents are given in regnal years.
In Ptolemaic times not only were Macedonian dates sometimes given in Greek documents, but there were certainly two native modes of dating current; down to the reign of Euergetes there was a fiscal dating in papyri, according to which the yotr began in Paophi, besides a civil dating probably from Thoth; later, all the dates in papyri start from Thoth.
The Macedonian year is found in early Ptolemaic documents.
The vague Egyptian year, however, continued in use in native documents for some centuries along with the Alexandrian lonian year.
It is remarkable that no records of eclipses are known from Egyptian documents.