He snatched the documents he needed and closed the door to the safe.
Here he sometimes attains, even in details, to divinations of the truth afterwards confirmed by new documents and later research.
Ingrid referenced documents she emailed the woman who was supposed to be here, documents Jessi had no access to.
Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents relating to the Transfer of Property (3 vols., Cambridge, 1898); H.
The statement is not there because you want the log per se but because the logging of the actions is what documents how much you need to pay.
There are many documents in Zobi, Storia civile della Toscana, vols.
These documents, products themselves of civilization, try to provide legal protections for the most elemental features of civilization.
"Well, that's all!" said Kutuzov as he signed the last of the documents, and rising heavily and smoothing out the folds in his fat white neck he moved toward the door with a more cheerful expression.
Government clerks set up their baize- covered tables and their pigeonholes of documents in small rooms.
The golden bull of that emperor, which became thenceforth the charter of its foundation, is still preserved; it is one of the finest specimens of such documents, and contains portraits of Alexius himself and his queen.
It was however accepted by him, and in official documents he usually styles them "the people called Methodists."
Its intricacy lies in the character of the documents before us - religious formularies consisting partly of matter established in usage long before they were written down in their present shape, partly of additions made at the time of writing.
We have created documents that enshrine our values as a method of articulating and preserving them.
With regard to the spelling of the name, Mark Napier states that among the family papers there exist a great many documents signed by John Napier.
The oldest charter now on record is one belonging to the 6th year of Edward I.; and it refers to previous documents of the time of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror.
The enormous number of dated documents has induced some scholars to attempt a statistical research into the observance of the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 19th days of the months as Sabbaths.
If the Sabbath involved abstention from all such business as recorded in dated documents and always fell on these days, then the 7th, &c., should show a marked falling off in the number of dated documents.
In other cases the inclusion of documents relating to the temple business, payments of tithes and other dues, salaries to temple officials, and such ceremonies as marriages, &c., which may have demanded the presence of the congregation and were at least partly religious in nature, have been allowed to complicate the matter.
Further, if the Sabbaths fell on each 7th day through the year, any indication by dated documents of a falling off in the number of transactions on the 7th day of the month must obviously be completely disguised.
He was in communication all his life with the leading contemporary statesmen, so that his correspondence is one of the most interesting and important of historical documents.
The best life of him is that by the Bohemian historian Anton Gindely, Acta et documents historiam GabrielisBethleni illustrantia (Budapest, 1890).
He not only spent large sums in the acquisition of his library, but stole original documents from the archives of Athens and other cities of Greece.
This charter provided that no war could be declared nor marriage concluded by the sovereign, nor taxes raised without the assent of the states, that natives were alone eligible for high office, and that the national language should be used in public documents.
The rarity of any reference to him in contemporary documents makes further specification conjectural.
The Code admits no claim unsubstantiated by documents or the oath of witnesses.
- Contracts in general; Oppert and Menant, Documents juridiques de l'Assyrie et de la Chaldee (Paris, 1877); J.
is a copy or redraft made from older documents during this period.
(ii.) For an upper limit of date, in default of definite evidence, it seems imprudent to go back beyond the 5th]century B.C., since neither in Rome nor Campania have we any evidence of public written documents of any earlier century.
Sabatier's theory as to the nature of these documents was, in brief, that the Speculum perfectionis was the first of all the Lives of the saint, written in 1227 by Br.
Goetz's criticism of the documents is characterized by exceeding carefulness and sobriety.
Although no contemporary copy of Bagimond's Roll is known to exist, at least three documents give particulars of the taxation of the Church of Scotland in the 16th century, which are based upon the original roll.
Article 8 prohibited the seizure or examination of any ecclesiastical papers, documents, books or registers of purely spiritualcharacter.
Documents subsequently published have somewhat attenuated the responsibility of Ferry and Saint Hilaire for this breach of faith, and have shown that the French forces in Tunisia acted upon secret instructions from General Farre, minister of war in the Ferry cabinet, who pursued a policy diametrically opposed to the official declarations made by the premier and the foreign minister.
It established that all Italian cabinets since 1880 had grossly neglected the state banks; that the two preceding cabinets had been aware of the irregularities committed by Tanlongo; that Tanlongo had heavily subsidized the press, paying as much as 20,000 for that purpose in 1888 alone; that a number of deputies, including several ex-ministers, had received from him loans of a considerable amount, which they had apparently made no effort to refund; that Giolitti had deceived the Chamber with regard to the state banks, and was open tosuspicion of having,after the arrest of Tanlongo, abstracted a number of documents from the latters papers before placing the remainder in the hands of the judicial authorities.
The Triple Alliance was maintained and renewed as far as paper documents were concerned (in June 1902 it was reconfirmed for 12 years), but public opinion was no longer so favorably disposed towards it.
For instance, the provisions in Magna Carta concerning the freedom of the church find no place in the Articles, while a comparison between the two documents suggests that in other ways also influences favourable to the church and the clergy were at work while the famous charter was being framed.
Another difference between the two documents concerns the towns and the trading classes.
Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents (Oxford, 1869); A.
For a comprehensive bibliography, including monographs and published documents, see Ulysse Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist.
When, in the generations after the Buddha's death, his disciples compiled the documents of the faith, the form they adopted became dominant.
It probably means "row, line, canon," and is used, in its exact technical sense, of the language of the canon, containing the documents of the Buddhist faith.
All the rest of the canonical works grew up in the schools of the Order, and most of them appear to contain documents, or passages, of different dates.
1880); Pieces et documents relatifs au comte de Bothwell, by Prince A.
Its date is now usually given as about Soo B.C. 1 In the next century the document E was composed, so called from its using 1 The dating of these documents is extremely difficult, since it is based entirely on internal evidence.
Both these documents are considered to have originated in the Northern kingdom, Israel, where also in the 8th century appeared the prophets Amos and Hosea.
A few years later (about 600) the two Pentateuchal documents J and E were woven together, the books of Kings were compiled, the book of Habakkuk and parts of the Proverbs were written.
A few of these have been translated, but as yet no European scholar possesses knowledge sufficient to enable him to study these valuable documents at first hand.
Before the Norman Conquest England had two official tongues; documents Sicily.
French documents are unknown till the days of French fashion had come in, that is, till deep in the 13th century.
Documents were drawn up in such and so many of these tongues as was convenient for the parties concerned; not a few private documents add a fourth tongue, and are drawn up in Greek, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew.
It is possible that Minehead had a corporate existence during the 15th century, as certain documents executed by the portreeve and burgesses at that date are preserved, but no record of the grant of a charter has been found.
It is no longer suggested in responsible quarters that they are party documents sacrificing truth to " tendency."
As a court of justice its main drawback is that it is wholly unable to cope with the vast mass of documents representing appeals from all parts of the empire.
The present condition of the peasants - according to official documents - appears to be as follows.
Without his assent and blessing no important decisions were taken, all state documents emanating from the highest authority bore his signature, and he was regarded, both in the official world and by the xxru.
See Sienkiewicz, Recueil de documents relatifs a la Russie, 1502-1842 (1852); Soloviev, Russian Historical Writers (Pisateli russkoe ist.
Documents relating to the political and social movements in Russia (London, 1897).
1908), with appendices giving many unpublished documents; J.
For documents consult T.
The department is authorized, on receipt of such report, to direct an inquiry to be made into the cause of any accident so reported, and the inspector appointed to make the inquiry is given power to enter any railway premises for the purposes of his inquiry, and to summon any person engaged upon the railway to attend the inquiry as a witness, and to require the production of all books, papers and documents which he considers important for the purpose.
An English translation of the embassy to Constantinople is in Ernest Henderson's Select Documents of the Middle Ages (Bohn series, 1896).
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
The documents underlying the Pentateuch and book of Joshua, represented by the ciphers J, E, D and P, are assumed to have been drawn up in the chronological order in which those ciphers are here set down, and the period of their composition extends from the 9th century B.C., in which the earlier portions of J were written, to the 5th century B.C., in which P finally took shape.
The Tell el-Amarna despatches are crowded with evidences of Canaanite forms and idioms impressed on the Babylonian language of these cuneiform documents.
non-Semitic) is rendered certain by the proper names Jau-bit-di (= Ilu-bi`di) of Hamath in Sargon's inscriptions, Ahi-jawi (mi) in Sellin's discovered tablet at Ta'annek, to say nothing of those which have been found in the documents of Khammurabi's reign.
The existence of " high places " is presupposed in those two ancient codes and is also presumed in the narratives of the documents E and J which contain them.
They form a part of the Collection de documents inedits sur l'histoire de France, and were supplemented by the Correspondance du cardinal Granvelle, 1565-1586, edited by M.
From it have been transferred to the fireproof building of the Registry of Deeds many interesting historical documents, among them the records of the Plymouth colony, the will of Myles Standish, and the original patent.
Studies," Baltimore, 1897); Henry Adams, Documents relating to New England Federalism, 1800-1815 (Boston, 1878); A.
Bougeart, Les Cordeliers, documents pour servir ix l'histoire de la Revolution (Caen, 1891); G.
The true nature of this relation can be readily observed in other fields (ancient Britain, Greece, Egypt, &c.), where, however, the native documents and sources have not that complexity which characterizes the composite biblical history.
In the hundred and seventieth year (142 B.C.) the yoke of the heathen was taken away from Israel and the people began to date their legal documents "in the first year of Simon the great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews."
These clay archives are almost exclusively inventories and business documents.
The script also recurs on walls in the shape of graffiti, and on vases, sometimes ink-written; and from the number of seals originally attached to perishable documents it is probable that parchment or some similar material was also used.
The elaborate method and bureaucratic control visible in the clay documents of the palace point to a highly developed legal organization.
The west side of the palace contained a series of 18 magazines with great store jars and cists and large hoards of clay documents.
While Scotland and England were preparing for the " First Bishops' War," Henderson drew up two papers, entitled respectively The Remonstrance of the Nobility and Instructions for Defensive Arms. The first of these documents he published himself; the second was published against his wish by John Corbet (1603-1641), a deposed minister.
Harrison-Ainsworth in his novel Crichton (new ed., 1892) reprints and translates some documents relating to Crichton, as well as some of his poems.
(1817), and is found, fortified by documents, in M.
Captivite de la famille royale au Temple (2 vols., 1852, and many subsequent editions), containing copies Of original documents, and essential to the study of the question, although its sentimental pictures of the boy martyr can no longer be accepted.
According to early documents the name was at first W2clinga (or Wzetlinga) strxt; its derivation is unknown, but an English personal name may lie behind it.
The original sources are very scanty, besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon.
In other cases he tampers with the documents which he inserts (as, for instance, with the text of Magna Carta).
The most important state documents passed through his hands.
His works can scarcely be entitled original compositions, his labour having consisted chiefly in the arrangement of his materials, but on this very account they are of considerable value as convenient books of reference, easier of access and almost as trustworthy as the original documents.
The early divisions of the county were known as wapentakes, five being mentioned in Domesday, while 13th-century documents mention seven wapentakes, corresponding with the six present hundreds, except that Repton and Gresley were then reckoned as separate divisions.
Domitian was the first emperor who arrogated divine honours in his lifetime, and caused himself to be styled Our Lord and God in public documents.
After a highly useful career, under the presidency till 1813 of Sir John Sinclair, the Board of Agriculture was dissolved in 1819, but left in its statistical account, county surveys and other documents much interesting and valuable information regarding the agriculture of the period.
de Barghon and Fort-Rion, are of doubtful authenticity; and the collection of letters and documents published in 1865 by F.
Mill was earnestly opposed to the transfer, and the documents in which he substantiated the proud boast for the Company that "few governments, even under far more favourable circumstances, have attempted so much for the good of their subjects or carried so many of their attempts to a beneficial issue," and exposed the defects of the proposed new government, are models of trenchant and dignified pleading.
begged to be restored to his ancestral ' Some of the indications of our documents would make him older, and these are followed by Niese (iii.
Historical documents, however detailed, rarely show all the factors we have to deal with or fully explain a given situation.
For the documents of the time reference should be made to the Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, edited by J.
- ii.) based on original documents.
He began other accounts of the campaigns of his own age; but they are marred by his having had few trustworthy documents and statistics at hand.
(7) Written documents, e.g.
The Aegean written documents have not yet proved (by being found outside the area) epistolary correspondence with other lands.
About institutions we have less certain knowledge, there being but little evidence for the earlier periods; but in the documents relating to religion, the most significant of all, it can at least be said that there is no trace of sharp change.
A system of pictographic writing came into use early in this Palace period, but only a few documents, made of durable material, have survived.
In numerous documents from the 12th to the 15th century the almucium is mentioned, occasionally as identical with the hood, but more often as a sort of cap distinct from it, e.g.
Among the special collections are the George Ticknor library of Spanish and Portuguese books (6 393 vols.), very full sets of United States and British public documents, the Bowditch mathematical library (7090 vols.), the Galatea collection on the history of women (2193 vols.), the Barton library, including one of the finest existing collections of Shakespeariana (3309 vols., beside many in the general library), the A.
- See the annual City Documents; also Justin Winsor (ed.) The Memorial History of Boston, including Suffolk County.
A great mass of original historical documents have been published by the registry department of the city government since 1876 (34 v.
BOOK OF CONCORD (Liber Concordiae), the collective documents of the Lutheran confession, consisting of the Confessio Augustana, the Apologia Confessionis Augustanae, the Articula Smalcaldici, the Catechismi Major et Minor and the Formula Concordiae.
In spite of this very limited reception the Formula Concordiae has always been reckoned with the five other documents as of confessional authority.
Bertolotti's Francesco Cenci e la sua famiglia (2nd ed., Florence, 1879), containing a number of interesting documents which place the events in their true light; cf.
ANTONINI ITINERARIUM, a valuable register, still extant, of the stations and distances along the various roads of the Roman empire, seemingly based on official documents, which were probably those of the survey organized by Julius Caesar, and carried out under Augustus.
The most important documents are contained in MSS.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
They made their own treaties with the Mahommedans, or attacked them in spite of the king's treaties; they dated their documents by the year of their own reign, and they had each their separate laws or assizes.
- In dealing with the literature of the Crusades, it is perhaps better, though ideally less scientific, to begin with chronicles and narratives rather than with documents.
The documents bearing on the history of the Crusades and the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem are various.
The only published collections of documents relating to the state are Buckingham Smith's Collection de varios documentos para la historic de la Florida y tierras adyacentes (London, 1857), and Benjamin F.
Thanks to a skilful use of forged documents, the primate carried the council's verdict upon every point.
This consists of a medley of documents of the most heterogeneous character.
From this it would appear that the documents were merely materials collected from various sources and possibly with a view to the compilation of a homogeneous law.
Documents relating to Great Britain (Oxford, 1869); the latest edition is that by Theodor Mommsen in Monum.
This won him the confidence of Bonaparte, and he was henceforth employed in drawing up many of the more important documents.
Even if the documents in Joseph.
About this time a Borgia of doubtful parentage was born, Giovanni, described in some papal documents as Alexander's son and in others as Cesare's.
On these documents the new world is called America, after Amerigo Vespucci, its supposed discoverer.
The result was that these books became "Christian" documents; it is entirely to Christian, not to Jewish, tradition that we owe their preservation.
Guillain, Documents sur l'histoire ...
Its value is considerably increased by the insertion of ancient chronicles and documents not easily accessible elsewhere.
His belief was that the Church would not suffer by the publication of documents.
Baker, the writings of Livingstone, and the biographies of Gordon may be consulted, besides the many documents on these subjects published by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.
He did everything that strong words against separation could do to bind his societies to the Church of England; he also did everything that legal documents and ordinations could do to secure the permanence of that great work for which God had raised him up. In the words of Canon Overton and Rev. F.
The widespread use throughout the ancient world of the writing material manufactured from the papyrus plant is attested by early writers, and by documents and sculptures.
Besides the ritual and religious rolls, there are the hieratic, civil and literary documents, and the demotic and enchorial papyri, relating generally to sales of property.
Under the Empire its use must have been extensive, for not only was it required for the production of books, but it was universally employed for domestic purposes, correspondence and legal documents.
It was the practice to cut away the portion thus marked; but in case of legal documents this mutilation was forbidden by the laws of Justinian.
It ceased, however, to be used for books sooner than for documents.
Of medieval literary Greek papyri very few relics have survived, but of documents coming down to the 8th and 9th centuries an increasing number is being brought to light among the discoveries in Egypt.
The employment of this material in Italy for legal purposes is sufficiently illustrated by the large number of documents in Latin which were preserved at Ravenna, and date from the 5th to the Loth century.
II) are regarded as suggestive of legend; to say nothing of the lateness of all the documents relating to the wars of Og, and the remoteness of Bashan from the regions of the Israelites' wandering.
Special commissioners were to have concurrent jurisdiction with the U.S. circuit and district courts and the inferior courts of Territories in enforcing the law; fugitives could not testify in their own behalf; no trial by jury was provided; i The precise amount of organization in the Underground Railroad cannot be definitely ascertained because of the exaggerated use of the figure of railroading in the documents of the "presidents" of the road, Robert Purvis and Levi Coffin, and of its many "conductors," and their discussion of the "packages" and "freight" shipped by them.
The later middle ages are represented by several monasteries, and many castles, such as those of Dervent, Doboj, Maglaj, Zepee and Vranduk, on the Bosna; Bihac, on Owing to the scarcity of authoritative documents, it is impossible to describe in detail the events of the next three centuries.
Rome, 1863; 2 Agram, 1875), - these are collections of Latin documents from the Vatican library; V.
By this treaty the annual tribute payable by Austria was abolished, but an indemnity of 200,000 florins was paid "once for all " by the emperor, who was henceforth to be given his proper imperial title (padishah) in Turkish official documents.
The Ottoman government, seeking to gain time, proposed a " mixed commission " of inquiry; and to this France agreed, on condition that no documents later than 1740 should be admitted as evidence.
Some analysis of the unpublished documents in the record office, for the period 1815-1841, by W.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
probably the name of a castle - occurs in documents of the 10th century.
The abundant documents in the hands of her descendants, the families of Broglie and Haussonville, have indeed furnished material for books and papers, but these are almost wholly on the social aspect of Mme de Stael, not on her literary merit.
The presentation was accompanied by a kind of mathematical performance, in which Leonardo solved several hard problems proposed to him by John of Palermo, an imperial notary, whose name is met with in several documents dated between 1221 and 1240.
In documents of the first half of the 12th century the name is variously spelt as Kairdif, Cairti and Kardid.
They still maintain the high standard of honesty mentioned by historical documents, and never will take anything left in the tundra or about the houses by their neighbours.
The next day royalty was abolished, and on the 22nd it was decided that all documents should be henceforth dated from the year I.
Hunter, Record Commission, 1833); the documents in W.
Two highly important documents purporting to have been written by Patrick have come down to us.
Even his attempted flight on the 10th of June 1791 did not entirely turn the nation against him, although he left documents which proved his opposition to the whole Revolution.
For the vestment question in the Church of England see the Report of the sub-committee of Convocation on The Ornaments of the Church and its Ministers (1908); Hierurgia Anglicana, documents and extracts illustrative of the ceremonial of the Anglican Church after the Reformation, new ed.
The Archivio Comunale contains documents on watermarked paper of local manufacture going back to the 13th century.
Sittingbourne (Sc dungburna, Sidyngbourn) is mentioned in Saxon documents in 989 and frequently in contemporary records of the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Vatican library contains a volume of manuscript letters and other documents written by him in connexion with his various missions against Luther.
This work does not go beyond the end of the 13th century; it contains a large number of documents.
Loisy recognizes two eye-witness documents, as utilized by all three synoptists, while Matthew and Luke have also incorporated Mark.
His chief peculiarity consists in clearly tracing a strong Pauline influence, especially in Mark, which there remodels certain sayings and actions as these were first registered by the eye-witness documents.
The first volume (in two parts) is a detailed biography of the great astronomer; the second includes some of his minor writings and correspondence, family records, and historical documents of local interest.
Moule, Descriptive Catalogue of the Charters, Minute Books, and other Documents of the Borough of Weymouth and Melcome Regis, A.D.
von Manteuffel, 1848-1858 (3 vols., Berlin, 1900-1901); and Preussens auswcirtige Politik, 1850-1858 (3 vols., ib., 1902), documents selected from those left by Manteuffel; E.
Before we discuss these three documents we shall mention other members of this literature, which, though derivable ultimately from Jewish sources, are Christian in their present form.
For a complete discussion of the various documents see Lipsius, Apokryphen A postelgeschichte, i.
1 In Anglo-French documents the word counte was at all times used as the equivalent of earl, but, unlike the feminine form "countess," it did not find its way into the English language until the 16th century, and then only in the sense defined above.
His essential functions were judicial and executive, and in documents he is often described as the king's agent (agens publicus) or royal judge (judex publicus or fiscalis).
of South America, 1854-1904 (1904); the Revista trimensal do Instituto Historico e Geographico do Brazil (1839-1908), one or two volumes annually, is a storehouse of papers, studies and original documents bearing on the history of Brazil.
Among the other public institutions the following are the more important: the town library, first opened to students in the 17th century; the Archivio, a record office, instituted in 1858, containing a valuable and splendidly arranged collection of documents; the Fine Arts Institution, founded in 1816; and the natural history museum of the Royal Academy of the Physiocritics, inaugurated in the same year.
As early as the 13th century the vulgar tongue was already well established at Siena, being used in public documents, commercial records and private correspondence.
1877), who has left a precious store of historical, biographical and bibliographical studies and documents.
Joao III (1844), prepared Herculano for his life's work, and the year 1846 saw the first volume of his History of Portugal from the Beginning of the Monarchy to the end of the Reign of Affonso III., a book written on critical lines and based on documents.
But he incorporates many documents in the latter part of his book.
By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by i»rapxos lieutenant, governor," in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, " governor "; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III.
After a careful investigation of the official documents, Cobden became convinced that those were utterly unrighteous proceedings.
Count Francis was the principal founder of the Society of the Bohemian Museum, devoted to the collection of documents bearing on Bohemian history, with the object of reawakening national sentiment by the study of the national records.
documents, mainly concerned with the Slovaks; Rene Gonnard, La Hongrie au XX e siecle (Paris, 1908), an admirable description of the country and its people, mainly from the point of view of economic development and social conditions; Geoffrey Drage, Austria-Hungary (London, 1909), a very useful book of reference; P. Alden (editor), Hungary of To-day, by members of the Hungarian Government (London, 1909); see also " The Problem of Hungary " in the Edinburgh Review (No.
Signatures to documents of the period are rare; seals served instead of signatures, because most of the nobles were unable to sign their names.
In 1849 Stephen Ladislaus Endlicher (1804-1849), better known as a botanist than as a historian, published a collection of documents, Rerum hungaricarum monumenta Arpadiana.
Later collections are Documents of the Angevin Period, ed.
1875-1878); National Documents (Mag.
Numerous documents have also been issued in the various publications of the Hungarian Academy and the Hungarian Historical Society.
Seton-Watson (Scotus Viator), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong criticism of the Magyar attitude towards the Slav subject races, especially the Slovaks, with documents and a full bibliography.
That it was used also in official documents and ordinances is shown by copies of formularies of oaths, the import of which proves beyond a doubt that the originals belonged 1301- to the reigns of Louis I.
This article, which was based upon a mass of incriminating documents supplied to Friedjung by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office, had been timed to coincide with the outbreak of hostilities against Serbia, and was to have been the first of a series convicting the Serbian Government and dynasty of aggressive and even murderous designs.
Despite the Ballplatz's efforts at postponement, the trial took place in Vienna in Dec. 1909, and revealed the documents upon which Friedjung had relied, as impudent forgeries concocted by subordinate officials of the Austro-Hungarian legation in Belgrade, with the connivance of the minister, Count Forga.cs.
10 and 25 and March 6) which will remain the classic documents of the controversy, and reduced his opponents to silence, though not to surrender.
Barac, Croats and Slovenes Friends of the Entente (1919, contains important original documents); The Southern Slav Library (8 pamphlets published by the Yugoslav Committee 1915-8).
On Banat, see Radonic, Histoire des Serbes de Hongrie (1919, with documents).
Hautecoeur, L'Italie sous Orlando (1919); two collections of documents, viz.
Here are kept very complete and curious documents of the Inquisition, showing all its workings from the 15th to the 19th century.
7 0 5-7 1 5) who, out of hatred to Christianity, replaced Greek by Arabic as the language of official documents at Damascus.
Of the large number of Apocryphal books existing in Syriac8 the majority have been translated from Greek, one or two (such as Bar Sira or Ecclesiasticus) from Hebrew, while some (like the Doctrine of Addai above referred to) are original Syriac documents.
Among such documents connected with the early history of Edessa we have, besides the Doctrine of Addai, certain martyrdoms, those of Sharbel and Barsamya assigned to the reign of Trajan, and those of Gurya and Shamona and of the Deacon Habbibh under Diocletian and Licinius.
All these documents, like Addai, belong probably to the 2nd half of the 4th century, and are quite unreliable in detail for the historian,' though they may throw some light on the conditions of life at Edessa under Roman government.
The same was the case of the festivals of St Stephen, St James and St John, and St Peter and St Paul, as is shown by the liturgical documents, but these festivals were held in connexion with that of Christmas (26th, 27th and 28th December), and were not strictly speaking anniversaries.
The same idea that the perfect ones are christs as having received the Paraclete is met with in early Christian documents, and still survives among the Syriac-speaking shepherds on the hills north of Mardin.
His right to be held as an authority on ecclesiastical history was proved in 1858 by his Registrum sacrum anglicanum, which sets forth episcopal succession in England, by many other later works, and particularly by his share in Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, edited in co-operation with the Rev. A.
Clad in full armour they are sent forth 1 The form valectus led to the spelling valect in transcribing from Latin documents.
Strickland, Documents and Maps of the Boundary Question between Venezuela and British Guiana (London, 1896); S.
Blumenthal returned and read the letter, and without troubling to disturb his chief he dealt with the matter himself in what is certainly one of the most remarkable documents ever issued in a grave crisis by a responsible staff officer.
de Saint-Priest, Histoire de la conquete de Naples par Charles d'Anjou (4 vols., Paris, 1847-1849), is still of use for the documents from the archives of Barcelona, but it needs to be collated with more recent works; S.
des ecoles francaises d'Athenes et de Rome, fasc. 59), which contains many documents, and tends somewhat to rehabilitate the Angevin rule.
His chief interest was the study of ancient documents, and he was sent to search the archives of Switzerland, France and Germany for charters relating to the history of Savoy.
See Pierre Bliard, 1.e Conventionnel Prieur de la Marne en mission dans l'ouest1793-1794d'apres des documents inedits (1906).
- Henri de La Rochejacquelein et la guerre de la Vendee d'apres des documents inedits (Niort, 1890); A.
It includes a museum containing ancient documents and specimens of articles seized by the customs authorities.
The fire of 1666 destroyed all the documents of the Parish Clerks Company, and in its hall in Silver Street only printed tables from about the year 1700 are to be found.
Firth, Municipal London (1876); Walter Delgray Birch, Historical Charters and Constitutional Documents of the City of London (1884, 1887); J.
The variations in the degree to which these appear in different passages are in the main to be accounted for by his having before him in many cases documents or oral reports, which he repro duces with only slight alterations in the language, while at other times he is writing freely.
But it has been and is still held by many critics that the author of Acts is a different person, and that as in the Third Gospel he has used documents for the Life of Christ, and perhaps also in the earlier half of the Acts for the history of the beginnings of the Christian Church, so in the "we" sections, and possibly in some other portions of this narrative of Paul's missionary life, he has used a kind of travel-diary by one who accompanied the Apostle on some of his journeys.
He accompanied the chancellor on all his journeys; was present at all the conferences that preceded and followed the war; no political secrets were hidden from him; and his hand drafted all important diplomatic documents.
It is, indeed, the very impartiality and objectivity of his attitude that make the writings of Gentz such illuminating documents for the period of history which they cover.
And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.
It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pali title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents.
No treaty was obtained or insisted upon, - the British government being content with the tacit acquiescence of the king of Burma without such documents; but its resolution was declared, that any active demonstration of hostility by him would be followed by retribution.
de Championnel (1860); and notices of others posthumously published by his son, Hortensius de Saint Albin, as Documents relatifs a la Revolution Francaise ...
It would be useless to attempt to trace in a brief sketch the history of the legal principles embodied in the documents of Anglo-Saxon law.
(c) The more ancient documents of Anglo-Saxon law show us the individual not merely as the subject and citizen of a certain commonwealth, but also as a member of some group, all the fellows of which are closely allied in claims and responsibilities.
The points mentioned are not many, but, apart from their intrinsic importance in any system of law, they are, as it were, made prominent by the documents themselves, as they are constantly referred to in the latter.
The early existence of an accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in which it was not only needful that commercial and legal documents should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer easily to the dates of former business transactions.
A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.
Their power extended to the Mediterranean, and we possess a large number of contemporaneous monuments in the shape of contracts and similar business documents, as well as chronological tables, which belong to their reigns.
- In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.
Aramaic endorsements on business documents repeating in Aramaic transliteration the names of parties mentioned in the texts have also been of service in fixing the phonetic readings of names.
Fortunately, in the case of a large number of names occurring on business documents as the interested parties or as scribes or as witnesses - and it is through these documents that we obtain the majority of the Babylonian-Assyrian proper names - we have variant readings, the same name being written phonetically in whole or part in one instance and ideographically in another.
Certain classes of names being explained in this way, legitimate and fairly reliable conclusions can be drawn for many others belonging to the same class or group. The proper names of the numerous business documents of the Khammurabi period, when phonetic writing was the fashion, have been of special value in resolving doubts as to the correct reading of names written ideographically.
Finally, Charlemagne, who took a keen interest in the ancient documents, had the law emended, the operation consisting in eliminating the Malberg glosses, which were no longer intelligible, correcting the Latinity of the ancient:text, omitting a certain number of interpolated chapters, and adding others which had obtained general sanction.
Arabia, and reducing that country to a state of vassalage: the king is styled in Ethiopian chronicles Caleb (Kaleb), in Greek and Arabic documents El-Esbaha.
Though he recognized the legality of the Stamp Act of 1765, he considered the measure inexpedient and impolitic and urged its repeal, but his attitude was misunderstood; he was considered by many to have instigated the passage of the Act, and in August 1765 a mob sacked his Boston residence and destroyed many valuable manuscripts and documents.
Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the "American Statesmen Series," and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879).
For a considerable time the town dated its public documents from the event.
iii., and in Documents relating to the Proceedings against William Prynne.
844; Documents relating to the Proceedings against Prynne, ed.
(Paris, 1861), and La Justice revolutionnaire (aout 1792 - prairial an II.) d'apres des documents originaux (Paris, 1870); also G.
We may say, however, that they fall into two classes, general and specific. The general included all that might come under the idea of loyalty, seeking the lord's interests, keeping his secrets, betraying the plans of his enemies, protecting his family, &c. The specific services are capable of more definite statement, and they usually received exact definition in custom and sometimes in written documents.
The materials were supplied in the first place by oral tradition, in the second by the dictata of older scholars, and finally by various kinds of documents, such as treaties, letters, collections of poetry and genealogical lists.
Turquan, Souveraines et grandes Dames: La citoyenne Tallien, temoignages des contemporains et documents inedits (Paris, 1898); and Louis Gastine, La belle Tallien (1909).
Fleming (ed.), Documents relating to Reconstruction (Cleveland, 0., 1906); W.
The entire construction of the history is based, as has already been said, on a critical examination and chronological arrangement of the available documents.
Of his purely historical works special mention must be made of his Memoire sur les actes d'Innocent III (1857), and his Memoire sur les operations financieres des Templiers (1889), a collection of documents of the highest value for economic history.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.
(Documents) pp. 258-96 (Paris, 1884).
(1734-1825), is still the standard work for that period; but its value is somewhat diminished by the author's bitterness against his opponents and the fact that he does not give chapter and verse for his statements, many of which are based on his recollection of documents seen, but not available at the time of writing.
The standard modern work on Savonarola is Pasquale Villari's, La Storia di Fra Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1887) based on an exhaustive study of the original authorities and containing a number of new documents (English translation by Linda Villari, London, 1889).
Flodoard had been given charge of the episcopal archives, and constructed his history out of the original texts, which he generally reproduces in full; the documents for the period of Hincmar being especially valuable.
The name Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charlemagne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the most populous at least of the numerous villages of the Main district.
The bulk of the documents for the reign of Henry II.
Of the published documents, see especially the correspondence of Catherine de' Medici (ed.
The questions which lived in the earlier and more formative period of his life concerned mainly the idea of the church, the historical interpretation of the documents which described the persons who had created the Christian religion, especially the person and work of its founder; but those most alive in his later and maturer time chiefly related to the philosophy of religion and ethics.
But the evidence of old documents seems to show that these syllabaries had a gradual evolution and that neither was the outcome of a single scholars inventive genius.
The Bibliotheque Nationale, the National Archives, &c., contain a mass of unpublished documents.
Of the published documents, see N.
Tafel, Documents concerning the Life and Character of Swedenborg, collected, translated and annotated (3 vols., Swedenborg Society, 1875-1877); J.
and unprinted documents.
The Archivio storico, consisting of reprints of documents with historical dissertations, dates from 1842, and was founded by Vieusseux and Gino Capponi.
The same patient investigator gave his New Documents on Andre Chenier to the world in 1875.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
Local tradition asserts that Frome was a medieval borough, and the reeve of Frome is, occasionally mentioned in documents after the reign of Edward I., but there is no direct evidence that Frome was a borough and no trace of any charter granted to it.
In official Hungarian documents of the 13th and 14th centuries the Carpathians are named Thorchal or Tarczal, and also Monies Nivium.
The Rosicrucians, their Rites and Mysteries, by Hargrave Jennings (three editions, 1870-87); The Real History of the Rosicrucians, founded on their own Manifestoes and on Facts and Documents collected from the Writings of Initiated Brethren, by A.
Books and documents were read aloud to him, while notes were made by him with eyes shut, and were afterwards deciphered and read aloud to him till he had mastered them.
The chief documents of the date A.D.
Ommanney, who was successful in the discovery of new documents, notably early commentaries, which contained the text of the creed embedded in them, and thus supplied independent testimony to the fact that the creed was becoming fairly widely known at the end of the 8th century.
It is more probable that Leidrad was interested in the growing use of the creed as a canticle, and was consulted in the preparation of the famous Golden Psalter, now at Vienna, which contains the same collection of documents as an introduction.
This would explain the quotation of the two documents together by the council of Toledo, since the heresy lasted on for a long time in Spain.
Bindley, The Oecumenical Documents of the Faith (London, 1906); J.
"It is generally recognized that this chapter holds quite an isolated place in the Pentateuchal history; it is the only passage which presents Abraham in the character of a warrior, and connects him with historical names and political movements, and there are no clear marks by which it can be assigned to any one of the documents of which Genesis is made up. Thus, while one school of interpreters finds in the chapter the earliest fragment of the political history of western Asia, some even holding with Ewald that the narrative is probably based on old Canaanite records, other critics, as Noldeke, regard the whole as unhistorical and comparatively late in origin.
xiv.; Addis, Documents of the Hexateuch, ii.
(Paris, 1854) is partisan but free from rancour; and appends many interesting documents.
See "Nouveaux documents sur le tombeau de Childebert a SaintGermain-des-Pres," in the Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaires (1887).
Many of the documents are strictly historical in their character, giving full and accurate contemporary accounts of events that occurred some thousands of years ago.
Monarchs whose very names had been forgotten are restored to history, and the records of their deeds inscribed under their very eyes are before us, - contemporary documents such as neither Greece nor Rome could boast, nor any other nation, with the single exception of Egypt, until strictly modern times.
These had been sacred to almost a hundred generations of men, and it was difficult for the eye of faith to see them as other than absolutely infallible documents.
Here we have documents in abundance that deal specifically with events more or less referred to in the Bible.
We have seen that written documents have been preserved in Mesopotamia to which such a date as 4500 B.C. may be ascribed with a good deal of confidence; and that from the third millennium B.C. a flood of contemporary literary records comes to us both from Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Indeed, in the wonderful Tel-el-Amarna collection there is a suggestive absence of literary documents from the Aegean that demands a word of notice.
This monarch had retired from Thebes and established his court on the site now known as Tel el-Amarna, where he founded the city which existed only during the brief period of thirty years ending with the death of the monarch about 1370 B.C. The date of the documents found in the royal library is, therefore, fixed within very narrow limits.
The documents in question consist chiefly of letters, and constitute one of the most important of archaeological finds.
A knowledge of the different epochs which have been chosen for the commencement of the year in different countries is indispensably necessary to the right interpretation of ancient chronicles, charters and other documents in which the dates often appear contradictory.
The Armenians also make use of the mundane era of Constantinople, and sometimes conjoin both methods of computation in the same documents.
Many of the Massachusetts revolutionary documents, including the famous "Massachusetts Resolves" and the circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies, are from his pen; but owing to the fact that he usually acted as clerk to the House of Representatives and to the several committees of which he was a member, documents were written by him which expressed the ideas of the committee as a whole.
The nature of these documents - authentic, forged, or partly forged, partly genuine - has been the theme of much discussion.
At this point comes in the evidence - unknown to Froude, Skelton, Hosack, and Henderson in his book The Casket Letters - of a number of documents, notes of information, and indictments of Mary, written for or by the earl of Lennox.
Not one of the Lennox documents is dated; all but one are endorsed in an English hand of the period.
There remains what looks like absolute proof that, in essence, Crawford's Declaration and Letter Il.are independent documents.
Twenty-two volumes of official documents bearing on Bolivar's career were officially published at Caracas in 1826-1833.
The place is mentioned in documents in 1317, and became a royal free town in 1328, being therefore one of the oldest free towns in Hungary.
Hippolyte de Bethune, count of Selles and marquis of Chabris, who died in 1665, bequeathed to the king a magnificent collection of historical documents and works of art.
were published (Florence, 1873-1877); the work contains many new and important documents on Machiavelli's life.
and viii.) are based, in part, on documents in the Swedish Royal Archives and at the universities of Upsala and Lund, which were unknown to Benjamin Ferris (History of the Original Settlements of the Delaware, Wilmington, 1846) and Francis Vincent (History of the State of Delaware, Philadelphia, 1870), which ends with the English occupation in 1664).
That these books are the result of compilation (like the book of Chronicles itself) is evident from the many abrupt changes; the inclusion of certain documents written in an Aramaic dialect (Ezr.
There are relatively few traces of it in Nehemiah's memoirs and in the Aramaic documents, but elsewhere the sources are largely coloured, if not written from the standpoint of his age.
Papyri from a Jewish colony in Elephantine (407 B.C.) clearly show the form which royal permits could take, and what the Jews were prepared to give in return; the points of resemblance are extremely interesting, but compared with the biblical documents the papyri reveal some striking differences.
It is absent from the so-called Synopsis of Athanasius, the Stichometry of Nicephorus, the List of Sixty Books and other authoritative documents.
See Lettres de Catherine de Medicis, edited b y Hector de la Ferriere (Paris, 1830, seq.), in the Collection de documents inedits sur l'histoire de France; A.
He shows instances, in documents of the 15th century, of the association of Prester John with the Caucasus.
Feuillet des Conches Louis X VI., Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, lettres et documents inedits (6 vols., Paris, 1864-1873), while most of the works on Marie Antoinette published before the appearance of Arneth's publications (1865, &c.) are based partly on these forgeries.
Assuming the genuineness of the documents mentioned, we now proceed to collect the scanty information which they afford with regard to Polycarp's career.
After 1867 the greatest of modern Hungarian statesmen, Francis Peak, attached Csengery to his personal service, and many of the momentous state documents inspired or suggested by Peak were drawn up by Csengery.
It gives copious details, and, as he had access to the correspondence and official documents of the Spanish leaders, it is, although necessarily possessing bias, the fullest and most authentic record existing of the events it relates.
Although disposed at first to divide the various documents into three classes, he finally adopted a classification into two - the African or older family of documents, and the Asiatic, or more recent class, to which he attached only a subordinate value.
There are, however, several suspicious circumstances which tell against them as documents of the first importa nce, notably these: first that Talleyrand is known to have destroyed many of his most important papers, and secondly that M.
It is thus styled in a charter granted by Henry VIII., but by Elizabeth's time the town was invariably termed Aberystwyth in all documents.
Spencer, Constitutional Conflict in Provincial Massachusetts (Columbus, 0., 1905); and the annual Public Documents of Massachusetts, embracing the reports of all state officers and institutions.
On New England discontent preceding 1812, Henry Adams, Documents Relating to New England Federalism, 1880-1815 (Boston, 1877); T.
Oude Trecht or Old Ford, rendered in Latin documents Vetus Trajectum) is a city of great antiquity and much historic interest, especially as illustrating the growth of civic liberties during the middle ages.
Though the name Trecht or Trajectum is almost universally found in old documents and on coins, the town was known by another name among the Frisians and Franks.
documents with notes (1783); Codex diplomaticus Neerlandicus, tome i.
(Utrecht, 1848) - the documents of the first part concern the trade of Utrecht; De Geer van Oudegain, Het oude Trecht (1875); W.
is held to be compiled with editorial additions from the two ancient documents (90o-700 B.C.) commonly denoted by the symbols J and E.
The distribution of the material between the two documents is uncertain; but some such scheme as the following is not improbable.
Naturally, when both documents made statements which were nearly identical, one might be omitted; so that neither account need be given in full in the composite passage.
For the analysis into earlier documents, see also the Oxford Hexateuch, Estlin Carpenter and Harford-Battersby.
No part of this matter is to be found in the following documents, which present us in varying degrees of accuracy with The Two Ways: (i.) the Epistle of Barnabas, chaps.
The principal French documents on the subject are published in Huberti's book, and those of Germany, Italy and Arles are edited by L.
Miss Strickland was a warm partisan on the side of royalty and the church, but she made industrious study of "official records and other public documents," gave copious extracts from them, and drew interesting pictures of manners and customs. While engaged on this work.
Souvenirs et documents inedits, by J.
The documents discovered by Dom Germain Morin, the Belgian Benedictine, about 1888, point to the conclusion that Guido was a Frenchman and lived from his youth upwards in the Benedictine monastery of St Maur des Fosses where he invented his novel system of notation and taught the brothers to sing by it.
For the documents connected with the controversy see E.
The most important of these documents, a poem in Provençal, "La Nobla Leyczon," contains two lines which claimed for it the date of i 100: Ben ha mil e cent anez compli entierament Que fo scripta 1' ora, car sen al derier temp.
Amongst books dealing with the more modern history of the Vaudois specially are Leger, Histoire des eglises vaudoises; Arnaud, Histoire de la rentree des Vaudois; Perrin, Histoire des Vaudois; Monastier, Histoire de l'eglise vaudoise; Muston, L' Israel des Alpes; Gilly, Excursion to the Valleys of Piedmont, and Researches on the Waldensians; Todd, The Waldensian Manuscripts; Melia, Origin, Persecution and Doctrines of the Waldensians; Jules Chevalier, Memoires sur les heresies en Dauphine avant le X VP siecle, accompannes de documents inedits sur les sorciers et les Vaudois (Valence, 1890); J.
He addressed a letter to a person named Vussin, whom he calls fili and mi nate, but, as Vussin is not mentioned in documents in which his interests as Einhard's son would have been concerned, it is possible that he was only a young man in whom he took a special interest.
180, and whose Ada are at once the earliest documents of the Church of Africa and the earliest specimen of Christian Latin.
According to other traditions he restored the templeservice and founded a collection of historical documents (2 Macc. i.
In the regions where census tables and interpretations are derived from registration records kept by the several states or cities they are often made more complete than those in the state or municipal documents.
Claquin, Klesquin, Guescquin, Glayaquin, &c. The familiar form is found on his monument at St Denis, and in some legal documents of the time.
But the radical " Puritans " (the above documents in the State Paper Office are endorsed " Bishop of London: Puritans ") felt that this meant treason to the Headship of Christ in His Church; and that until the prince should set aside " the superstition and commandments of men," and " send forth princes and ministers [like another ], and give them the Book of the Lord, that they may bring home the people of God to the purity and truth of the apostolic Church," they could do no other than themselves live after that divine ideal.
Important documents for Congregational Faith and Order, with historical introductions, are printed in Williston Walker's Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (New York, 1893).
During the prosecution Giolitti abused his position as premier to abstract documents bearing on the case.
The early historical documents of the state were collected by E.
O'Callaghan in his Documentary History of the State of New York (4 vols., Albany, 18 491851); and more completely in Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York procured by J.
- The Constitution of Athens with its numerous documents affords much valuable knowledge, but does not give the inner history of 411.
The evidence contained in these state records so clearly marks the difference between the policy of Mr Kruger and the pacific, commercial policy of President Brand and his followers, that the documents call for careful consideration.
But until all the documents are accessible this must remain doubtful.
A closer examination of those parts of Ezra and Nehemiah which are not extracted from earlier documents or original memoirs leads to the conclusion that Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah was originally one work, displaying throughout the peculiarities of language and thought of a single editor, who, however, cannot be Ezra himself as tradition would have it.
An entire action may be referred, if all parties consent, or if it involves any prolonged examination of documents, or scientific or local examination, or consists wholly or partly of matters of account.
See, for list and full titles of the tracts, related documents, and discussion of the authorship, E.
These sub-apostolic epistles are veritable "human documents," with the personal note running through them.
on, and by Stockmar, the prince thus soon took the de facto place of the sovereign's private secretary, though he had no official status as such; and his system of classifying and annotating the queen's papers and letters resulted in the preservation of what the editors of the Letters of Queen Victoria (1907) describe as" probably the most extraordinary collection of state documents in the world "- those up to 1861 being contained in between Soo and 600 bound volumes at Windsor.
The chief works on the life and reign of Louis are le comte de Saint-Leu, Documents historiques et reflexions sur le gouvernement de la Hollande 3 vols., 2nd ed., Paris, 1820); F.
Rocquain, Napoleon Ier et le Roi Louis, d'apres les documents conserves aux archives nationales (Paris, 1875); Baron A.
Jorissen, Napoleon Ier et le roi de Hollande (1806-1813) d'apres des documents authentiques et inedits (Paris and The Hague, 1868); V.
The insurrection in Greece to 1822, with many documents.
ii.; Counillon, Documents pour servir a l'e'tude geologique des environs de Luang Prabang (Cochinchine), Comptes rendus (1896), cxxiii.
Gielguch, with documents relating to his negotiations with Pitt, and conversations with Palmerston in 1832 (2 vols., London, 1888) .
ISLINGTON (in Domesday and later documents Iseldon, Isendon and in the 16th century Hisselton), a northern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E.
of Melanges historiques, part of Documents inedits), &c. These works did not wholly occupy his time: in 1847 he inaugurated a course of archaeological lectures at the Ecole des Chartes, and in 1849 was appointed professor of diplomacy at the same college.
The real name of the city is Genava, that being the form under which it appears in almost all the known documents up to the lsfory.
Dunant, Les Relations politiques de Geneve avec Berne et les Suisses, de 1536 d 1564 (Geneva, 1894); Documents de l'Escalade de Geneve (Geneva, 1903); G.
Jullien, Histoire de Geneve (new ed., Geneva, 1889); C. Martin, La Maison de Ville de Geneve (Geneva, 1906); Memoires et documents (publ.
Documents of various kinds, including gospels and apostolic epistles, circulated widely.
The documents comprise imperial edicts, rescripts, &c., liturgies, acts of councils, decretals and letters of bishops, references in contemporary heathen writings, and above all the works of the Church Fathers.
There are three original documents at its base.
are somewhat scanty, as many of the official documents of the reign, which were kept at Prague and not at Vienna, were destroyed, probably during the Thirty Years' War.
ii., gives some of the documents in English, and the Final Act is found in many collections.
Greve, Centennial History of Cincinnati and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1904), the official municipal documents, the Annual Reports of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, &c.
C. Lodge, Life and Letters of George Cabot (Boston, 1877); and Henry Adams, Documents Relating to New England Federalism (Boston, 1877).
of the town is situated Csorna, a village with a Premonstratensian abbey, whose archives contain numerous valuable historical documents.
The name of Linz appears in documents for the first time in 799 and it received municipal rights in 1324.
Moore, a contemporary collection, has been superseded to a great extent by the official records, but is still valuable as a collection of unofficial documents of all kinds.
The town of Ghardaia (in the local documents Taghardeit) is situated on a mosque-crowned hill in the middle of the Wadi Mzab, 1755 ft.
to being possibly the books of Samuel and Kings and some of the Prophets, a part of the Psalter, and documents such as those excerpted in the book of Ezra, respecting edicts issued by Persian kings in favour of the Temple.
Hebrew writers, however, exhibit usually such strongly marked individualities of style that the documents or sources, thus combined, can generally be distinguished from each other, and from the comments or other additions of the compiler, without difficulty.
Sometimes, for instance, the excerpts from the older documents form long and complete narratives; in other cases (as in the account of the Flood) they consist of a number of short passages, taken alternately from two older narratives, and dovetailed together to make a continuous story; in the books of Judges and Kings the compiler has fitted together a series of older narratives in a framework supplied by himself; the Pentateuch and book of Joshua (which form a literary whole, and are now often spoken of together as the Hexateuch) have passed through more stages than the books just mentioned, and their literary structure is more complex.
Moses had used different documents, and that of these the two chief were distinguished by their use of different divine names - Elohim and Yahweh; by the use of this clue he gave a detailed analysis of the passages belonging to the several documents.
He carries through, as Astruc had done, the analysis of Genesis into (primarily) two documents; he draws the distinction between the Priests' Code, of the middle books of the Pentateuch, and Deuteronomy, the people's law book; and admits that even the books that follow Genesis consist of different documents, many incomplete and fragmentary (whence the theory became known as the " Fragment-hypothesis "), but all the work of Moses and some of his contemporaries.
Ilgen, the discoverer (1798) that there were two distinct documents in Genesis using the divine name Elohim, and consequently that there were three main sources in the books, not two, as Astruc and Eichhorn had conjectured; and J.
He carried criticism beyond literary analysis and literary appreciation to the task of determining the worth of the documents as records, the validity of the evidence.
Some of the earliest documents which we possess are dated by the year in which some noticeable event took place, as in contract-tablets of the age of Sargon of Agade 1 To avoid any possibility of overstating the case, it is necessary to refer here to the fact that Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.
It was thus that St Paul came to write his two epistles to the Thessalonians, the oldest Christian documents that we possess.
Our Matthew and our Luke are just combinations, differently constructed, of these two documents, with a certain amount of additional matter which the editors had collected for themselves.
The reasons which converge upon the conclusion just expressed as to the origin and nature of the fundamental documents worked up in our present Synoptic Gospels are as follows: (i.) The literary analysis of the Synoptic Gospels brings out a number of sections common to Matthew and Luke which probably at one time existed as an independent document.
There is probably some truth in the view that the Church clung to its Four Gospels as a weapon against Gnosticism; it could not afford to reduce the number of its documents.
of the documents to which the Old Covenant made its appeal.
1896), with valuable appendix of documents at the end.
The leading documents are to be had in the handy and reliableKleine Texte (ed.
The Oxford Society of Historical Theology put out a useful New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers in 1905, and Prof. Stanton of Cambridge, The Gospels as Historical Documents (part i.
The corner-stone of his reconstruction of early Christian history is derived not so much from philosophical principles as from a fresh study of the documents.
From the study of these contemporary and genuine documents, he elaborated the theory that the earliest Christianity, the Christianity of Jesus and the original apostles, was wholly Judaistic in tone and practice.
The various documents which make up the New Testament were to be dated mainly by their relation to the great dispute.
Several discoveries of important missing documents and MSS.
Surtees, The History of Durham (London, 1816-1840); Documents and Records illustrating the History of Scotland, edited by F.
Palgrave (London, 1837); Documents illustrative of the History of Scotland (1286-1306), edited by J.
Stevenson (Edinburgh, 1870); Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, edited by J.
In the meantime Chalmers applied himself with great diligence and assiduity to the investigation of the history and establishment of the English colonies in North America; and enjoying free access to the state papers and other documents preserved among what were then termed the plantation records, he became possessed of much important information.
Independently of its value as being compiled from original documents, it bears evidence of great research, and has been of essential benefit to later writers.
The most important collection of documents is at Hatfield, where there are some ten thousand papers covering the period down to Burghley's 1 This was the form always used by Cecil himself.
The word occurs in the Regula Columbani (c. 7), and du Cange gives a few other cases of its use in Latin documents, but it never came into vogue in the West.
The notes were generally compiled from original documents, references to which are usually given, so that they remain useful to the present day.
de Cisternes, Le Duc de Richelieu, son action aux conferences d'Aix-la-Chapelle (1898), containing copies of documents.
were documents of canonical authority; they were inspired divine writings.
Thwaites, Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (73 vols.
They are derived from the same period in which the underlying idea of the Gnostic systems also originated, namely, the time at which the ideas of the Persian and Babylonian religions came into contact, the remarkable results of which have thus partly found their way into the official documents of Parsiism.
Even in the 10th century Lord Kingsborough spent a fortune in printing a magnificent compilation of Mexican picture-writings and documents in his Antiquities of Mexico to prove the theory advocated by Garcia a century earlier, that the Mexicans were the lost tribes of Israel.
Thus actual documents of native Aztec history, or copies of them, are still open to the study of scholars, while after the conquest interpretations of these were drawn up in writing by Spanish-educated Mexicans, and histories founded on them with the aid of traditional memory were written by Ixtilxochitl and Tezozomoc. In Central America the rows of complex hieroglyphs to be seen sculptured on the ruined temples probably served a similar purpose.
The documents written by natives in later times thus more or less represent real records of the past, but the task of separating myth from history is of the utmost difficulty.
Among the most curious documents of early America is the Popol-Vuh or national book of the Quiche kingdom of Guatemala, a compilation of traditions written down by native scribes, found and translated by Father Ximenez about 1700, and published by Scherzer (Vienna, 1857) and Brasseur de Bourbourg (Paris, 1861).
Facsimiles of several of these interesting documents, with their translations, may be seen in Kingsborough; splendid reproductions of the beautiful Mexican and Mixteco-Zapotecan codices have also been published at the expense of the duke of Loubat and by the " Junta Colombina " (Mexico, 1892).
Batchellor (Manchester, 1904); Captain John Mason, the Founder of New Hampshire, including his tract on Newfoundland, the American charters in which he was a grantee, with letters and other historical documents, together with a memoir by C. W.
Deane; New Hampshire Provincial Papers; documents and records relating to the province from the earliest period of its settlement (Concord, 1867-1873); J.
His works on Polish history are based on minute and critical study of the documents; they were collected under the title Polska, dzieje i rzeczy jej rozpatrzywane (Poland, her History and Affairs surveyed), in 20 vols.
Although his search among documents was undoubtedly wide, its results are by no means always accurate, and his admirers themselves admit great inequalities of style in him.
These documents have naturally excited considerable interest and raised many questions.
The second Gospel fragment (1907) seems to be of later origin than the documents already mentioned.
The volume is interspersed, far more extensively and richly than any other treatise on the war, with reproductions of contemporary plans, maps, documents, portraits and prints.
Hough, Papers Relating to the Island of Nantucket, with Documents Relating to the Original Settlement of that Island, Martha's Vineyard, fgc. (Albany, N.
de la langue francaise (1905), with biographical and critical introduction by Leon Seche, who also wrote Joachim du Bellay, documents nouveaux et inedits (1880), and published in 1903 the first volume of a new edition of the Ouvres;, Lettres de Joachim du Bellay (1884), edited by P. de Nolhac; G..
A careful biography is appended, founded mainly on his private notes and other authentic documents.
In 14th-century documents it is described as a town or borough governed by a portreeve, who frequently came into conflict with the parson of St John's church, who had become lord of the manor of Yeovil during the reign of Henry III.
This site seems to agree better with the indications of medieval documents.
The monastic library contains some valuable MSS., especially a number of bilingual documents in Greek and Arabic, the earliest being dated 1144.
His Histoire de Marie Stuart (2 vols., 1851) is well worth reading; the author made liberal use of some important unpublished documents, taken for the greater part from the archives of Simancas.
At the same time he had been commissioned to publish the diplomatic acts relating to the War of the Spanish Succession for the Collection des documents inedits; only four volumes of these Negotiations were published (1835-1842), and they do not go further than the peace of Nijmwegen; but the introduction is celebrated, and Mignet reprinted it in his Mélanges historiques.
The many topographical details furnished by exploration when compared with the building inscriptions and the indications given by deeds of sale will doubtless enable us ultimately to map out the principal features of the ancient city, but much more systematic exploration is needed, as well as further publication of existing documents.
200 in documents taken in their chronological order; differences of early and later usage are then discussed; lastly, the meaning of the original rite is examined.
See Abbe Blampignon, Massillon, d'apres des documents inedits (Paris, 1879); and L'Episcopat de Massillon d'apres des documents inedits, suivi de sa correspondance (Paris, 1884); F.
In genuine Manichaean documents we only find the name Mani, but Manes, Maims, Manichaeus, meet us in 4th-century Greek and Latin documents.
an account of a disputation held between Mani and the bishop Archelaus of Cascar, in Mesopotamia; but they nevertheless contain much that is trustworthy, especially regarding the doctrine of Mani, and they also include Manichaean documents.
It will be seen that the commercial1789-1818consult Adam Seyberts Statistical Annals (Philadelphia, 1818), which are based upon official documents, a large part of which are no longer in existence.
They have now become very long and elaborate documents, seven, eight or ten times as long as the Federal Constitution, and containing a vast number of provisions on all sorts of subjects, many of them partaking of the nature of ordinary statutes passed by a legislature rather than safeguards suitable to a fundamental instrument.
It is, on the whole, admirably clear, definite and concise, probably superior in point of technique to all the documents since framed on its model.
For the executive departments the Annual Reports of each and numerous executive documents are useful.
Considered solely as French documents, lettres de cachet may be defined as letters signed by the king of France, countersigned by one of his ministers, and closed with the royal seal (cachet) .
the standard Babylonian work on astrology and astronomy, and compiled (in three books) the history of his country from native documents, which he published in Greek in the reign of Antiochus II.
On one point, however, a fair amount of agreement seems now to have been reached, a result due to the labour in collating documents of Scheffer-Boichorst, namely, that the style of the Constitutum is generally that of the papal chancery in the latter half of the 8th century.
LIBER DIURNUS ROMANORUM PONTIFICUM, or "Journal of the Roman Pontiffs," the name given to a collection of formulae used in the papal chancellery in preparing official documents, such as the installation of a pope, the bestowal of the pallium and the grant of papal privileges.
The legislature of 190o-1901 established a department of archives and history whose aim is to preserve documents and historical records.
General Pelham Burn said that he saw loot in Hodson's boxes when he accompanied him from Fatehgarh to take part in the siege of Lucknow, and Sir Henry Daly said that he found "loads of loot" in Hodson's boxes after his death, and also a file of documents relating to the Guides case, which had been stolen from him and of which Hodson denied all knowledge.
Sweetman's Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, vol.
Delisle's Catalogue desactes de Philippe Auguste (Paris, 1856) are the most important guides to the documents.
The more accurate form is then generally the later, found in documents written by Greeks in familiar intercourse with Egyptians, the less accurate is traditional from an older date in the mouths of pure Greeks and Hellenists, and is used in literary writings.
(1881-1882), which is the first account of the period written by one able to sift the statements of De Retz and the memoir writers, and rest upon such documents as Mazarin's letters and carnets.
Mazarin's Lettres, which must be carefully studied by any student of the history of France, have appeared in the Collection des documents inedits, 9 vols.
Foley's narrative includes copies of the most important documents connected with his trial, and gives full information of the original sources.
In the archives of Paris Du Cange was able to consult charters, diplomas, manuscripts and a multitude of printed documents, which were not to be met.
Desp. iii.) 7 An interesting account of Wellington's negotiations in St Petersburg, based on unpublished documents in the Russian archives, is given - in T.
On the isthmus are distinct traces of the canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine art and rich collections of documents.
The legends of the monks attribute the first religious settlements to the age of Constantine (274-337), but the hermitages are first mentioned in historical documents of the 9th century.
The muniment rooms of the monasteries contain a marvellous series of documents, including chrysobulls of various emperors and princes, sigilla of the patriarchs, typica, irades and other documents, the study of which will throw an important light on the political and ecclesiastical history and social life of the 852 East from the middle of the 10th century.
relatives au regne de Francois II," edited by Louis Paris (1841), both in the Collection de documents inedits sur l'histoire de France; notice of Francis, duke of Guise, in the Nouvelle Collection des memoires pour servir a l'histoire de France, edited by J.
For this second part he has consulted historical documents, but he stops at the year 1087, just when he has reached the period about which he might have been able to give us some first-hand information.
by Francisque Michel, 1836-1844, Collection de documents inedits, 3 vols.).
He published a great number of documents relating to the history of Dauphine, e.g.
Similarly, in Notre Dame de Lorette; etude critique sur l'authenticite de la Santa Casa (1906), he dissipated by the aid of authentic documents the legend which had embellished and falsified the primitive history of that sanctuary.
Although documents might be known and used, they would not be regarded as the authorities for that which was independently remembered, and would not, therefore, necessarily be mentioned.
Various forms of the same saying occurring in different documents, or remembered from oral tradition and through catechetical instruction, would sometimes be purposely combined.
After this time it becomes manifest that, as we should expect, documents were the recognized authorities for the Gospel history; but there is still some uncertainty as to the documents upon which reliance was placed, and the precise estimation in which l For the only two that can be held to be such in the first half of the 2nd century, and the doubts whether they refer to our present Gospels, see Mark, Gospel Of, and Matthew, Gospel Of.
There are, however, instances in which no such explanation will serve, and it is possible that our first and third evangelists may have used two documents which were not in all respects identical, but which corresponded very closely on the whole.
Stanton, The Gospels as Historical Documents: Pt.
Solovev, Public Readings on Peter the Great (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1903); Documents relating to the Great Northern War (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1892, &c.).
This elder Alan, whose name occurs in Breton documents before r080, went on crusade in 1097, and was apparently succeeded by his brother Flaald, whose son, the younger Alan, enjoyed the favour of Henry I., who bestowed on him Mileham and its barony in Norfolk, where he founded Sporle Priory.
Reprints were made by Hearne (Oxford, 1716), by Lewis (1729, 1731), who added an appendix of documents, and by Singer (1817, 1822) and for the King's Library (1902).
John Bruce, " Inedited documents rel.
The ex-queen, on whose premises arms and ammunition and a number of incriminating documents were found, was arrested and was imprisoned for nine months in the former palace.
For other documents and modern authorities see under HENRY IV.
The Bogomils are identified with the Massaliani in Slavonic documents of the 13th century.
According to Slavonic documents the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968).
In English documents also we find eponymous national ancestors grouped together in genealogical trees, and there is reason to believe that the common origin of the various Teutonic peoples was remembered to a certain extent until comparatively late in the middle ages.
Forel, Documents concernant l'ancien eveche de Lausanne, 2 parts (Lausanne, 1846-1847); J.
There is not a word, in the documents concerning the relations of Philip Augustus with Rome, from which we may conclude that the Capetian crown submitted, or that the papacy wished to impose upon it the effective suzerainty of the Holy See.
The feud between Italian and Frenchman broke out in a violent form; and it was in vain that St Catherine of Siena proffered her mediation in the bloody strife betwixt the pope and the Florentine republic. The letters that she addressed to the pontiff, on this and other occasions, are documents, which are, perhaps, unique in their kind, and of great literary beauty.
(For the Kulturkampf see further Germany: History.) The documents of the Vatican Council which have been published since 1870 leave no room for doubt that the proclamation of Papal Infallibility was intended to be followed by a.
The absence of any equivalent names in Babylonian or Assyrian documents is noteworthy, 3 especially as the Babylonians spoke of the "Sea-Country" (mat Tamtim).
In the bilingual Hittite inscription of Tarqudimme the land is called "the land of the city of Metan," just as in the Hittite documents the Hittite country in Asia Minor is called "the land of the city of Khatti."
Johns, Deeds and Documents, iii.
The documents from the ancient Tirqa said to have been found at Ishara, a few miles belowKarkisiya, are referred to below (§ 4).
On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.
1.10), and Aramaic notes on cuneiform documents begin to appear.
2 Unfortunately there are no native documents from the pre-Christian Hellenistic period.
those documents in which the pope speaks in his own name (bulls, briefs, encyclicals, &c.) even when he does not sign them, as we shall see.
The Apostolic Letters alone may be ex cathedra documents, and may have the privilege of infallibility, if the matter admit of it.
There are also certain differences between the two sorts of documents with regard to their penal consequences.
Their deliberations are secret and are based on prepared documents bearing on the case, written, or more often printed, which are distributed to all the cardinals about ten days in advance.
His Tibetische Studien (1851-1868) is a valuable collection of documents and observations.
Aurel Stein in Khotan seem to include very early, if not the earliest known, Tibetan documents.
The principal authority for the life of Tyler, aside from speeches, messages and other documents, is Lyon G.
Both the personal character and the literary accuracy of Llorente have been assailed, but although he was not an exact historian there is no doubt that he made an honest use of documents relating to the Inquisition which are no longer extant.
At all events when the word forum 3 begins to appear for the first time in documents of the 10th century in the sense of a liberty or 1 The nature of the evidence may be gathered from Savigny, Gesch.
In the course of the 12th and 13th centuries the number of such documents increased very rapidly; that of Toledo especially, granted to the Mozarabic population in 1 101, but greatly enlarged and extended by Alphonso VII.
Le Clerc's new edition of the Apostolic Fathers of Johann Cotelerius (1627-1686), published in 1698, marked an advance in the critical study of these documents.
He ultimately reached a point at which the Bible became for him simply one of many ancient documents.
In cases where such an explanation is precluded by the nature of the details foreshadowed, the evidence is found to be defective, generally from the absence of contemporary documents.
The chief towns of ancient Phoenicia, as we know of them from the Amarna tablets (15th century B.C.) and from Egyptian, Assyrian and the Old Testament documents, were the following: Acco (now Acre or Akka, Judg.
He spent his leisure and his fortune in the search for documents bearing on the old Basque and Bearnese provinces; and the fruits of his studies in the archives of Bayonne, Toulouse, Pau, Perigord and other cities were embodied in forty-five MS. volumes, which were sent by his son Gabriel to Colbert.
Tomich (Barcelona, 1888), and the Coleccio de documents inedits del Arxin municipal de la ciutat de Barcelona (Barcelona, 1892).
vi.) points out how much England relied at this time on what would now be called conscription: and his remarks are entirely borne out by the Norwich documents published by Mr W.
Cornish, Chivalry (London, 1901), too little reference to the more prosaic historical documents, but candid and without intentional partiality.
They kept the keys of the treasury and had charge of its contents, including not only coin and bullion but also the military standards and a large number of public documents, which in later times comprised all the laws as well as the decrees of the senate.
They rode out in state together, and if he kept cap in hand as a subject she would snatch it from him and clap it on his head again; while in graver things she took all due or possible care to gratify his ambition, by the insertion of a clause in their contract of marriage which made their joint signature necessary to all documents of state issued under the sign-manual.
They complied by the production of an indictment under five heads, supported by the necessary evidence of documents.
The most important original authorities are the voluminous State Papers of the period, with other MS. documents preserved at the British Museum, the Cambridge University Library, Hatfield and elsewhere.
Teulet, 5 vols., Paris, 1862), containing important original letters and documents; Thomas Wright's Queen Elizabeth and her Times (2 vols., London, 1838), consists of private letters - of Elizabethan statesmen many of which refer to Mary Stuart, and others are to be found in Sir Henry Ellis's Original Letters illustrative of English History (London, 1825-1846); much of Mary's own correspondence will be found in Prince A.
Turnbull in Letters of Mary Queen of Scots (London, 1845), and by Agnes Strickland in Letters of Mary Queen of Scots and Documents connected with her Personal History (3 vols., London, 1842).
As to the so-called Decretum Gelasii de libris recipiendis et non recipiendis, it also is a compilation of documents anterior to Gelasius, and it is difficult to determine Gelasius's contributions to it.
The work of Aitzema contains a large number of important diplomatic and other documents; A.
de Wicquefort, Histoire des provinces des Pays-Bas depuis la paix de Munster (1648-1658) (2 vols., 1719-1743); in these volumes will be also found a rich collection of original documents; R.
The documents are interesting as marking the beginning of a revolution which eventually emancipated the monks altogether from the control of their diocesans and brought them under the direct authority of the Holy See.
des Frangais dans l'ouest et dans le sud de l'Amerique septentrionale (1614-1754); Memoires et documents originaux (Paris, 1875), containing Joliet's Details and Relations; Francis Parkman, La.
In the 'non-Semitic ideographic documents the equivalent for Shumer is Kengi, which seems to be a combination of ken, " land " -}- gi, " reed," i.e.
non-Semitic documents were evidently in an agglutinative language, naturally not uninfluenced by Semitic elements, but none the less essentially non-Semitic in origin and fundamental character.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.